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Sample records for profumi piante officinali

  1. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikhita Narayanan; Lakshmi Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

      Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also...

  2. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu POP

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have initiated a Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture, on different growth media. As biological material we used apexes, taken from an only plant. The development medium have consisted in Murashige and Skoog standard mixture, where growth regulators were added, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0 – control variant – basic medium (BM, V1 – BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l IBA, V2 - BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l IAA, V3 –BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l NAA. The experiment lasted for 90 days. We have found that the initiation of Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture is possible, the best growth medium for this purpose being the basic one (V0 - Murashige and Skoog without growth regulators.

  4. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  5. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  6. Phenylethanoid glycosides from Stachys officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyase, T; Yamamoto, R; Ueno, A

    1996-09-01

    From the aerial parts of Stachys officinalis, six new phenylethanoid glycosides, named betonyosides A-F, and six known phenylethanoid glycosides, acetoside, acetoside isomer, campneosides II, forsythoside B and leucosceptoside B, were isolated and their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Campneosides II were separated into two epimers.

  7. Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Методом газожидкостной хроматографии изучен компонентный состав эфирного масла Salvia officinalis L. из растительного сырья Республики Беларусь. В образцах эфирного масла из соцветий и листьев Salviaofficinalis L. идентифицировано более 30 компонентов, главными из которых являются αи β-туйоны, 1,8-цинеол, линалоол+линалилацетат, камфора, лимонен, α-пинен, камфен, борнилацетат, α-гумулен. Установлены существенные изменения качественного и количественного состава эфирного масла от фазы онтогене...

  8. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  9. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRUZ-SILVA, C.T.A; NÓBREGA, L.H.P; DELLAGOSTIN, S.M; SILVA, C.F.G

    2016-01-01

    ... (Salvia officinalis L.) is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato...

  10. Allergy to Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S

    1999-03-01

    Parietaria pollen allergens (officinalis, judaica, lusitanica, creatica) are one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the Mediterranean (Spain, France, Italy, and Croatia). Parietaria has very long period of pollination, often reaching peaks of more than 500 grains/m3 of air at the beginning of June, and very strong allergenic properties. There is a significantly positive correlation for the newcomers between the intensity of the skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area, whereas autochthonous patients show a negative correlation between the age and intensity of hypersensitivity. This suggests that the environment encountered at birth may have a decisive role in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Due to structurally similar pollen antigens in different Parietaria species, they are all equally useful in diagnosis and treatment of allergy, regardless of the pollen species to which the patient is sensitive or the prevalent species in the area. In our hands, specific immunotherapy with subcutaneous injections of partially purified, characterized, and standardized pollen extract of Parietaria allergen proved effective. It was possible to define an optimal maintenance dose of antigen per injection. During (years of) therapy, we observed an initial increase in total serum IgE concentration and increase in allergen-specific serum IgG blocking antibodies, decrease in allergen-specific serum IgE concentration and amount of histamine released from peripheral blood leukocytes challenged in vitro with the allergen, as well as in symptom and additional medication scores.

  11. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis, S. fruticosa, Melissa officinalis, and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couladis Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried leaves of commercially available Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Melissa officinalis were divided into two parts; the first part was subjected to hydrodistillation and the second part was used for the preparation of the infusions. The essential oil and the infusion of each sample were subjected to analysis by means of GC-FID and GC-MS. The oxygenated monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (27.5% and camphor (11.5% appeared as the most important metabolites in Salvia officinalis, α- and β-thujone (16.5%, 16.4%, followed by 1,8-cineole (8.8% were characterizing the essential oil of Salvia fruticosa, whereas in the oil of Melissa officinalis the sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide (14.9% was the most abundant constituent, followed by geranial (12.2%, neral (11.2% and citronellal (6.7%. The infusions were characterized by the higher levels of the most important compounds found in the essential oil of the respective sample, as in the case of S. officinalis (1,8-cineol 53.6%, camphor 25.8% and S. fruticosa (α- thujone 61.2%, β-thujone 24.3%, 1,8-cineole 14.5%, while the infusion of M. officinalis was dominated by palmitic and stearic acid (25.5%, 19.5%.

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FUMARIA OFFICINALIS L. (FUMARIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Paltinean, Ramona; Toiu, Anca; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Frederich, Michel; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Tamas, Mircea; Crisan, Gianina

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the investigation of active compounds from several samples of Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae). The identification of the isoquinoline alkaloids (allocryptopine, chelidonine, protopine, bicuculline, sanguinarine, cheleritrine, stylopine and hydrastine) was performed by comparison with reference standards using an HPLC-DAD method, and their quantification by LC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods. The presence of polyphenolic compounds was simultaneously assessed...

  13. Development of mouthwash with Rosmarinus officinalis extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Moreira Baumgratz de Paula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceaefamily, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans(ATCC25175 and C. albicans(ATCC 10231, frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutansfor the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicansfor the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.

  14. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes...

  15. Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behradmanesh, Saeed; Derees, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are rich sources of natural antioxidants, and are used in traditional medicine for the control and treatment of many diseases. The reducing effect of a large number of these plants on blood glucose has been approved in animal models and clinical studies. This study was therefore, performed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Salvia officinalis on blood glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests. A double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 80 type II diabetic patients who had not reached the ideal control of the disease. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of case and control. The case group received Salvia officinalis and the control group received placebo tablets three times a day for three months. The fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours postprandial (2hpp) glucose were checked at the beginning and every 2 weeks, for three months Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were also measured at the beginning and at the end of trial and compared in two mentioned groups. The 2hpp blood sugar and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in Salvia officinalis treated patients compared to control group (pSalvia officinalis might be beneficial in diabetic patients to reduce 2hpp and cholesterol. However higher doses might be needed to decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal

  17. Phylogeny of the Sepia officinalis species complex in the eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate species identification and biogeographic characterisation are fundamental for appropriate management of expanding cephalopod fisheries. This study addresses this topic within the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis species complex (S. officinalis, S. hierredda and S. vermiculata), with an emphasis on occurrence ...

  18. Polysaccharides isolated from Morinda officinalis How roots inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). D-glucose standard agent was purchased from the National Institute for the. Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological. Products (Beijing, China). All other chemicals and reagents used in this study were all of analytical grade (AR). Isolation of polysaccharides from roots of M. officinalis. The dried roots of M. officinalis ...

  19. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRC in the future. Keywords: Polysaccharides, Colorectal cancer, Verbena officinalis, SW480 cell lines, Cell invasion, ... radiotherapy, has been widely used for the ... officinalis and their inhibitory effects on invasion and metastasis of CRC cells were investigated, in order to determine their prospects in the treatment of CRC.

  20. Allergy induced by Parietaria officinalis pollen in southern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Zekan, L; Köhler-Kubelka, N

    1986-09-01

    Pollen of Parietaria officinalis causes season-associated respiratory symptoms. In Southern Croatia (Yugoslavia) we found 65% patients with rhinitis and/or asthma to be allergic to this pollen. They showed positive cutaneous reactions and had specific IgE antibodies to the respective isolated allergen. The finding represents the first report on Parietaria officinalis-induced allergy on the east Adriatic coast.

  1. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparison of the Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of the aqueous and 70% methanol extracts from the flower of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), originating from Sudan was carried out. Material and Methods: Aqueous, and aquatic methanolic extracts of S. officinalis was investigated for ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Salvia officinalis (Sage) is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  3. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  4. Characterization of major allergens of Parietaria officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, H; Weber, B; Teppke, M; Wahl, R; Cromwell, O; Fiebig, H

    1996-02-01

    The major allergens of Parietaria officinalis were characterized with a panel of nine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The binding of mAbs and patients' IgE in Western blots revealed two proteins with similar molecular weights in the range of 8-10 kD. Analysis of the mAb-binding patterns in Western blots of P. officinalis extract under reducing and nonreducing conditions allows the mAbs to be divided into three different groups. mAbs of group I recognize the higher-molecular-weight component (9.4 kD), mAbs of group II recognize the lower component (8.8 kD) and mAbs of group III recognize both proteins. A comparable mAb-binding pattern was observed with Western blots of Parietaria judaica. The mAbs were used for affinity purification of the corresponding proteins from a P. officinalis extract. The purified proteins obtained with mAbs of group I-III inhibit the binding of patients' IgE (serum pool) to a high degree, indicating that they posses the major IgE-reactive epitopes. The affinity-purified proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE, blotted and immunologically stained by mAb binding. The results confirmed those obtained with the complete extracts. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the blotted proteins were analyzed. The sequences of all the proteins contained highly conserved regions: GGVV (positions 4-7) and MPPLL (positions 11-15), alternating with highly variable regions (positions 1-3 for group II and 8-10 for group I). A specific group I sequence appears to be at position 1-3 with the amino acids APA and a specific group II sequence appears to be at position 8-10 with the amino acids GAL. It is possible that the two similar proteins are isoforms of Par o 1.

  5. Morphological and Biological Study of Sanguisorba Officinalis Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Sanguisorba officinalis seed material quality, put into various containers (paper, plastic, fabric, glass, in the different temperature conditions, light and dark grown. The morphology, biology of Sanguisorba officinalis seeds was described and experiments on cryopreservation were made. Basing on the study, we recommend to store Sanguisorba officinalis seed material within 3 months at a temperature of +4˚С in glass container, use plastic container for cryopreservation and to defreeze seeds by double boiling.

  6. Le piante viaggiano, il mondo cambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Banfi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being firmly attached to the ground, plants move, just like other organisms. Spores and seeds constitute the usual vehicle, however every journey made by this dispersive structure, even their simple fall under gravitational pull, is conditioned by the random nature of natural processes and does not necessary lead to success. This applies both to natural dissemination, be it mediated (by air, water, animals, etc. or autonomous (passive fall, active expulsion, and, particularly in this day and age, when dispersion is in some way associated with Homo sapiens. In this last case, it is essential to make a distinction between wild and cultivated, remembering that the dead end of any crop is reached when, due to guided selection, the plant loses all capacity for autonomous life. The whole of human history is characterised by plant transfers (opportunist species that were largely unplanned and in part outside human control, taking root in the natural environment thereby damaging and deteriorating biodiversity, human economics and health. These transfers increased with the discovery of America as a consequence of the contacts with the colonies established by Europe all over the world. The analysis of the success of international plant transfers, be they voluntary and involuntary, allows us to identify their causes, measure their development and build a general model from which to ascertain the chances offered to each new appearance for its future in foreign soil. Invasiveness indicates the “excess” of an alien presence and figures negatively as an increasingly pressing problem for the future of our planet.

  7. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  8. Ethnobotanical and phytopharmacological review of Scindapsus officinalis (“Gajapippali”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scindapsus officinalis (S. officinalis holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It has been ethanobotanically used to treat diarrhea (“atisara”, worm infestation (“krmiroga”, and as antipyretic. Literature survey on S. officinalis was carried out via electronic search in PubMed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, Agricola and Web of Science and a library search. Results revealed that a very specific botanical description of the plant is still not available. The plant is mistaken within the hybrids and other plants of genus Scindapsus and family Araceae. Since ethnobotanically the plant is of much importance, chemistry of the plant yet needs to be fully explored. Thus the need of the hour is to comprehend the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. officinalis which could help in the correct identification of the sample and avoid adulteration due to mistaken identity.

  9. SWORDFISH STEAKS VACUUM-PACKED WITH ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Anastasio; R Marrone; C Chirollo; G Smaldone; M Attouchi; P Adamo; S Sadok; T Pepe

    2014-01-01

      In order to investigate the shelf life of swordfish steaks vacuum-packed with Rosmarinus officinalis, microbiological, chemical and sensorial analyses were carried out after 1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage...

  10. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraj, Sepide; Rafieian-Kopaei; Kiani, Sara

    2016-09-11

    Melissa officinalis is a plant cultivated in some parts of Iran. The leaves of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae), are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review article was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L," "antioxidant properties," oxidative stress," "oxidative damage", "ROS." Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Effects of Medicinal Plants of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems in women, especially in young women. Although dysmenorrhea is not life threatening , it can have ad-verse effect on quality of life and cause disability or ineffectiveness. With regard to the young society suffering from it, various treatments are offered for dysmenorrhea one of which is medicinal plants. This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea Materials & Methods: This study was a clinical trial study performed on 50 girls with dys-menorrheal taking Salvia officinalis as infusion for five days before menstruation and five days during the menstruation. The consumption of the plants was repeated in the next two periods in the same way. Severity of pain, blooding duration and dysmenorrhea duration were evaluated with VAS (Visual Analog Scale Questionnaire in their next two cycles. Data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test and WILCOXON statistical test. Results: The results of this study showed that after using the plants, pain severity and pain duration significantly reduced P<0.01so that pain severity decreased from 6.30 to 3.94 and 3.24, (on a scale of 1 to 10 after taking the plants in the first and second periods ,respectively. The maximum pain duration before the treatment was 1 to 6 h (28.6% and this number reduced to less than 1 h after using these medicinal plants (38.0%. Mean of blooding duration was 6.36 days before the treatment. After the first and second duration, this value reached 6.48 and 6.34 days, respectively. It was determined that taking oral seda-tives reduced from 56% to 26% and 22% after the first and second periods, respectively. Fi-nally, after the second period, 42% of the girls reported high rates of satisfaction because of using the medicinal plants. Conclusion: Generally, it was showed that Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis signifi-cantly reduced pain severity and pain

  13. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  14. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Loreana; RAMÍREZ-RIGO, María; PIÑA, Juliana; PALMA, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silico...

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ijaz Hussain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%, camphor (17.1%, α-pinene (12.3%, limonene (6.23%, camphene (6.00% and linalool (5.70%. The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3 using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  17. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  18. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5' trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5' intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels.

  19. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and melanin synthesis inhibitors from Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Amal; Mira, Amira; Ashour, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-09-15

    Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Secretory structures and essential oil composition in Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Selvaggi, Roberta; Tani, Corrado; Tirillini, Bruno; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The secretory structures and the volatile fraction of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy were studied for the first time. Peltate and small capitate trichomes were observed on the whole plant (leaves and inflorescences). In the peltate trichomes, an unusual polyphenols content was evidenced by the histochemical methods. The volatile fraction was obtained by a solvent extract from the distillation water of leaves and inflorescences and analysed by GC-MS. Forty-four constituents for leaves, representing 94.1% of the total volatiles, and 57 compounds for flowers, accounting for 90.1% of the total volatiles, were identified. (E)-caryophyllene (20.1%), (E)-nerolidol (14.3%), caryophyllene oxide (6.1%) and γ-cadinene (5.7%) were recognised as the main constituents for the leaf volatile fraction, while caryophyllene oxide (16.5%), (E)-nerolidol (15.4%), humulene epoxide II (9.2%) and α-pinene (7.0%) were the main compounds for the flower volatile fraction.

  1. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  3. “IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantu Smaranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a regeneration procedures for Calendula officinalis L., as analternative for biomass production. Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is an important medicinal plant species withmultitherapeutic, cosmetic, values. Meristematic explants taken from seedlings of Calendula officinalis L. germinated inaseptic conditions were tested for their regenerative potential. The regeneration of whole plants was obtained in twosteps: the shoots were excised and transferred to fresh medium and then rooting of these shoots was achieved on the samemedium with 0,02 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 1 mg/l 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The excised shoots weresubcultured for roots induction. Regenerated plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions for an acclimatisation period

  4. Amtimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae

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    Aničić Nada V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis was investigated in this paper. The essential oil was obtained by the principle of water and steam and analyzed by GC and GC-MS using FID and MSD. The main components of the oil of Melissa officinalis were geranial (17.30%, neral (14.70% and citronellal (10.70%. The antimicrobial properties were tested against the following bacterial species: B subtilis, B.cereus Bifidobacterium sp., Corynobacterium sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Listeria monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, P. aerugenosa, S. enteritidis, Shigella sp., S. aureus, and fungi Candida albicans, Alternarija sp. and Aspergillus niger. The diffusion technique was used for testing: the antimicrobial activity, and the MIC was determined by the broth dilution method. The essential oil of M. officinalis showed high antimicrobial activity.

  5. Terpenic profile of different Rosmarinus officinalis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Neli-Kinga; Benedec, Daniela; Socaci, Sonia; Toma, Claudia Crina; Filip, Lorena; Morgovan, Claudiu; Hanganu, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), a well-known medicinal and culinary herb, was studied to compare the terpenic profile of different extracts obtained from dry and fresh herb. There were studied the volatile oil extracted by hydro distillation from dry plant, the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from fresh respectively dry plant and the glycerol macerate obtained from fresh plant, by GC-MS using headspace injection. The separated compounds were identified using a MS spectra library. The quantitative determination was performed by normalization respectively by calibration curve method for 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene and D-limonene. The main separated compounds were alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineol, camphene, camphor, D-limonene and cymene. A significant difference was observed between the 4 samples volatile profiles. 1,8-cineole was found major component of the essential oil (VO-21.39%) and glycerol macerate (GM-35.60%), while and α-pinene was detected as the main constituent of the two tinctures (T-46.05%; MT-31.93%). The highest 1,8-cineol content, determined by calibration curve method, was found in the volatile oil, while the fresh plant hydroalcoholic extract was richer in α-pinene and D-limonene.

  6. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato, Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass and Salvia hispanica L. (chia plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass. After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1. The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.

  7. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  8. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Ramanauskiene; Raimondas Raudonis; Daiva Majiene

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM ...

  9. Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p officinalis extract.

  10. Melissa officinalis L. extract – an effective remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm is the popular name of Melissa officinalis L. Melissa comes from the Greek word Mélissa meaning honeybee. Within the species were distinguished three subspecies: M. officinalis ssp. altissima Arcangeli, M. officinalis ssp. officinalis, and M. officinalis ssp. indora Boran. These are the plants from Lamiaceae group, native to the Mediterranean, but also widespread distributed in moderate and subtropical climate regions. M. officinalis is commonly used for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and more recently in the treatment of Herpes simplex lesions. Leaves are pharmacopeia material. In the fresh herb a content of balm oil is 0.01-0.10% and in the dried leaves from 0.1% up to 0.3%. The main components of M. officinalis usually are: citronellal (approximately 40% of content of balm oil, citral, neral, linalool, flavonoids, chlorogenic, ferulic, rosmarinic (4% of content of balm oil and caffeic acid. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature date about the application of balm extract and oil in the contemporary medicine. The latest studies showed the evidence that the alcoholic lemon balm leaves extract has antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects. Thus could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia by the activation of receptors PPAR playing the major role in glucose and lipids metabolism. Another importance of the lemon balm leaves extract is its antiviral activity, owes to rosmarinic acid. Melissa extract demonstrates high virucidal activity even at very low concentrations; it demonstrates low toxicity and inhibits HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. The volatile oils included in lemon balm inhibit the replication of HSV-2. Moreover, the rosmarinic acid found out to be cytotoxic against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line. The substance contained in an alcoholic extract from M. officinalis turned out to be anti-proliferative and decrease in cell number neoplasmatic cell

  11. Constituintes das sementes de Copaifera officinalis L. Constituents from Copaifera officinalis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir F. Veiga Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Copaifera L. é um dos mais importantes economicamente na Região Amazônica devido, principalmente, à produção dos óleos de copaíba, oléo-resinas com diversas propriedades farmacológicas confirmadas. Apesar disso, os estudos fitoquímicos com as sementes das árvores do gênero Copaifera L.são raros. Copaifera officinalis foi a primeira espécie do gênero Copaifera a ser descrita. Este trabalho descreve a composição dos extratos obtidos em hexano e em acetato de etila das sementes de C. officinalis. No extrato obtido em hexano, a análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa utilizando padrões e através de espectrometria de massas permitiu a identificação de: esqualeno, tetradecano, hexadecano, campesterol, estigmasterol e beta-sitosterol; os ácidos graxos hexadecanóico, 9-octadecenóico e octadecanóico (majoritários; e decanóico, eicosanóico, docosanóico e tetracosanóico (minoritários. Cumarina foi isolada do extrato em acetato de etila e identificada por técnicas de RMN.Copaifera L. is one of the most economically important plant genera in the Amazon Region, since it exudes a resin-oil named copaiba oil possessing several confirmed pharmacological properties. In spite of that, phytochemical studies of the seeds from this genus are rare. Copaifera officinalis L. was the first species in the genus Copaifera to be described. This paper describes the chemical composition of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds from this species. In the hexane extract, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses enabled us to identify squalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol; hexadecanoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids (major substances; as well as decanoic, eicosanoic, docosanoic and tetracosanoic (minor substances acids. Coumarin was detected in the ethyl acetate extract, isolated and identified by NMR.

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  13. Antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in a rural area within the Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were extracted using the solvent free microwave extractor (SFME) and hydro-distillation (HD) methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the obtained oils were tested ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, the major components of the essential oils extracted from plants grown at both altitudes were 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, β-myrcene and caryophyllene, their percentage changed according to the altitude. S. officinalis essential oil was for its antibacterial activities by using Gram- ...

  15. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate polysaccharides (PEV) extracted from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L. and their inhibitory effects on the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: PEV was extracted by water and the optimization of extraction conditions was performed using a Box-Benhnken design ...

  16. Polysaccharides isolated from Morinda officinalis How roots inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum parameters for extracting polysaccharides from Morinda officinalis How (MOP), and explore their inhibitory effects on leukopenia in mice. Methods: Orthogonal design was performed to investigate the optimum parameters for extracting MOP. A leukopenia mouse model was established ...

  17. Congenital malformation of the systemic heart of Sepia officinalis l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous preparations of the circulatory system of Sepia officinalis L. caught from the Bay of Arcachon (Atlantic Coast of France) in 1989 and 1996 showed an obvious congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex. The malformation consisted of a cord- or truncus-like structure at the left cranio-apical ventricle.

  18. Impact of 50% ethanolic extract of Calendula officinalis (flower) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  19. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... This study was conducted to investigate heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown. Olea europaea L forest in Rey town (Tehran, Iran), irrigated with wastewater and well water. Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni were determined at two sites. Heavy metal total concentrations (mg kg-1) in clay soils of pH ...

  1. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  2. Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen in newcomers to the area with the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Juricić, M; Vrdoljak, E; Petrovecki, M; Rozga, A; Stavljenić-Rukavina, A

    1993-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis (wall pellitory) pollen and other environmental allergens was studied in pollinosis patients allergic to P. officinalis pollen who were born in areas without P. officinalis and later moved to the city of Split, where P. officinalis is responsible for some 65% of pollinosis cases. Highly significant positive correlations were found for both the intensity of skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area. In contrast, the respective data on subjects hypersensitive to P. officinalis pollen allergen, but born and living in the area of Split, revealed a tendency to negative correlation between age and intensity of hypersensitivity to P. officinalis. A number of patients from both groups were tested for presence of serum IgE antibodies specific for 14 common environmental allergens. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen was associated with hypersensitivity to olive, mugwort, and birch pollen in newcomers; hypersensitivity to birch and, to some extent, olive pollen was significantly more frequent in newcomers than in autochthonous patients who were allergic to P. officinalis pollen. Regardless of whether the patients were autochthons or newcomers to the area with P. officinalis, hypersensitivity to P. officinalis mostly excluded hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and vice versa.

  3. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Yiwei; Dong, Lin; Gao, Qinghan; Yin, Lei; Quan, Hongfeng; Chen, Rong; Fu, Xueyan; Lin, Dingbo

    2018-03-01

    Cornus officinalis (Cornaceae), known in Chinese as "Shanzhuyu," is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. It tastes sour and is astringent and slightly warm in nature. Its fruits have long been used to treat kidney deficiency, high blood pressure, waist and knee pain, dizziness, tinnitus, impotence, spermatorrhea, menorrhagia, and other diseases in China. The main distribution areas are Shanxi and Gansu. This review focused on the ethnopharmacological uses of the herb. We also focus on the phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on C. officinalis. The recent analytical methods developed for the quality control of the herb's constituents are also reviewed. Additionally, future trends and prospects in the study of this herb are proposed. Information on C. officinalis was gathered by searching the internet (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, ACS, CNKI, Scifinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar) and libraries. This review compiled the ethnopharmacological uses, including the classic prescriptions and historical applications. Approximately 300 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from C. officinalis. The major active components of the plant are organic acids and iridoids, among which morroniside and loganin have been extensively investigated. The fruit of the plant has been used in treating many diseases in traditional medicine. Scientific studies indicated the herb's wide range of pharmacological activities, such as hepatic and renal protection, antidiabetes activity, cardioprotection, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antitumor activity, anti-inflammation, analgesic effects, antiaging activity, antiamnesia, antiosteoporosis, and immunoregulation. The analytical methods developed for the quantitative and qualitative determination of various compounds in the herb were further reviewed. In this paper, we reviewed various studies conducted on C. officinalis, especially in areas of its ethnopharmacological use, as

  4. Effect of Morinda officinalis capsule on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Lü, Shan-Shan; Tang, Gui-Ying; Hou, Min; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Chen, Wei-Hai; Chen, Gang; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Ji-Fen; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of Morinda officinalis capsules (MOP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were induced for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) by bilateral ovariectomy and divided into seven groups as follows: sham-operated group, ovariectomized (OVX) control group, OVX treated with xianlinggubao (XLGB) (270 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), OVX treated with alendronate sodium (ALN) (3 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), and OVX treated with Morinda officinalis capsule (MOP) of graded doses (90, 270 and 810 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) groups. Oral treatments were administered daily on the 4(th) week after ovariectomy and lasted for 12 weeks. The bone mineral density was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and osteocalcin (OC) levels in the serum and plasma were determined by standard colorimetric and enzyme immunoassays methods. Bone biomechanical properties and morphological parameters were analyzed by three-point bending test and histomorphometry respectively. Morinda officinalis capsules at all doses were able to significantly prevent the OVX-induced loss of bone mass due to diminishing serum AKP and TRAP levels while elevating OC level in the plasma. Morinda officinalis capsules also enhanced the bone strength and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Morinda officinalis capsules possess potent anti-osteoporotic activity in OVX rats which could be an effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  6. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of R. officinalis extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with R. officinalis. Moreover, R. officinalis was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death induced by H2O2. R. officinalis extract effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax, Bak, Caspase-3 and -9, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with R. officinalis significantly attenuated the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that R. officinalis is able to protect the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced injury and suggest that R. officinalis might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  8. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

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    Christiane Takayama

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  9. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Brito, Luiz Augusto Batista; Moura, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de; Miguel, Marina Pacheco; Lino-Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Faustino Manrique; Paula, José Realino de; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2011-02-01

    In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats. The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.

  10. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  12. Effect of Biofertilizers on Agronomic Criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabrizi, Leila; Koocheki, Alireza; Ghorbani, Reza

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effects of pure or combinations of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), a medicinal and aromatic plant from Labiateae family at the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. A complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Treatments containing Azospirillum/Azotobacter(Nitroxin), Azospirillum/Bacillus s...

  13. Cross-reactivity between Parietaria judaica and Parietaria officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, A L; Pelaez, A; Errigo, E; Carreira, J

    1985-02-01

    The relative allergenicities of Parietaria judaica and Parietaria officinalis have been studied by in vivo and in vitro techniques and a strong resemblance has been shown, with common allergenic polypeptides, though they differ in a group of anodic proteins. In vivo activity was very similar and both pollen extracts reacted with sera from patients who were sensitive to P. judaica, thus demonstrating a high rate of cross-reactivity. Extracts from both species may therefore be used interchangeably in diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  14. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-11-01

    Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Animal experimentation. Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (pofficinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ROOTING POWDER ON PROPAGATION OF SAGE (SALVIA OFFICINALIS L. AND ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. WITH GREEN CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of medicinal and aromatic herbs with green cuttings is mainly used because of seed low germination percentage and duration of such reproduction. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of commercial rooting powder Rhizopon I on the sage rooting (Salvia officinalis L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. green cutting. The investigation was conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Banja Luka during April till July of 2012. The experiment consisted of two variants. Cuttings of sage and rosemary were treated with rooting powder or planted directly into the substrate without being previously treated. Morphological properties such as plant height, number of leaves, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants were recorded. The treatment with rooting powder resulted in significantly higher values of all morphological parameters tested. Therefore, it is highly recommendable to use it in transplants production thus ensuring the proper rooting of cuttings for earlier transplanting.

