WorldWideScience

Sample records for profound positive change

  1. Ritual's role in profound change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In today's healthcare environment, characterized by downsizing, restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, organizational cultures and employees are experiencing rapid--and often tense--changes. Ritual can facilitate change by acknowledging it and allowing the grieving process to take its course. The success of an organizational culture change can depend on whether the organization and its members have been given an opportunity to grieve. Until they grieve their losses, people cannot embrace the new. Organizational leaders who have survived downsizing must come to grips with their own survivor status first and then lead others in the organization through the current painful but irrevocable shift in their relationship to the organization. The use of ritual helps organizational survivors see the connection between the grieving process and their survivor symptoms of denial, anger, depression, guilt, fear, insecurity, anxiety, and uncertainty. A good ritual should allow those present to rise above barriers that separate, worries that overburden, and blindness that limits and to gather as one with God. As a rule, a good ritual is participative and recognizes the audience's diversity. The ritual should not just address those present but invite them to act, pray, or sing. Ritual is an important way to provide a structure that allows people to express their emotions. For leaders, it can be a visible way to acknowledge grief and show support for organizational members. For ritual to have any meaning, key leaders need to be present and perhaps have a role in the creation and enactment of the ritual.

  2. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Huber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human

  3. Profound Haemaological Changes In Rats Fed On Different Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...

  4. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  5. Profound reversible seasonal changes of individual skull size in a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Javier; Dechmann, Dina K N; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Hertel, Moritz

    2017-10-23

    Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size [1]. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains [2]. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel's phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of red-toothed shrews and some mustelids [3-5]. The seasonal 20% decrease and 15% re-growth of the most common proxy, braincase height, were documented at population level from extracted skulls post-mortem. Quantifying intra-individual change had so far been methodologically prohibitive. Here, we followed the intra-individual change in skull size and body mass throughout the full cycle in wild recaptured shrews (Sorex araneus). Using X-ray images we showed that individuals decreased the size of their braincases in anticipation of winter by an average of 15.3%. Braincases then partially regrew in spring by 9.3%. Body mass decreased by 17.6% and then dramatically increased by 83.4% in spring. Thus, we demonstrate that the dramatic changes incurred by Dehnel's phenomenon occur in the individual's bone and other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  8. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of...

  9. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  10. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  11. Poland: Fertility decline as a response to profound societal and labour market changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baranowska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article opens with a review of the main trends in family-related behaviour, i.e. fertility decline and changes in fertility patterns, a decreasing propensity to marry, postponement of marriage, and a slowly increasing frequency of divorces and separations. The analysis takes into account urban and rural differences. We then aim to identify the main determinants of family changes within the general conceptual framework of the Second Democratic Transition (SDT in Poland. However, contrary to mainstream interpretations of the SDT, the main emphasis of this study is on the structural components of change, which need to be reformulated to account for processes specific to the transition to a market economy. The focus is, therefore, on labour market developments and family policy, and to a lesser extent on ideational change.

  12. Experimental incubations elicit profound changes in community transcription in OMZ bacterioplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Stewart

    Full Text Available Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for "challenging" microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia increased 4-13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  14. Faculty Scholarship Has a Profound Positive Association with Student Evaluations of Teaching--Except When It Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that research-productive faculty are also the finest instructors. But, is this commonly held belief correct? In the current study, the notion that faculty scholarship exhibits a positive association with teaching evaluations is investigated. Reflecting the data structure of faculty nested within university, the current…

  15. [Empathic leadership: shaping positive change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterauer, U; Ruhl, S

    2011-12-01

    This paper explains the concept of empathic leadership in the setting of fundamental organisational changes. It deals with the question of how you can establish a culture of leadership, which motivates employees positively and enthuses them for the upcoming changes. It discusses the basics of empathic leadership and considers the question of how handling of emotions influences change processes and how different management styles can be used supportively during changes. With the help of a practical example the different phases of change are presented from a management point of view. Thereby the theory of different levels of employee motivation is explained inter alia. The article shows that empathic leadership also has a lasting economic effect. This can be seen particularly in the power of motivation for change, in addition to recruitment and long-term employee retention.

  16. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  17. Peptide vaccination induces profound changes in the immune system in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the immune status of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients is mostly characterized by immunosuppression, there is an accumulation of in vivo (graft-versus-leukemia effect and in vitro (spontaneous remissions after infections data that indicates that CLL might be effectively targeted by T-cell based immunotherapy. Recently, we characterized receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM as a preferential target for immunotherapy of CLL. We also completed a RHAMM-derived peptide vaccination phase I/II clinical trial in CLL. Here, we present a detailed immunological analysis of six CLL patients vaccinated with HLA-A2 restricted RHAMM-derived epitope R3 (ILSLELMKL. Beside effective induction of R3-specific cytotoxic T-cells, peptide vaccination caused profound changes in different T-cell subsets as well as cytokines. We present longitudinal analyses of Th17, CD8+CD103+, CD8+CD137+ and IL-17 producing CD8+ T cells (CD8+IL- -17+ as well as important cytokines involved in regulation of immune response such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-2 and TNF throughout the peptide vaccination period. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 161–167

  18. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  19. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  20. Accumulation of histone variant H3.3 with age is associated with profound changes in the histone methylation landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Schwämmle, Veit; Kempf, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    a causal relationship between H3 variant replacement and age-dependent changes in H3 methylation. Furthermore, the H3.3 level is drastically reduced in human hepatocarcinoma cells as compared to nontumoral hepatocytes, suggesting the potential utility of the H3.3 relative abundance as a biomarker...

  1. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  2. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Shoreline features extracted from these two datasets and appended for shoreline change analysis recorded a total positional error of 3.98 m. The study has shown that the original scale (large) of the Town Sheet may have contributed significantly to the quality of data extracted. In the orthophoto, though.

  4. Positioning and change in a hospital ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbeck, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper focuses on communication about hygiene in a hospital ward and with the relevant infection control organization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the function of the hygiene coordinator as a key change agent and the communicative challenges and role conflicts implied in her...... practice. The author suggests strategies for improving communication on hygiene on ward level. Design/methodology/approach The empirical material consists of interviews and recordings of communicative events in relation to a breakout of dangerous bacteria in the ward. Change communication is used...... as a contextualizing frame of understanding, and positioning theory and analysis are applied to shed light upon the core challenges of communicating as a change agent when the coordinator's professional position and collegial relations do not support it. Findings It is shown how these challenges are connected...

  5. Temporal and spatial changes in the copepod community during the 1974-1998 spring seasons in the Kuroshio region; a time period of profound changes in pelagic fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    The long-term change (1974-1998) of the pelagic copepod community in the Kuroshio region, western Pacific was examined in archival samples collected both day and night in April/May in a time period of profound changes in the pelagic fish populations. A total of 162 adult copepod species was found. The community analysis based on species composition and abundance of adult copepods identified five assemblages (A-E) by cluster analysis. These assemblages were distributed in the north-frontal area of the Kuroshio Current within the slope area (A), the Kuroshio axis area (B), the subtropical area (C, D), and the coastal area within the slope area (E), indicating that such diverse communities were formed to correspond with the gradual change in the oceanic environment across the Kuroshio Current. The abundance of copepods in the north-frontal area of the Kuroshio Current (A) was 1.6 times greater than that of the other assemblages. Kuroshio/subtropical species were abundant in the assemblage, suggesting that these species that were transported from the Kuroshio and/or subtropical regions increased in the slope region. Abundance and species richness of two assemblages (C, D), which were found in the subtropical areas were higher at night (C) than during the day (D), suggesting that diel vertical migration of copepods is one of the most important factors affecting changes in the community. Furthermore, a generalized additive model revealed that the most dominant subtropical/Kuroshio species increased in years in which the Kuroshio Current flowed further south, with the Kuroshio axis located far from the Japanese coast. In contrast, the model showed that the lower latitude of the Kuroshio axis positioned negatively affected coastal-dominant species, such as Paracalanus parvus sensu lato (s.l.). These results indicate that onshore-offshore shifts of the Kuroshio axis caused by Kuroshio meandering was an important factor involved in the inter-annual change in the copepod

  6. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  7. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, positional accuracy assessment was carried out on two datasets using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) technique. Coordinates of nineteen ground controls points were measured in the field using Differential Global Positioning System technique which served as a reference base. The coordinates of these ...

  8. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the reversibility of acid secretion in profound hypochlorhydria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Sekine, H; Koike, T; Imatani, A; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

    2004-06-01

    Although profound hypochlorhydria is considered to be an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer, long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on its reversibility remains uncertain. To clarify the change in acid secretion after eradication in a long-term follow-up over 5 years in patients with profound hypochlorhydria. Twenty-three H. pylori-positive patients with hypochlorhydria (hypochlorhydria.

  9. Why do parties change position? Party organization and environmental incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Schumacher, G.; de Vries, C.E.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    What motivates parties to change their positions? Earlier studies demonstrate that parties change their position in response to environmental incentives, such as voter shifts. Yet, this work also suggests that parties differ in their responses. What accounts for this variation? We argue and

  10. When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P

    2016-07-01

    The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Dynamics of serial position change in probe-recognition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifić Mario

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between practice and serial position effects was investigated, in order to obtain more evidence for underlying short-term memory processes. The investigated relationship is termed the dynamics of serial position change. To address this issue, the present study investigated mean latency, errors, and performed Ex-Gaussian convolution analysis. In six-block trials the probe-recognition task was used in the so-called fast experimental procedure. The serial position effect was significant in all six blocks. Both primacy and recency effects were detected, with primacy located in the first two blocks, producing a non-linear serial position effect. Although the serial position function became linear from the third block on, the convolution analysis revealed a non-linear change of the normal distribution parameter, suggesting special status of the last two serial positions. Further, separation of convolution parameters for serial position and practice was observed, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. In order to account for these findings, a strategy shift mechanism is suggested, rather then a mechanism based on changing the manner of memory scanning. Its influence is primarily located at the very beginning of the experimental session. The pattern of results of errors regarding the dynamics of serial position change closely paralleled those on reaction times. Several models of short-term memory were evaluated in order to account for these findings.

  12. Colour constancy under simultaneous changes in surface position and illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Foster, David H

    2004-11-22

    Two kinds of constancy underlie the everyday perception of surface colour: constancy under changes in illuminant and constancy under changes in surface position. Classically, these two constancies seem to place conflicting demands on the visual system: to both take into account the region surrounding a surface and also discount it. It is shown here, however, that the ability of observers to make surface-colour matches across simultaneous changes in test-surface position and illuminant in computer-generated 'Mondrian' patterns is almost as good as across changes in illuminant alone. Performance was no poorer when the surfaces surrounding the test surface were permuted, or when information from a potential comparison surface, the one with the highest luminance, was suppressed. Computer simulations of cone-photoreceptor activity showed that a reliable cue for making surface-colour matches in all experimental conditions was provided by the ratios of cone excitations between the test surfaces and a spatial average over the whole pattern.

  13. Modulating crossover positioning by introducing large structural changes in chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederveen, Antoine; Lai, Yuching; van Driel, Marc A; Gerats, Tom; Peters, Janny L

    2015-02-15

    Crossing over assures the correct segregation of the homologous chromosomes to both poles of the dividing meiocyte. This exchange of DNA creates new allelic combinations thus increasing the genetic variation present in offspring. Crossovers are not uniformly distributed along chromosomes; rather there are preferred locations where they may take place. The positioning of crossovers is known to be influenced by both exogenous and endogenous factors as well as structural features inherent to the chromosome itself. We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. The introduction of large deletions and putative inversions silenced recombination over the length of the structural change. In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. The loss of crossovers at the sites of structural change was compensated for by increases in recombination frequencies elsewhere on the chromosomes, mostly in single intervals of one to three megabases in size. Interestingly, two independent cases of induced structural changes in the same chromosomal interval were found on both chromosomes 1 and 2. In both cases, compensatory increases in recombination frequencies were of similar strength and took place in the same chromosome region. In contrast, deletions in chromosome arms carrying the nucleolar organizing region did not change recombination frequencies in the remainder of those chromosomes. When taken together, these observations show that changes in the physical structure of the chromosome can have large effects on the positioning of COs within that chromosome. Moreover, different reactions to induced structural changes are observed between and within chromosomes. However, the similarity in reaction observed when looking at chromosomes carrying similar changes suggests a direct causal relation between induced change and observed reaction.