  17. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ADDITION FOR IN VITRO PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF CALENDULLA OFFICINALIS

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    IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presented in vitro plant development of Calendula officinalis on MS (Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different formula of hormones. The morphogenetic response was evaluated by recording the number of plantlets, the plant height and weight. The results showed that small amounts of hormones can improve the plantlets growth in the case of Calendula officinalis.

  19. Melissa officinalis effect on female sexual dysfunction: a double blind, randomized clinical trial

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    Z. Darvish-Mofrad-Kashani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Female sexual dysfunction is a very common health problem that affects 25-65% of women. Melissa officinalis or lemon balm (Lamiaceae has been reported in folk medicine for treatment of nervous debility, so this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of M. officinalis to improve female libido. Methods: Eighty nine eligible women with decreased sexual desire were randomly divided into two groups and consumed four 500 mg capsules of M. officinalis or placebo for 4 weeks. Medication was prepared from dried aqueous extract of M. officinalis (standardized as 3.32±0.02 mg gallic acid/g and 1.8±0.003 mg rutin/g. Changes in female sexual function index (FSFI questionnaire scores were evaluated for the two groups. Results: Patients in M. officinalis group experienced significant improvement in lubrication (p

  20. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Specific hyposensitization in patients allergic to Parietaria officinalis pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Zekan, L; Capkun, V; Marusić, M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of specific hyposensitization in 40 patients with Parietaria officinalis-sensitive seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis were studied during three years of treatment. The patients were treated with subcutaneous injections of a new, partially purified, characterized and standardized pollen extract of P. officinalis allergen (alum-absorbed depot preparation). Treatment was applied from November to mid March and it was clinically assessed during the plant flowering season (mid March to end of June). Laboratory tests were performed yearly when beginning and ending treatment. Serum concentrations of P. officinalis pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies decreased (first year: from 18.7 +/- 7.7 to 17.9 +/- 7.6 PRU/ml; second year: from 16.3 +/- 7.1 to 14.1 +/- 6.6 PRU/ml; third year: from 12.3 +/- 5.6 to 10.9 +/- 5.6 PRU/ml) and those of specific IgG increased (first year: from 15.3 +/- 13.2 to 21.7 +/- 14.0%; second year: from 28.5 +/- 13.0 to 36.3 +/- 15.9%; third year: from 29.9 +/- 14.1 to 38.9 +/- 16.8%) during the treatment. Histamine release from peripheral blood leukocytes challenged in vitro with the allergen decreased during the three years of the treatment (first year: from 42.3 +/- 13.0 to 33.1 +/- 10.8%; second year: from 31.9 +/- 11.9 to 19.1 +/- 8.5%; third year: from 19.4 +/- 4.6 to 14.3 +/- 4.6%), whereas the size of skin test reaction and the percentage of eosinophils among white blood cells remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Anti-Platelet Fraction Isolated from Galega Officinalis

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    Atanasov A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis has been purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100. The final purification factor of the fraction is 120. The peak in elution profile after Sephadex G-150 shows a molecular weight of 100-140 kDa. The isolated fraction appears to have 74% polysaccharides and 23% of proteins. No loss of activity of the final fraction is observed after storage for several months at 4°C and in lyophilized condition. The fraction compounds inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and thrombin.

  3. Calendula officinalis: Central depressive effect and subacute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Leila M. L.; Costa, Elson A.; Matos, Lécia G.; Paula, José R.; Cunha, Luiz C.; Júnior, Geraldo V.; Silveira, Nusa A.

    2009-01-01

    Flores da Calendula officinalis L. (calêndula) vêm sendo utilizadas popularmente como cicatrizante, antiinflamatório e sedativo, entre outras atividades. Os principais componentes químicos encontrados nas flores são óleos essenciais, ácido salicílico, carotenóides, flavonóides, taninos e saponinas triterpênicas. Atividades ansiolítica e analgésica foram relatadas em plantas que apresentam flavonóides em sua composição. Nesse trabalho a atividade do extrato etanólico das flores da ...

  4. Spongian diterpenes from Chinese marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guan-Ying; Sun, Dong-Yu; Liang, Lin-Fu; Yao, Li-Gong; Chen, Kai-Xian; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2018-02-12

    3-Nor-spongiolide A (1), belonging to the extremely rare 3-nor-spongian carbon skeleton, and spongiolides A (2) and B (3), having γ-butenolide instead of furan ring as usual for ring D, together with six related known metabolites were isolated from South China Sea sponge Spongia officinalis as its metabolic components. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of three new compounds 1-3 were determined by ECD calculations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

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    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  6. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  7. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Majiene, Daiva

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80-130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM-200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  8. Effects of Morinda officinalis Polysaccharide on Experimental Varicocele Rats

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    Lihong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang for a long time in China. In this study, the effects of M. officinalis Polysaccharide (MOP on experimental varicocele adolescent rats were investigated. The result showed that varicocele destroyed the structure of the seminiferous epithelium and decreased the TJ protein expression (Occludin, Claudin-11, and ZO-1, testosterone (T concentration in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum levels of inhibin B (INHB, while increasing the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α in the left testicular tissue, as well as serum levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and antisperm antibody (AsAb. MOP repaired the damaged seminiferous epithelium and TJ and reduced the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α as well as serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, and AsAb, while upregulating TJ protein expression, T level in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum INHB levels. In summary, we conclude that MOP promotes spermatogenesis and counteracts the varicocele-induced damage to the seminiferous epithelium and TJ, probably via decreasing cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α levels and regulating the abnormal sex hormones levels in experimental varicocele rats.

  9. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia, Alabama (USA, Western Cape (South Africa, Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%, 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%, (+-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%, (−-borneol (2.1%–6.9%, (−-camphor (0.7%–7.0%, and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%. Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  10. Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Jabeen, Qaiser; Gilani, Anwar H

    2006-10-01

    The aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers (Co.Cr) was studied for its possible spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects in isolated gut preparations. In rabbit jejunum, Co.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous and K+-induced contractions, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). In a few preparations, a mild non-reproducible spasmogenic effect was observed at lower doses, followed by relaxation. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Co.Cr produced a dose-dependent rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that of verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity of the plant was concentrated in its organic fractions. The aqueous fraction exhibited a marked atropine sensitive spasmogenic effect but was found to be devoid of any spasmolytic effect. These data indicate that the crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities and this study provides a scientific base for its traditional use in abdominal cramps and constipation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  12. Antidepressant, Anxiolytic and Antinociceptive Activities of Constituents from Rosmarinus Officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Karim, Nasiara; Chebib, Mary; Aburjai, Talal; Khan, Imran; Johnston, Graham A R; Hanrahan, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, traditionally known as rosemary, has been widely used in traditional medicines and has long been known as the herb of remembrance. However, few studies have investigated the effects of non-volatile components of rosemary on central nervous system function. Fractionation of R. officinalis led to the isolation of salvigenin, rosmanol and cirsimaritin, which were investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, antinociception (tail immersion and hot plate tests), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests) and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Rosmanol, cirsimaritin and salvigenin were not found to exhibit any signs of acute toxicity (50-200 mg/kg), but elicited antinociceptive, antidepressant and anxiolytic activities. Rosmanol, cirsimaritin and salvigenin, all previously shown to have biphasic modulation of GABAA receptors, demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of antinociception, antidepressant and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was not ameliorated by flumazenil, but was inhibited by pentylenetetrazol, suggesting a mode of action via GABAA receptors at a site other than the high affinity benzodiazepine binding site. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  13. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ramanauskiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h. RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  15. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  16. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  17. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Isolation and Identification of Bacteria and Mycete from Preservation of Morinda officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-fei; Wang, Kong-jun; Cai, Han; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    In order to select antistaling agent which had obvious antibacterial effect on Morinda officinalis, the colony counts of microorganism from the surface of Morinda officinalis and the species of bacteria and mycete were analyzed. Bacteria and moulds classification identification method were carried out. After using 10 g burdock oligosaccharide, 20 g chitosan and 0. 5 g potassium sorbate treated for 60 d, the total bacteria on the surface of Morinda officinalis was 3. 0 x 10(4) cfu/g, mycete total of 1. 5 x 10(4) cfu/g, preservation effect was better than the other treatments. The common advantage microorganisms group of Morinda officinalis on the surface are from Leuconostoc ,Aerococcus and Penicillium genera.

  19. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  1. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7...

  2. Peculiarities of the morphogenesis of monocarpic shoot of Betonica officinalis L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana P. Zhurakivska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of the morphogenesis of Betonica officinalis in Precarpathian region. Observations on the plant’s growth are described and consecutive stages of its morphogenesis are reported.

  3. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  4. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Synergistic antinociceptive interaction of Syzygium aromaticum or Rosmarinus officinalis coadministered with ketorolac in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Zexp) was lower than the theoretical value (Zadd). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-03-01

    In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections.

  7. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Rosmarinus Officinalis and Chemotherapeutic Etoposide on Glioblastoma (U87 MG) Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Meryem Damla; Göktürk, Dilek

    2017-10-11

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most invasive and common type of brain cancer with very poor prognosis. One of the drugs administered for GBM pharmacotherapy is etoposide (VP-16), which belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor family. It can be used in combination with other drugs or chemicals to avoid high dose toxicities or augment its effect at lower doses. In this study we aimed to investigate whether high dose toxicities of etoposide can be overcome when used in combination with a natural compound named Rosmarinus Officinalis. The impact of Rosmarinus Officinalis in combination with etoposide on GBM U87 MG cells and Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF) cells was investigated. Both neutral red and 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assays were employed to gauge cell viability. We observed that increased quantities of Rosmarinus Officinalis induced MEF cell proliferation while it inhibited the survival of GBM cells. Our results indicate that Rosmarinus Officinalis did not affect the cytotoxicity of etoposide on GBM cell cultures. In contrast, in the MEF cell cultures Rosmarinus Officinalis induced proliferation and diminished the impact of etoposide. Rosmarinus Officinalis offers hope for developing new cancer treatment strategies. However, further studies are needed to verift these results.

  9. Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM.

  10. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit, also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI and spared nerve injury (SNI pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV. The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  11. Physiological changes, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. grown under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taârit, Mouna Ben; Msaada, Kamel; Hosni, Karim; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    Hydroponic culture was used to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of S. officinalis was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay. Physiological and biochemical parameters of S. officinalis were assessed after 4 weeks of salt treatment with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L(-1) NaCl. Plant growth exhibited a reduction of 61% at 100 mmol L(-1) NaCl. Assessment of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) and water contents of shoots and roots showed that S. officinalis is able to regulate Na(+) concentration by active compartmentation in vacuoles. Salvia officinalis phenolics were increased in response to salinity at the threshold of 75 mmol L(-1) NaCl. This herb was also found to be able to achieve important DPPH(•) quenching activity and to inhibit the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching notably enhanced by salt treatment. It is interesting to highlight the correlation between the phenolic and antioxidant activity, suggesting the involvement of these compounds in this activity. Salvia officinalis treated with 75 mmol L(-1) NaCl constitutes a potential source for production of secondary metabolites useful in several applications. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K B; Jørgensen, M; Kotowska, D; Petersen, R K; Kristiansen, K; Christensen, L P

    2010-10-28

    Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been suggested that diterpenes may be responsible for the anti-diabetic effect of Salvia officinalis. To investigate whether the reported anti-diabetic effects of Salvia officinalis are related to activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and to identify the bioactive constituents. From a dichloromethane extract of Salvia officinalis able to activate PPARγ several major metabolites were isolated by chromatographic techniques. To assess bioactivity of the isolated metabolites a PPARγ transactivation assay was used. Eight diterpenes were isolated and identified including a new abietane diterpene being the epirosmanol ester of 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and 20-hydroxyferruginol, which was isolated from Salvia officinalis for the first time, as well as viridiflorol, oleanolic acid, and α-linolenic acid. 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and α-linolenic acid were able to significantly activate PPARγ whereas the remaining metabolites were either unable to activate PPARγ or yielded insignificant activation. Selected metabolites from Salvia officinalis were able to activate PPARγ and hence, the anti-diabetic activity of this plant could in part be mediated through this nuclear receptor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of storage media containing Salvia officinalis on survival of periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Tepe, Bektaş; Er, Kürşat

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) extracts to serve as a storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modi?ed Eagle's Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 4, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.5% S. officinalis solutions, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and tap water. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 masculineC for 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey's test. The level of significance was 5% (pofficinalis was a more effective storage medium than the other experimental solutions (pofficinalis and HBSS. At 24 hours, 2.5% S. officinalis was found to be significantly better than the other solutions tested. S. officinalis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth. The findings of this study support the use of S. officinalis as another option for clinicians to use to store and transport avulsed teeth until reimplantation procedures can be done.

  14. Antioxidant activities and oxidative stress inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from Cornus officinalis on raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Song, Jin

    2016-07-08

    Cornus officinalis, is a deciduous tree native to the eastern Asia, distributes mainly in (e.g. Korea, as well as China, and Japan). It is used as folk medicine to backache, polyuria, hypertension and nervous breakdown. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that C. officinalis possess anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, and immune regulatory effects. However, reports on the antioxidant activity of C. officinalis have been limited to in vitro radical scavenging studies. Its mechanism of action within the cell at the genetic level especially has not yet been clearly defined. Therefore, we investigated the anti-antioxidant activities of C. officinalis in RAW 264.7 cells. The antioxidant activities and protective effects of C. officinalis ethanol extract on cell damage and the antioxidant enzyme system in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress-damaged RAW 264.7 cells were assessed. To measure the effects of C. officinalis on antioxidant activities, we used the following methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents, DPPH scavenging activity assay, ABTS scavenging activity assay, FRAP value measurement, xanthine oxidase activity assay, ROS generation measurement and real time PCR. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of C. officinalis extracts were 27.04 mg GAE/g and 3.70 mg QE/g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of C. officinalis extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner: the IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of C. officinalis extracts were 99.32 μg/mL and 138.51 μg/mL, respectively. C. officinalis extracts inhibited xanthine oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species generation. The expression of antioxidant enzymes, Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase increased upon treatment with C. officinalis extracts at 100 μg/mL, compared to that in the LPS-treated group. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of C. officinalis extract as an anti-oxidant agent.

  15. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Lurdete Maria Rocha; Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Pedrosa, Simone Soares; Gurgel, Ely Simone Cajueiro; Arruda, Alberto Cardoso; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed).

  16. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakırel, Tülay; Bakırel, Utku; Keleş, Oya Üstüner; Ülgen, Sinem Güneş; Yardibi, Hasret

    2008-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity...

  17. [Two new triterpenoid acids from Uighur medicine Fomes officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Xin; Yuan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Two new lanostane triterpenoid acids, 12β, 15α-dihydroxy-24-methyl-3,23-dioxo-lanosta-7,9(11)-dien-26-oic acid (1), and 3α, 12β-dihydroxy-24-methyl-7,23-dioxo-lanosta-8-en-26-oic acid (2), were isolated from the methanolic extract of Uighur medicine Fomes officinalis. Their structures were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR and HR-MS). Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity assays revealed that both compound 1 and 2 show no inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells, and no cytotoxicity activities against HepG2 cells. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  19. HPLC Determination of Polyphenols from Calendula officinalis L. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frum Adina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian spontaneous flora provides a lot of resources for the determination of different chemical compounds. This study uses flower samples from Calendula officinalis L. extracted through maceration. The chemical compounds determined were: (+-catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin. They were analyzed by using an optimized HPLC method. (+-Catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin could not be identified in the analyzed samples. The greatest amount of phenolic compound found was rutin and the smallest quantity was determined for ferulic acid. The quantified compounds have proven to have benefits regarding human health, thus they can be used as functional compounds and can be included in food products and food supplements.

  20. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  1. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low molecular weight allergens of the pollen of Parietaria officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffilli, A; Oreste, U; Santonastaso, V; Scotto D' Abusco, A; Sacerdoti, G

    1987-03-01

    The allergenic composition of a low mol. wt fraction of the pollen extract of Parietaria officinalis (PO) was investigated. Fraction C, that was eluted after oxytocin (mol. wt 1040) when the pollen extract was gel filtered on Sephadex or on Biogel, was cross-reactive in the RAST with the major allergen P015 and was capable of eliciting histamine release from leukocytes of sensitive donors. RAST inhibition (RAST I) analysis of the eluate of gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 revealed several peaks of IgE binding activity. Analysis of fine specificity of response of individual patients carried out by skin-prick tests and by RAST I, revealed individual patterns of reactivity, indicating that allergens contained in fraction C were minor allergens.

  3. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  4. Nomi di piante nell'area dolomitica e friulana (VI*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovan Battista Pellegrini

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available I. (ASLEF V, 3456, carta 557 La "fragola" (di bosco o sel­ vatica Fragaria vesca L. è una rosacea il cui frutto è costituito da un ricettacolo carnoso dolce e profumato, commesti­ bile; comune nei boschi e luoghi erbosi, dalla regione medi­ terranea alla montana sino ai 1600 m. (m. Talm, sopra Sauris ecc., Gortani II, 235-36, il quale riporta i seguenti nomi friulani mòziche, maiòstre, trìscule, vrâs e carnici flàurie, fràule, frèule, flar; la Fragaria elatior Ehrb. si chiama in Carnia anche frauli todesc e la FFr. Collina  Ehrb. detta in Friuli trisculàt; la Fr. indica si equivale a fràule mate e in Carnia flar mate o frauli mat. La pianta è comune a tutta l'Eu- ropa alle coste del Mediterraneo e a gran parte dell'Asia set­ tentrionale.

  5. Study on the valorization of Salvia officinalis volatile oil in dermato-cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dumitrache1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Recent studies have revealed other properties of Salvia Officinalis, such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential. It is also implicated in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and has several other beneficial effects (1. Salvia Officinalis contains estrogenic substances, sitosterol, vitamins B1 and C, organic acids etc., which have a theoretically positive effect in the antiaging process. Additionally, our premise was that the anti-aging effects have a solid specific support: the antiglycation effect of Salvia Officinalis (2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Salvia Officinalis volatile oil has been incorporated into an ointment base in order to obtain a cosmetic cream W/O type. A number of three creams were prepared using three different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil (0,5 and 1,5 respectively. RESULTS In order to characterize the obtained creams, corneometry was used to measure the skin hydration degree. A number of 15 volunteers, aged between 20 and 50 years underwent customer testing. This test has provided information on the left gloss, smoothness, residue, side effects and penetration ability of the three creams, with different concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. We observed a significant increase (twice the initial value in the degree of skin hydration in all subjects who used the cream and especially in those who applied the cream containing 1,5 concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. CONCLUSIONS The three creams with different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil were well tolerated by patients and showed beneficial effects in preventing dehydration and restoration of skin elasticity. Table 1. Subjects who applied the cream containing a 1,5 concentration REFERENCES 1. Garcia CSC, Menti C, Lambert APF et al. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae: antioxidant, and antitumor in

  6. Comparative Analysis of Tannins in the Rhizomes of Great Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametgaliev N.R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the content of tannins in the rhizomes of great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L. was performed using Leventhal’s permanganometric method, its Kursanov's modification, and spectrophotometry. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods used were discussed to determine the quantitative content of tannins in the active parts of different plants. New locations of S. officinalis populations in various regions of the Republic of Tatarstan were detected. The discovered populations differ in terms of habitat conditions. It was revealed that S. officinalis at the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan can be both light and shade demanding. The quantitative characteristics of tannins in the active parts of S. officinalis from two populations were investigated. The methods used to determine the content of tannins gave different results. It was found that the populations of S. officinalis differ in time when they reach the maximum content of tannins, which depends on the phase of vegetation and the dynamics of accumulation of tannins.

  7. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  8. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  9. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Lozano-Baena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively. B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant.

  10. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, M; de Freitas, F; de Barros Winter, M

    2016-12-02

    Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, Plenusdermax, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for VLUs. The authors have no conflict of interest.

  11. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis) in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  12. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Local intranasal immunotherapy with allergen in powder in atopic patients sensitive to Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, R; Panzani, R C; Chiapella, M; Augeri, G; Falagiani, P

    1995-01-01

    Local Intranasal Immunotherapy (LII) is a new approach to the treatment of allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of LII and to determine the proper doses. Twenty adult patients all presenting a sensitization to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis were randomly divided into two groups: 15 received the treatment and five were the control group. Treatment started before the beginning of the pollinic season of Parietaria officinalis and continued during the season. The extract used was an active extract of macronized powder Parietaria officinalis pollen in increasing doses. Doses were determined periodically with specific nasal provocation tests. Results in the treated group compared to the control group were statistically significant if one considers the increase in threshold sensitivity in the nasal provocation test, the diminution of clinical symptomatology and the quantity of drug required to control symptoms in the treated group. The side effects were few; it was only in one case that the treatment had to be interrupted. LII for allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis seems an effective and practicable method even during the pollinic season.

  14. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  15. Physico-chemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils

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    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were extracted by steam distillation in a pilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The volatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest to 0.49% (1998 harvest. Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%, 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%, camphene (4.73 to 6.06% and verbenone (2.32 to 3.86%. The physico-chemical parameters averaged 0.8887 g/cm³ for specific gravity, 1.4689 for refractive index, and +11.82° for optical rotation, and there were no significant variations in either the chemical or physico-chemical data in the different years.Dezenove amostras de Rosmarinus officinalis foram extraídas por destilação por arraste a vapor em uma planta piloto e os óleos essenciais foram avaliados quanto a composição química e características físico-químicas. Os rendimentos de óleo essencial variaram de 0,37% (média de 1999 a 0,49% (média de 1998. Vinte componentes foram identificados nos óleos essenciais. Os componentes majoritários foram a-pineno (40,55 a 45,10%, 1,8-cineol (17,40 a 19,35%, canfeno (4,73 a 6,06% e verbenona (2,32 a 3,86%. A média por safra dos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados resultaram em 0,8887g/cm³ para densidade específica, 1,4689 para índice de refração e +11,82º para rotação óptica, sendo que as variações encontradas para os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos dos óleos essenciais não variaram significativamente em função do ano de produção.

  16. Anticonvulsant Effects of Aerial Parts of Verbena officinalis Extract in Mice: Involvement of Benzodiazepine and Opioid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Kazemi, Fatemeh; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemai; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis used traditionally by local Iranians for the treatment of convulsion. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures in mice. Diazepam was used as reference drug. In addition, for investigating the mechanism of V officinalis in PTZ model, flumazenil and naloxone were injected before V officinalis. The extract showed no toxicity and significantly increased the period taken before the onset and decreased the duration of the seizures induced by PTZ. In the MES test, V officinalis displayed significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a dose-dependent manner. The results propose that V officinalis ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against seizure. It seems that these effects may be related to potentiating of GABAergic system. Moreover, this study supports the use of this plant by local Iranians in order to treat convulsion.

  17. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice

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    Zahra Rabiei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Morphine-dependent group received morphine for nine days and then received naloxone via intraperitoneal injection. Control group received saline for nine days. Post-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg on the day 10 before naloxone injection. Co-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg and morphine for nine days and then received naloxone. Extract-treated group received extract for nine days and then received naloxone. Naloxone injection significantly increased the frequency of jumping, blinking, ptosis, defecation, paw trembling, and two-legged standing in comparison to the control group. Co-treatment and post-treatment with B. officinalis extract significantly decreased the withdrawal symptoms. In conclusion, hydroalcoholic extract of B. officinalis significantly attenuated the symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  18. Comparative Embryological Studies on Infertility of Interspecific Hybridizations Between Oryza sativa with Different Ploidy Levels and O. officinalis

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    Xue-lin FU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As maternal parents, diploid (L202-2x and autotetraploid (L202-4x of Oryza sativa cv. L202 were crossed with O. officinalis. Embryo development and fertilization in these two crosses were comparatively studied. There were no mature hybrid seeds obtained because all the hybridized spikelets died 30 days after pollination. The main reasons for no seed set were abnormal fertilization and development of the embryos and endosperms in the interspecific hybrids. There were double-fertilization, egg cell single-fertilization and non-fertilization in these crosses. Although 59.45% and 54.87% of hybrid embryos produced in the crosses of L202-2x/O. officinalis and L202-4x/O. officinalis, respectively, hybrid embryos ceased to develop or degenerated and plenty of free endosperm nuclei were in disaggregating state without developing cellular endosperms three days after pollination. Besides, some embryological differences in these two crosses were found, that is, the rate of double-fertilization and total rate of double- and single-fertilization in L202-2x/O. officinalis were higher than those in L202-4x/O. officinalis. The embryo and endosperm of hybrids developed more slowly, and embryos and free endosperm nuclei were more severely degenerated in L202-4x/O. officinalis than in L202-2x/O. officinalis. Five days after pollination, a few of embryos in L202-2x/O. officinalis developed into pear-shaped ones, however, embryos in L202-4x/O. officinalis were all degenerated. Therefore, it is more difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids by wide crosses between autotetraploid of O. sativa and O. officinalis.

  19. Biodiversity within Melissa officinalis: Variability of Bioactive Compounds in a Cultivated Collection

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    Remigius Chizzola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical characters were evaluated in a five-year-old lemon balm collection consisting of 15 and 13 subspecies officinalis and altissima accessions, respectively. Stems were lower in essential oil than leaves. First cut leaves (June gave more oil than those of the second cut (August. Subspecies officinalis plants had leaf oils rich in geranial, neral and citronellal in various proportions in the first cut. However, in the second cut the oils from all accessions appeared very similar with 80–90% geranial plus neral. Leaf oils of subsp. altissima contained sesquiterpenes (β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D and also further monoterpenes in the second cut. Leaves had higher rosmarinic acid (RA contents than stems. More RA was in subsp. officinalis than subsp. altissima leaves. First cut leaves were richer in RA than those from second cut. Total phenolics and antioxidant parameters showed that lemon balm is a valuable source of plant antioxidants.

  20. Biodiversity within Melissa officinalis: Variability of Bioactive Compounds in a Cultivated Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzola, Remigius; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Franz, Chlodwig

    2018-01-31

    Phytochemical characters were evaluated in a five-year-old lemon balm collection consisting of 15 and 13 subspecies officinalis and altissima accessions, respectively. Stems were lower in essential oil than leaves. First cut leaves (June) gave more oil than those of the second cut (August). Subspecies officinalis plants had leaf oils rich in geranial, neral and citronellal in various proportions in the first cut. However, in the second cut the oils from all accessions appeared very similar with 80-90% geranial plus neral. Leaf oils of subsp. altissima contained sesquiterpenes (β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D) and also further monoterpenes in the second cut. Leaves had higher rosmarinic acid (RA) contents than stems. More RA was in subsp. officinalis than subsp. altissima leaves. First cut leaves were richer in RA than those from second cut. Total phenolics and antioxidant parameters showed that lemon balm is a valuable source of plant antioxidants.

  1. Somatic muscle development in Sepia officinalis (cephalopoda - mollusca): a new role for NK4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navet, Sandra; Bassaglia, Yann; Baratte, Sébastien; Martin, Madeleine; Bonnaud, Laure

    2008-07-01

    Cephalopods are emerging as new developmental models. These lophotrochozoans exhibit numerous morphological peculiarities among molluscs, not only regarding their nervous system but also regarding their circulatory system, which is closed and includes three hearts. However, the molecular control of cardiac myogenesis in lophotrochozoans is largely unknown. In other groups, cardiac development depends on numerous different genes, among them NK4 seems to have a well-conserved function throughout evolution. In this study, we assessed the expression pattern of SoNK4, the Sepia officinalis NK4 homologue, during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. SoNK4 expression begins before morphogenesis, is not restricted to prospective cardiac muscles but above all concerns mesodermal structures potentially rich in muscles such as arms and mantle. These results suggest an important role of SoNK4 in locomotory (somatic) muscles development of Sepia officinalis, and thus a new role for NK4.

  2. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  3. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  4. [Efficacy of topical azelastine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis caused by Parietaria officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacor, M L; Biasi, D; Carletto, A; Maleknia, T; Lunardi, C

    1998-04-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of azelastine, a new long acting antihistamine, in the topic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis to Parietaria officinalis. Forty five patients have been considered, 20 males and 25 females, mean age 28.5 years, suffering from seasonal rhinitis to Parietaria officinalis for at least 4 years. Azelastine was administered twice a day for 4 weeks in the pollen season. On a daily diary-card, patients had to record the severity of the symptoms considered: runny nose, sneeze, itching nose, nasal obstruction, following an arbitrary score from 0 to 3. At the end of the study, patients obtained a significant improvement of the symptoms considered without the addition of any other topical or systemic therapy. No side effects have been reported. Therefore azelastine is an effective drug in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis to Parietaria officinalis.

  5. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  9. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  10. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  11. Salvia Officinalis and Cisplatin Effects on Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure Threshold

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    Mir Hadi Khayate-Nouri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that cisplatin have neuropathic effects and Salvia officinalis (SO could have therapeutic effects on nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SO hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizure in mice. Materials and methods: This is an experimental interventional study. For this purpose first group received normal saline, second group received SO extract, third group received cisplatin, in the fourth group received SO extract plus cisplatin and the subsequent seizure threshold was determined for each group. Results: The results showed that SO extract significantly (p<0.05 increased and in cisplatin group significantly (p<0.05 decreased seizure threshold. Simultaneous uses of cisplatin and SO extract caused to significantly increased seizure threshold (p<0.05 compared with cisplatin group. Conclusion: Considering different types of ingredients in SO extract which have beneficial effects on nervous system, it might be used to reduce cisplatin induced neuropathic effects. It seems that SO extract could be useful in cisplatin-induced seizure but further investigations are needed.

  12. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  13. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  14. Biochemical and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. and Mentha Piperita L. Essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Izadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although antibiotics are used in conventional treatment of infectious diseases, a lot of unexpected side effects along with resistance to antibiotics appear. Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita are plants found abundantly in most parts of Iran. In the present study, we extracted and identified the chemical compounds of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita. Moreover, the anti-oxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of these plants were studied. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the Biotechnology Department laboratories, Agricultural Faculty of Avicina University, Hamadan, Iran, in 2009. The aerial parts of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita were harvested in summer, when the plants were in their full blooming stage and dried in the shade. The essential oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS method. The micro-organisms employed in this study were: E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, L. monocytogenes. By employing disc diffusion and tube dilution methods, antimicrobial effects of the oils were studied. Antioxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the oils were also studied. Results: Chemical analysis of the extracts resulted in the identification of 28 and 37 compounds in the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita respectively. The sensitivity of the bacteria to the oils in order of decreasing the sensitivity was L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil from Mentha piperita leaves were higher than the oil of Salvia officinalis leaves. Also inhibitions zones of microbial growth were not correlated with the microbicidal kinetics of the oils. Conclusion: This study showed that the herbal essences of Salvia officinalis and

  15. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  16. Atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial da Calendula officinalis cultivada no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial, obtido das flores de Calendula officinalis utilizando-se técnica de difusão em discos. Os resultados dos ensaios antifún...

  17. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-07-21

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders

  18. Influence of light intensity on growth and physiological characteristics of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zervoudakis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of four different light intensities on the growth characteristics, physiological parameters and leaf photosynthetic pigments of Salvia officinalis L. The plant's dry mass, number of the leaves and physiological parameters indicated a strong positive correlation with the light intensity. On the other hand, the plant's height and leaf photosynthetic pigments were increased at low light treated plants. These results suggest that the aromatic herb Salvia officinalis L. is adaptable to different light environments.

  19. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

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    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  20. Mechanized harvesting and primary processing of Calendula officinalis L. inflorescences

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    Branislav Veselinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual harvesting of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. inflorescences results in superior quality, but requires enormous manpower. The objectives of the research were to examine the possibility of mechanized harvesting of marigold inflorescences by virtual rotating comb-type chamomile harvester, widely used in South Eastern Europe, and to develop the mechanical separator for the inflorescences from the harvested mass. The impact of coefficient R, ratio of the harvester’s penetration into the inflorescences horizon and the width of inflorescences band (i.e. the average value of the highest and lowest inflorescences span on the harvest yield, was tested first. Separation was performed by a bespoke separator that uses five cascades of oscillating sieves made of longitudinally situated rods. Influence of oscillation frequencies and rod distances on separation efficiency was investigated. It was found that, for coefficient R value of 1.3, an average of 97% of the total inflorescences yield can be harvested. The proportion of inflorescences with stem length up to 2 cm was 65% and 35% for stems over 2 cm. The result of mechanized harvest was the reduction in both the number of succeeding harvests and the yield, due to bud damages and elimination. The highest separation efficiency was obtained by using 2.7 Hz oscillation frequency and combination of 6/8 mm rods’ distances in sieves. After three passes of the harvested mass through the device, approximately 92% of inflorescences were separated. Future investigations should be directed towards solving the issue of mechanical shortening of the inflorescences stems and evaluating the economic viability of mechanized harvesting within the proposed procedure.

  1. Flowering biology and nectary structure of Melissa officinalis L.

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. covered flowering biology, monitoring of pollinating insects and floral nectary structure. The micromorphology of epidermal cells of the nectary was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The nectariferous tissues were observed using light microscopy based on semi-thin sections. Lemon balm flowered from the second decade of June until September. Buds opened from early morning hours until noon. Flowers lived for 24 hours, on the average. Their primary pollinator was the honey bee. The beginning of nectar secretion was found to be at the bud swell stage. The automorphic nectary forms a disc with four protrusions at the base of the nectary. Three smaller ones and one larger than the other ones were distinguished among them. No stomata were found on the lower protuberances, whereas on the highest part anomocytic stomata were present, the number of which was 15. The stomata exhibited different development stages and they were situated above other epidermal cells. In their outline, they were ellipsoidally shaped (18 × 23 µm and they had average-sized cuticular ledges. They produced a smooth cuticle and wax granules. In cross section, the nectary tissues were composed of a singlelayered epidermis and 9 - 11 layers of the nectary parenchyma. Their thickness was 198 µm. In longitudinal section, the height of the nectary was within a range of 354 - 404 µm. The epidermal cells produced thin outer cell walls. Some of them were completely filled with strongly stained cytoplasm, whereas others showed a high degree of vacuolisation. But the nectary parenchyma cells were marked by poorly stained cytoplasm, a large nucleus and vacuolisation of varying degree.

  2. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  3. Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack

    2012-04-01

    Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERRERA, JAVIER

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

  5. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  7. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L. originated from cultivation

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    Bączek Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  8. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L.) originated from cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bączek Katarzyna; Kosakowska Olga; Przybył Jarosław L.; Węglarz Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  9. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  11. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Action of Calendula officinalis essence on bone preservation after the extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Fentanes, Laura K; Soriano-Padilla, Fernando; Pérez-Frutos, Jorge Raúl; Veras-Hernandez, Miriam Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound-healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favorably affects bone preservation after extraction.

  13. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim,Zilda Cristiane; Rezende,Claudia Moraes; Fraga,Sandra Regina; Svidzinski,Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez,Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  14. Evaluation of homeopathy in broiler chickens exposed to live viral vaccines and administered Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Sagherian, Vatché; Talhouk, Salma; Talhouk, Rabih; Farran, Mohamad T; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Harakeh, Steve

    2004-08-01

    In this study it was determined that a Calendula officinalis water extract can reduce the immune response to three different viruses in broiler chickens, associated with improvement in body weights. The experiment was conducted on broiler chickens divided into two groups of 105 birds each. The first group received a Calendula officinalis water extract orally, while the second group received drinking water only. All birds in the two groups were similarly exposed to three different live vaccine viruses. Quantitative assessment of humoral immunity to each of the 3 viruses and records of bursal and thymus weight indices were taken. Performance, as observed in weight records at 21 and 41 days of age, feed conversion, and% mortality up to market age, was also evaluated. There was a reduction in immune response to IB virus at 42 days of age, to ND virus at 29 and 42 days of age, and to IBD virus at 14, 29, and 42 days of age in the Calendula officinals-treated birds in comparison with controls. This immune reduction in Calendula officinalis-treated birds was associated with insignificant reduction in the bursal weight index at 42 days of age and an improvement in mean weights at 21 and 41 days of age; the feed conversion and mortality rates were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). Calendula officinalis had an immunomodulation effect against three different live viruses in broiler chickens.

  15. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  16. Variabilité morphologique de Rosmarinus officinalis sur la mine de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myriam Majeri Gaïda

    Heavy metals pollution is considered as one of the most dangerous environmental problems in agricultural soil ... plants to remove pollutants from environment or to render them harmless ..... Figure 9. Pigments (chl a, b and a+b, and car) content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. although geological levels in the Bougrine mining.

  17. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  18. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.

  19. STUDY OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA IN ALBINO RATS

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    Chinmoyee Deori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study has been undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of fruits extract of Emblica officinalis on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity on Albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. The required amount of fresh fruits of Emblica officinalis were collected and prepared by percolation method using 90% ethyl alcohol. Oral toxicity test was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines. Liver damage was induced in Albino rats with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg/body weight subcutaneously. All the animals used for the experiment were kept under observation for daily food intake and body weight were measured after 7 days. The drugs were administered to the animals in the dose of 200 mg/kg/body weights by means of an intragastric feeding tube. The experiment was carried out for the period of 14 days. RESULTS The study was carried out with an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in albino rats and was compared with standard drug Silymarin. The statistical significance between groups was analysed using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. The significance was expressed by ‘p’ values as mentioned in the tables. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. CONCLUSION From this study, it can be seen that Emblica officinalis has significant hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCL4-induced liver injury.

  20. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05 in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens.

  1. LIBS-Based Detection of Antioxidant Elements in Seeds of Emblica officinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, S.; Rai, P.K.; Rai, D.K.; Rai, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.; Sharma, B.; Watal, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the elements of the extract of seed from Emblica officinalis on antioxidant enzymes and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes membrane in normal as well as streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic albino Wister rats. The results revealed that the

  2. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis ssp collina cultivated in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Hendriks, H; Pras, N; St Stojanova, A; Georgiev, EV

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from air-dried subterranean parts of Valeriana officinalis ssp. collina (Wallr.) Nyman (Valerianaceae), 'Shipka,' was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 62 components were identified. The oil yield, collected in plants grown in 1995 and 1938, was 0.42% (v/m) and 0.40% (v/m)

  3. [Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on prevention of dry eye in castrated rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing-Hua; Yao, Xiao-lei; Wu, Quan-long; Chen, Mei

    2008-11-01

    To assess the preventive effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on dry eye in castrated rabbits and to discuss the mechanism of these effects. It was a experimental study. Thirty male rabbits were divided equally into normal group (A), disease group (B) and treatment group (C, D, and E). The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy (ORX) in Group B, C, D and E. Group C, D and E were gastrically perfused with single-dose or double-does of Buddleja officinalis extract or genistein for 30 days. All rabbits were examined with Schirmer I test (SIT). TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, Fas, FasL, Bax and bcl-2 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Morphological and ultrastructure changes were observed by electron microscopy. The SIT value of group C, D, E was significantly greater than that of group B (P Buddleja officinalis has a significant effect on the prevention of experimental dry eye in castrated male rabbits. The main components of extract of Buddleja officinalis are the flavonoids. The flavonoids display androgen-like activity. Therefore, it can adjust gonadal hormone level in vivo. As a result, it can inhibit local inflammation in lacrimal gland and reduce apoptosis of lacrimal gland cells.

  4. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Jørgensen, Monica; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa

    2010-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been sugg...

  5. A new chemical form of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the air-dried leaves of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) collected in Ajangbadi area, West of Lagos, Nigeria, was analyzed comprehensively for its constituents by means of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The monoterpene ...

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  7. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyoung Lee

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated.Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs.The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001, 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016, and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001. The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs.Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of

  8. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Wanyu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao, Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye, Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen, Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao, Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong, Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities.

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  11. Methyl valerenate, a new sesquiterpenoid in the essential oil from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. sl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Woerdenbag, HJ; Hendriks, H; Kruizinga, WH; Herrema, JK; Scheffer, J.J C

    1997-01-01

    A new valerenane sesquiterpenoid, methyl valerenate (1), was found in the essential oil from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. Spectral data of methyl valerenate, which was synthesized from valerenic acid (2), are given in this paper.

  12. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the

  13. [AntI-inflammatory, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of flavonoid-containing extract of Gratiola officinalis L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polukonova, N V; Navolokin, N A; Raĭkova, S V; Masliakova, G N; Bucharskaia, A B; Durnova, N A; Shub, G M

    2015-01-01

    The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. has been obtained by an original method ensuring the maximum yield of flavonoids. The extract simultaneously exhibits high anti-inflammatory activity, selective antimicrobial properties (with respect to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not to conditionally pathogenic E. coli) and antipyretic effect (observed for the first time in Gratiola officinalis L. preparations). Advantages of the proposed preparation are low toxicity, availability of the raw material, and broad spectrum of therapeutic effects.

  14. Magnetic field effect on in vitro germination of Rosmarinus officinalis L seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Fung Boix; C. Pimentel Victório; C. L. Salgueiro Lage; A. C. Alfarge Defaveri; R. Olivera Arruda; Sato, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a medicinal plant widely used due to its medicinal properties such as nervous system stimulant, antispasmodic, antiseptic, among others. However, blooms are sporadic, seeds viability is low and propagation by stakes is very slow. The objective was to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on in vitro germination of Rosmarinus officinalis L. seeds. Rosemary seeds were treated with 0.16 T magnetic field during seven days. Then, they disinfected...

  15. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis: possible role in reducing diabetic complications and slowing down ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.

  16. Spasmolytic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. involves calcium channels in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rivero-Osorno, Oscar; Gómez, Claudia; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant used around the world for its properties to cure pain in several conditions, such as arthritic and abdominal pain or as an antispasmodic; however, there are no scientific studies demonstrating its spasmolytic activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of an ethanol extract from Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts and the possible mechanism involved by using rings from the isolated guinea pig ileum (IGPI). The IGPI rings were pre-contracted with potassium chloride (KCl; 60 mM), acetylcholine (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-5)M) or electrical field stimulation (EFS; 0.3 Hz of frequency, 3.0 ms of duration and 14 V intensity) and tested in the presence of the Rosmarinus officinalis ethanol extract (150, 300, 600 and 1 200 μg/mL) or a referenced smooth muscle relaxant (papaverine, 30 μM). In addition, the possible mechanism of action was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium (a ganglionic blocker), indomethacine (an inhibitor of prostaglandins), l-NAME (a selective inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase) and nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker). Rosmarinus officinalis ethanol extract exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent spasmolytic activity on the contractions induced by KCl (CI(50) = 661.06 ± 155.91 μg/mL); ACh (CI(50) = 464.05 ± 16.85 μg/mL) and EFS (CI(50) = 513.72 ± 34.13 μg/mL). Spasmolytic response of Rosmarinus officinalis (600 μg/mL) was reverted in the presence of nifedipine 1 μM, but not in the presence of hexamethonium 0.5mM, indomethacine 1 μM or L-NAME 100 μM. The present results reinforce the use of Rosmarinus officinalis as antispasmodic in folk medicine. Moreover, it is demonstrated the involvement of calcium channels in this activity, but not the participation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins or nitric oxide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-05-01

    To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (Pofficinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  18. Esterco bovino e biofertilizante no cultivo de erva-cidreira-verdadeira (Melissa officinalis L. Cattle manure and biofertilizer on the cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A importância fitoterápica e, consequentemente, econômica da Melissa officinalis tem contribuído para expansão do cultivo. O óleo essencial das folhas é formado por constituintes químicos que podem ser largamente empregados na indústria farmacêutica por possuírem atividades antioxidativa, antivirótica e sedativa. Assim sendo, objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de combinações de doses de adubação orgânica com biofertilizante comercial e esterco bovino no cultivo de Melissa officinalis. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de biofertilizante orgânico (Vitassolo® e esterco bovino, sendo estes de 0, 30.000, 60.000 e 90.000 L ha-1. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados no fatorial 4x4, com 3 repetições. As características avaliadas foram altura de planta, rendimento de folha, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial. As maiores doses de esterco bovino resultaram em um maior desenvolvimento das plantas, em relação às mesmas doses do biofertilizante.The phytotherapic and economic importance of Melissa officinalis has contributed to its cultivation expansion. The essential oil of leaves is composed of chemical constituents, which can be largely employed in the pharmaceutical industry due to their antioxidant, antivirotic and sedative activities. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of level combination of organic fertilization with commercial biofertilizer and cattle manure on Melissa officinalis cultivation. Treatments constituted of four levels of organic biofertilizer (Vitassolo® and cattle manure at 0; 30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 L ha-1. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in split plot 4X4 factorial arrangement, with three replicates. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, leaf yield, essential oil content and yield. The highest cattle manure levels resulted in higher plant development, compared with the same

  19. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats Atividade angiogênica das flores da Calendula officinalis L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Leal Parente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi

  20. Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.L. Parente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade propriedades medicinais são atribuídas às flores da Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Estudos sobre a atividade geral de plantas medicinais na cicatrização vêm sendo realizados, sem especificar sobre qual das fases da cicatrização a planta atua. Neste trabalho a atividade cicatrizante e antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico das flores da C. officinalis cultivada no Brasil foi avaliada em feridas cutâneas de ratos Wistar, por meio de avaliação macroscópica e histológica. A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações hexânica e diclorometano também foi avaliada. A atividade antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico da calêndula foi atribuída à diminuição da exsudação serosa, da hiperemia, da deposição de fibrina e da hiperplasia epidermal, além de resultar em crostas mais delgadas e umedecidas. Observaram-se também aumento de colágeno no tecido de granulação e efeito antibacteriano. Assim, o extrato etanólico da calêndula atuou de forma positiva sobre a atividade cicatricial em feridas cutâneas de ratos, bem como apresentou atividade antibacteriana in vitro.Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae, mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and healing activity of the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis flowers cultured in Brazil was evaluated in cutaneous wounds of Wistar rats through macroscopic and histological evaluation. The antibacterial activity of the extract and dichloromethane and hexane fractions was also evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity of calendula ethanolic extract led to a reduction in plasmatic exudation, hyperemia, fibrin deposition and epidermal hyperplasia, besides

  1. Synergistic effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oils and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Marina T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA due to the acquisition of resistance to current antimicrobials pose a serious challenge for therapy, and new measures to treat and prevent this infectious pathogen are of crucial importance. Plant essential oils (EOs and their constituents are promising agents with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistaphylococcal effect of essential oils from Salvia officinalis using the broth-microdilution method. Essential oils of S. officinalis were isolated from the same individual, but at different life stages - young and old leaves. The effects of combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of oil and different antibiotics were evaluated by the checkerboard method. The results, expressed as the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC and index (FICI, indicate that the essential oil isolated from young leaves potentiated the inhibitory effect of antibiotics against tested MRSA strains. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173021

  2. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Cyathula officinalis and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun-Tao; Yan, Wen-Jing; Qi, Chu-Lu; Hou, Ji-Qin; Zhong, Yan-Ying; Li, Hui-Jun; Wang, Hao; Li, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Cyathula officinalis. Compounds were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. One new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, 28-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] hederagenin (1), was isolated from the roots of Cyathula officinalis. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells. Compounds 2, 4, and 6 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Saponaria officinalis L. shoots and flowers essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Goran M; Ilić, Marija D; Stankov-Jovanović, Vesna P; Stojanović, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana Č

    2018-02-01

    Phytochemical analysis by GC and GC/MS of the essential oil samples obtained from fresh shoots and flowers of Saponaria officinalis L. allowed the identification of 96 components in total, comprising 94.7% and 86.0% of the total oils compositions, respectively. Regarding the shoots essential oil, the major of 87 identified volatile compounds were phytol (14.1%), tricosane-6,8-dione (13.4%), patchouli alcohol (7.9%) and tricosane (7.2%), whereas patchouli alcohol (20.0%), heneicosane (11.5%) and tricosane (8.4%) were dominant among the 66 volatiles in the flower oil. Nonterpenoid compounds had the highest contribution in S. officinalis shoots essential oil (53.7%), while in the flower oil, constituents were almost evenly distributed between the oxygenated sesquiterpenoid (41.2%) and nonterpenoid compounds (39.5%).

  5. Management of two cases of desquamative gingivitis with clobetasol and Calendula officinalis gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Contar, Cintia Mussi Milani; Brustolim, Jean Ayres; Candido, Lisiane; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Soares de Lima, Antonio Adilson

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe two cases of desquamative gingivitis (DG) that were treated with a topic gel containing clobetasol propionate and Calendula officinalis L in an acetate tray over two years. Two patients with a diagnosis of lichen planus presenting as DG who had undergone previous treatments for this condition with no significant results, were treated by a handling gel containing clobetasol, nystatin, Calendula officinalis L and pectin in custom trays. Both patients had remission of symptoms while using the trays and after they stopped the treatment, the symptomatic outbreaks were delayed and presented as less severe symptoms in the two years follow-up. The treatment is aimed primarily at reducing the length and severity of symptomatic outbreaks desquamative gingivitis. This handling gel using a tray may be an efficacious treatment of desquamative gingivitis.

  6. Total peroxynitrite scavenging capacity of phenylethanoid and flavonoid glycosides from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Jung, Bong Yong; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Pham Thuy; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Huong, Tran Thu; Anh, Ngo Thi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-12-01

    Nine compounds, including six phenylethanoid glycosides: acteoside (1); bioside (2); echinacoside (3); poliumoside (4); phenylethyl glycoside (5); salidroside (6) and three flavonoids; linarin (7); apigenin (8); isorhoifolin (9), were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM. (Buddlejaceae). Chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H-, and (13)C-NMR, and MS spectral methods and compared with those reported in the literature. Antioxidant activities of the methanol and water extracts, and all isolated compounds were evaluated using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay against peroxynitrite. Results of the assay showed that the phenylethanoid glycosides, a major class of compounds of the flowers of B. officinalis, possess strong antioxidant activity. Of these, acteoside, echinacoside and poliumoside have 9.9-, 9.8- and 9.5-fold TOSC value, respectively, compared with the positive control, Trolox.

  7. Isolation and purification of a major allergen from Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, A; Pini, C; Bonini, S; Mucci, N; Ferroni, L; Vicari, G

    1987-08-01

    A major allergen of Parietaria officinalis, a species responsible for a large number of respiratory allergies in Mediterranean areas, has been identified and characterized. This allergen (Pol) was found in the fraction which precipitates between 70 and 100% ammonium sulphate saturation. Pol showed a molecular weight of 15,000 daltons as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The pI of Pol was in the pH region 4-6, IEF showing four major bands. Two major bands were shown by CIE, CRIE and immunoblotting; major contaminants or aggregates were also revealed by the latter technique and by HPLC. Pol showed an allergic specific activity 2 times higher than the crude extract; moreover it was shown to be a major allergen since it inhibited 29 out of 30 sera from allergic patients sensitive to P. officinalis.

  8. [THE ALKALOID-FREE FRACTION FROM Galega officinalis EXTRACT PREVENTS OXIDATIVE STRESS UNDER EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupak, M I; Khokhla, M R; Hachkova, G Ya; Kanyuka, O P; Klymyshyn, N I; Chajka, Ya P; Skybitska, M I; Sybirna, N O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of alkaloid-free fraction from Galega officinalis extract on the process of formation of reactive oxygen species and indicators of prooxidant-antioxidant balance was investigated in rat peripheral blood under conditions of experimental diabetes mellitus. It was shown that alkaloid-free fraction from Galega officinalis extract prevents oxidative stress development in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, providing antioxidant and antiradical mobilization mechanisms to protect the blood system. In the case of extract application to animals with studied pathology, one can observe a reducing effect of reactive oxygen species generation in leukocytes, inhibition of proteins and lipids oxidative modification processes and increased activity of key enzymes of rat peripheral blood antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The revealed biological effect could be explained by the presence of biologically active substances with antioxidant properties in the extract composition (phytol and flavonoids).

  9. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. Comparative analysis of the aroma chemicals of Melissa officinalis using hydrodistillation and HS-SPME techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-u- Rehman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS has been used for the chemical analysis of Melissa officinalis (leaves cultivated in Institute Germplasm. The HS-SPME analysis led to the identification of 22 components constituting 99.1% of the total volatile constituents present in the leaves whereas its hydrodistillate led to the identification of 24 volatile constituents constituting 98.1% of the volatile material. The chemical composition of the SPME and hydrodistilled extract of M. officinalis leaves comprised mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (78.5% and 57.8% respectively and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (14.9% and 29.7% respectively. The major components identified in the HS-SPME extract were citronellal (31.1%, citronellol (18.3%, β-caryophyllene (12.0%, (E-citral (11.9%, (Z-citral (9.6%, geraniol (3.6%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.1% and 1-octen-3-ol (2.0% whereas hydrodistilled essential oil was rich in (Z-citral (19.6%, β-caryophyllene (13.2%, (E-citral (11.2%, citronellal (10.2%, germacrene-d (8.3%, δ-3-carene (5.0%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (3.7% and citronellyl acetate (3.7%. The comparative analysis of volatile constituents of M. officinalis leaf extract using HS-SPME and hydrodistillation techniques shows both qualitative as well as quantitative differences. The current study is the first report involving rapid analysis of volatile components of M. officinalis by HS-SPME.

  11. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  12. Comparative study of wood betony (Stachys officinalis L) melliferousness in different habitat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina

    2005-01-01

    Nectar production in wood betony (Stachys officinalis L), grown under differ-microclimatic habitat conditions (forest and experimental field), was analyzed. Study of tar production included determining of the total daily nectar amount (in 24 hours) per flower, the diurnal dynamics of nectar secretion (nectar amount secreted per flower at two hour intervals during the day), and nectar sugar concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic parameters humidity,...

  13. Determination of free and bounded phenolic acids in the rhizomes and herb of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Biernasiuk Anna; Wozniak Michal; Bogucka-Kocka Anna

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while...

  14. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  15. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  16. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda): an immunocytochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    F Leone; A Bairati; L Vitellaro-Zuccarello

    2009-01-01

    Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, an...

  17. Food effects on statolith composition of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Zumholz, Karsten; Klügel, A.; Hansteen, Thor; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements within cephalopod statoliths can provide a record of the environmental characteristics at the time of calcification. To reconstruct accurately the environmental characteristics at the time of calcification, it is important to understand the influence of as many factors as possible. To test the hypothesis that the elemental composition of cuttlefish statoliths could be influenced by diet, juvenile Sepia officinalis were fed either shrimp Crangon sp. or fish ...

  18. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Flávia Machado de; Feitosa, Maura Cristina Porto; Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Rebêlo, Veruska Cronemberger Nogueira; Castro, Juçara Gonçalves de; Sousa, Patrícia Regina Gomes de; Feitosa, Valrian Campos; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Lo Schiavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pai...

  19. Mechanical properties and total hydroxycinnamic derivative release of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis extract films

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    Letícia Mello Rechia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four films were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa officinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the film reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades mecânicas e o mecanismo de liberação de um sistema tópico de liberação prolongada para o tratamento do Herpes labial a partir de filmes de amido/glicerol/extrato de Melissa officinalis, planta com comprovada atividade antiviral. Foram obtidos quatro filmes poliméricos com diferentes concentrações de amido, glicerol e extrato de Melissa officinalis os quais foram caracterizados mecanicamente e determinado o perfil de liberação de derivados hidroxicinâmicos. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da concentração de glicerol no filme produz uma redução no módulo de elasticidade e na tensão de deformação como conseqüência do efeito plastificante. O aumento no volume livre do polímero resultou em aumento da liberação dos derivados hidroxicinâmicos expressos como ácido rosmarínico.