  14. Big data and positive change in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.; Cowls, J.; Schroeder, R.; Meyer, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the product of a workshop that brought together practitioners, researchers, and data experts to discuss how big data is becoming a resource for positive social change in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We include in our definition of big data sources such as social media

  15. Calculation of Phase-Change Boundary Position in Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova A.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determination of the phase-change boundary position at the mathematical modeling of continuous ingot temperature field is considered. The description of the heat transfer process takes into account the dependence of the thermal physical characteristics on the temperature, so that the mathematical model is based on the nonlinear partial differential equations. The boundary position between liquid and solid phase is given by the temperatures equality condition and the Stefan condition for the two-dimensional case. The new method of calculation of the phase-change boundary position is proposed. This method based on the finite-differences with using explicit schemes and on the iteration method of solving of non-linear system equations. The proposed method of calculation is many times faster than the real time. So that it amenable to be used for model predictive control of continuous semifinished product solidification.

  16. Resilience in Change: Positive Perspectives on the Dynamics of Change in Early Childhood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Change is a central feature of the early care and education landscape today. Much of the research on educational change focuses on the negative or challenging aspects of change. This study employed a critical theory framework from the organizational sciences field, positive organizational scholarship, to offer a new way of thinking about change in…

  17. Endobiliary Stent Position Changes during External-beam Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Kwun-Ye; Eccles, Cynthia L.; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Endobiliary stents can be used as surrogates for pancreatic localization when using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). This work reports on interfraction stent position changes during EBRT for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Materials and Methods Six patients with endobiliary stents who underwent EBRT for LAPC were assessed. Measurements from the most superior aspect of the stent (sup stent) and the most inferior aspect of the ste...

  18. Oral epithelial changes in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia C S, Almeida; Renata M, Etchebehere; Benito A S, Miranzi; Vitorino M, Santos; Maria G, Reis

    2013-07-01

    HIV infections frequently affect the oral cavity, and local changes may be utilized as indicators of immunosuppression in HIV-positive patients. Morphometric and morphological features of the lining, masticatory, and specialized epithelium of the oral mucosa were studied in 12 HIV-positive and 12 HIV-negative patients autopsied from 2007 to 2010. Mucosal samples from the cheek, gingival, and tongue of 24 individuals were fixed in Carnoy solution and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Various morphometric characteristics (epithelial thickness, number of cell layers, mean cell diameter) and morphological parameters (basal layer hyperplasia, exocytosis of inflammatory cells, glycogenic acanthosis, cell ballooning degeneration) were then measured. The HIV-positive group had a greater epithelial thickness (mean: 304.4μm) and a higher mean cell diameter (11.84μm), whereas the HIV-negative group had more epithelial layers (26.7). Basal layer hyperplasia did not differ significantly between the two groups, but exocytosis of inflammatory cells, glycogenic acanthosis, cell ballooning, and spongiosis were more prevalent in the HIV-positive group. Our findings demonstrate that HIV infection causes diverse epithelial changes in the oral cavity, including thickening, increased cell diameter, increased migration of inflammatory cells, and inter- and intra-cellular edema. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The Profound Power of Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition,…

  20. Endobiliary Stent Position Changes during External-beam Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kwun-Ye; Eccles, Cynthia L; Brunner, Thomas B

    2015-03-01

    Endobiliary stents can be used as surrogates for pancreatic localization when using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). This work reports on interfraction stent position changes during EBRT for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Six patients with endobiliary stents who underwent EBRT for LAPC were assessed. Measurements from the most superior aspect of the stent (sup stent) and the most inferior aspect of the stent (inf stent) to the most inferior, posterior aspect of the L1 vertebra central spinous process were determined from daily treatment CBCTs and compared with those determined from the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Changes in stent-L1 measurements were interpreted as changes in relative stent position. Three patients showed mean interfraction stent position changes of ≥1 cm when treatment measurements were compared with planning measurements. The sup stent for patient A moved to the right (2.66 ± 2.77 cm) and inferiorly (3.0 ± 3.12 cm), and the inf stent moved to the right (1.92 ± 2.02 cm) inferiorly (3.23 ± 3.34 cm) and posteriorly (1.41 ± 1.43 cm). The inf stent for patient B moved superiorly (2.23 ± 0.49 cm) and posteriorly (1.72 ± 0.59 cm). The sup and inf stent for patient F moved inferiorly (0.98 ± 0.35 cm and 1.21 ± 0.38 cm, respectively). The remaining three patients C, D, and E showed interfraction position changes of <1 cm. Endobiliary stent migration and deformation were observed in a small subset of patients. Further investigation is required before confirming their use as surrogates for LAPC target localization during image-guided EBRT.

  1. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  2. Positive emotional change: mediating effects of forgiveness and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Yancura, Loriena

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an emotional education program that seeks to reduce the intergenerational transmission of negative interaction patterns by increasing forgiveness and spirituality. We examined both reduction of psychological symptoms and increase in positive psychological outcomes over the course of a year, as well as the mediators of this change. At baseline, the sample consisted of 99 participants and 47 waiting list controls. Comparisons of scores from baseline (Time 1) to one week after the Hoffman Quadrinity Process (Time 2) showed large declines in negative affect (depressive symptoms) and increases in both positive outcomes (mastery, empathy, emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, forgiveness, and spiritual experience) and health and well-being. Over the course of a year, most of these gains were sustained, in comparison with the control group. Further, increases in forgiveness and spirituality mediated the effect of program participation on depressive symptoms.

  3. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN SCHOOLS: A CHANGE WITH DEEP ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Palomera Martín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is a universal human value and the field of positive psychology gives us relevant knowledge about its impact in our lives and its correlates. The school is one of the main contexts of human development and therefore the principal place for facilitating and promoting happiness for all children and young people. Implementing positive psychology in schools requires a rethinking of our concept of education, considering happiness within the objectives of the educational plan, and introducing changes in school organization and teaching methods. AII this, in turn, leads to the inclusion of this framework within pre-service and in-service teacher training and the need for further knowledge about children’s happiness and its role in the educational process.