  20. [Anticancer activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil against HNSCC cell line (UMSCC1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, S; Eichhorn, T; Plinkert, P K; Efferth, T

    2011-12-01

    Every year there are several hundred thousand new cases of oral cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer. The aim of this investigation was to study the cytotoxicity of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) essential oil. Salvia officinalis essential oil was gained by aqueous extraction from plant material and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil on the squamous human cell carcinoma cell line of the oral cavity (UMSCC1) was assessed with the XTT assay. These experiments revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the essential oil. It was used in the microarray-based analysis of gene expression of UMSSC1 cells. The results were submitted to a signaling pathway analysis. The main constituents of Salvia officinalis essential oil include the monoterpenes thujone, β-pinene, and 1,8-cineol. Low concentrations of the essential oil increased vitality of the UMSCC1 cells. Beyond the concentration of the IC(50) of 135 µg/ml, sage essential oil reduced UMSSC1 cells viability to a minimum. In the microarray gene expression analysis, genes involved in cancer, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, cell morphology, cell cycle, gene expression, and DNA repair were the most prominent. The three most significantly regulated pathways by sage were aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, cell cycle (G1/S checkpoint) regulation, and p53 signaling. To the best of our knowledge, this study suggests for the first time the ability of Salvia officinalis essential oil to inhibit human HNSCC cell growth. The therapeutic potential of sage essential oil

  1. Phenolic composition of four sage species: salvia farinacea, salvia mexico, salvia greggii and salvia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Afonso, Andrea F.; Susana M. Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Salvia species are used worldwide for medicine purposes. In general, these medicinal plants have high amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids, that are thought to be closely related to their health properties [1,2]. In this work, the aerial parts of Salvia farinacea, Salvia mexico, Salvia greggii and Salvia officinalis were extracted with hot water [3]. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content by an adaptation of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and further analysed by high perf...

  2. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  3. Investigation into Iron Chelating and Antioxidant Potential of Melilotus officinalis in Iron Dextran Induced Iron Overloaded Sprague Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N A; Desai, T R; Tirgar, P R

    2016-12-01

    Excess of iron leads to generates free radicals, causes organ damage. Melilotus officinalis (Fabaceae) reported to have various pharmacological activities. It contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds which have iron chelating and antioxidant property. Hence, present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different fractions of M. officinalis for the management of iron overload disease and its complications. Iron overload was induced by 6 IP injections of iron dextran (12.5 mg/100 g) uniformly distributed over the period of 30 days. The different fractions of M. officinalis were given orally and Deferoxamine (DFO) subcutaneously for 30 days. The iron chelating and various biochemical parameters were estimated on 15th and 30th day. The different fractions of M. officinalis demonstrated dose dependant in-vitro iron chelating ability. There were significant (Piron chelating potential shows in rats treated with methanolic fraction of methanolic extract (MFME) and methanolic fraction of aqueous extract (MFAE) of M. officinalis as compared to disease control (DC) rats. The rats treated with MFME and MFAE of M. officinalis shows significant (Piron chelation was observed on 30th day and at higher dose (300 mg/kg) as compared to 15th day and at lower dose (150 mg/kg). The present study concludes that MFME and MFAE of M. officinalis have reversible iron chelating and antioxidant potential in rats. The study also proves the possible mechanism of action, as an iron chelator by increasing the excretion of iron in urine and feces. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Morinda Officinalis Polysaccharides Stimulate Hypothalamic GnRH Secretion in Varicocele Progression

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    Zhu Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles (VCs are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis (M. officinalis is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg−1 to 100 mg kg−1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus. MOPs also promoted spinogenesis and functional spine maturation in the arcuate nuclei (Arc, wherein they acted mainly on Kiss1 and GnRH neurons. Moreover, MOP-mediated Kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway upregulation and MAPK phosphorylation activation may have been responsible for increases in GnRH synthesis and release. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that MOPs were effective in stimulating GnRH secretion, possibly by upregulating the Kiss1/GPR54 pathway and enhancing synaptic plasticity, and that MOPs can serve as a therapy for early VCs.

  5. Crystal structure of dodecameric vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase from the red algae Corallina officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isupov, M N; Dalby, A R; Brindley, A A; Izumi, Y; Tanabe, T; Murshudov, G N; Littlechild, J A

    2000-06-16

    The three-dimensional structure of the vanadium bromoperoxidase protein from the marine red macroalgae Corallina officinalis has been determined by single isomorphous replacement at 2.3 A resolution. The enzyme subunit is made up of 595 amino acid residues folded into a single alpha+beta domain. There are 12 bromoperoxidase subunits, arranged with 23-point group symmetry. A cavity is formed by the N terminus of each subunit in the centre of the dodecamer. The subunit fold and dimer organisation of the Cor. officinalis vanadium bromoperoxidase are similar to those of the dimeric enzyme from the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, with which it shares 33 % sequence identity. The different oligomeric state of the two algal enzymes seems to reflect separate mechanisms of adaptation to harsh environmental conditions and/or to chemically active substrates and products. The residues involved in the vanadate binding are conserved between the two algal bromoperoxidases and the vanadium chloroperoxidase from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis. However, most of the other residues forming the active-site cavity are different in the three enzymes, which reflects differences in the substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of the reaction. A dimer of the Cor. officinalis enzyme partially superimposes with the two-domain monomer of the fungal enzyme. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Phytochemistry and insecticidal effect of different parts of Melissa officinalis on Tetranychus urticae

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    R. Mahmoudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In recent years, biological control of parasites by essential oils (EOs derived from plants is one of the alternatives to synthetic pesticides.Melissa officinalis from Lamiaceae family is distributed in many parts of Iran. It is known as an excellent source of antioxidants, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal constituents. The present study investigated the insecticide properties of M. officinalis against Tetranychus urticae tick. Methods: The EO of different parts of plant was extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The ticks were placed on the filter paper in the bottom of a petri dish (9 mm, and contact toxicity assay was then performed by contacting the extract with the ticks. Results: The EO of leaves showed the most potent insecticidal effect while the stem EO demonstrated the weakest effect. The lowest concentration of EO from the leaves showed more considerable insecticide activity compared to the highest concentration of stem and flower EOs. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis is an effective insecticide with potent effect against T. urticae and it could be suggested as a natural pesticide against T. urticae.

  7. Reflectin genes and development of iridophore patterns in Sepia officinalis embryos (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2013-05-01

    In the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, iridescence is known to play a role in patterning and communication. In iridophores, iridosomes are composed of reflectins, a protein family, which show great diversity in all cephalopod species. Iridosomes are established before hatching, but very little is known about how these cells are established, their distribution in embryos, or the contribution of each reflectin gene to iridosome structures. Six reflectin genes are expressed during the development of iridosomes in Sepia officinalis. We show that they are expressed in numerous parts of the body before hatching. Evidence of the colocalization of two different genes of reflectin was found. Curiously, reflectin mRNA expression was no longer detectable at the time of hatchling, while reflectin proteins were present and gave rise to visible iridescence. These data suggest that several different forms of reflectins are simultaneously used to produce iridescence in S. officinalis and that mRNA production and translation are decoupled in time during iridosome development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis.

  9. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  10. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

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    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress.MethodsWe examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured.ResultsCytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 mug/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05. Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05 and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01. Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and HIF-1alpha mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1alpha gene expression (P<0.05.DiscussionResults showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  11. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

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    Bayat Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  12. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  13. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability.

  15. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil

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    Jonatas L. Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area for innovative products, including insecticides. Dengue is a tropical disease which is considered a critical health problem in developing countries, due to negative impacts to the environment caused by synthetic chemicals used for vector control (Aedes aegypti. Thus, developing of natural products based insecticidal are considered very promising. On this context, the aim of the present study was to obtain an O/W nanoemulsion containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, essential oil and evaluate its larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Low energy method was employed, allowing achievement of small droplets. The nanoemulsion also presented low polydispersity and mean droplet below 200 nm, even after 30 days of storage. Potential mortality levels were observed after 24 h (80 ± 10% and 48 h (90 ± 10% in A. aegypti larvae at final concentration of 250 ppm, related to R. officinalis essential oil. This study contributes to nanobiotechnology of natural products, presenting a potential larvicidal nanoemulsion prepared with R. officinalis essential oil. Moreover, nanoemulsion production involved a non-heating procedure, describing easy technique which may be useful for integrative control programs.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of Buddleja officinalis extract on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Ha, Nina; Bu, Yung-Min; Choi, Hyoung Il; Park, Yoo Guen; Kim, Yoon Bum; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hocheol

    2006-08-01

    The flower buds of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM (Loganiaceae) are used to treat headache and inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the methanolic extract of B. officinalis (BOME) and of its hexane fraction (BOHF) were investigated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 120 min occlusion, 24 h reperfusion) Sprague-Dawley rat model. BOME or BOHF (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was twice administered 30 min before the onset of MCAo and 2 h after reperfusion. BOME and BOHF treated groups showed infarct volumes reduced by 33.9% and 68.2%, respectively, at 2 h occlusion. In BOHF treated animals, cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS inductions were inhibited in ischemic hemispheres at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that BOME and BOHF both inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and the microglial activation inhibitory effects of B. officinalis extract may contribute to its neuroprotective effects in brain ischemia.

  17. Sensitivity to Parietaria officinalis and Parietaria judaica pollen allergens in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, S; Basomba, A; Einarsson, R

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the biological activity of P. judaica and P. officinalis allergen preparations, 36 Spanish patients were included in a biological standardization (BS) trial. For both species the concentration corresponding to 1000 biological units/ml (BU/ml) was found to be about 2 micrograms dry weight/ml (d.w./ml). The allergenic activity per microgram d.w. was about the same as reported for other important weed pollen extracts. The physico-chemical and immunological properties of the purified Parietaria judaica and Parietaria officinalis pollen allergen preparations used for biological standardization were investigated. The protein content was determined to 38% and 23% for P. judaica and P. officinalis respectively, while the carbohydrate content was 25% in both weed preparations. More than 40 antigens and at least 10 different allergens were detected by crossed immuno electrophoresis/crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CIE/CRIE) analyses. SDS-gPAGE followed by electroblotting showed important allergens between 10,000 and 75,000 d for both species. The crossreactivity as measured by skin prick test, RAST and CRIE was high.

  18. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

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    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

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    Natália Cassettari de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE (250 or 500 mg/kg or aqueous (Mo-AE (100 mg/kg solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance.

  20. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  1. Isolation, purification and characterisation of transglutaminase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hofi, Mahmoud; Ismail, Azza; Nour, Maher; Ibrahim, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13: TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants. Recently. TGase has captured researchers' interest due to its attractive potential application in food industries. Therefore, the objectives of this study are isolation and purification of TGase from new plant source rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves at the laboratory scale. Moreover, investigation of the biochemical properties of the purified TGase to provide a suitable TGase enzyme for food industry applications are in focus. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves was used as a new plant source to TGase. The biochemical characteristics of the crude and purified enzyme were determined. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) TGase was purified to homogeneity by successive three purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitatation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and Size exclusion column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. Under experimental conditions. 20-30% of ammonium sulfate saturation in the enzyme solution had a high yield of enzyme activity could be obtained. The purified enzyme from the Sephadex G-100 column had 21.35% yield with increased about 7.31 in purification fold. Rosemary TGase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 55°C for the catalytic reaction of hydroxylarnine and Z-Gln-Gly. The purified TGase almost maintained full activity after incubation for 15 ruin up to 60°C and it was completely inactivated at 85°C. The rosemary TGase was stimulated at 2-6 rnM Ca

  2. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols activate cholinergic activities in PC12 cells through phosphorylation of ERK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Han, Junkyu; Yamada, Parida; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Ben Abdrabbah, Manef; Isoda, Hiroko

    2010-09-15

    This paper aimed to elucidate the traditional use of Rosmarinus officinalis through the investigation of cholinergic activities and neuronal differentiation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. These effects were examined in relation to the plant's habitat, the extraction procedure, and the major active compounds of R. officinalis. Cell viability, cell differentiation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, total choline, acetylcholine (ACh) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) were determined in PC12 cells treated with extracts and HPLC-identified polyphenols of R. officinalis originated from Tunisian semi-arid and subhumid area in comparison with nerve growth factor (NGF). R. officinalis extracts potentiated cell differentiation and significantly enhanced AChE activity in PC12 cells. The highest AChE activity was induced by semi-arid hydro-ethanolic extract (137% of control). Among HPLC-identified and screened polyphenols, carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) significantly induced cell differentiation, increased ACh level, and enhanced AChE activity in PC12 cells. U0126, inhibitor of ERK1/2, significantly reduced CA and RA effects on cell differentiation and AChE activity. R. officinalis' CA and RA exhibited neurotrophic effects in PC12 cells through cell differentiation induction and cholinergic activities enhancement. These effects could be regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on partial inflammation of lacrimal gland in castrated rabbits with dry eye.

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    Yao, Xiao-Lei; Peng, Qing-Hua; Peng, Jun; Tan, Han-Yu; Wu, Quan-Long; Wu, Da-Li; Chen, Mei; Li, Chuan-Ke; Li, Dian; Zhu, Hui-An

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on tear secretion volume, tear film stability, expressions of TGF-β1, IL-1β, TNF-α in lacrimal gland of castrated rabbits with dry eye. A total of 30 victory rabbits were divided averagely into normal group(A), model group(B), therapy group with low dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (C), therapy group with high dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (D) and therapy group with genistein (E). The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy on Group B, C, D, E. Group C, D, E were administered intragastrically with corresponding dose extract of Buddleja officinalis or genistein for 30 days. All rabbits were detected with SIT. TGF-β1, IL-1β, TNF-α were detected with immunohistochemistry and the ultrastructure of lacrimal gland was observed under transmission electron microscope. The SIT value of group C, D, E were respectively 13.167±4.957, 14.667±5.279, 8.667±0.516, obviously higher than that of group B 5.667±2.338 (PBuddleja officinalis can adjust lacrimal gland partial inflammation of dry eye.

  5. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis

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    Biswas Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of

  6. Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L. hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

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    Charlene Silvestin Celi Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (L., or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia officinalis (L. was not effective against Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but best results were observed for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L. could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin microbiota.

  7. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use.

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

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    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  9. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  11. Evaluación de siete poblaciones de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. Evaluation of seven asparagus populations (Asparagus officinalis L.

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    ILEANA GATTI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Los materiales de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. utilizados hasta el momento por los productores son introducciones realizadas por las casas semilleras y han sido seleccionados para satisfacer requerimientos del mercado de los sitios de origen. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es evaluar siete poblaciones de espárrago (P1 a P7, con el fin de seleccionar genitores adecuados de manera de recurrir a la hibridación de ellos para obtener materiales adaptados a los requerimientos locales. Las evaluaciones se hicieron sobre plantas individuales, separadas por sexos y manejadas como espárrago blanco, durante los años 1993 y 1994, en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Universidad Nacional de Rosario, ubicado en Zavalla, provincia de Santa Fe. La evaluación se realizó sobre planta individual, durante un período de 40 días de cosecha y con los datos obtenidos se realizó un ANOVA y un análisis de agrupamiento. Para elegir progenitores femeninos con altos rendimientos y rendimiento de mercado se determinó que se deberá recurrir a las P1, P2 y P3, las cuales presentan también alto número de turiones. Para altos peso medio y diámetro de turión, así como producción tardía, son indicadas las P5 y P7 como genitores masculinos, teniendo en cuenta que, mientras la P7 presenta bajo rendimiento, la P5 aportaría mejores producciones.The materials of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. that growers have in use are imported by seed dealers and have been selected according to overseas markets requirements. With the aim of selecting proper parents to use in a breeding program, seven populations of Asparagus officinalis (P1 to P7, all rised as white asparagus, were tested during 1993 and 1994, at the Experimental Field of the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Universidad Nacional de Rosario placed in Zavalla, Santa Fe, Argentina. The evaluation was made on individual plant in a 40 days of harvest period. ANOVA and a cluster

  12. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijaniha, Fatemeh; Naseri, Mohsen; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Fallahi, Faramarz; Noorbala, Ahmadali; Mosaddegh, Mahmood; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Sadrai, Sima

    2015-04-22

    In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations. Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients׳ diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), before and after intervention. Fifty-five volunteers out of 71 recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-day of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004 resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects. Lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salvia officinalis on Ovarian Angiogenesis in Mice at Preimplantation: A Morphological and Molecular Analysis

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    Nasim Beigi Boroujeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Salvia officinalis is a phytoestrogen, which is used to reduce clinical signs of pregnancy and improve the female infertility in herbal medicine treatment. The effect of S. officinalis on ovarian angiogenesis at the preimplantation time is unknown. Objectives This research was a histomorphometric and quantitative real-time study on angiogenic activity in the ovarian tissue in mice after exposure to S. officinalis at preimplantaion. Methods The extract of S. officinalis leaves, which was analyzed by phytochemical methods, administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 14 days to female mice. Then, pseudopregnancy was induced and ovarian tissue samples were removed for histological and molecular assessment. Results Data analysis on the space-solid phase micro extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated α-thujone (33.90%, camphor (19.34%, cineole (11.01% and ß-thujone (9.48% were the dominating compounds in the leaves of S. officinalis. Data analysis on histomorphometric parameters showed a significant difference in the vascular parameters between the test and control groups. Furthermore, gene expression analysis implied an increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (3.175 and was also associated with an increase in the level of Kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR/Flk gene expression (3.556 and FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt gene expression (3.437 in the test group compared to the control group. Conclusions Increased ovarian angiogenesis after exposure to S. officinalis may induce vascular permeability and finally contribute to a variety of disorders including clinical signs similar to the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  14. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Zahra Pazhohideh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40 or metronidazole (n = 40. Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH> 4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination. For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01. One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.

  15. Controversial effects of Calendula officinalis L. on Biochemical and Pathological Factors of Nephropathy in Diabetic Wistar Rats

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    Salehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Medicinal plants are good sources for finding new therapeutic chemicals to improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis (marigold on blood biochemical profiles and histopathological changes in kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were divided to four groups: Normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, normal C. officinalis (N+CO 300 mg/kg, and diabetic C. officinalis (D+CO 300 mg/kg. The rats were treated for a period of 13 weeks. Diabetes was induced by Streptozocin injection, intraperitoneally. Level of glucose, urea, creatinine and also total anti-oxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, total oxidant status in serum and histological alterations in the kidney were analyzed. Results Level of serum glucose, urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde and total oxidant status were increased in diabetic rats, whereas, total anti-oxidant capacity was decreased compared to the control animals. Also, histological findings confirmed the absence of integrity in glomerulus and mass infiltration in kidney tissue in diabetic rats compared to the normal controls. Calendula officinalis extract had no effect on blood glucose, but it decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, total oxidant status and malondialdehyde while it increased total anti-oxidant capacity in the diabetic extract-treated group when compared to diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis could not prevent nephropathy changes in the diabetic rats. Conclusions Therefore, our results suggest that although administration of 300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis extract showed salutary effects on anti-oxidant profile, yet its protective effects on anti-diabetic and regenerative properties on nephropathy were

  16. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319

  17. Toxicological evaluation of chronic oral administration of Melissa officinalis hydro-ethanol extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Mohammad Hashemnia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis is a plant that has been widely used as an herbal medicine in many countries. Unfortunately, despite the prevalent medicinal uses of the plant, there are no reports on the possible toxic effects of M. officinalis. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of M. officinalis on some biochemical and hematological parameters and histopathology of organs. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to three equal groups. The animals in groups A and B received 600 and 1200 mg/kg M. officinalis extract, respectively, for 30 days. The rats in group C were given gavaged saline as control. The animals were euthanized at the end of experiment and the blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematology analysis. Additionally, appropriate tissue samples were collected from kidney, liver, spleen, heart and lung for light microscopic examination. M. officinalis caused a significant increase in the alanine aminotransferase level in the treated rats. Although the increase in creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in group A and B, respectively, but there were no significant differences. A significant decrease was observed in the total protein and albumin concentrations in serum of treated rats as compared to the control group. The creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in the group B when compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in cholesterol, triglyceride and urea concentrations between all groups of rats. The main histopathologic findings in the liver were included hepatocyte degeneration, congestion and dilation of sinusoids, proliferation of bile ducts and infiltration of mononuclear cells around the portal area. Histopathologic examination of the kidneys showed a tubular degeneration and necrosis, tubular and glomerular atrophy and congestion. These lesions were more prominent in the high dose treated

  18. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia officinalis L. against Acute Liver Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Mice

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    H. Foruozandeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The medical herbs play important roles in the treatment of liver diseases. In the traditional medicine, Salvia officinalis is highly used to heal a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of Saliva officinalis on hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 60 albino mice were studied. The rats were divided into 6 groups. The first, second, and third groups were physiological serum, crude extract of Saliva officinalis, and 500mg acetaminophen per 1Kg consumed as single dose, respectively. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups received 5-day 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg extract of Saliva officinalis, respectively. Then, they received 500mg acetaminophen one hour after the last administration of extract. Blood sampling was done from the carotids of the rats 24hour later, and the levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes were measured. In addition, their liver tissues were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using one-way ANOVA. Findings: There were significant increases in the direct and complete bilirubin concentration and liver enzymes due to acetaminophen compared to control group (p<0.05. There were significant reductions in the direct and complete bilirubin and liver enzymes due to 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg of the extract of Saliva officinalis compared to control group (p<0.05. The results were confirmed by the histology studies. Conclusion: 250 and 500mg per 1Kg of Saliva officinalis potentially protect the damages caused by acetaminophen. In addition, they considerably improve the tissue damage and the biochemical indices in the liver damages.

  19. Emblica Officinalis (Indian Gooseberry Leaves Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1N HCl Medium

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    R. Saratha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition efficiency of acid extract of dry Emblica officinalis leaves for mild steel in 1N HCl medium is investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance studies. The results indicate Emblica officinalis leaves to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency of 87.9% at 2% v/v inhibitor concentration. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the plant constituents on the mild steel surface. Experimental data fitted the Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms.

  20. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

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    SAMI ALI METWALLY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  1. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran.

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    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin-Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g(-1) and 51 mgGAE g(-1) in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10(-3), 103×10(-3), 25×10(-3) mg mL(-1) respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10(-3)mg mL(-1)). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100(-1)g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL(-1)). On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.

  2. Comparative Metagenomics Reveals the Distinctive Adaptive Features of the Spongia officinalis Endosymbiotic Consortium

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    Karimi, Elham; Ramos, Miguel; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Xavier, Joana R.; Reis, Margarida P.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Current knowledge of sponge microbiome functioning derives mostly from comparative analyses with bacterioplankton communities. We employed a metagenomics-centered approach to unveil the distinct features of the Spongia officinalis endosymbiotic consortium in the context of its two primary environmental vicinities. Microbial metagenomic DNA samples (n = 10) from sponges, seawater, and sediments were subjected to Hiseq Illumina sequencing (c. 15 million 100 bp reads per sample). Totals of 10,272 InterPro (IPR) predicted protein entries and 784 rRNA gene operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% cut-off) were uncovered from all metagenomes. Despite the large divergence in microbial community assembly between the surveyed biotopes, the S. officinalis symbiotic community shared slightly greater similarity (p terpenoid synthases presented, to varying degrees, higher frequencies in sediments than in seawater. In contrast, much higher abundances of motility and chemotaxis genes were found in sediments and seawater than in sponges. Higher cell and surface densities, sponge cell shedding and particle uptake, and putative chemical signaling processes favoring symbiont persistence in particulate matrices all may act as mechanisms underlying the observed degrees of taxonomic connectivity and functional convergence between sponges and sediments. The reduced frequency of motility and chemotaxis genes in the sponge microbiome reinforces the notion of a prevalent mutualistic mode of living inside the host. This study highlights the S. officinalis “endosymbiome” as a distinct consortium of uncultured prokaryotes displaying a likely “sit-and-wait” strategy to nutrient foraging coupled to sophisticated anti-viral defenses, unique natural product biosynthesis, nutrient utilization and detoxification capacities, and both microbe–microbe and host–microbe gene transfer amenability. PMID:29312205

  3. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

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    Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae, one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L. were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate , Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis. The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10_3, 103×10_3, 25×10_3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10_3mg mL_1. N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100_1g had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL_1. Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.

  4. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

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    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  5. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

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    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and

  6. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

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    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Calendula officinalis ameliorates l-arginine-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

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    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-12-01

    Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used in treating inflammation of internal organs, gastrointestinal tract ulcers and wound healing. The present study investigates the effect of ethanol extract (95%) of Calendula officinalis flowers in l-arginine induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, l-arginine control, Calendula officinalis extract (COE) treated and melatonin treated (positive control), which were further divided into subgroups (24 h, day 3 and 14) according to time points. Two injections of l-arginine 2 g/kg i.p. at 1 h intervals were administered in l-arginine control, COE and melatonin-treated groups to produce acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Biochemical parameters [serum amylase, lipase, pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, total proteins, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagen content, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and nitrite/nitrate] and histopathological studies were carried out. COE treatment (400 mg/kg p.o.) was found to be beneficial. This was evidenced by significantly lowered histopathological scores (2 at day 14). Nucleic acid content (DNA 21.1 and RNA 5.44 mg/g pancreas), total proteins (0.66 mg/mL pancreas) and pancreatic amylase (1031.3 100 SU/g pancreas) were significantly improved. Marked reduction in pancreatic oxidative and nitrosative stress; collagen (122 μmoles/100 mg pancreas) and TGF-β1 (118.56 pg/mL) levels were noted. Results obtained were comparable to those of positive control. The beneficial effect of COE may be attributed to its antioxidant, antinitrosative and antifibrotic actions. Hence, the study concludes that COE promotes spontaneous repair and regeneration of the pancreas.

  8. First clinical exploration of Buddleja officinalis and Xueshuangtong capsule on mild and moderate simple diabetic retinopathy

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    Hong Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of Buddleja officinalis and Xueshuangtong capsule treating the mild and moderate simple diabetic retinopathy(sDR. METHODS: Based on the strict control of blood glucose and blood pressure, eighty patients(160 eyeswith mild and moderate sDR were randomized into two groups equally: Buddleja officinalis(15g,tidand Xueshuangtong capsule administered to group A and only Xueshuangtong capsule administered to group B. They are taken before meals half an hour. The vision, funduscopy, FFA, fundus photography and traditional chinese medcine symptoms(TCMSwere evalutated before and after treatment in 7d,42 d respectively.RESULTS: There were no significant difference between two groups in terms of patients' gender, age, DM course, visual acuity, course of disease and TCM syndrome.(χ 2 sex=0.472, P>0.05; tage=1.742,tDM condition=0.716,tvision=0.662,tDR degree=1.276,tDR condition=0.562,t TCMS=0.616,P >0.05; Follow up for 42d on average after treatment the effective rate of fundus lesions of group A was 56%and the total effective rate was 82%,while the effective rate of group B was 32% and the total effective rate was 66%. The result showed that the curative effect of group A was better than that of group B. There were statistically significant difference for the effective rate between the two groups(χ2=8.025, Pχ 2=5.980,PCONCLUSION: Buddleja officinalis and Xueshuangtong capsule can improve the vision of patients with the mild and moderate sDR patients, the fundus lesions and the TCMS.

  9. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

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    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

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    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The combination of Passiflora alata and Valeriana officinalis on memory tasks in mice: comparison with diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvo Slomp Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a compound combining Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata extracts was tested on two mouse memory models: habituation and step-through inhibitory avoidance. Diazepam (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Acute diazepam (2.5 mg/kg before training impaired the habituation and performance in the inhibitory avoidance. On the other hand, acute phytotherapeutic compound (40-160 mg/kg, also before the training session, did not alter mouse behavior in these models. Repeated (15 days treatment with the compound also did not impair the habituation. At the doses used, no locomotor effect was found. Taken together, the results suggest that, contrary to diazepam, the anxiolytic Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata compound did not induce amnesia.Avaliou-se o efeito de um composto fitoterápico de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata em dois modelos de memória em camundongos: habituação e esquiva inibitória tipo step-trough. Diazepam (1,0 e 2,5 mg/kg foi empregado como controle positivo. Agudamente, a administração de diazepam (2,5 mg/kg antes do treino prejudicou o desempenho na habituação e na esquiva inibitória. Por outro lado, a administração aguda do composto fitoterápico (40-160 mg/kg antes do treino não alterou o comportamento dos camundongos nestes modelos. Tratamento com o composto fitoterápico por 15 dias também não alterou o comportamento dos animais. Nas doses empregadas não se observou alteração da atividade motora. Os dados sugerem que, diverso do diazepam, este fitoterápico ansiolítico composto de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata não causa amnésia.

  12. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Christopher James; Perkins, Rupert; Voller, Matthew; Yallop, Marian Louise; Brodie, Juliet

    2017-10-01

    Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures) and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation). It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP), respiration (R) and net calcification (NG) was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal). Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67), although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80) by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW)-1 h-1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65) as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In contrast, the direction of dark NG (dissolution vs. precipitation) was strongly related to carbonate saturation, mimicking abiotic precipitation dynamics. Data demonstrated that C. officinalis is adapted to both long

  13. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  14. Comparative Metagenomics Reveals the Distinctive Adaptive Features of the Spongia officinalis Endosymbiotic Consortium

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    Elham Karimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of sponge microbiome functioning derives mostly from comparative analyses with bacterioplankton communities. We employed a metagenomics-centered approach to unveil the distinct features of the Spongia officinalis endosymbiotic consortium in the context of its two primary environmental vicinities. Microbial metagenomic DNA samples (n = 10 from sponges, seawater, and sediments were subjected to Hiseq Illumina sequencing (c. 15 million 100 bp reads per sample. Totals of 10,272 InterPro (IPR predicted protein entries and 784 rRNA gene operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% cut-off were uncovered from all metagenomes. Despite the large divergence in microbial community assembly between the surveyed biotopes, the S. officinalis symbiotic community shared slightly greater similarity (p < 0.05, in terms of both taxonomy and function, to sediment than to seawater communities. The vast majority of the dominant S. officinalis symbionts (i.e., OTUs, representing several, so-far uncultivable lineages in diverse bacterial phyla, displayed higher residual abundances in sediments than in seawater. CRISPR-Cas proteins and restriction endonucleases presented much higher frequencies (accompanied by lower viral abundances in sponges than in the environment. However, several genomic features sharply enriched in the sponge specimens, including eukaryotic-like repeat motifs (ankyrins, tetratricopeptides, WD-40, and leucine-rich repeats, and genes encoding for plasmids, sulfatases, polyketide synthases, type IV secretion proteins, and terpene/terpenoid synthases presented, to varying degrees, higher frequencies in sediments than in seawater. In contrast, much higher abundances of motility and chemotaxis genes were found in sediments and seawater than in sponges. Higher cell and surface densities, sponge cell shedding and particle uptake, and putative chemical signaling processes favoring symbiont persistence in particulate matrices all may act as

  15. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

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    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  16. Response of Calendula officinalis L. to long-term fumigation with SO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.N.; Yunus, M.; Srivastava, K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of Calendula officinalis L. (30-days old) were raised in 1 mS plots and fumigated with 1 and 2 g liter SO2 on alternate days. Analysis of plant samples collected at pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering stages showed that photosynthetic pigments were degraded and leaf extract pH and protein content declined in SO2 treated plants. In addition, scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that SO2 stimulated the widening of stomatal pores in fumigated plants.

  17. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  18. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM STEMS OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. (LAMIACEAE

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    Z. M. Tohsirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activities using the method of wells of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, introduced in the Botanical garden of PMPI. It is established that the essential oil has the most pronounced antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, less – Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial effect on the test-cultures of microorganisms Pseudamonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris are not expressed.

  19. Estudo morfo-anotômico entre os caules de Lippia alba e Melissa officinalis

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    J.L.P. Ferreira

    Full Text Available São analisadas as características microscópicas entre os caules de Lippia alba e de Melissa officinalis, ambas conhecidas no Brasil como "ervas cidreiras" e consumidas pela população em virtude de suas propriedades sedativas e antiespasmódicas. A análise dos cortes transversais dos seus caules, que geralmente aparecem misturados às folhas das duas espécies em estudo, auxilia a diagnose da matéria prima vegetal.

  20. Antiproliferative effects of extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Saliva miltiorrhiza Bunge on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. The results indicated that ethanol and acetone extracts of leaves and roots of S. officinalis (SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E and SO-R-A, respectively) and ethanol and acetone extracts of roots of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-R-E and SM-R-A, respectively) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the concentration was less than 150μg/mL. The cytotoxity of SO-L-E, SO-R-E and SO-R-A were significantly less in WRL-68 when compared to HepG2 cells in vitro. The increase of LDH leakage, decrease of ATP and the changes in morphology of HepG2 cells further confirmed the cytotoxic effect of these extracts to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E ethanol extract of leaves of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-L-E) and SM-R-E were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This study shows the potential of the extracts to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer or as ingredients in functional foods and provides scientific support for development and utilization of S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza, especially the roots of S. officinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Rosa gallica l. var. officinalis (hort. ex Andrews) Ser. en el norte de Alicante (Comunidad Valenciana)

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Ruiz, Segundo; Martinez-Frances, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Se ha localizado en el margen de la carretera comarcal CV 795 en su kilómetro 17 próximo a Ulls de Canals y dentro del término de Banyeres de Mariola, una buena población asilvestrada de Rosa gallica L. var. officinalis (hort. ex Andrews) Ser., que corresponde a la segunda población localizada en Alicante, puesto que se conocía una población pero situada próxima al litoral en la comarca de la Marina Alta. La llamada rosa de Provins o provincialis (de Provenza) es una de las rosas cultivadas e...

  2. Efecto cicatrizante del aceite de Copaifera officinalis (copaiba), en pacientes con úlcera péptica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo; Mariano Quino-Florentini; Jaime Martínez-Heredia; Yuan Almora-Pinedo; Alex Alba-González; Martín Condorhuamán-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia cicatrizante del aceite de copaiba obtenido de la corteza de Copaifera officinalis, comparado con omeprazol 20 mg, en pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo de úlcera péptica. Diseño: Estudio experimental, clínico comparativo, de fase II, aleatorio, doble ciego, grupo paralelo. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo de úlc...

  3. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, pWRKY family of transcription factors in O.officinalis. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the OoWRKY genes, revealing the putative roles of eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs in Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O.officinalis. This study provided a better understanding of the evolution and functions of O. officinalis WRKY genes, and suggested that manipulating eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs would enhance resistance to bacterial blight.

  5. Anti-adherent activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on Candida albicans: an SEM analysis = Atividade antiaderente do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis em Candida albicans: uma análise por MEV

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    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: O óleo essencial de R. officinalis apresentou atividade antiaderente sobre C. albicans. Maior inibição da aderência foi observada para o estado de agregação celular (t=24 h e maior concentração do produto natural

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  8. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant?s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properti...

  9. Alterations in cytosine methylation and species-specific transcription induced by interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huajun; Hu, Wei; Wei, Zhe; Wan, Linglin; Li, Gang; Tan, Guangxuan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2008-11-01

    Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization may involve programmed genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method to survey cytosine methylation alterations that occurred in F(1) hybrid and BC(1) progeny following interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis. Across all 316 parental methylated sites, 25 (7.9%) cytosine methylation alterations were detected in the F(1) and/or BC(1) progeny. Thirty additional cytosine methylation alterations were detected at parental non-methylated or novel sites. In total, 55 cytosine methylation alterations (90.9% of all alterations) were detected in the F(1) hybrid, which were maintained in the BC(1) progeny. The alterations in cytosine methylation were biased toward the O. officinalis parent and were in some cases repeatable in independent hybridizations between O. sativa and O. officinalis. Twelve fragments showing cytosine methylation alterations were isolated, sequenced and subsequently validated by methylation-sensitive Southern blot analysis. Where possible, we designed species-specific primers to amplify the polymorphic transcripts from either the O. sativa or the O. officinalis parent using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in combination with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. In four of five cases, modified gene expression could be correlated with the altered cytosine methylation pattern. Our results demonstrated cytosine methylation alterations induced by interspecific hybridization between a rice cultivar and its wild relative, and indicated a direct relationship between cytosine methylation alteration and gene expression variation.

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  11. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  12. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  13. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  14. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  15. The effect of calendula officinalis in therapy of acetic Acid induced ulcerative colitis in dog as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, D; Ziaei, M; Hosseini, S V; Ghahramani, L; Bananzadeh, A M; Ashraf, M J; Amini, A; Amini, M; Tanideh, N

    2011-12-01

    In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), the repeated cycle of injury and repair of intestinal mucosa has been reported to increase the risk of colon cancer. So, a safe and efficient therapy is required for the treatment and prophylaxis for the disease.This study aims to investigate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis extract in treatment of experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in dog animal model. During fall 2010, 10 out-bred female German dogs (1-2 years old; weighs of 20-25 kg) were enrolled. Ulcerative colitis was induced with 6% acetic acid as enema and method of treatment was retrograde (via enema) too by C. officinalis. Loose stools, diarrhea, gross bleeding and loss of body weight happened after administration of acetic acid and crypt damage, loss of epithelium, infiltration of inflammatory cells and depletion of goblet cells were noticed histologically. C. officinalis could successfully resolve the damages of UC. Treatment with C. officinalis can broaden the current therapy options for UC.

  16. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  17. Study of some physiological parameters hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis in the vegetative stage under the influence of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolbanin Jahantigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important abiotic stresses is salinity, the high levels of sodium which is toxic to most varieties of plants species, and more importantly affect plant growth and limit the plants yield capacity. Hyssopus officinalis L. has been known as a culinary and medicinal herb for hundreds of years, it is cultivated globally. Although Hyssopus officinalis L. is one of valuable medicinal plants and its cultivation is continuously being extended in the world, no information is available on the responses of this plant to salinity. Since the growth stages are very sensitive to stress, in this research the effects of salinity on growth parameters of Hyssopus officinalis L. in seedling stage were studied. The treatments were six levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m-1 of saline water. The results showed that with increasing the salinity stress, protein, cartenoids, oligosaccharides and reducing sugar, MDA and H2O2 contents significantly increased however total chlorophylls, chl a and chl b contents and total sugar and polysaccharides significantly decreased. It seems that increasing the amount of protein, cartenoids and carbohydrates are important risk factors for resistance to salt Hyssopus officinalis L.

  18. Effects of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract on lacrimal gland cell apoptosis in castrated rats with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing-hua; Yao, Xiao-lei; Wu, Quan-long; Tan, Han-yu; Zhang, Jing-rong

    2010-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanism of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis extract in treating dry eye of castrated rats by analyzing the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Forty-five Wistar male rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, untreated group and eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract (treatment) group. The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy in the untreated group and treatment group. Rats in the treatment group were treated with eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract, one drop once, three times daily. Eyes of rats in the sham-operated group and untreated group were instilled with normal saline. After one-, two-, or three-month treatment, five rats in each group were scarified respectively. Then samples were taken to detect related indices. Expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 of lacrimal gland were checked by immunohistochemical method and quantity of apoptotic cells was counted. After one-, two- or three-month treatment, the quantities of expressions of Bax in acinar epithelial cells and glandular tube cells were significantly lower, and those of Bcl-2 were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the untreated group, and the quantities of apoptotic cells of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group (PBuddleja officinalis Maxim. are flavonoids, which can significantly inhibit cell apoptosis in lacrimal gland.

  19. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Miettinen, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Voster, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Memelink, J.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and

  20. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

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    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml. Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  1. Inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of salvia officinalis L. Extract on human lymphoma and leukemia cells by induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  2. Reactivity of recombinant and mutant vanadium bromoperoxidase from the red alga Corallina officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jayme N; Beatty, Kimberly E; Simpson, Matthew T; Butler, Alison

    2002-07-25

    Vanadium bromoperoxidase (VBPO) from the marine red alga Corallina officinalis has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Esherichia coli. The sequence for the full-length cDNA of VBPO from C. officinalis is reported. Steady state kinetic analyses of monochlorodimedone bromination reveals the recombinant enzyme behaves similarly to native VBPO from the alga. The kinetic parameters (K(m)(Br-)=1.2 mM, K(m)(H(2)O(2))=17.0 microM) at the optimal pH 6.5 for recombinant VBPO are similar to reported values for enzyme purified from the alga. The first site-directed mutagenesis experiment on VBPO is reported. Mutation of a conserved active site histidine residue to alanine (H480A) results in the loss of the ability to efficiently oxidize bromide, but retains the ability to oxidize iodide. Kinetic parameters (K(m)(I-)=33 mM, K(m)(H(2)O(2))=200 microM) for iodoperoxidase activity were determined for mutant H480A. The presence of conserved consensus sequences for the active sites of VBPO from marine sources shows its usefulness in obtaining recombinant forms of VBPO. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the conserved extra-histidine residue shows the importance of this residue in the oxidation of halides by hydrogen peroxide.

  3. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs

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    Nadia B. Barile

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ≤ 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits.

  4. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ≤ 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits.

  5. Anti-tumor and immunomodulating activities of a polysaccharide from the root of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zibin; Li, Wei; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Weiqun; Zhou, Yulai; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, named as SOWP, was extracted and fractioned from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange and Sepharose 6 Fast Flow column chromatography. The monosaccharide composition of SOWP determined by gas chromatography (GC) identified it was composed of glucose (68.5%), arabinose (13.2%), rhamnose (8.9), xylose (6.2) and galactose (3.0%). At the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, SOWP not only significantly inhibited the growth of mouse transplantable tumor, but also remarkably increased the spleen index and promoted splenocytes proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and the production of serum cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. However, no direct cytotoxic activity against Sarcoma 180 cells was observed. The anti-tumor activity of the polysaccharide from S. officinalis maybe achieved by not directly cytotoxicity but rather immunopotentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers

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    Ana Flávia Machado de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. RESULTS Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (p<0.01. Regarding the Ankle-Brachial Index and Doppler Ultrasound, all groups remained stable. By analyzing lesion area reduction, Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential fatty acids group showed a significance of p=0.0032, and the Low-level laser therapy group showed p=0.0428. CONCLUSION Low-level laser therapy, performed alone or associated with the Calendula officinalis oil was effective in relieving pain and accelerating the tissue repair process of diabetic foot.

  7. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

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    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1 was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1. In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1 and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1 were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of Oryza officinalis leaf transcriptome by using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

    2015-01-01

    Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes.

  9. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Oryza officinalis Leaf Transcriptome by Using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes.

  10. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  11. Comparative study of wood betony (Stachys officinalis L melliferousness in different habitat conditions

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    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nectar production in wood betony (Stachys officinalis L, grown under differ-microclimatic habitat conditions (forest and experimental field, was analyzed. Study of tar production included determining of the total daily nectar amount (in 24 hours per flower, the diurnal dynamics of nectar secretion (nectar amount secreted per flower at two hour intervals during the day, and nectar sugar concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic parameters humidity, air temperature and evaporation on the secretion process and nectar sugar concentration. Comparative analyses of nectar secretion in Stachys officinalis, grown in two environmentally different habitats, confirmed that this process varied as a function of micro-climatic habitat conditions, and did not reveal a close relationship between these conditions and sugar concentration in nectar. A diurnal model of nectar secretion with two secretion peaks was found. A higher amount of nectar per flower, with an increasing tendency during the first half of the day, and a decreasing tendency during the afternoon was measured in forest conditions (lower temperature, higher relative air humidity and lower evaporation.

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarević, Jelena S; Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Kitić, Dušanka V; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2013-07-01

    Characterization by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts allowed the identification of 190 components that represented 97.9% of the total oil content. The main constituents identified were germacrene D (19.9%), β-caryophyllene (14.1%), and α-humulene (7.5%). Terpenoids were by far predominant (89.4%), with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.1%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) being the most abundant compounds detected in the oil. Based on the present and previously published results, multivariate statistical comparison of the chemical composition of the essential oils was performed within the species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of the data on the volatile profiles of S. officinalis taxa revealed no pronounced differences among the samples originated from the Balkan Peninsula. Additionally, the oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using the broth microdilution assay. The oil's best antimicrobial activities were obtained against the mold Aspergillus niger (minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, resp.) and the yeast Candida albicans (MIC and MFC of 5.0 mg/ml). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Disease Control Efficacy of the Extract of Magnolia officinalis against Perilla and Zoysiagrass Rusts

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    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales. Rusts can affect a variety of plants. Development of new effective and environmentally benign agents against rusts is of great interest. In this study, we investigated the disease control efficacy of the emulsion concentrate (EC10 and wettable powder (WP20 type formulations of the extract of Magnolia officinalis (Magjia90; containing honokiol and magnolol at 90% against rust diseases of perilla and zoysiagrass in fields. The treatment of EC10 and WP20 of Magjia90 showed control values of 47.9% to 69.6% and Magjia90-WP20 reduced more effectively the development of rust symptoms on perilla plants than Magjia90-EC10. Magjia90-WP20 also highly suppressed zoysiagrass rust with control values of 65.7% to 80.5%. On the other hand, no harmful effect of Magjia90- EC10 and Magjia90-WP20 was observed on the perilla and zoysiagrass plants tested. The results strongly indicate that the extract of M. officinalis (Magjia90 can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of rust diseases.

  14. Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant and photo-protective capacity of Calendula officinalis L. leaves

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    V.C.K.N. DEUSCHLE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The plant Calendula officinalis L. is widely applied due to its medicinal properties, which are mainly dermatological and ornamental. The goal of this study is to assess the phytochemical components in a hydroethanolic extract (HECO from the leaves of Calendula officinalis L. using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC, as well as to identify and quantify the components related to its antioxidant capacity employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity evaluation was performed using the DPPH method for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The photo-protective capacity was evaluated by UVspectrophotometry in order to determine the in vitro Sun Protection Factor(SPF. The results show the plant’s strong antioxidant activity (DPPH and hydroxyl methods, which we believe to be related to the presence of flavonoids (24.67 mg/g, polyphenols (33.90 mg/g, condensed tannins (27.30 mg/g, and the amount of rutin (37.25 mg/g, and quercetin (6.09 mg/g found during the study. The HECO presented a good antioxidant capacity, most likely due to the polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in its contents. However, the obtained SPF of 1.89 ± 0.05 does not allow the plant to be classified as a stand-alone sunscreen, and more studies are needed in order to test its ability to enhance sunscreens in existing cosmetic formulations.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Different Salvia officinalis L. Extracts

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    Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants to improve health is an ancient practice and in recent years it has been observed an increasing interest of scientific researchers for the study of plants with biological properties and active principles responsible for their therapeutic effects. Salvia officinalis L. is considered the queen of herbs and belongs to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae family. Due to the increasing interest in plants health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize various extracts of Romanian sage regarding their content in compounds with antioxidant activity. Three different techniques and five solvents were used for extraction of bioactive compounds from Salvia officinalis L. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of plant extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and respectively by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extract exhibited the highest content in phenolic compound (1974.89 mg GAE/100g dw as well ass the strongest antioxidant capacity (85.12%.

  16. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid.

  17. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals.

  18. Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

    2001-01-01

    Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Δ12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

  19. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  20. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  1. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  2. Atividade antiinflamatória do granulado de Calendula officinalis L. e Matricaria recutita L.

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    L.R. Sartori

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os resultados da atividade antiinflamatória de um granulado composto pelos extratos secos de Calendula officinalis L. e Matricaria recutita L. (GECOMR® - granulado encapsulado de Calendula officinalis e Matricaria recutita. Estas espécies são utilizadas na medicina popular devido às suas atividades antiinflamatória, antiúlcera gástrica e antiespasmódica. A redução do processo edematogênico nos grupos de animais tratados com o GECOMR foi observada para todos agentes inflamatórios testados (Carragenina, dextrana e histamina. Esta associação mostrou-se eficaz sobre os modelos de edema de pata induzidos pelas diferentes substâncias inflamatórias, com as doses de 100 e 250 mg.kg-1. A associação dos extratos hidroalcoólicos destas espécies medicinais não modificou a indicação isolada de cada uma.

  3. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Shilpa Rawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome and Emblica officinalis (fruit. The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging activities.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory effect of Buddleja officinalis on vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Moon, Mi Kyoung; Hwang, Sun Mi; Yoon, Jung Joo; Lee, So Min; Seo, Kwan Soo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-01-01

    Vascular inflammation process has been suggested to be an important risk factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether and by what mechanisms an aqueous extract of Buddleja officinalis (ABO) inhibited the expressions of cellular adhesion molecules, which are relevant to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ABO (1-10 microg/ml) for 18 hours dose-dependently inhibited TNF-alpha-induced adhesion U937 monocytic cells, as well as mRNA and protein expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Pretreatment with ABO also blocked TNF-alpha-induced ROS formation. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is required in the transcription of these adhesion molecule genes. Western blot analysis revealed that ABO inhibits the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. ABO inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha in HUVEC. Taken together, ABO could reduce cytokine-induced endothelial adhesiveness throughout down-regulating intracellular ROS production, NF-kappaB, and adhesion molecule expression in HUVEC, suggesting that the natural herb Buddleja officinalis may have potential implications in atherosclerosis.

  5. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress

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    Ji Yun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H2O2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H2O2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders.

  6. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Chung A.; Jung, Dae Hwa; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2017-01-01

    The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE) on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H2O2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA) and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H2O2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg) showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders. PMID:28473864

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

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    Danis, B. [Laboratoire de Biologie Marine (CP 160-15), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: bdanis@ulb.ac.be; Bustamante, P. [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, UPRES-EA 3168, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex (France); Cotret, O. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Teyssie, J.L. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Fowler, S.W. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Warnau, M. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2005-03-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed for 17 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of {sup 14}C-labeled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB no. 153) (18 ng PCB l{sup -1} seawater; 30 ng PCB g{sup -1} dry wt sediments; Artemia salina exposed to 18 ng PCB l{sup -1} seawater). Accumulation of PCB no. 153 was followed in three body compartments: digestive gland, cuttlebone and the combined remaining tissues. Results showed that (1) uptake kinetics were source- and body compartment-dependent, (2) for each body compartment, the accumulation was far greater when S. officinalis was exposed via seawater, (3) the cuttlebone accumulated little of the contaminant regardless of the source, and (4) the PCB congener showed a similar distribution pattern among the different body compartments following exposure to contaminated seawater, sediment or food with the lowest concentrations in the cuttlebone and the highest in the remaining tissues. The use of radiotracer techniques allowed delineating PCB kinetics in small whole organisms as well as in their separate tissues. The results underscore the enhanced ability of cephalopods to concentrate organic pollutants such as PCBs, and raise the question of potential risk to their predators in contaminated areas. - Bioaccumulation of PCBs by cuttlefish is studied, via seawater, sediments and their food.

  8. Ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis

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    You Qinghong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of three different factors on the yield of Cornus officinalis polysaccharides (COP was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction temperature 49.6°C, ultrasound time 40.41 min, and ultrasound power 308.07 W. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The 3-D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under modificated conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 11.02 ± 0.41%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. A good 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of COP extracted by ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction was observed.

  9. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

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    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a Melissa officinalis leaf extract with antibacterial properties

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    Álvaro de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar

    Full Text Available The exceptional properties of the silver nanoparticles offer several applications in the biomedicine field. The development of antibiotics which are clinically useful against bacteria and drug resistant microorganisms, it is one of the main approaches of silver nanoparticles. However, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. In this sense, the main objective of this work is focused on to propose a simplified and efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with proven antibacterial properties. The green synthesis route is based on the use of the Melissa officinalis as reducing agent of the silver ions in aqueous solution at room temperature. Complementary, the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggested that using Melissa officinalis, it is possible to performed silver nanoparticles with controlled characteristics and with significant inhibitory activity against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Keywords: Green synthesis, Nanoparticles, Antibacterial effect

  11. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  12. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb.

  14. Salvia officinalis L. Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Antienzymatic, and Antimicrobial Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2017-08-01

    Four essential oils (EOs) from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Spain (Murcia Province) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine their relative and absolute compositions. The main components were α-thujone (22.8 - 41.7%), camphor (10.7 - 19.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.7 - 15.6%), and β-thujone (6.1 - 15.6%). Enantioselective gas chromatography identified (-)-α-thujone and (+)-camphor as the main enantiomers in all the analyzed EOs. Furthermore, when the EOs were tested to determine their antioxidant activity against free radicals and as ferric reducing and ferrous chelating agents, all were seen to have moderate activity due to the compounds they contained, such as linalool or terpinene. Because of their known relation with inflammatory illnesses and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, the inhibition of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase was studied using the EOs. Some individual compounds also inhibited these enzymes. In addition, the studied EOs were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The characterization carried out increases our awareness of the possible uses of S. officinalis EO as natural additives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Keleş, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güneş; Yardibi, Hasret

    2008-02-28

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE ANTITUMOR AND ANTICACHEXIA ACTIVITY OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L. EXTRACT IN RATS WITH TRANSPLANTED SARCOMA 45

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    N. A. Navolokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a severe complication of cancer and currently there are no drugs that would effectively deal with exhaustion and intoxication in various diseases.Materials and methods. In this paper a study and evaluation of the antitumor and anticachexia activities of the extract of Gratiola officinalis l. in rats with transplanted sarcoma 45 in experiment in vivo was conducted. Gratiola officinalis l. extract is received by patented method and is not toxic to animals. The study was conducted on 40 white male rats line Wistar weighing 150 ± 50 g. Animals were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group: control group, comparison group with sarcoma without affecting, group with sarcoma with intramuscular and group with sarcoma with oral administration of the extract in a dosage of 110 mg/kg. The extract was administered intramuscularly or orally 72 hours after transplantation of sarcoma 45. The tumor volume and the weight of the animals were assessed daily.Results. The extract of leaves and flowers of Gratiola officinalis l. obtained by patented method has a strong antitumor activity, reducing the growth rate of the tumor and causing marked changes in the tumor, as well as providing stable anticachexia effect. Index of tumor weight inhibition was 70.6 % on average. Intramuscular administration was more effective in reducing of tumor growth, but less effectively increases the weight of animals than oral administration. In both administration methods Gratiola officinalis extract has no toxic effect on peripheral blood. We have previously found that the extract has antioxidant activity so that anticachexia effect is pathogenic, meaning it occurs by reducing toxicity.Conclusions. Gratiola officinalis extract has a broad spectrum of biological activity, in particular antitumor, anticachexia, it is not toxic, so it is advisable to investigate as a promising tool for the treatment of tumor diseases and cancer cachexia, and cachexia caused by other chronic

  17. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Salvia officinalis on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolac, Umut Kerem; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Tekin, Neslihan; Ustuner, Derya; Colak, Emine; Entok, Emre

    2017-12-01

    Salvia officinalis, which has a high phenolic acid and flavonoid content, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory herb. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases and could cause damage by means of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of S. officinalis formed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced experimental inflammation model. Four- to five-month-old 42 female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. Three groups were administered intraperitoneally 1 mg/kg LPS. Twenty-four hours after injection of LPS, 10 and 30 mg/kg S. officinalis extract were given orally to treatment groups. Pulmonary and hepatic 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake was calculated to determine the status of inflammation by 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) scan. Antioxidant enzyme activities and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also detected in serum. As a result, lung and liver 18F-FDG uptake was found to be higher in the inflammation group than control group. MDA levels in erythrocyte and all tissue samples (liver, lung, and kidney) were found to be significantly higher compared to treatment groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase activities of the inflammation group in the liver, lung, kidney tissues, and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities were determined to significantly lower than groups treated with S. officinalis. Increased NO, NF-κB, and TNF-α levels were found in the inflammation group. S. officinalis has been observed to have useful effects on LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress.

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    Chunmiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01 in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71

  19. Comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of the species known as lemongrass (limonotu): Melissa officinalis L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Aloysia citriodora Palau.

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akalın, Yeter Yeşil,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae), Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae) and Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) leaves have a gentle lemon-scented essential oil, contains citral or citronellal and are called the Lemongrass in Turkey. This similarity causes the use of plants for the same purposes despite the presence of different families and different morphological and anatomical structure. Instead of Melissa officinalis, which grows naturally in our country, Aloysia citriodora samples are sold...