  4. Early positivity signals changes in an abstract linguistic pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Monte-Ordoño

    Full Text Available The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables. Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli. Phoneme deviants differed from standards only in their phonemes. Rule deviants differed from standards in both their phonemes and their composing rule. We observed a significant positivity as early as 300 ms after the presentation of deviant stimuli that violated the abstract rule (Rule deviants. The amplitude of this neural response was correlated with participants' performance in a behavioral rule learning test. Differences in electrophysiological responses observed between learners and non-learners suggest that individual differences in an abstract rule learning task might be related to how listeners select relevant sources of information.

  5. Joint Attention Behaviours in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: The Influence of the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Heleen; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of the profound cognitive and physical problems, people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are able to develop joint attention behaviours (JAB) and benefit from positive interactions. Aims: To investigate which context factors influence the JAB of people with PIMD. Method: Based on video recordings of…

  6. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B Norgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia

  7. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.

  8. Enabling positive change: flow and complexity in daily experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inghilleri, P; Riva, Eleonora; Riva, Giuseppe; Cipresso, Pietro; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Przepiórka, Aneta; Coleshill, Matthew

    .... Positive psychological experience: The focal point of the approach is the concept of Flow of Consciousness, an experience of subjective psychological wellbeing that nourishes and complexifies the Self...

  9. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  10. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN SCHOOLS: A CHANGE WITH DEEP ROOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Palomera Martín

    2017-01-01

    Happiness is a universal human value and the field of positive psychology gives us relevant knowledge about its impact in our lives and its correlates. The school is one of the main contexts of human development and therefore the principal place for facilitating and promoting happiness for all children and young people. Implementing positive psychology in schools requires a rethinking of our concept of education, considering happiness within the objectives of the educational plan, an...

  11. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000453280.

  12. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    saturated fat intake. Conclusions The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000453280.

  13. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000453280. PMID:23294481

  14. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    OpenAIRE

    Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian

    2010-01-01

    Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...

  15. A Graphical Proof of the Positive Entropy Change in Heat Transfer between Two Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatgamolchai, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that heat transfer between two objects results in a positive change in the total entropy of the two-object system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy change of a naturally irreversible process is positive. In other words, if the entropy change of any process is positive, it can be inferred that such a process…

  16. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  17. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  18. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  19. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  20. Climate change policy positive or negative economic impact? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, R.T.L.; Mangalagiu, D.

    2010-01-01

    ECF initiates and performs high-class research on climate change in close interaction with stakeholders. We provide a pluralistic communication platform in the emerging global field of researchers, governments, local authorities, businesses, and social movements. This field lies beyond the

  1. Take a Walk with Me: A Journey of Positive Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeble, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Axtell, Paul; Carnes, Kevin; Barth, Heinrich; Barth, Irene

    2011-01-01

    When "Exchange" magazine selected Jewel's Learning Center in Houston to be the recipient of the "Exchange" Center Makeover, a journey of change and discovery began. With the help of many collaborative partners, Jewel's director Charlotte Watts and her family were able to bring new indoor and outdoor spaces to children and teachers affected by…

  2. Leadership Artistry that Facilitates Positive Change – A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mireku-Gyimah's exceptional qualities and achievements come to the fore, very strongly, to label him as more of being a made than a born leader. The paper asserts that he stands tall due to his rare powerful creative leadership style underpinned by artistic attributes to change the hue of UMaT's history under extreme ...

  3. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  4. Changes in positive affect and mindfulness predict changes in cortisol response and psychiatric symptoms: a latent change score modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Ng, Sin Man; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how changes in positive affect and mindfulness predicted changes in cortisol secretion and psychological distress in adaptation to examination stress. A sample of 105 college students completed a questionnaire set and provided salivary samples before (T1), during (T2) and after (T3) an examination period. Latent change score modelling revealed that T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in area-under-the-curve ground of cortisol awakening response (CARg), whereas T2-T3 increases in both positive affect and mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms (comparative fit index = .96; Tucker-Lewis index = .93-.95; root-mean-square error of approximation = .04-.08; standardised root-mean-square residual = .08-.10). T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in positive affect were not associated T2-T3 decrease in CARg, whereas T1-T2 increases in positive affect and mindfulness were not associated with T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms. The levels of post-stress recovery from anxiety symptoms could depend on concurrent increases in positive affect and mindfulness, whereas the levels of post-stress decline in cortisol secretion could depend on increases in mindfulness both during and after stress. Directions for translating the present findings into stress management programmes in college settings are discussed.

  5. Changes in the subgingival biofilm composition after coronally positioned flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadson Almeida Lima

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of coronally positioned flap (CPF on the subgingival biofilm composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with gingival recessions were treated with CPF. Clinical parameters were assessed before and at 6 months after surgery. Subgingival biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 40 bacterial species. RESULTS: Recession height, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing improved significantly (p<0.05 at 6 months post-CPF. The proportions of 10 periodontal pathogens and the proportions of red and orange complexes decreased at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPF can induce beneficial effects on the composition of the subgingival microbiota after 6 months.

  6. Profound loss of neprilysin accompanied by decreased levels of neuropeptides and increased CRP in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gök Sargın

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, CD10 acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected. Substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were extracted from freshly frozen tissues and measured using ELISA. Levels of NEP expression were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunoreactivity scores were calculated. GEBOES grading system was also used. We demonstrated a profound loss (69.4% of NEP expression in UC, whereas all healthy controls had NEP expression. Patients with UC had lower neuronal SP; however non-neuronal SP remained similar. UC patients had also lower neuronal and non-neuronal VIP levels. CGRP were low in general and no significant changes were observed. Additionally, CRP positive patients with UC had higher rates of NEP loss (80% vs 51.9% and lower SP levels when compared with CRP negative patients with UC. Concurrent decreases in SP and VIP with profound loss of NEP expression observed in UC is likely to be one of the factors in pathogenesis. Further studies are required to define the role of neuropeptides and NEP in UC.