  20. Subcloning and expression of SO6 gene, Saponaria Officinalis plant in E.coli and investigation of antibody titer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    masoud abdollahi; hossein honari; shahram nazarian; mehdi masoudi kerahroudi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Plant ribosome inactivating proteins act as N-glycosidase enzyme and produce by several family of Caryophyllaceae such as Saponaria Officinalis. Different Isoforms of RIPs expressed by Saponaria Officinalis. SO6 isoform depurinate Adenine 4324 in the conserved GAGA loop of 28SrRNA and disrupts protein synthesis. The aim of this study was expression of SO6 isoform in E.coli and investigation of antibody titer in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, SO6 synthetic gene wa...

  1. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  2. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

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    Mayur Sudhakar Khairnar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis, commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD ≤3 mm, with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG, smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120 and control group (n = 120. All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were recorded at baseline (first visit, third month (second visit, and sixth month (third visit by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit, the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S (P < 0

  3. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Flávia Machado de; Feitosa, Maura Cristina Porto; Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Rebêlo, Veruska Cronemberger Nogueira; Castro, Juçara Gonçalves de; Sousa, Patrícia Regina Gomes de; Feitosa, Valrian Campos; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Lo Schiavo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (pTerapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade isolada e associada ao óleo de Calendula officinalis no reparo de úlceras em pé diabético. Estudo de caso clínico, experimental, controlado, randomizado, prospectivo, intervencional, de caráter quantitativo. A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os gêneros. Os participantes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Ultrassom Doppler, avaliação do Índice Tornozelo-Braquial, Inventário breve de dor e escala de dor analógica foram realizados no início e após 30 dias. Houve redução da dor nos grupos Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa intensidade associada aos Ácidos Graxos Essenciais, com pTerapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associada aos Ácidos Graxos Essenciais apresentou uma significância p=0,0032, e o grupo Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade, p=0,0428. A Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade, realizada tanto isoladamente quanto associada ao óleo de Calendula officinalis, foi eficaz no alívio da dor e na aceleração do processo de reparo tecidual de pé diabético.

  4. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract inhibits lipid accumulation on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat mice.

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    Roh, Changhyun; Park, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Hee-June; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Jin-Kyu

    2012-07-23

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  5. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Mice

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    Jin-Kyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  6. Inhibition of metastasis of B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice by an extract of Calendula officinalis L flowers.

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    Preethi, Korangath C; Siveen, Kodappully S; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Kuttan, Girija

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of a Calendula officinalis flower extract on lung metastasis by B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Male mice were injected with B16F-10 melanoma cells through the tail vein and simultaneously treated with C.officinalis flower extract. Parameters studied were lung tumor nodule count, life span of animals, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, sialic acid, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, GM-CSF, VEGF and TIMP-1 levels in serum, and lung hydroxyproline, uronic acid and hexosamine levels, as well as histopathological features. Effects of C.officinalis on the expression of various genes involved in metastasis like matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs), prolyl hydoxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, and proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated. Simultaneous administration of C. officinalis extract to tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice reduced the lung tumor nodules by 74% with 43.3% increase in life span. Elevated levels of hydroxyproline, uronic acid, hexosamine, serum sialic acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in the metastatic controls were found to be significantly lowered in the C. officinalis treated animals. The extract also inhibited expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase and activated TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and downregulated proinflammatory cytokines. The present investigation indicated antimetastatic effects of Calendula officinalis flowers through the inhibition of key enzymes involved in processes of metastasis.

  7. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

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    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

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    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  9. RP-HPLC analysis of manool-rich Salvia officinalis extract and its antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with dental caries

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    Monique R. Moreira

    Full Text Available In this paper we screened the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, against a representative panel of microorganisms that cause caries, conducted a bioassay-guided fractionation to establish themselves the most active metabolite (manool and determined the Salvia officinalis fraction with the manool highest concentration to be used to activate an ingredient in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes. Both manool and S. officinalis extract showed very promising minimal inhibitory concentration values (between 6.24 and 31.36 µg.ml-1 and time kill curves against the primary causative agents of dental caries (Streptococcus mutans revealed that, at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (12.48 µg.ml-1, manool required 6 h to completely kill the bacteria. Salvia officinalis extract at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (31.36 µg.ml-1 needed 12 h. The results achieved with Salvia officinalis extract motivated us to develop and validate an analytical RP-HPLC method to detect and determine manool in this extract. The validation parameters were satisfactorily met and evaluated allows us to consider the developed method suitable for use in different labs. In conclusion, our results evidenced that the manool-rich S. officinalis extract can be considered an analytically validated alternative to develop novel and effective antimicrobial agents against the main bacteria responsible for dental caries.

  10. A dual and opposite effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract: chemoprotector and promoter in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Farias, L M; Pérez-Carreón, J I; Arce-Popoca, E; Fattel-Fazenda, S; Alemán-Lazarini, L; Hernández-García, S; Salcido-Neyoy, M; Cruz-Jiménez, F G; Camacho, J; Villa-Treviño, S

    2006-02-01

    Calendula officinalis extracts have protective and cytotoxic effects. We previously reported the dual activity of C. officinalis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. At nM concentrations it was anti-genotoxic while at microM concentrations it exhibited genotoxic effects. Here we tested the activity of Calendula officinalis in vivo in male Fischer 344 rats initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine, promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 70 % partially hepatectomized. Liver gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase positively altered hepatocyte foci 25 days after initiation were our end point. The protective effect of C. officinalis started at 0.1 mg/kg concentration, increased at 0.5 mg/kg and reached its maximum at 2.5 mg/kg, when it decreased the area and number of altered foci by 55 % and 49 %, respectively, in comparison with rats treated only with carcinogen. At 5 mg/kg the number and area of altered hepatocyte foci were still lower, but almost reached the figures of carcinogen-treated rats. Ten and 20 mg/kg doses produced a notorious increment in the area and number of altered hepatic foci, and at 40 mg/kg of extract the increment was 40 % and 53 %, respectively. Additionally, when 2-acetylaminofluorene was substituted by a 40 mg/kg C. officinalis extract, a promoting effect was observed with increments of 175 % and 266 % in area and number of altered hepatocyte foci with respect to controls. When N-nitrosodiethylamine was substituted by 40 mg/kg of extract, the latter did not show initiator activity. In summary, we showed a protecting activity of C. officinalis at low doses, but doses above 10 mg/kg increased altered hepatocyte foci. This dual effect is an example of the phenomenon of hormesis. Furthermore, 40 mg/kg of dry weight extract administered instead of 2-acetylaminofluorene induced a clear promoting activity. These in vivo results are similar and consistent with those reported by us in primary rat liver cell cultures.

  11. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  12. From Valeriana officinalis to cancer therapy: the success of a bio-sourced compound

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    Hamaidia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Literature. Bio-sourced extracts offer a wide diversity of compounds with a large number of potentially beneficial effects in humans. Serendipity has frequently played a key role in the discovery of new medicines. The canonical discovery of penicillin required both chance and a prepared mind to understand and exploit its potential for the treatment of human infections. Nowadays, most anti-cancer drugs currently in clinical use were at least partly discovered by a "fortunate happenstance". Conclusions. In this review, we recapitulate the story of one of these compounds, 2-propylpentanoic acid, derived from the Valeriana officinalis flowering plant and its path to validation as a cancer treatment.

  13. Determination of free and bounded phenolic acids in the rhizomes and herb of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

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    Biernasiuk Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were abundant in the herbaceous tissues. However, α and β - resorcylic acids were detected only in rhizome phenolic acid fractions liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid was present only in a free form in the herbaceous tissues, while p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was liberated from conjunction from a herbaceous extract.

  14. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia.

  16. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    A. Porte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, Ilioara; Oprean, R; Toiu, Anca; Benedec, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative analysis of essential oils obtained from Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Romania is reported in this paper. The essential oils were obtained from fresh and dried material harvested from plants cultivated in Cluj (Romania) and from 2 commercial samples, by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analysed by GS-MS. 12 compounds were found in each oil, 9 of them being common in all samples. The alpha-thujone was the major compound in all analysed oils (31.23-52.86%), followed by camphor and viridiflorol. Chemically, the oxygenated monoterpenes are present in highest quantity (49.78-79.2%). The monoterpenoid ketones' presence (á-thujone, â-thujone, camphor) in high amounts in the essential oils of Romanian sage may develop toxicity for these products and may limit their medicinal use.

  18. Two New Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. A744 Derived from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xin; Chen, Yu-Chan; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Hao-Hua; Li, Sai-Ni; Yan, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-05-08

    Two new compounds isobenzofuranone A ( 1 ) and indandione B ( 2 ), together with eleven known compounds ( 3 - 13 ) were isolated from liquid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., which was obtained from the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis . Among them, the indandione ( 2 ) showed a rarely occurring indanone skeleton in natural products. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. All of the compounds were evaluated with cytotoxic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assays. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant inhibitory activities against four tumor cell lines; MCF-7, HepG-2, NCI-H460 and SF-268, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.91-9.67 μM, and compounds 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 12 and 13 showed excellent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values in the range of 12.05-166.13 μM.

  19. Antifungal activity of essential oil Hyssopus officinalis L. against micopathogen Mycogone perniciosa (Mang

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    Glamočlija Jasmina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated mushroom species is the Agaricus bisporus Lange (Imb. One of the major pathogenic diseases of the cultivated mushroom in Serbia is Mycogone perniciosa (Mang. Biological control systems are not much used in mushroom cultivation. Medical and aromatic plants have been placed in the focus of intense studies. Pure culture of the M. perniciosa was isolated from infected A. bisporus. The essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. is used as a potential antifungal agent. The most abundant components in oil are isopinocamphone (43.29%, pinocamphone (16.79% and b-pinene (16.31%. Antifungal activity of Hyssop was investigated by the modified microatmosphere method. The minimal inhibitory quantity was 5 μL/mL and a minimal fungicidal quantity was 15-20 μL/mL. There is no report on the use of Hyssop essential oil in mushroom disease.

  20. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

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    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  1. Naucline, a New Indole Alkaloid from the Bark of Nauclea officinalis

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    Marc Litaudon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new indole alkaloid, naucline (1 together with four known alkaloids, angustine (2, angustidine (3, nauclefine (4 and naucletine (5, were isolated from the bark of Nauclea officinalis. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated with various spectroscopic methods such as 1D- and 2D- NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. In addition to that of alkaloid 1, the complete 13C-NMR data of naucletine (5 were also reported. Naucline (1 showed a moderate vasorelaxant activity (90% relaxation at 1 × 10−5 M whereas, angustine (2, nauclefine (4, and naucletine (5 showed potent vasorelaxant activity (more than 90% relaxation at 1 × 10−5 M on an isolated rat aorta.

  2. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

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    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  3. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury.

  4. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

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    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  5. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review.

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    Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Shirani, Kobra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of complex coexisting cardiometabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, abdominal obesity, coagulopathies, and hypertension that raise the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbs and natural compounds in prevention and treatment of diseases and a large number of published articles have focused on this issue. Rosmarinus officinalis L. or rosemary (Lamiaceae) is a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals having significant anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-thrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interesting pharmacological effects of rosemary, and its active compounds, and the related mechanisms in the management of metabolic syndrome that are documented in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  6. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-03-01

    R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R. officinalis L. extract (200 mg/mL). Its cytotoxic effect was examined on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1), human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), and cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) after exposure to different concentrations of the extract, analyzed by MTT, neutral red (NR), and crystal violet (CV) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on RAW 264.7 non-stimulated or stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and treated with different concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. Genotoxicity was verified by the frequency of micronuclei (MN) at 1000 cells after exposure to concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Data were analyzed by T-Test or ANOVA and Tukey Test ( P ≤ 0.05). Thus, significant reductions in colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were observed in all biofilms. Regarding the cells, it was observed that concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL provided cell viability of above 50%. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the treated groups was similar or lower compared to the control group. The MN frequency in the groups exposed to extract was similar or less than the untreated group. It was shown that R. officinalis L. extract was effective on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms; it also provided cell viability of above 50% (at

  7. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kholoud S; Khalil, Olfat A; Danial, Enas N; Alnahdi, Hanan S; Ayaz, Najla O

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of water extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The hepatoprotective effects were investigated in the liver tissues sections. There was a significant increase in serum liver biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of total protein and albumin in the STZ-induced rats when compared with that of the normal group. The high-dose treatment group (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly restored the elevated liver function enzymes near to normal. This study revealed that rosemary extracts exerted a hepatoprotective effect. The results indicate that the extract exhibits the protective effect on tissues and prove its potentials as an antidiabetic agent.

  8. Isolation by different processes and in vitro bioactivities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Truc; Lan, Lao Xuan; Thu, Huynh; Tam, Nguyen Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.

  9. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae in plant test system

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    GHS Cardoso

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  10. Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Breynia officinalis and their tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ayano; Yamano, Yoshi; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Shinzato, Takakazu

    2017-12-20

    From the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Breynia officinalis, five new compounds (1-5) along with 11 known compounds (6-16) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compounds 1-3 were found to be acylated hydroquinone apiofuranosylglucopyranosides, while compound 4 was an acylated hydroquinone glucopyranoside. Compound 5 was shown to be butyl p-coumarate and this seems to be its first isolation from a natural source. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of all of the isolated compounds was assayed, and the activity was significant in p-coumarate derivatives. The most active compound, compound 3, also inhibited melanogenesis in an in vivo whole animal model, zebrafish.

  11. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

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    F Leone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  12. A new collagen from the extracellular matrix of Sepia officinalis cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Cristina; Bairati, Aurelio

    2002-11-01

    Guanidinium chloride treatment of Sepia officinalis cartilage solubilized a component that contained hydroxyproline. Electron-microscopy observation of rotary-shadowed preparations of this component revealed it to consist of rod-like units themselves consisting of filaments. Dialysis of an acetic acid solution against ATP afforded polymeric aggregates consisting of a succession of two or three thick sections showing transverse electron-opaque banding, separated by thinner sections without banding. Electrophoresis produced a main band of about 140 kDa sensitive to bacterial collagenase. After reduction with mercaptoethanol, electrophoresis afforded a 40-kDa band. Pepsin digestion resulted in additional electrophoretic bands. These data suggest the presence of a collagen in Sepia cartilage with characteristics unlike those of any known collagen.

  13. Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Napolitano, José G; Fryling, Nicole A; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2013-10-25

    An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced by ab initio spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

  14. In vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis L. as a source of antioxidant compounds

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    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in different materials from differentiated (multiple shoot cultures and regenerated plants and undifferentiated (callus and cell suspension in vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis were determined by HPLC. The results suggested that diterpenoid (carnosic acid and carnosol production is closely related to shoot differentiation. The highest diterpenoid yield (11.4 mg g-1 for carnosic acid and 1.1 mg g-1 for carnosol was achieved in shoots of 10-week-old micropropagated plants. The levels were comparable to those found in shoots of naturally growing plants. Undifferentiated callus and cell suspension cultures produced only very low amounts of carnosol (ca. 0.05 mg g-1 of dry weight. In contrast, content of rosmarinic acid in callus and suspension cultures as well as shoots growing in vitro and in vivo was similar and ranged between 11.2 and 18.6 mg g-1 of dry weight.

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. New microsatellite markers for Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Satovic, Zlatko; Liber, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Microsatellite primers were identified to study the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and relationships of common sage and closely related species. Nine novel polymorphic trinucleotide microsatellite loci were identified for Salvia officinalis. A total of 127 alleles were observed. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.375 to 0.880 and from 0.624 to 0.931, respectively. Nine new and 11 previously published microsatellite primers were tested for cross-amplification. The species with the most successful cross-amplification was S. fruticosa. The nine new microsatellite markers will be useful in genetic studies of wild and cultivated populations of common sage and are potentially useful in genetic studies of closely related species.

  17. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  18. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  19. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-08-02

    Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC 50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18-19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents.

  2. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

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    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  3. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. seed genotypes

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    Dulf Francisc V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%, of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9% and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2% fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%, while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids, making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  4. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  5. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P officinalis and other crop systems.

  6. Genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Salvia officinalis populations: implications for advanced breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrou, Eirini; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Masuero, Domenico; Martens, Stefan; Madesis, Panagiotis; Mavromatis, Athanasios; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina

    2017-08-01

    As a result of this work, we were able to characterize seven indigenous to Greece Salvia officinalis populations using genetic and metabolomic tools. These tools can be used to select the most promising genotypes, capable to design future breeding programs for high valuable varieties. An initial investigation was carried out to compare the genetic and metabolic diversity in S. officinalis grown in Greece and to discern the relationship between the two sets of data. Analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) revealed significant genetic differences among seven sage populations, which were grouped into three main clusters according to an UPGMA ISSR data-based dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis. 80 loci were scored of which up to 90% were polymorphic at species level. According to the composition of their essential oil, the populations were classified into two chemotypes: 1.8 cineole/α-thujone and α-thujone/1.8 cineole. Additionally, a targeted ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to qualify and quantify phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of the seven sage genotypes according to which they were districted in six clusters among the sage populations. The main compounds characterizing the seven genotypes were rosmarinic acid and carnosol, followed by apigenin-7-O-glucoside (Ap7glc), and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (Lu7glc). The correlation between matrices obtained from ISSR data and metabolic profiles was non-significant. However, based on the differences in metabolic fingerprint, we aimed to define populations using as main selection criteria the high polyphenol content and desired essential oil composition, using state to the art analytical tools for the identification of parent lines for breeding programs.

  7. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

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    Jérémy Enault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. RESULTS: To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  8. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae growing in Brazil Atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial da Calendula officinalis cultivada no Brasil

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    Zilda Cristiane Gazim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial, obtido das flores de Calendula officinalis utilizando-se técnica de difusão em discos. Os resultados dos ensaios antifúngicos mostraram pela primeira vez, que o óleo essencial tem um grande potencial antifúngico, pois foi efetivo contra todas as 23 amostras clínicas de fungos testados.

  9. Tissue culture techniques in the proliferation of shoots and roots of Calendula officinalis Utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos na proliferação de brotos e enraizamento de Calendula officinalis

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    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The high demand for plant material from Calendula officinalis in the production of herbal medicines and cosmetics, turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. A protocol for tissue culture was developed from segments of seedlings of C. officinalis, in order to improve the proliferation of shoots and roots. We used a Murashige and Skoog (MS½N medium, reduced to half the concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 to verify the effect of different types of explants (basal, intermediate, and apical, a medium containing beach sand as support instead of agar, and the effect of auxins and cytokinins (TDZ tidiazuron; BAP, 6-benzylaminopurine, IAA, indol-3-acetic acid, IBA, indol-3-butyric acid, NAA, naphthalene-acetic acid on plant development in vitro. The results showed pronounced rooting from the apical explants, as well as a greater elongation of shoots and number of leaves. The solid medium was more suitable for the C. officinalis cultures. Shoot proliferation was dependent on cytokinins with better results from the influence of TDZ or BAP compared to the other treatments. Plants regenerated from the medium containing TDZ displayed a glazed appearance and morphogenetic deformations. The highest rate for rooting (80% was obtained using IAA 0.1mgL-1. Through in-vitro propagation, healthy C. officinalis plants were obtained with roots which can acclimatise, allowing the continuous supplement of raw material.A alta demanda por material vegetal de Calendula officinalis para produção de fitoterápicos e cosméticos, configura a técnica de cultura de tecidos vegetais como uma das alternativas para o aprimoramento das culturas em curto período de tempo. Um protocolo de cultura de tecidos foi desenvolvido a partir de segmentos de plântulas de C. officinalis, no intuito de melhorar a proliferação de brotos e o enraizamento. Foi utilizado o meio Murashige e Skoog (MS

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  12. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  13. Radiographic and Histopathologic Analysis on Osteoarthritis Rat Model Treated with Essential Oils of Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Belkhodja , Boumediene Meddah, Aicha Meddah TirTouil, Khaled Slimani, Abdenacer Tou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plants represent an important source of various chemical structures known for their therapeutic activities in folk medicine. Our study aimed to exploit natural bioactive components from well-known medicinal plants "Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba". Methods: The study of acute toxicity of essential oils of Rosemary and White poplar was carried out on Wistar rats. Then, the effect of these essential oils was studied in the treatment of experimental models induced by knee osteoarthritis. A radiographic and Histologic analysis was carried out to monitor the efficiency of essential oil. The choice of the model of osteoarthritis turned to unilateral intra-articular injection of a mono-iodo acetic acid. Results: The results revealed that the action of the essential oil showed a significant decrease in the Mankin score compared to the group of untreated rats. Conclusion: The essential oils of R. officinalis, P. alba presented an protective effect against osteoarthritis with difference degrees.

  14. Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

  15. Identification of the Major Components of Buddleja officinalis Extract and Their Metabolites in Rat Urine by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mohan; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ruirui; Lu, Lina; Yu, Guohua; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Aoxue; Guo, Yafang; Zhao, Haiyu

    2016-10-01

    Buddleja officinalis Maxim, one of the most popular herbal medicines in China, is widely prescribed for curing eye diseases for centuries. In this study, the major components of B. officinalis extract (BOE) and their metabolites in rat urine were detected and identified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap). A total of 19 compounds, including 8 flavonoids and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides, were confirmed or tentatively identified from BOE. In vivo, 33 components, including 3 prototypes and 30 metabolies, were confirmed or tentatively identified in rat urine samples. The metabolic pathways of different types of compounds were also proposed. This study would effectively narrow the range of potentially bioactive constituents of BOE and shed light to its action mechanism. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sevik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L, and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjian Zhao; Wenjie Wang; Yuangang Zu; Chunhui Ma; Lei Yang; Rongrui Zhang; Ge Zu

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extract...

  19. A Comprehensive Characterisation of Rosemary tea Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. Collected in a sub-Humid Area of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Mariem; Mateos, Raquel; Ben Fredj, Maha; Mtiraoui, Ali; Bravo, Laura; Saguem, Saad

    2018-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is an aromatic plant common in Tunisia and it is widely consumed as a tea in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Currently, most research efforts have been focused on rosemary essential oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, however, little is reported on rosemary infusion composition. To investigate compounds present in rosemary tea obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in a sub-humid area of Tunisia in order to assess whether the traditional rosemary tea preparation method could be considered as a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Qualitative characterisation of Rosmarinus officinalis tea obtained after rosemary infusion in boiled water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Quantitative analysis relies on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Forty-nine compounds belonging to six families, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic terpenes, jasmonate, phenolic glycosides, and lignans were identified. To the best of the authors' knowledge eucommin A is characterised for the first time in rosemary. Rosmarinic acid (158.13 μg/g dried rosemary) was the main compound followed then by feruloylnepitrin (100.87 μg/g) and luteolin-3'-O-(2″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucuronide (44.04 μg/g). Among quantified compounds, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside was the compound with the lowest concentration. The infusion method allows several polyphenols present in rosemary tea to be extracted, therefore it could be a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Moreover, traditional Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis tea consumption is of interest for its rich phenolic content. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Phoma complanata,a New Causal Agent of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimowska, Beata; Zalewska, Ewa D; Król, Ewa D; Furmańczyk, Agnieszka

    2017-07-06

    The paper concerns the fungus Phoma complanata, isolated for the first time in Poland, from the roots and umbels of angelica (Archangelica officinalis) in 2009. The morphology of fungal isolates was tested on standard culture media. Moreover, the sequence analysis of ITS regions was conducted. Morphological similarity of P. complanata Polish isolates to the reference isolate obtained from CBS culture collection was determined and together with the molecular analysis confirmed the affiliation of the fungus to the species.

  1. Antioxidant activity of Calendula officinalis extract: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Spallino, Alessandra; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Morelli, Roberto; Lo Scalzo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in natural chemical compounds from aromatic, spicy, medicinal and other plants with antioxidant properties in order to find new sources of compounds inactivating free radicals generated by metabolic pathways within body tissue and cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) whose overregulated recruitment and activation generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), leading to an imbalance of redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine whether a propylene glycol extract of Calendula officinalis interferes with ROS and RNS during the PMN respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still exerts antioxidant activity by means of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was also used in order to confirm the activity of the C. officinalis extract. The C. officinalis extract exerted its anti-ROS and anti-RNS activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with significant effects being observed at even very low concentrations: 0.20 microg/ml without L-arginine, 0.10 microg/ml when L-arginine was added to the test with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 0.05 microg/ml when it was added to the test with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The EPR study confirmed these findings, 0.20 microg/ml being the lowest concentration of C. officinalis extract that significantly reduced 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. These findings are interesting for improving the antioxidant network and restoring the redox balance in human cells with plant-derived molecules as well as extending the possibility of antagonizing the oxidative stress generated in living organisms when the balance is in favor of free radicals as a result of the depletion of cell antioxidants. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Multi-elements determination in medical and edible Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis and their decoctions by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Shu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

    2016-12-01

    Contents of twenty elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Zn, Ba, Mn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb and V) in two medical and edible plant species, Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis were simultaneously determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after microwave digestion with HNO3-H2O2 (6:1, v/v) as the digestion solvent. Certified standard reference material Poplar leaf was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The greatest contents of Mg, K, Ca, Al, Fe and Na were found in dried Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis samples. The contents of five heavy metals including Pb, Cd, As, Hg and Cu in Alpinia oxyphylla did not exceed the limits. The contents of Pb in 76.67% samples and Cd in two batches of Morinda officinalis samples exceeded the limits set by Chinese Pharmacopeia. The contents of the selected elements in different parts (leaves, stems, roots and fruits) of Alpinia oxyphylla varied considerably. The highest concentrations of Mg, Ca, Mn and Se were found in the leaves of Alpinia oxyphylla, at the same time, while, the contents of 9 elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Pb in the roots were the highest. The transfer ratios of selected elements from both species of herbs into their decoctions were reduced. Especially for the heavy metals, the transfer ratios were below 30% except As (79.73%) in Morinda officinalis. The results showed that decoction of the samples may reduce the intake of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversité phénotypique de quelques populations de romarin (Rosmarinus officinalis L. en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khiari, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic Diversity of some Populations of Rosmary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Tunisia. The phenotypic diversity of five rosmary populations was estimated by the analysis of 10 morphological characters. The principal component (ACP and the discriminante (DISC analysis performed on the chosen characters have shown a strong inter-population heterogeneity linked to the different eco-geographic origins. However the variability is continuous in the prospected area. The observed variations can be exploited in the species improvement program.

  4. Vier Seltenheiten in der Osnabrücker Stadtflora: Atriplex nitens, Salsola ruthenica, Parietaria officinalis, Eragrostis tef

    OpenAIRE

    Hard, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    Es werden vier Neufunde und andere interessante Vorkommen von Ruderalpflanzen im Stadtgebiet von Osnabrück beschrieben: Atriplex nitens in Chenopodietalia- und Sisymbrion-Gesellschaften einer Inertstoffdeponie; Salsola ruthenica in herbizidbeeinflußten Sisymbrion-, Convolvulo-Agropyrion- und Polygono-Poetalia-Gesellschaften auf Grus bzw. Kies und Sand im Bundesbahngelände; Parietaria officinalis im Aegopodion eines zeitweise verwilderten Gartens der gründerzeitlichen Weststadt; Eragrostis tef...

  5. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2017-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage...

  6. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora?) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Pugh, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-re...

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

    OpenAIRE

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometricall...