  7. America’s Changing Urban Landscape: Positioning Extension for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A. Ruemenapp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the Cooperative Extension Service (Extension to have a substantive urban presence and impact, it will be vital for local Extension staff, state Extension systems, and the national Extension system to understand how to position Extension for success in large metropolitan regions. To do this, Extension should examine its history of working in cities, work to overcome a number of internal barriers or challenges that are defined in Extension literature, and develop a deeper understanding of the unique and complex set of characteristics and features of urban environments. As Extension does this, it will be important for it to move forward in a manner that ensures it is relevant to local metropolitan residents while being responsive to the needs of communities statewide. It will also be imperative that Extension be recognized locally, statewide, and nationally for its work; however, Extension is not starting from scratch as it has more than a 60-year history of working in cities. Extension should learn from best practices within the numerous strong urban and suburban operational and educational models present in a number of states.

  8. The Association of Departmental Quality Infrastructure and Positive Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Hazel; Maters, Amelia W.; Carroll, Karen C.; Pronovost, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    A vertically and horizontally well-integrated quality improvement team is essential for effective quality data collection and implementation of improvement measures. We outline the quality structure of a large academic pathology department and describe successful projects across multiple divisions made possible by this tightly integrated structure. The physician vice chair for quality organizes departmental quality efforts and provides representation at the hospital level. The department has an independent continuous quality improvement unit and each laboratory of the department has a staff quality improvement representative. Faculty and staff experts have interacted to produce improvements such as accurate container labeling, efficient triage of specimens, and reduction of unnecessary testing. Specialized task forces such as the Courier Task Force are producing concrete recommendations for process improvement. All phases of pathology patient care are represented by faculty and staff who are trained in quality improvement, and each position touches and communicates actively with levels above and below itself. The key to the department’s approach has been the daily attention to quality efforts in all of its activities and the close association of faculty and staff to accomplish the goals of greater efficiency, safety, and cost savings. PMID:29376115

  9. Changes of macular thickness in HIV positive patients using OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the changes of macular thickness of acquire immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDSpatients. METHODS: The study based on the data analysis of 38 human immunodeficiency virus(HIVpositive patients(64 eyes. According to CD4 count and whether cytomegalovirus retinitis(CMVRhappened, the patients were divided into 3 groups. Group A included 16 patients(32 eyes, in which CD4 count was 50cells/μL and CMVR did not happen. Group C included 12 patients(12 eyes, in which CD4 count was RESULTS: The mean foveal thicknesses in groups A, B, C and D were 254.03±15.63μm, 263.11±17.12μm, 304.50±50.62μm and 257.64±8.54μm in order. Compared with foveal thickness in each group, there were significant differences in general(F=12.933, P=0.000. The mean foveal thickness in groups CMVR increased, which was of significant difference(P=0.000, compared with other groups.CONCLUSION: CMVR can impair the structure and function of macular, which then seriously affects the visual function of patients. It's helpful to understand the progress and prognosis of CMVR disease by observing macular structure with OCT in early time.

  10. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  11. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  12. Creating positive employee change evaluation: the role of different levels of organizational support and change participation

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, S.; Prouska, R

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are faced with fast-paced change and the need to ensure ongoing change intervention success. There is, however, evidence that employees who have experienced poor change management in the past are more likely to resist new changes. This is because poor change management is likely to create more adverse attitudes towards new changes, such attitudes in turn are likely to increase employees' resistance to change, a key factor for change failure, which can further contribute to an em...

  13. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  14. MR imaging of herniated lumbar disc : morphologic change between supine and flexed-prone position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Ro; Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Sungnam Inha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine morphologic change in a herniated lumbar disc, as seen on MR imaging according to position change (supine and flexed-prone positions). A hundred and twenty-two patients with herniated lumbar discs, as seen on supine MR imaging, underwent repeat MR imaging in the flexed-prone position; 100 patients, who showed more than 2 deg of flexion angle difference, were included in this study. Sixty-two were men and thirty-eight were women, and their ages ranged from 13 to 59 (mean, 30) years. Disc degeneration was graded as 1,2 or 3, depending on the area of decreased signal intensity seen on a T2-weighted MR image. Difference in the angle of flexion is defined as the angle difference of lumbar curvature, calculated by the Begg-falconer method in supine and flexed-prone positions. Morphologic changes in herniated discs in difference positions were analysed on the basis of shape change of anterior epidural spaces, thecal sacs and posterior margins of herniated discs, and classified as either A (not changed) or B (changed). Group B was subtyped as type I (decreased herniation without change of shape), type II (decreased herniation with change of shape) or type III (increased disc herniation). We statistically analysed correlations between a patient`s age, morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions, and degree of degeneration in such a disc, as well as the correlation between morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions and the degree of the flexion angle. In the flexed-prone position, which is similar to that used during surgery, MRI can reveal various morphologic changes in a herniated lumbar disc, mainly decreased herniation, and is helpful in making decisions related to surgery. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  16. Multisensory speech perception of young children with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M

    1997-10-01

    The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.

  17. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  18. Do Voters Learn? Evidence that Voters Respond Accurately to Changes in Political Parties’ Policy Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech; Slothuus, Rune; Stubager, Rune

    2017-01-01

    attention to parties when they visibly change policy position. Second, voters update their perceptions of the party positions much more accurately than would have been expected if they merely relied on a ‘coalition heuristic’ as a rule-of-thumb. These findings imply that under some conditions voters...

  19. Use of a Treatment Package in the Management of a Profoundly Mentally Retarded Girl's Pica and Self-Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment involving verbal reprimands, physical restraint, response interruption, and positive practice overcorrection resulted in rapid and dramatic decreases in the levels of pica and self-stimulation of a 4-year-old profoundly retarded girl. (CL)

  20. Changing Perception of Physical Properties using Multimodal Augmented Reality: Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Geert; Sandor, Christian; Hürst, W.O.; Plopski, Alexander; Taketomi, Takafumi; Kato, Hirokazu; Rosa, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    By means of augmented reality (AR) systems it has become increasingly easy to manipulate our perception of real objects. In this position paper we review existing work that changes physical property perception, and propose methods for changing perceived object density during haptic interaction. Our

  1. Persuasion Model and Its Evaluation Based on Positive Change Degree of Agent Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    For it can meet needs of negotiation among organizations take place in different time and place, and for it can make its course more rationality and result more ideal, persuasion based on agent can improve cooperation among organizations well. Integrated emotion change in agent persuasion can further bring agent advantage of artificial intelligence into play. Emotion of agent persuasion is classified, and the concept of positive change degree is given. Based on this, persuasion model based on positive change degree of agent emotion is constructed, which is explained clearly through an example. Finally, the method of relative evaluation is given, which is also verified through a calculation example.

  2. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  3. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  4. An Analysis of Snoezelen Equipment to Reinforce Persons with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Smalls, Yemonja

    2004-01-01

    Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with…

  5. Changes in the pressure distribution by wrist angle and hand position in a wrist splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Y J

    2017-12-07

    The study was conducted to provide basic data to develop a system that distributes pressure over a broader area by measuring and analyzing pressures in various wrist angles and hand positions while wearing a wrist splint. With 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees of wrist extension, full-finger extension and finger flexion, pressure distribution changes were measured three times. Average peak pressure was analyzed and mean value picture (MVP) in zones 3-5 was calculated. A one-way Anova was conducted to identify changes in pressure distribution by wrist angle and hand position. Mean peak pressure values (kPa) in zones 3-5 changed depending on the wrist angle. Peak pressures (kPa) changed significantly in 15, 30, and 45 degrees wrist extension, depending on the hand position. Since pressure distributions differ depending the wrist angle and hand position (finger flexion), it is necessary to consider how pressure varies in each wrist position and to provide information on postures that should be avoided during tasks and occupational activities based on various wrist angles or hand positions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Effects of pneumoperitoneal pressure and position changes on respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Suk; Ahn, Eun Jin; Ko, Duk Dong; Kang, Hyun; Shin, Hwa Yong; Baek, Chong Hwa; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kim, Jin Yun; Koo, Gill Hoi

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of pneumoperitoneal pressure (PP) and positional changes on the respiratory mechanics during laparoscopy assisted colectomy. Peak inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, lung compliance, and airway resistance were recorded in PP of 10 mmHg and 15 mmHg, with the position change in 5 steps: head-down at 20°, head-down at 10°, neutral position, head-up at 10° and head-up at 20°. When the patient was placed head-down, the position change accentuated the effects of pneumoperitoneum on respiratory mechanics. However, when the patient was placed in a head-up position during pneumoperitoneum the results showed no pattern. In the 20° head-up position with the PP being 10 mmHg, the compliance increased from 30.6 to 32.6 ml/cmH(2)O compared with neutral position (P = 0.002). However with the PP being 15 mmHg, the compliance had not changed compared with neutral position (P = 0.989). In 20° head-down position with the PP of 10 mmHg, the compliance was measured as 24.2 ml/cmH(2)O. This was higher than that for patients in the 10° head-down position with a PP of 15 mmHg, which was recorded as 21.2 ml/cmH(2)O. Also in the airway resistance, the patient in the 20° head-down position with the PP of 10 mmHg showed 15.8 cmH(2)O/L/sec, while the patient in the 10° head-down position with the PP of 15 mmHg showed 16.2 cmH(2)O/L/sec of airway resistance. These results were not statistically significant but still suggested that the head-down position accentuated the effects of pneumoperitoneum on respiratory mechanics. Our results suggest that respiratory mechanics are affected by the patient position and the level of PP - the latter having greater effect.

  7. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential Effects of Climate Change on Treeline Position in the Swedish Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Moen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may strongly influence species distribution and, thus, the structure and function of ecosystems. This paper describes simulated changes in the position of the upper treeline in the Swedish mountains in response to predicted climate change. Data on predicted summer temperature changes, the current position of the treeline, and a digital elevation model were used to predict the position of the treeline over a 100-year timeframe. The results show the treeline advancing upward by 233-667 m, depending on the climate scenario used and location within the mountain chain. Such changes hypothetically caused a 75-85% reduction in treeless alpine heaths, with 60-93% of the remaining areas being scree slopes and boulder fields. For this change to occur, the migration rate of the trees would be in the order of 23-221 m yr-1, which is well within published migration rates for wind-dispersed deciduous trees. The remaining alpine areas would be strongly fragmented. These drastic changes would influence all aspects of mountain ecosystems, including biodiversity conservation and human land-use patterns.

  9. Climate Change and Health: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2016-05-03

    Climate change could have a devastating effect on human and environmental health. Potential effects of climate change on human health include higher rates of respiratory and heat-related illness, increased prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne diseases, food and water insecurity, and malnutrition. Persons who are elderly, sick, or poor are especially vulnerable to these potential consequences. Addressing climate change could have substantial benefits to human health. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that physicians and the broader health care community throughout the world engage in environmentally sustainable practices that reduce carbon emissions; support efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change; and educate the public, their colleagues, their community, and lawmakers about the health risks posed by climate change. Tackling climate change is an opportunity to dramatically improve human health and avert dire environmental outcomes, and ACP believes that physicians can play a role in achieving this goal.

  10. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars Ligong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars. Ligong Mi1,3,∗ & Xiang Liu1,2. 1Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi 830011,. People's Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. 3University of Chinese ...

  11. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction

  12. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to follow a cohort of HIV-positive individuals for 3 years in order to assess changes in depression, adherence, unsafe sex and emotional strains from living with HIV. Methods: Participants were assessed for depression, adherence, emotional strain and unsafe s...

  13. Existence of positive solutions to periodic boundary value problems with sign-changing Green's function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Yukun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the periodic boundary value problems where is a constant and in which case the associated Green's function may changes sign. The existence result of positive solutions is established by using the fixed point index theory of cone mapping.

  14. Positive solutions for second-order boundary-value problems with sign changing Green's functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cabada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze some possibilities of finding positive solutions for second-order boundary-value problems with the Dirichlet and periodic boundary conditions, for which the corresponding Green's functions change sign. The obtained results can also be adapted to Neumann and mixed boundary conditions.