  8. Protective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) on Cardiovascular Pathophysiology of Rats, Fed with High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthe, Pallavi Shantkumar; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Bagali, Shrilaxmi C; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Aithala, Manjunatha R; Das, Kusal K

    2017-09-01

    Dietary high fat alters lipid profile and possibly induce sympatho-vagal imbalance. Emblica officinalis is found to be potential antioxidant and possibly counteract hyperlipidemia induced lipid peroxidation. To assess Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) as lipid lowering and cardiovascular protective agent against high dietary fat supplemented to experimental rats. Further to study a comparative analysis between EEO and atorvastatin on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular integrity. EEO was prepared and phytochemical analysis was done. Rats were divided into five groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I-control (20% fat); Group II (+ EEO 100 mg/kg body wt); Group III (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat); Group IV (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg body wt) and Group V (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat + atorvastatin 4 mg/kg body wt). The treatments were continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and electrophysiological parameters {Heart Rate (HR), sympatho-vagal balance} were recorded and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. ANOVA, correlation and multiple regressions were done for analysis of data. Significant alteration in serum lipid profile was observed in rats fed with high dietary fat but supplementation of EEO was found to be reversible. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed altered HR and sympatho-vagal balance in high dietary fat fed rats (Group III) which indicate cardiac autonomic malfunctions which were found to be improved in Emblica officinalis supplemented group of rats (Group IV). Further, analysis has shown significant negative correlation between HDL/LDL and sympatho-vagal balance in all groups of rats which clearly indicate a role of dietary fat on sympatho-vagal balance. These results further corroborated with findings of histopathological study on myocardium and elastic artery. Observations from the study indicate a beneficial role of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) on

  9. Active caspase-3 detection to evaluate apoptosis induced by Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Verbena officinalis L., Verbenaceae, commonly known as vervain, is a plant widely used in medicine. Despite of its widespread use in different traditional practices, the mechanisms of pharmacological actions of the plant and its volatile oil are still unclear. We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of V. officinalis essential oil and of its main component, citral, on lymphocytes collected from ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, a disease in which a faulty apoptotic mechanism is still retained one of the primary pathogenic events, by adding to treated mononuclear cells, annexin-V, propidium iodide, and CD19. Apoptosis was also evaluated using anti-active-caspase-3 monoclonal antibody after permeabilization of the cells. Both V. officinalis essential oil and citral were found able to induce apoptosis in CLL cells and to activate caspase-3, which is considered the way by means they active apoptosis in B neoplastic cells. This data further support evidences that indicate natural compounds as possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents for CLL.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  11. Studiul comunitatilor vegetale de pe dealul Borz (judetul Bihor in care se intalneste Paeonia officinalis var. Banatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela TUDUCE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia officinalis var. banatica [Roch][Soó] est une espèce endémique pannonic qui a été signalé dans le ouest et sud-ouest de la Roumanie.Dans cet ouvrage nous avons etudié l’ambiance cenotique des communautés végétaux situé sur Dealul Borz (département Bihor, Roumanie dans laquelles se retrouve l’espèce Paeonia officinalis var. banatica. Nous avons aussi etudié quelques paramètres du populations de cet espèce.La présence de Paeonia officinalis var. banatica a été signalé dans deux associations végétaux: Cytiso nigricantis-Quercetum cerris, Boşcaiu et al. 1966 et Agrostio-Festucetum rupicolae, Csűrös 1964, associations qui sont caracterisé de point de vue écologique, de leurs structure en biophormes et en éléments géographiques.

  12. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

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    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

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    Ait-Ouazzou, Abdenour; Lorán, Susana; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Rota, Carmen; Herrera, Antonio; Pagán, Rafael; Conchello, Pilar

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco. The composition of these species was analysed by GC-MS, and 65 components were identified. Eucalyptus globulus EO showed a great similarity with EOs from other regions, with 1,8-cineole (79.85%) the major component. Also rich in this constituent was Rosmarinus officinalis (43.99%). However, the chemical profile of Thymus algeriensis was rather different, and for the first time such a high content of borneol (23.48%) has been described in this EO. The antimicrobial activity of these species has also been studied against seven pathogenic and spoiling bacteria of significant importance. According to the results, Thymus algeriensis showed the best bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect, followed by Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis. As far as we know this is the first time that minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration values have been reported for Eucalyptus globulus EO. Our data support the possible use of this EO as well as Thymus algeriensis EO, as potential natural agents in preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Optimization of the Extraction Conditions for Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Using Response Surface Methodology and Exploration of the Optimum Harvest Time.

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    Xie, Guoyong; Li, Ran; Han, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Wu, Gang; Qin, Minjian

    2017-11-01

    The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the methanol concentration (60-100%), liquid to solid ratio (20:1 to 40:1 mL/g) and extraction time (20-40 min) on the yield of 11 constituents from Buddleja officinalis Maxim using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The Derringer's desirability function approach showed that the modified optimum extraction conditions were: 76% methanol concentration, 33 min extraction time and a 34:1 mL/g solvent to solid ratio. Under these conditions, the experimentally measured yields of the compounds were in good agreement with the predicted values. An accurate and sensitive method was also established using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 11 compounds in Buddleja officinalis . The newly developed method was used to determine the amounts of bioactive components in Buddleja officinalis during four different growth stages. According to these results, we recommend that the full blossom stage is the best time for harvesting this plant to obtain the highest yield of crude materials.

  17. Optimization of the Extraction Conditions for Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Using Response Surface Methodology and Exploration of the Optimum Harvest Time

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    Guoyong Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the methanol concentration (60–100%, liquid to solid ratio (20:1 to 40:1 mL/g and extraction time (20–40 min on the yield of 11 constituents from Buddleja officinalis Maxim using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The Derringer’s desirability function approach showed that the modified optimum extraction conditions were: 76% methanol concentration, 33 min extraction time and a 34:1 mL/g solvent to solid ratio. Under these conditions, the experimentally measured yields of the compounds were in good agreement with the predicted values. An accurate and sensitive method was also established using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 11 compounds in Buddleja officinalis. The newly developed method was used to determine the amounts of bioactive components in Buddleja officinalis during four different growth stages. According to these results, we recommend that the full blossom stage is the best time for harvesting this plant to obtain the highest yield of crude materials.

  18. Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-cetrimide combination, Salvia officinalis plant extract and octenidine in comparison with conventional endodontic irrigants.

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    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  20. Investigation between Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil Melissa Officinalis L. New in Growth Inhibition of E. coli

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    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapy of plant is not any side effects and drug resustant for inhibition of disease in world. In this study, antimicrobial effects of Melissa officinalis L. ethanol exteract and essential oil on E. coli have been investigated. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, diameter of inhibitory zone of these materials was measured in disk agar diffusion method. Therefore, Melissa officinalisL. ethanolic exteract (80% and essential oil have been supplied. Then, antimicrobial activity these substances next for 24 hour for ethanol extraction 80% concentration 50 to 1000 mg/mL and essential oil concentration with 3% to 100% has been considered. Also, comparison of mean diameter of inhibitory zone between treatment and control groups of ANOVA has been used.Results: Results of these investigations were shown that extract ethanol Melissa officinalis L. was any inhibitory effect on E. coli growth 24 hour after of treatment. Also, diameter of inhibitory zone for 100% essential oil have been 33.2±0.13mm in E. coli that has been increased in comparison control groups significantly (p=0.001. This inhibitory effects was more than cefixime and cefteriaxone (p=0.00, p=0.01.Conclusion: These found were shown that this plant prevents growth of E. coli In vitro condition. This essential oil could be suggested as antimicrobial agents for inhibition of bacterial diseases in human.

  1. Studies on Bronchodilator Activity of Salvia officinalis (Sage): Possible Involvement of K+ Channel Activation and Phosphodiesterase Inhibition.

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    Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur; Khan, Aslam; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis (So.Cr) was studied to provide possible underlying mechanism(s) for its medicinal use in asthma using the in vivo bronchodilatory assay and isolated tracheal preparations. S. officinalis (1-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats with three-fold greater potency than the positive control, aminophylline. In tracheal preparations, So.Cr inhibited the low K+ (25 mM)-induced contractions. Pretreatment of the tissues with 4-aminopyridine reversed the inhibitory effect of the plant extract against low K+ , whereas glibenclamide did not show any effect, thus showing the involvement of voltage-sensitive K+ channels. When tested against the CCh-induced pre-contractions for the involvement of any additional mechanism, interestingly, the extract showed a dose-dependent (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) inhibitory effect and shifted the inhibitory concentration response curves of isoprenaline to the left, thus showing phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitory-like action, similar to that of papaverine. These results indicate that the crude extract of S. officinalis possesses bronchodilatory activity mediated predominantly via activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme; thus, this study provides sound pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in hyperactive airways disorders such as asthma and cough. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

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    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  3. Transcriptome and metabolite analyses reveal the complex metabolic genes involved in volatile terpenoid biosynthesis in garden sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed; Li, Penghui; She, Guangbiao; Chen, Daofu; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhao, Jian

    2017-11-22

    A large number of terpenoid compounds have been extracted from different tissues of S. officinalis. However, the molecular genetic basis of terpene biosynthesis pathways is virtually unknown. In this study, approximately 6.6 Gb of raw data were generated from the transcriptome of S. officinalis leaves using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. After filtering and removing the adapter sequences from the raw data, the number of reads reached 21 million, comprising 98 million of high-quality nucleotide bases. 48,671 unigenes were assembled de novo and annotated for establishing a valid database for studying terpenoid biosynthesis. We identified 135 unigenes that are putatively involved in terpenoid metabolism, including 70 mevalonate and methyl-erythritol phosphate pathways, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis genes, and 65 terpene synthase genes. Moreover, five terpene synthase genes were studied for their functions in terpenoid biosynthesis by using transgenic tobacco; most transgenic tobacco plants expressing these terpene synthetic genes produced increased amounts of terpenoids compared with wild-type control. The combined data analyses from the transcriptome and metabolome provide new insights into our understanding of the complex metabolic genes in terpenoid-rich sage, and our study paves the way for the future metabolic engineering of the biosynthesis of useful terpene compounds in S. officinalis.

  4. Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found

  5. Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan.

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    El-Rjoob, Abdul-Wahab O; Massadeh, Adnan M; Omari, Mohammad N

    2008-05-01

    The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma'an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy metal levels in washed and unwashed in each part of R. officinalis were analyzed and compared statistically. Results show that concentrations of investigated heavy metals were varied from plant part to another part of R. officinalis. For example, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in most parts of R. officinalis in the three zones were concentrated in the following order: flowers, leaves, stems, whereas Pb, Ni and Fe were concentrated in order as follows: leaves, flowers and stems. Heavy metal concentrations in soil samples was evaluated and correlated with their levels in R. officinalis. Two standard reference materials of plant (SRM 1790a; spinach leaves and CRM 281; rye grass) and one standard reference materials of soil (GBW 07406) were examined to validate the method used. Results show that high recoveries were obtained.

  6. Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Three Diterpenes in Rat Plasma by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqian; Gan, Chunli; Wang, Zhibin; Liu, Lu; Gao, Mingjie; Li, Qian; Yang, Chunjuan

    2017-06-04

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is commonly used as a spice and flavoring agent. Diterpenes are the main active compounds of R. officinalis. An Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of carnosol, rosmanol, and carnosic acid isolated from R. officinalis in rat plasma, and applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of R. officinalis extract. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction of the analytes with ethyl acetate. Butylparaben was employed as an internal standard (I.S.). Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC(®) HSS T3, 1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) with a gradient system consisting of the mobile phase solution A (0.1% formic acid in water) and solution B (acetonitrile) at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was obtained using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI). The UHPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This study described a simple, sensitive and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of three diterpene compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of R. officinalis extract, and investigated on their pharmacokinetic studies as well.

  7. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of the tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to volatiles from a non-host plant, rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

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    Zhang, Zhengqun; Bian, Lei; Sun, Xiaoling; Luo, Zongxiu; Xin, Zhaojun; Luo, Fengjian; Chen, Zongmao

    2015-01-01

    A plant-based 'push-pull' strategy for Ectropis obliqua (Prout) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is being developed using semiochemicals in the volatiles of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive components within R. officinalis by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and to test the antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these chemicals. The emission dynamics of bioactive chemicals was also monitored. GC-EAD experiments indicated that E. obliqua antennae responded to the following volatile compounds from R. officinalis: myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, linalool, cis-verbenol, camphor, α-terpineol and verbenone, which were the minor constituents. Based on the dose-dependent antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these bioactive compounds, myrcene, γ-terpinene, linalool, cis-verbenol, camphor and verbenone were found to play a key role in repelling the moths, and the mixture that included all eight compounds was significantly more effective. The maximum emissions of these semiochemicals occurred at nightfall. The specifically bioactive compounds in R. officinalis volatiles are responsible for repelling E. obliqua adults. Results indicate that R. officinalis should be considered as a potential behaviour-modifying stimulus for 'push' components when developing 'push-pull' strategies for control of E. obliqua using semiochemicals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Expression of NMDA receptor subunits in rat prefrontal cortex with CCL4-induced hepatic damage after a treatment with Rosmarinus officinalis L].

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    Soria Fregozo, C; Miranda Beltrán, M L; Flores Soto, M E; Pérez Vega, M I; Beas Zárate, C; Huacuja Ruiz, L

    2012-06-01

    In cirrhosis some toxic substances accumulate in brain and modify the expression of several neuronal receptors. Thus, the use of medicinal plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis L. has been proposed in several pathologies due to its hepatoprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. In this study we evaluated the expression of the subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B of the glutamate receptor in rat prefrontal cortex in a model of hepatic damage induced with carbon tetrachloride after a treatment with Rosmarinus officinalis L. We used a total of 24 male Wistar rats weighing 80-90 g. body weight. We formed three study groups: control group (C) without a treatment, carbon tetrachloride group (CC14), and CC14 group plus Rosmarinus officinalis L (CCl4+ROM; 1.5 g/kg of extract orally). The expression of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits in cirrhotic animals increased compared to the control group, however treatment with Rosmarinus officinalis L. was able to reduce this expression to normal levels compared with CC14 and CCl4+ROM groups. These results could be due to an improvement in hepatic function. Treatment with extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in cirrhotic animals modifies the expression of subunits of the NMDA receptor due to an improvement in hepatocellular function in the presence of antioxidant compounds and flavonoids. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops on androgen receptors of lacrimal gland cells of castrated rats with dry eye.

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    Peng, Qing-Hua; Yao, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Quan-Long; Tan, Han-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Rong

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops in basic tears secretory volume, tear film stability, expression of androgen receptors (AR) in castrated rats with dry eye, and to investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract of Buddleja officinalis on dry eye caused by gonadal hormones level imbalance. Forty-five Wistar masculinity rats were divided at random into nine groups, including normal groups (A1, A2 and A3); model groups (B1, B2 and B3); therapy groups with extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops (C1, C2 and C3). The "1" stood for being fed for 1 month, and "2" for 2 months, and "3" for 3 months. The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy on groups B and C. Group C was treated with Buddleja officinalis extract eye drops for one month. All rats were checked with Schirmer I test (SIT) and tear film break-up time (BUT). Expression of AR was analyzed by flow cytometer (FCM). The SIT value of group C was significantly higher than that of group B (PBuddleja officinalis is the flavonoids that can significantly inhibit happening of dry eye of rat after androgen level lowered. Its mechanism is like androgen's and it can display androgen-like activity to keep basic tears secretory volume and tear film stability.

  10. The effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in animal models of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Angela Zanella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary demonstrates antioxidant, antidepressant, diuretic, antinociceptive and antiulcerogenic activities. The present study was designed to examine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis on the memory of male mice. The behavioral tasks employed were social recognition (SR, the Morris water maze (MWM and an inhibitory avoidance task (IA. The treatment with 150 and 300 mg/kg of R. officinalis improved the acquisition phase of learning of a new social memory in the SR task because a decrease was observed in the duration of social investigation. In the Morris water maze, no significant effect was observed on spatial memory when the groups were compared for the time spent in the correct quadrant. In the inhibitory avoidance task, the decrease in the step-down latencies in the test session indicate that 150 mg/kg of R. officinalis improved long-term memory when administered in the consolidation phase of learning. In conclusion, the present study showed that, the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis at 150 and 300 mg/kg modulated the short- and long-term memories of mice, in a social recognition and inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. This modulator effect was shown to improve learning and memory processes.Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Alecrim possui atividade antioxidante, antidepressiva, diurética, antinociceptiva e antiulcerogênica. O presente estudo foi delineado para investigar o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de R. officinallis na memória de camundongos machos. Os modelos comportamentais utilizados foram a tarefa de reconhecimento social (RS, labirinto aquático de Morris (MWM e esquiva inibitória (EI. O tratamento com 150 e 300mg/kg de R. officinallis, mostrou ter efeito positivo na aquisição de uma nova memória social, na tarefa de reconhecimento social, mostrando redução significativa do tempo de investigação social. No labirinto aquático de Morris, não foi visto efeito

  11. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Junghanns, Susanne; Hartmann, Anja; Murillo, Renato; Ganzera, Markus; Merfort, Irmgard

    2017-01-20

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) flower extracts have a long-lasting tradition in ethnopharmacology. Currently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds. The purpose of this study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of the wound healing effects of Calendula extracts, which may reflect the phytomedicines currently used in the market. The effect of three different extracts from Calendula flowers (n-hexanic, ethanolic, aqueous) on the inflammatory phase of wound healing was studied in human immortalized keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay on NF-κB-DNA binding, qRT-PCR and ELISA experiments were performed. The effect of Calendula extracts on the new tissue formation phase of wound healing was evaluated by studying the migratory properties of these extracts, triterpene mixtures and single compounds in human immortalized keratinocytes using the scratch assay. Finally, the effect of the extracts on the formation of granulation tissue in wound healing was studied using bacterial collagenase isolated from Clostridium histolyticum and the determination of soluble collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. The n-hexanic and the ethanolic extracts from Calendula flowers influence the inflammatory phase by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and by increasing the amount of the chemokine IL-8, both at the transcriptional and protein level, in human immortalized keratinocytes. The migration of the keratinocytes during the new tissue formation phase was only marginally influenced in the scratch assay. However, it can be assumed that the granulation tissue was affected, as the ethanolic extract inhibited the activity of collagenase in vitro and enhanced the amount of collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts

  12. Ecofriendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Euphrasia officinalis leaf extract and its biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Singh, Priyanka; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2017-08-08

    Biogenic synthesis of silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of Euphrasia officinalis has been reported. Stable AgNPs and AuNPs were formed on adding aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with E. officinalis leaf extract, in 19 min and 2 min, respectively. The synthesis method used in present study was simple, reliable, rapid, cost effective and ecofriendly. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), elemental mapping, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), particle size distribution, zeta potential and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectrum confirmed the synthesis of nanoparticles as the absorption band was observed at 450 nm for AgNPs and at 558 nm for AuNPs. The TEM images revealed quasi-spherical shape of AgNPs and AuNPs. The size of nanoparticles was determined to be 40.37 ± 1.8 nm for AgNPs and 49.72 ± 1.2 nm for AuNPs. The zeta potential value demonstrated the negative surface charge and stable nature of nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the face-centred cubic (fcc) structure was confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern and SAED pattern. FTIR results showed the functional groups involved in reduction of silver and gold ions to metal nanoparticles. For biomedical application, the nanoparticles have been explored for anticancer, antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activities. It was observed that AgNPs exert anticancer activity against human lung cancer (A549) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. On the other hand, AuNPs were able to inhibit only human cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the AgNPs were active against clinically isolated human pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, AgNPs also showed biofilm

  13. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different

  14. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

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    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  15. Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation.

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    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2007-05-16

    Ayurveda means "the science of life". Ayur means "life" and Veda means "knowledge or science". It is the oldest medical system in the world. Its origins can be traced as far back as 4500 BC, to four ancient books of knowledge, (the "Vedas") and it is still officially recognized by the government of India. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Ayurvedic preparation on memory, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Anwala churna was administered orally in three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for fifteen days to different groups of young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam-, scopolamine- and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity also estimated. Anwala churna (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged mice. Furthermore, it reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by Anwala churna administered orally for 15 days. Anwala churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer's disease on account of its multifarious beneficial effects such as, memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.

  16. Phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Polysaccharides Act as Adjuvant via Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

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    Haibo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer cells (NK. In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cells. Importantly, pRCPS enhanced the expression of MHCII, CD40+, CD86+, and CD80+ in dendritic cells (DCs. This study indicated that phosphorylation modification could increase immune-enhancing activities of RCPS, and pRCPS could promote humoral and cellular immune responses through facilitating DC maturation.

  17. Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on the manipulative behaviour of Sepia officinalis.

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    Halm, M P; Chichery, M P; Chichery, R

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in brain tissue, is essential for a variety of kinds of learning in vertebrates. In invertebrates, there are clear examples of an association between NO signalling and olfaction, feeding behaviour and learning. The role of NO as a neurotransmitter in the manipulative behaviour of Sepia officinalis was tested. Manipulative behaviour requires extensive chemotactile sensory processing, fine motor control and probably motor learning processes. NADPH-diaphorase activity (a reliable histochemical marker for nitric oxide synthase) was found in sensory epithelia and in the axial nerve cord of the arms. NOS inhibitor injections (L-NAME) produced an increase in the latency of prey paralysis. By placing mechanical constraints on the base of the fifth periopods of the crab, we prevented the cuttlefish from injecting cephalotoxin and, thus, forced it to change injection sites. We showed that L-NAME pretreatment did not affect the flexibility of the manipulative behaviour. The implications of the involvement of NO in the acquisition of chemo-tactile information and in the programming of the motor skills of the manipulative behaviour is discussed.

  18. Anti-enterovirus 71 activities of Melissa officinalis extract and its biologically active constituent rosmarinic acid.

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    Chen, Sin-Guang; Leu, Yann-Lii; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Ting, Siew Chin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Yang, Cheng-Hung; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Ho, Hung-Yao

    2017-09-25

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. No specific antiviral drug has been available to treat EV71 infection. Melissa officinalis (MO) is a medicinal plant with long history of usage in the European and Middle East. We investigated whether an aqueous solution of concentrated methanolic extract (MOM) possesses antiviral activity. MOM inhibited plaque formation, cytopathic effect, and viral protein synthesis in EV71-infected cells. Using spectral techniques, we identified rosmarinic acid (RA) as a biologically active constituent of MOM. RA reduced viral attachment and entry; cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G (eIF4G); reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; and translocation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) from nucleus to cytoplasm. It alleviated EV71-induced hyperphosphorylation of p38 kinase and EPS15. RA is likely to suppress ROS-mediated p38 kinase activation, and such downstream molecular events as hnRNP A1 translocation and EPS15-regulated membrane trafficking in EV71-infected cells. These findings suggest that MO and its constituent RA possess anti-EV71 activities, and may serve as a candidate drug for therapeutic and prophylactic uses against EV71 infection.

  19. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  20. Chemical comparison of the underground parts of Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana turkestanica from Poland and Kazakhstan

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    Sermukhamedova Olga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents from the n-hexane extracts of the roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis (VO and Valeriana turkestanica (VT were investigated by GC-MS analysis. Two VO samples were obtained from cultivation, one from commercially available material, while VT was collected in a mountain of Kazakhstan. The most characteristic components present in all of the analysed samples were sesquiterpenoids. The three investigated samples of VO produced mainly valerenane and kessane sesquiterpenoids. Acetoxyvalerenic acid (33.94%, valerenic acid (15.05%, valerenal (11.93%, valeric acid 2,6-dimethylnon-1-en-3-yn-5-yl ester (5.24%, valerenol (3.31%, elemol (3.19% and (E-valerenyl isovalerate (2.53%, were the common components identified in the n-hexane extract from the roots of VT. In comparison to VO this species does not produce kessane sesquiterpenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study shows that the roots of VT possess compounds of high biological significance, since they have the appropriate contents of valerenic acid and its derivatives, thus VT can be considered as a substitute for VO.

  1. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  2. Auxin concentration and sampling time affect rooting of Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L.

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    Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation is the most commonly used method for the multiplication of ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants mainly due to the low seed germination percentage and rate as well as the prolonged time needed for the plant growth and development. Chrysanthemum morifolium and Rosmarinus officinalis are two major ornamental medicinal plants routinely used in landscape and with pharmaceutical and food industries. Owing to the constant needs for these two species, the mass production of the plants in a given short time is more demanding. For the study of the effects of PGRs; NAA and IBA (0‚1000‚ 2000 and 3000 mgl-1 and different sampling times (July‚ August and September on cuttings rooting and the subsequent root growth a factorial experiment based on RCBD with three factors (auxin type‚ auxin concentration and sampling time with three replications was conducted. The results revealed that the highest rooting percentage (with three sampling time and survival rate for Chrysanthemum morifolium (in August and September was attained with 3000 mgl-1 NAA. The greatest roots number in September and, root weight in August and September in Chrysanthemum morifolium again were belonged to 3000mgl-1 NAA. Auxin concentration had significant effect on root number‚ root fresh weight and survival rate of rosemary. For both IBA and NAA‚ 3000 mgl-1 had positive effects on root fresh weight and survival rate. In total‚ 3000 mgl-1 auxin and September were defined as the time of choice for rosemary cutting preparation and multiplication.

  3. Processing of Rosmarinus officinalis linne extract on spray and spouted bed dryers

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    C. R. F. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the potential of spray and spouted bed technology for the production of dried extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis Linné, popularly known as rosemary. The extractive solution was characterized by loss on drying, extractable matter and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (chemical markers. The product was characterized by determination of loss on drying, size distribution, morphology, flow properties and thermal degradation and thermal behavior. The spray and spouted bed dryer performance were assessed through estimation of thermal efficiency, product accumulation and product recovery. The parameters studied were the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150ºC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 75%. The atomizing air flow rate was maintained at 20 l/min with a pressure of 196.1 kPa. The spouting gas flow rate used in the drying runs was 40% higher than the gas flow under the condition of minimum spouting. The spray drying gas flow rate was fixed at 0.0118 kg/s. Under the conditions studied, performance in the spray and spouted bed drying of rosemary extract was poor, causing high degradation of the marker compounds (mainly the phenolic compounds. Thus, process improvements are required before use on an industrial scale.

  4. Uso da Valeriana officinalis em dietas de codornas japonesas na fase de postura

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    Rodrigo Antonio Gravena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n4p185 Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da Valeriana officinalis sobre o estresse de codornas japonesas na fase postura, analisando-se parâmetros de desempenho, comportamental e fisiolόgico. Foram utilizadas 192 aves dos 43 aos 140 dias de idade, distribuídas em blocos casualizados e submetidas a quatro níveis de valeriana (controle, 250, 500 e 750mg/Ng de ração com oito repetições e seis aves por parcela. Foram avaliados parâmetros de desempenho (conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, consumo de ração, peso dos ovos, porcentagem de postura e viabilidade, comportamentais (tempo em imobilidade tônica, observação focal e ferimentos corporais e fisiolόgicos (níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona e relação heterόfilo:linfόcito. Os resultados obtidos na fase de postura demonstraram que a valeriana adicionada na dieta não foi capaz de reduzir o estresse das aves e não afetou o desempenho produtivo.

  5. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L.) Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Makowicz, Ewa; Stanek, Natalia

    2017-01-15

    A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54%) and in the application of SPE (13.04%). In addition, lumichrome (1.85%) was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+)-catechine (39.7%) and gallic acid (up to 30%), which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  6. Effects of Agronomic Practices on Volatile Composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. Essential Oils

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    Armando Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis (Lamiaceae essential oil grown in southeastern Spain was analyzed by GC-MS. Due to the high relevance of this species in the world market, the study is focused on chemical heterogeneity of different oil batches and their extraction yield, cultivated under irrigation and non-irrigation conditions and with different harvesting dates. All essential oil samples have two main terpene compounds which are pinocamphone and iso-pinocamphone, accounting for approximately 35–40% of the total oil content. Other relevant compounds were identified, with β-pinene, which accounted for 10–17% contribution to the total composition, standing out. Significant differences between their volatile composition have been observed between treatments, being limonene, (E-β-ocimene, pinocarveol, α-pinene and β-phellandrene the compounds that contributed most to the discrimination. It was also observed that the irrigation period is the most favourable for the cultivation of hyssop in this region, specially for batch 7 which gives the highest extraction yield and the best EO quality.