  15. Brief Report: Piloting the Positive Life Changes (PLC) Program for At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ariel A.; Dierkhising, Carly B.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot the Positive Life Changes (PLC) program, a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral intervention for at-risk adolescents that aims to promote social competencies and to prevent aggression. The program was piloted in 4 intervention groups with a sample of 31 self-referred adolescents (M age 15.64) attending an…

  16. Face Inversion Disproportionately Disrupts Sensitivity to Vertical over Horizontal Changes in Eye Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Presenting a face inverted (upside down) disrupts perceptual sensitivity to the spacing between the features. Recently, it has been shown that this disruption is greater for vertical than horizontal changes in eye position. One explanation for this effect proposed that inversion disrupts the processing of long-range (e.g., eye-to-mouth distance)…

  17. Would Having a Lead Instructional Designer Position Encourage Change in a K-12 Educational Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding the position Lead Instructional Designer (LID) will help an educational company or school district to work with principals and instructional designers to implement better instructional design strategies. This type of change creates more jobs and takes added pressure away from schools. The vision is to create better customer service to the…

  18. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  19. Positive Selection or Free to Vary? Assessing the Functional Significance of Sequence Change Using Molecular Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R Allison

    Full Text Available Evolutionary arms races between pathogens and their hosts may be manifested as selection for rapid evolutionary change of key genes, and are sometimes detectable through sequence-level analyses. In the case of protein-coding genes, such analyses frequently predict that specific codons are under positive selection. However, detecting positive selection can be non-trivial, and false positive predictions are a common concern in such analyses. It is therefore helpful to place such predictions within a structural and functional context. Here, we focus on the p19 protein from tombusviruses. P19 is a homodimer that sequesters siRNAs, thereby preventing the host RNAi machinery from shutting down viral infection. Sequence analysis of the p19 gene is complicated by the fact that it is constrained at the sequence level by overprinting of a viral movement protein gene. Using homology modeling, in silico mutation and molecular dynamics simulations, we assess how non-synonymous changes to two residues involved in forming the dimer interface-one invariant, and one predicted to be under positive selection-impact molecular function. Interestingly, we find that both observed variation and potential variation (where a non-synonymous change to p19 would be synonymous for the overprinted movement protein does not significantly impact protein structure or RNA binding. Consequently, while several methods identify residues at the dimer interface as being under positive selection, MD results suggest they are functionally indistinguishable from a site that is free to vary. Our analyses serve as a caveat to using sequence-level analyses in isolation to detect and assess positive selection, and emphasize the importance of also accounting for how non-synonymous changes impact structure and function.

  20. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 泰子

    2013-01-01

    We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...

  1. Flexibility in Visual Working Memory: Accurate Change Detection in the Face of Irrelevant Variations in Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Geoffrey F; Vogel, Edward K; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-13

    Many recent studies of visual working memory have used change-detection tasks in which subjects view sequential displays and are asked to report whether they are identical or if one object has changed. A key question is whether the memory system used to perform this task is sufficiently flexible to detect changes in object identity independent of spatial transformations, but previous research has yielded contradictory results. To address this issue, the present study compared standard change-detection tasks with tasks in which the objects varied in size or position between successive arrays. Performance was nearly identical across the standard and transformed tasks unless the task implicitly encouraged spatial encoding. These results resolve the discrepancies in prior studies and demonstrate that the visual working memory system can detect changes in object identity across spatial transformations.

  2. Retrospective study on change in pharyngeal airway space and hyoid bone position after mandibular setback surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Sung Woon; Han, Min Woo; Hwang, Doo Yeon; Song, Seung Il

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the pharyngeal airway space and hyoid bone position after mandibular setback surgery with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and to analyze the correlation between the amount of mandibular setback and the amount of change in pharyngeal airway space or hyoid bone position. From January 2010 to February 2013, a total of 30 patients who were diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion and underwent the same surgery (BSSRO) and fixation method in the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry at the Ajou University School of Medicine (Suwon, Korea) were included in this study. Lateral cephalograms of the 30 patients were assessed preoperatively (T1), immediately postoperatively (T2), and 6 months postoperatively (T3) to investigate the significance of changes by time and the correlation between the amount of mandibular setback and the amount of change in the airway space and hyoid bone position. Three regions of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were measured and only the oropharynx showed a statistically significant decrease (Pamount of mandibular setback and the amount of final change in the airway space and hyoid bone position with Pearson's correlation showed no significant correlation. In this study, the oropharynx significantly decreased after mandibular setback surgery, and changes in the surrounding structures were identified through posteroinferior movement of the hyoid bone during long-term follow-up. Therefore, postoperative obstructive sleep apnea should be considered in patients who plan to undergo mandibular setback surgery, and necessary modifications to the treatment plan should also be considered.

  3. Effect of Change of Mechanical Ventilation Position on the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiebin; Zhai, Jingfang; Jiang, Hongxia; Sun, Yingjun; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhou, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different ventilation positions in newborn infants with respiratory failure. A total of 67 newborn infant cases with respiratory failure were treated in neonatal intensive care unit of Xuzhou Central Hospital from February 2012 to August 2013. These infants were randomly divided into supine group (n = 33) and different position group (n = 34). Supine position for 4 h and prone position for 4 h were alternated in different position group. The results for 8 and 16 h ventilator parameters: oxygenation index OI (OI = PaO2/FiO2), the lung mechanics parameters, ventilator weaning time, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) after 1 h of ventilator weaning were recorded and compared. PaO2 in the different position ventilation groups for 8 h (65.29 ± 7.62 mm Hg) and 16 h (67.52 ± 9.31 mm Hg) were correspondingly higher than PaO2 at 8 h (60.13 ± 8.95 mm Hg) and 16 h (62.22 ± 10.83 mm Hg) in the supine position ventilation group, and the difference was statistically significant (P ventilator weaning time of the two groups and the change in the PaCO2 and PaO2, an hour after ventilator weaning was very similar and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The symptoms of respiratory failure and oxygenation can be effectively improved in the newborn infants with different ventilation positions compared to traditional supine position.