  7. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  8. Differences in X-ray absorption due to cadmium treatment in Saponaria officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Lucia; Lai, Antonia; Tucci, Adele; Poma, Anna; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tania; Flora, Francesco; Spano, Laura; Limongi, Tania; Palladino, Libero; Ritucci, Antonio; Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Petrocelli, Giovanni; Francucci, Massimo; Martellucci, Sergio

    2004-05-01

    A method for detecting cadmium uptake in leaves of Saponaria officinalis doped with a solution of cadmium acetate is described. The technique based on the exposure of dried leaves to X-rays of a wavelength close to that of the metal K-edge could be useful for phytoremediation studies as it could reveal the bioaccumulation in plants due to the treatment either in vivo or in vitro with heavy metals. X-ray microradiography measurements are in agreement with those from peroxidase enzyme assay utilized to follow the oxidative damage induced by heavy metals. At present, as we will see in this report, microradiography has still poorer sensitivity in comparison with enzyme assay, but it has the advantage of being faster, not destructive, and usable even at very high doping levels, where the enzyme assay technique results are fully saturated. Further analysis of the optical density values could lead to a quantitative measurement of the heavy metal in the sample. Thus, the technology developed in this article could be useful for tracing the intake in phytoremediation studies. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model

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    You Yeon Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-γ and interleukin-(IL-6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by preventing degradation of the IκB-α, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2. Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings.

  10. [Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yang, Wei-qun; Chen, Hui-qin; Zhang, Yong-hong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Morina Officinalis How (MOH) on the abnormal levels of serum luteotrophic hormone (LH) and LH receptor (LHR) in the testis tissue induced by cellphone radiation (CPR) in rats. Fifty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: sham CPR, untreated CPR, negative double distilled water (DDW) control, aqueous MOH extract, and alcohol MOH extract. All the animals were exposed to mobile phone radiation except those of the sham CPR group. Then, the rats of the latter two groups were treated intragastrically with MOH at 20 g per kg of the body weight per day in water and alcohol, respectively. After 2. weeks of treatment, all the rats were sacrificed for measurement of the levels of serum LH and LHR in the testis tissue. The levels of serum LH and LHR were 30.15 ± 8.71 and 33.28 ± 6.61 in the aqueous MOH group and 0.96 ± 0.06 and 0.94 ± 0.08 in the alcohol MOH group, both significantly decreased as compared with the negative DDW controls (P 0.05). MOH can improve CPR-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in adult male rats.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S M; Hassan, Nabila S; Mannaa, Fathia A; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity.

  12. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

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    Mariana dos Reis Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP. For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL. Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  14. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  15. Analysis of carotenoid composition in petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Maoka, Takashi; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2005-11-01

    Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color of the petals. Six carotenoids had a cis structure at C-5 (C-5'), and it is conceivable that these (5Z)-carotenoids are enzymatically isomerized at C-5 in a pathway that diverges from the main carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Among them, (5Z,9Z)-lycopene (1), (5Z,9Z,5'Z,9'Z)-lycopene (3), (5'Z)-gamma-carotene (4), and (5'Z,9'Z)-rubixanthin (5) has never before been identified. Additionally, (5Z,9Z,5'Z)-lycopene (2) has been reported only as a synthesized compound.

  16. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P.; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Carneiro, Virgínia C.; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway. PMID:28701962

  18. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2008-11-01

    The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

  19. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  20. PARAMETERS OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN CHICKENS TREATED WITH A CALENDULA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTION

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    C DUMITRU

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Tests were carried out on thirty, 42 days old Rock x Cornish chickens, divided into three experimental groups: I - control injected with saline, II - injected with a Calendula officinalis extraction supplemented with Bayol and III - treated with Bayol. The effects of the in vivo treatments and simultaneous antigen priming (0.5 ml of a 5 % suspension of SRBC on their humoral (lysozyme, anti-SRBC antibodies and cell-mediated (leucocyte blast transformation responses were investigated. Lysozyme (51.50 ± 32.30, 56.80 ± 41.27, 29.50 ± 22.73 μg/ml(p<0.05, and anti-SRBC antibody titers (2.35 ± 0.86, 2.05 ± 0.65 and 1.90 ± 0.55 were the lowest in Bayol treated group. Spontaneous stimulation index was positively influenced by the in vivo Bayol therapy (57.20 ± 8.88 per cent, when compared to that recorded for the other groups (31.06 ± 18.93 group I, 33.37 ± 19.26 group II.

  1. Antioxidant polyphenol and flavone contents in correlation with cultivation technology for Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia ALEXA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades there has been a strong trend to returning to plant therapy. Research highlight polyphenol and flavone content of Calendula officinalis L playing an important role in protecting man’s health. Natural antioxidants are spread particularly in the plant kingdom[2]. Bio-flavones and polyphenols are man’s main allies in his fight against all threats to body’s health, including viruses, cancer,, toxic substances and micro-organisms. Antioxidant action of polyphenols is largely used in medicine and pharmacy as deactivating agents of ultraviolet radiation and metal ions. These substances decompose peroxides and inhibit the forming action of free radicals, thus hindering disease appearance [3]. The paper aims to establish that the yield capacity of the analysed cultivars was significant influenced by the cultivation technology. Sowing densities is one of the most important technological step for marigold. Fertilisation also had great influence on yield capacity. Concerning the polyphenol content and the flavones content we can observe that the technology had great impact on their quantity and quality, so in order to obtain best results we should take in consideration the fact that is vital to improve the cultivation technology for marigold. The quality of marigold yield is given by the content of active elements from the inflorescences. From these elements we study in particularly the polyphenols and the flavones.

  2. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed.

  3. The study of polyphenolic compounds profile of some Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Neli-Kinga; Osser, Gyongyi; Câmpean, Ramona Flavia; Furtuna, Flavia Roxana; Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Raita, Oana; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the polyphenol profile of different Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts obtained from dry and fresh herb and the evaluation of their antioxidant effect. There were studied the polyphenols from hydroalcoholic extracts (1:5- dry plant:solvent) obtained from fresh respectively dry plant and the gemmotherapic extract obtained from fresh plant (1:20- dry plant: solvent). The polyphenol profile was evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, TLC and HPLC. The total polyphenol respectively flavonoids content were determined by UV-V is spectrophotometry. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and silver nanoparticle (SNP) methods. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from fresh plant contains the highest concentration of total polyphenols, (0.601mg/ml rosmarinic acid), total flavonoids, (0.270mg/ml luteoline) and rosmarinic acid (0.350 mg/ml). The less concentrated is the gemmotherapic extract, but also the extraction ratio is higher than the hydroalcoholic extracts. The high content in polyphenols of the mentioned hydroalcoholic extract was confirmed by highest values of antioxidant activity: 39.1ml (DPPH), 7.7 ml (ABTS), 698mM ET/100 ml (FRAP), 1947 mM ET/100 ml (CUPRAC), 4570mM ET/100 ml (SNP). These differences in the polyphenols profiles show the importance of use the fresh plants for obtaining the good quality extracts.

  4. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract as a Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains an important cause of mortality nowadays and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been reported to possess antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some of these activities were attributed to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, the antitumor effects of rosemary were attributed to its antioxidant activity. However, in recent years, a lack of correlation between antioxidant and antitumor effects exerted by rosemary was reported, and different molecular mechanisms were related to its tumor inhibitory properties. Moreover, supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Food and Safety Authority, specific compositions of rosemary extract were demonstrated to be safe for human health and used as antioxidant additive in foods, suggesting the potential easy application of this agent as a complementary approach in cancer therapy. In this review, we aim to summarize the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, the demonstrated molecular mechanisms related to these effects and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer agents. The possibility of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy in comparison with its isolated components is discussed.

  5. Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare; Micheli, Laura; Maresca, Mario; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery). URE showed the best efficacy and potency in reducing hypersensitivity to noxious- and non-noxious stimuli and spontaneous pain. URE contained the higher quantity of the terpenoid carnosic acid (CA) and its efficacy was compared to pure CA. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that URE prevented axon and myelin derangement, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, URE did not reduce astrocyte activation. Both the pain reliever and the neuroconservative effects of URE were significantly prevented by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine. In conclusion, the hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect nervous tissues. Effectiveness is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs. PMID:27713514

  6. Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, α-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 μg mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 μg mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 μg mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 μg mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Triglyceride Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Wang, Sijian; Ruan, Jingya; Yang, Shengcai; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-17

    Sixteen flavonoids (1-16) including two new ones, named officinoflavonosides A (1) and B (2) were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis. Among the known ones, 6, 10, and 13 were isolated from the rosmarinus genus for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the effects on sodium oleate-induced triglyceride accumulation (TG) in HepG2 cells of the above-mentioned compounds and 16 other isolates (17-32) reported previously to have been obtained in the plant were analyzed. Results show that eight kinds of flavonoids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 6-9 and 11) and seven kinds of other known isolates (compounds 17-20, 23, 26 and 31) possessed significant inhibitory effects on intracellular TG content in HepG2 cells. Among them, the activities of compounds 1 and 20 were comparable to that of orlistat, which suggested that these compounds in this plant might be involved in lipid metabolism.

  8. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Leaf on Anxiety in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Ahmad Abadi, Mosayeb; Mortazavi, Mohsen; Kalani, Navid; Marzouni, Hadi Zare; Kooti, Wesam; Ali-Akbari, Sara

    2016-10-01

    In today's stressful world, psychopathy (especially anxiety) is receiving increased importance. Most of the drugs used to treat this disease have several side effects. Medicinal plants derived from natural products have fewer side effects and can be used in the treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on anxiety in mice. In this experimental study, 50 male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. To evaluate anxiety, the Elevated Plus Maze test was performed. The control group received normal saline, the positive control group received diazepam (1 mg/kg) as intraperitoneal injection, and the experimental groups received doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of rosemary extract. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 and ANOVA statistical tests. The results show that rosemary extract dose-dependently increases the mice spending time and the entries number of mice in plus maze open arms (indicating less stress). This effect at a dose of 400 mg/kg was similar to diazepam, which, in comparison to the control group, was statistically significant (P .05). On the other hand, the rosemary extract, similar to the standard drug diazepam, showed an anti-anxiety effect. This effect is probably due to the presence of flavonoids in this plant and their antioxidant property. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  10. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Somaclonal variation in Asparagus officinalis plants regenerated by organogenesis from long-term callus cultures

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    Pontaroli Ana Clara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Somaclonal variation in plants regenerated by organogenesis from long-term cultured calluses of two diploid staminate genotypes of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil was characterized by plant phenotype, ploidy, meiotic behavior, pollen viability, fruit and seed set, and AFLP profiles. Phenotypic deviations from the donors were detected in foliage color, flower size, and cladode and flower morphology. Ploidy changes were observed in 37.8% of the 37 regenerants studied. Meiotic alterations in 12 out of 21 regenerants included laggards, dicentric bridges, micronuclei, restitution nuclei and polyads. Of the 408 AFLP markers screened in 43 regenerants and the donors, 2.94% showed polymorphism. High pollen viability was observed in the 22 regenerants analyzed. All crosses between one pistillate plant and 35 regenerants, as well as the controls, produced fruits and seeds; however, no plump seeds resulted in 35.3% of the crosses with regenerants, and no seeds germinated in 12.5% of those with apparently normal seeds. Fruit and seed set was similar in crosses with diploid regenerants with normal meiosis and the controls but was lower in crosses with diploid and polyploid regenerants with abnormal meiosis. Our results show that the regenerated plants exhibited conspicuous somaclonal variation that could be eventually exploited for in vitro selection systems.

  12. Can Ozone Alter the Terpenoid Composition and Membrane Integrity of in vitro Melissa officinalis Shoots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Pistelli, Luisa; Pistelli, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Ozone affects volatile organic compounds that protect plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In vitro Melissa officinalis shoots were exposed to ozone (200 ppb, 3 h) in controlled environmental conditions: leaf pigments, membrane integrity and headspace composition were assayed during fumigation and after the recovery period (3 h from the beginning of the exposure, FBE). At the end of the exposure, no injury was observed in untreated and treated shoots, although an evident increase in lipid peroxidation was reported (+38.5 and +37.2% of TBARS levels in comparison with controls, respectively after 1 and 3 h FBE). The levels of total carotenoids significantly rose as a normal response mechanism to oxidative stress. SPME-GS-MS analysis showed that, as a consequence of the fumigation, the trends in non-terpenoid compounds increased after 1 and 3 h FBE. This suggests that the concentration and the duration of the treatment were enough to cause a breakdown of cells (as evidenced by increased TBARS levels) and involves an association between volatile products of the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products) and membrane degradation.

  13. Buddleja officinalis inhibits high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Ho Sub

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to investigate whether an aqueous extract of Buddleja officinalis (ABO), a traditional Korean herbal medicine, suppresses the endothelial extracellular matrix degradation under high glucose condition. The incubation with high concentration of glucose (25 mM) increased significantly matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9 expressions and activities in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Pretreatment with ABO decreased high glucose-induced increase of MMP-2/-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Real time qRT-PCR revealed that high glucose-induced MMP-2/-9 mRNA expression levels were attenuated by pretreatment with ABO. High glucose-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels also decreased by ABO. ABO decreased high glucose-induced hydrogen peroxide production, oxidative stress marker. These results provide new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms for anti-inflammatory properties of ABO in vascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The main quality attributes of non-sprayed cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. genotypes

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    Yildiz Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis is naturally growing in black sea region in Turkey and the trees has not been spraying with pesticides. In natural growing conditions, all cherry laurel genotypes particularly fruits are seems resistant against pests. Astringent nature of fruits forms a barrier for pests. A total twelve cherry laurel accessions were harvested at full maturation time from various sites in Of district located in eastern black sea region in Turkey. Fruits were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP, total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA, total carotenoid (TC, Vitamin C and for their antioxidant capacity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in fruit flesh extract. Variability among accessions was greatest for total phenol (TP and total anthocyanins content ranged from 154 to 213 mg GAE per 100 g and 397 to 519 mg per 100 g. The results indicated that cherry laurel fruits are superior and unique in terms of bioactive content in particular compared to bioactive rich fruit species.

  15. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  16. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RADseq provides evidence for parallel ecotypic divergence in the autotetraploid Cochlearia officinalis in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandrud, Marie K; Paun, Ovidiu; Lorenzo, Maria T; Nordal, Inger; Brysting, Anne K

    2017-07-17

    Speciation encompasses a continuum over time from freely interbreeding populations to reproductively isolated species. Along this process, ecotypes - the result of local adaptation - may be on the road to new species. We investigated whether three autotetraploid Cochlearia officinalis ecotypes, adapted to different habitats (beach, estuary, spring), are genetically differentiated and result from parallel ecotypic divergence in two distinct geographical regions. We obtained genetic data from thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and from six microsatellite markers for 12 populations to assess genetic divergence at ecotypic, geographic and population level. The genetic patterns support differentiation among ecotypes as suggested by morphology and ecology. The data fit a scenario where the ancestral beach ecotype has recurrently and polytopically given rise to the estuary and spring ecotypes. Several ecologically-relevant loci with consistent non-random segregating patterns are identified across the recurrent origins, in particular around genes related to salt stress. Despite being ecologically distinct, the Cochlearia ecotypes still represent an early stage in the process of speciation, as reproductive isolation has not (yet) developed. A sequenced annotated genome is needed to specifically target candidate genes underlying local adaptation.

  18. Purification and characterization of Par o I, major allergen of Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreste, U; Coscia, M R; Scotto d'Abusco, A; Santonastaso, V; Ruffilli, A

    1991-01-01

    Par o I, a major allergen of Parietaria officinalis, was purified from the pollen extract. The purified allergen was obtained by ultrafiltration, Sephadex gel filtration and DE-52 ion exchange chromatography: the purified preparation yields a single band in polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAG-IEF), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting, a single immunoprecipitation arc in crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and a single peak in size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Par o I is a glycoprotein with a protein to carbohydrate ratio of 100:21. The molecular weight, determined by SDS-PAGE, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and size exclusion HPLC, varied between 13.5 and 14.5 kDa according to the method employed. The isoelectric point was 4.6. The amino acid composition and the sequence of the first twelve N-terminal residues were determined. The allergenicity was assayed in vivo and in vitro. 29/29 Parietaria-allergic patients were skin positive to Par o I and possessed high level of specific serum IgE antibody as it determined by radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Par o I contained dominant epitopes for human IgE as inhibited to 85% the pollen extract RAST performed with a pool of sera of allergic patients. The RAST inhibitory activity was not abolished by deglycosylation.

  19. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Energy storage by passive elastic structures in the mantle of sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, N A; Woledge, R C; Bone, Q

    2000-03-01

    The passive elastic properties of the mantle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis have been characterized in experiments on intact mantle and on pieces cut from the mantle. The mantle was found to be very compliant over a wide range of circumferential strains, corresponding to a change in mantle circumferential strain of 0.45. Beyond this range of strain, the mantle was much stiffer, in both the circumferential direction, 0.542+/-0.025 MPa (mean +/- s.e.m., N=51) and through the thickness of the mantle wall, 0.152+/-0.041 MPa (N=11). Almost 80 % of the work done on the tissue during compression in the circumferential direction was recovered during elastic recoil of the tissue; this elastic work could contribute to refilling the mantle after a jet. Our estimates of the work done during a cycle of jetting and refilling show that such elastic work is small (approximately 1 %) compared with the contractile work done by the circular muscle fibres. However, although the elastic work is almost negligible in the overall energy budget, it is probably sufficient to power refilling of the mantle.

  1. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  2. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

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    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  3. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

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    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activities of Salvia officinalis essential oil from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedher, Med Raâfet Ben; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Chaieb, Ikbal; Tounsi, Slim; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal and allelopathic activities of Tunisia Salvia officinalis essential oil (SoEO). The SoEO was characterized by the presence of 49 components with camphor (25.14 %), α-thujone (18.83 %), 1,8-cineole (14.14 %), viridiflorol (7.98 %), β-thujone (4.46 %) and β-caryophyllene (3.30 %) as the major components, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The level of antioxidant activity, determined by complementary tests, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging (IC50= 6.7 mg/mL), linoleic acid peroxidation (IC50= 9.6 mg/mL) and ferric reducing assays (IC50= 28.4 mg/mL), was relatively moderate. The SoEO was also screened for its antimicrobial activity. Good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for most of tested microorganisms. It also exhibited important insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae and Tribolium castaneum adults with LC50 values of 55.99 and 97.43 µl/L air, respectively. The effect of the SoEO on seeds germination and growth showed different activities against radical and hypocotyl elongation of the tested species. These results suggest the potential use of the SoEO as natural antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic, pharmaceutical industry and in pest management.

  6. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, P; Matulová, M

    2013-08-01

    From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1→4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the β configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-10-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), and MO59J, U343 and U251 (human glioblastoma). A normal cell line (V79, Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts) was used to compare the selectivity of the test substance. Manool exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against HeLa (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.1 µg/mL) and U343 (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.2 µg/mL) cells. In addition, in the used experimental protocols, the treatment with manool was significantly more cytotoxic for different tumor cell lines than for the normal cell line V79 (IC50 = 49.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL), and showed high selectivity. These results suggest that manool may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  9. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L. Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers

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    Izabela Jasicka-Misiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54% and in the application of SPE (13.04%. In addition, lumichrome (1.85% was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+-catechine (39.7% and gallic acid (up to 30%, which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  10. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Diterpenes for Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed.

  11. Fungitoxicty of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis in the in vitro development of phytophatogens fungi / Fungitoxidade de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento in vitro de fungos fitopatogênicos

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    José Renato Stangarlin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fungitoxicity of aqueous crude extracts (ACE of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis was evaluated in vitro on development of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The active ACE were incorporated to Potato- Dextrose-Agar (PDA alone or in mixture, at 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% concentrations. Measurement in fungal colonies was taken daily until the control treatment covered 2/3 of the culture media. The mixtures of T. vulgaris with B. pilosa did not have positive effect because the ACE of B. pilosa did not reduce the fungal growth of R. solani and in mixture inhibited the effect ACE of T. vulgaris. However, the mixture of ACEs of R. officinalis and L. alba produced better results than isolated ACEs, with 60% of growth inhibition of A. alternata. The ACE of T. vulgaris inhibited the growth of C. graminicola at 97%. The results show that ACEs have significative fungitoxicity in the evaluated phythopathogens.Avaliou-se in vitro, a atividade fungitóxica dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA em diferentes concentrações isolados e em misturas de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A avaliação foi realizada incorporando os extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs ao meio BDA isolados e em mistura, nas concentrações 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% e 50%. Foram feitas medições diárias das colônias fúngicas até o momento em o tratamento controle cobriu 2/3 da superfície do meio de cultura. Verificou-se que a mistura de T. vulgaris com B. pilosa não teve efeito positivo, pois o EBA isolado de B. pilosa não reduziu o crescimento do fungo R. solani e em mistura reduziu o efeito do EBA de T. vulgaris. Porém, o EBAs de R. officinalis e L. alba em mistura levaram a melhores resultados, reduzindo em até 60% o

  12. Veronica officinalis Product Authentication Using DNA Metabarcoding and HPLC-MS Reveals Widespread Adulteration with Veronica chamaedrys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta C.; Mocan, Andrei; Popa, Madalina O.; Vlase, Laurian; Ichim, Mihael C.; Crisan, Gianina; Brysting, Anne K.; de Boer, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Studying herbal products derived from local and traditional knowledge and their value chains is one of the main challenges in ethnopharmacology. The majority of these products have a long history of use, but non-harmonized trade and differences in regulatory policies between countries impact their value chains and lead to concerns over product efficacy, safety and quality. Veronica officinalis L. (common speedwell), a member of Plantaginaceae family, has a long history of use in European traditional medicine, mainly in central eastern Europe and the Balkans. However, no specified control tests are available either to establish the quality of derived herbal products or for the discrimination of its most common substitute, V. chamaedrys L. (germander speedwell). In this study, we use DNA metabarcoding and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to authenticate sixteen V. officinalis herbal products and compare the potential of the two approaches to detect substitution, adulteration and the use of unreported constituents. HPLC-MS showed high resolution in detecting phytochemical target compounds, but did not enable detection of specific plant species in the products. DNA metabarcoding detected V. officinalis in only 15% of the products, whereas it detected V. chamaedrys in 62% of the products. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Veronica species, and detect substitution and/or admixture of other Veronica species, as well as simultaneously detect all other species present. Our results confirm that none of the herbal products contained exactly the species listed on the label, and all included substitutes, contaminants or fillers. This study highlights the need for authentication of raw herbals along the value chain of these products. An integrative methodology can assess both the quality of herbal products in terms of target compound concentrations and species composition, as well as

  13. Veronica officinalis Product Authentication Using DNA Metabarcoding and HPLC-MS Reveals Widespread Adulteration with Veronica chamaedrys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta C. Raclariu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying herbal products derived from local and traditional knowledge and their value chains is one of the main challenges in ethnopharmacology. The majority of these products have a long history of use, but non-harmonized trade and differences in regulatory policies between countries impact their value chains and lead to concerns over product efficacy, safety and quality. Veronica officinalis L. (common speedwell, a member of Plantaginaceae family, has a long history of use in European traditional medicine, mainly in central eastern Europe and the Balkans. However, no specified control tests are available either to establish the quality of derived herbal products or for the discrimination of its most common substitute, V. chamaedrys L. (germander speedwell. In this study, we use DNA metabarcoding and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS to authenticate sixteen V. officinalis herbal products and compare the potential of the two approaches to detect substitution, adulteration and the use of unreported constituents. HPLC-MS showed high resolution in detecting phytochemical target compounds, but did not enable detection of specific plant species in the products. DNA metabarcoding detected V. officinalis in only 15% of the products, whereas it detected V. chamaedrys in 62% of the products. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Veronica species, and detect substitution and/or admixture of other Veronica species, as well as simultaneously detect all other species present. Our results confirm that none of the herbal products contained exactly the species listed on the label, and all included substitutes, contaminants or fillers. This study highlights the need for authentication of raw herbals along the value chain of these products. An integrative methodology can assess both the quality of herbal products in terms of target compound concentrations and species

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

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    Mojtaba Kalantar, Saeed Shirali, Amin Hasanvand , Masoud Valizadeh , Ramin Tavakoli , Marzieh Asadi , Mehdi Goudarzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methotrexate as a chemotherapy drug can causes chronic liver damage and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on methotrexate-induced oxidative stress in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty five Wistar male rats weighting 200-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 7 in each group. Negative control group (normal saline 5ml/kg; positive control group received normal salin orally for 10 days, and a single dose of methotrexate (MTX, 20mg/kg, i.p. was administrated on the 9th day. Groups 3-5 received respectively 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of Lavandula officinalis extract (LOE orally for 10 days, and a single dose of MTX was injected on the 9th day. 24 h after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected to determine serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH levels and catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were assayed in liver tissue. A portion of liver was maintained in 10% formalin for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining and histological examination. Results: The result obtained from current study was showed a significant increase in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, MDA and decrease of GSH, CAT and SOD by MTX administration. Pre-treatment with LOE showed reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, MDA and increase of GSH, CAT and SOD in all doses but the most significant alteration was observed in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05. Histological results showed that methotrexate could lead to liver damage. Also the hepatoprotective effect of the LOE was confirmed by the histological examination of the liver. Conclusion: Our results indicate that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis have produced amelioration in biochemical and oxidative stress parameters against MTX -induced oxidative stress.

  15. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and Identification of the Phenolic Compounds from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Zhe Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four phenolic compounds were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosy-5-hydroxy-3-methoxylbenzoate (1, 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methylellagic acid (2, fisetinidol-(4α-8-catechin (3, and (+-catechin (4. Compound 1 is a new phenolic glycoside and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from the Sanguisorba genus for the first time. Compounds 1–4 were also assayed for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH free radical assay.

  17. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta

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    C. J. Williamson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation. It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta. Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP, respiration (R and net calcification (NG was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal. Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW−1 h−1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW−1 h−1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67, although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance  > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80 by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW−1 h−1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m−2 s−1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65 as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In contrast, the direction of dark NG (dissolution vs. precipitation was strongly related to carbonate saturation, mimicking

  18. Localization of Ca2+ and Ca-ATPase on wet (Ruscus aculeatus) and dry (Primula officinalis) stigma surface

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is present in the surface cells of both types of stigma. The chlorotetracycline method was used to show that the papillae of the dry stigma of Primula officinalis are the source of fluorescence of the CTC-Ca2+ complex. The precipitation method (NHA) localized calcium ions mainly in the pellicula surrounding these papillae. The NHA-Ca2+ precipitates were localized on the plasma membrane in the papillae of the wet stigma of Ruscus aculeatus. Ca-ATPase activity was found in both types of...

  19. Localization of Ca2+ and Ca-ATPase on wet (Ruscus aculeatus and dry (Primula officinalis stigma surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is present in the surface cells of both types of stigma. The chlorotetracycline method was used to show that the papillae of the dry stigma of Primula officinalis are the source of fluorescence of the CTC-Ca2+ complex. The precipitation method (NHA localized calcium ions mainly in the pellicula surrounding these papillae. The NHA-Ca2+ precipitates were localized on the plasma membrane in the papillae of the wet stigma of Ruscus aculeatus. Ca-ATPase activity was found in both types of stigma in sites where the presence of Ca2+ had been determined.

  20. MULTIPLICACIÓN SEXUAL Y ASEXUAL DE Cinchona officinalis L., CON FINES DE CONSERVACIÓN DE LA ESPECIE.

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Montaño, Marco Elí; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador; Moreno Serrano, José Antonio; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, España; Eras Guamán, Víctor Hugo; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador; Minchala Patiño, Julia; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador; González Zaruma, Darlin; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador; Yaguana Arévalo, Magaly; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador; Valarezo Ortega, Cristian; Universidad de Loja - Ecuador

    2017-01-01

    Con la finalidad de mejorar la propagación in vivo de la especie forestal Cinchona officinalis L., se practicaron varias técnicas de propagación sexual y asexual. Para la propagación sexual por semillas se probaron tres tipos de sustratos más dos testigos: sustrato tierra, arena y turba en las proporciones 1:1:1; 2:1:1 y 1:1:2 más los testigos turba (100 %) y tierra (100 %). Para la propagación asexual se realizaron los siguientes ensayos: a) ensayo de enraizamiento de estacas, donde se probó...