  4. False-positive HIV DNA PCR testing of infants: implications in a changing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Ute Dagmar; Forsyth, Brian; Kruger, Mariana

    2012-02-23

    To examine false-positive HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results in children, and the potential implications for the paediatric HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. A review was done of records over a 6-year period of children less than 18 months old at an HIV treatment site in South Africa, to evaluate those with an initial 'false'-positive HIV DNA PCR result, but later proven to be HIV-uninfected with HIV DNA PCR and/or quantitative HIV RNA PCR tests. We calculated the influence of changing HIV transmission rates on predictive values (PV) of HIV DNA PCR tests in a hypothetical population of all HIV-exposed infants over a 1-year period. (Positive PV: proportion of individuals with a positive test with disease; negative PV: proportion of individuals with negative test and no disease). Of 718 children, 40 with an initial positive HIV DNA PCR test were subsequently proven to be HIV-uninfected, resulting in a positive PV of 94.4%. Most (75%) uninfected children had PMTCT interventions and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (77.5%). Calculations using a test specificity of 99.4%, as reported previously, show a decrease in positive PV using a single-test strategy from 98.6% at 30% HIV transmission rate, to 94.8% at 10% transmission, to 62.5% at 1% transmission. Reduction in test specificity further decreases positive PV at low transmission rates. Decreasing mother-to-child HIV transmission rates reduce the positive predictive value of a single HIV DNA PCR test result, necessitating adaptations to diagnostic algorithms to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment, especially with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic infants.

  5. Vertical growth-related changes in the positions of palatal rugae and maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Panagiotis; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2008-01-01

    With 3-dimensional scanning, the image of 1 digital dental cast can be superimposed on another to observe growth or treatment changes; however, this requires stable references. The palatal rugae were considered reliable points for detecting dental changes on the cast's occlusal plane, but is this the case in the vertical plane? Our aims were to assess the long-term stability of the palatal rugae in the vertical dimension, relate them to possible maxillary incisor posteruptive movements, and validate them as references for the evaluation of longitudinal dental changes. Four-year longitudinal lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 10 adults and 13 adolescents were used. The median palatal contour of each cast and marks corresponding to each ruga were superimposed on the palate of the cephalograms. Changes in rugae positions during the observation period were measured with respect to the palatal plane. Vertical changes were greater for the first rugae (closest to the incisors), less for the second, and even less for the third (farthest from the incisors). The adolescents showed greater vertical changes in rugae position than the adults. There were no statistically significant differences in the anteroposterior changes between the groups. The maxillary central incisor and the first ruga had vertical displacements proportional to the increase of the subject's lower anterior facial height. We found vertical displacement of the maxillary incisor and the rugae during the 4 years of observation in adolescents and adults. The third ruga, the farthest from the incisors, can be used as a reliable reference to assess longitudinal dental changes mainly when growth changes are less prominent.

  6. Chinese Foreign Trade Dynamics and Change of the Country's Position in World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Rodionova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of dynamics of foreign trade of the Peoples Republic of China, shifts in geographical and commodity structure of export and import since 1995 until present. Their influence on change of country's position in world economy and international trade is revealed. Analyzing the statistical data, authors come to a conclusion that modernization and transparency of economy, expansion of foreign economic relations, considering direct correlation of rates of gross domestic product (GDP and rates of development of foreign trade of the country, have led to essential strengthening of China's position in world production of manufacturing industry, in world economy, and international trade.

  7. Changes in Relative Position of Choroidal Versus Retinal Vessels in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Campbell, J Peter; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn E; Chan, R V Paul; Chiang, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel finding that relative positions of choroidal and retinal vessels change over time in preterm infants and to identify factors associated with this finding using quantitative analysis. Fundus images were obtained prospectively through a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) cohort study. Images were excluded if choroidal vessels could not be identified. Changes in relative position of characteristic choroidal landmarks with respect to retinal vessels between two time points 5 to 7 weeks apart were measured. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors with the amount of change. The discovery and replication cohorts included 45 and 58 patients, respectively. Ninety-two of them (89%) were non-Hispanic Caucasians. Changes in relative position of choroidal versus retinal vessels were detected in all eyes of the discovery and replication cohorts (mean amount = 0.42 ± 0.12 and 0.35 ± 0.12 mm, respectively). On combined multiple regression analysis of the two cohorts, type 1 ROP, higher postmenstral age at the first time point, and shorter distance from optic disc to choroidal landmark were significantly associated with less change in relative position. Choroidal vessels grow anteriorly with respect to retinal vessels at posterior pole in preterm infants, suggesting relatively faster peripheral growth of choroidal versus retinal vessels. Eyes with severe ROP showed less difference in growth, which might represent alterations in choroidal development due to advanced ROP. These findings may contribute to better understanding about the physiology of choroidal development and involvement in ROP.

  8. Changing Education for a Changing World: Internationalizing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idogho, Philipa Omamhe; Eshiotse, Sunday Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    That change is permanent has never been an issue, but how to anticipate, adopt, equip, and re-position to optimize benefits of change is the heart of research. Thus, true to Marshall McLuhan's prophetic foresight, the world, indeed, has become a village where otherwise local events now exert profound global consequences. In this paper, the…

  9. Managing Positive Stress for Change in the Implementation of Technology in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vanvooren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Information Age, faculty and staff in large institutions and schools make transformative changes slowly. The implementation of technology as a tool for communication and in classroom integration for instruction is also slow for many educators. However, today there is an urgency to bring the most recent technology systems, applications, and strategies into the educational organization, creating an environment that requires knowledgeable leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation. The five positive stress inducing strategies for change, first introduced by DeVore in 1994 [4], have proven to be used by highly effective leaders from elementary schools through college. With leaders trained in these key strategies, the likelihood of faculty and staff commitment to the needed changes in technology integration is greatly increased. Leaders can’t wait for the experienced employee to consider using technology as a tool; even elementary students race past the limited and readily outdated technology skills of most teachers. Leaders must create the positive stressors to initiate change for technology in their organizations now.

  10. Changing concepts of positive patient communication in dentistry and orthodontics: South Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuselvan, Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran; Raja, Subramani; Vilvanathan, Praburajan; Megabob, Nazargi; Prabhakar, Krishnan

    2013-06-01

    The world of communication has changed greatly over the centuries of mankind from sounds, sign languages, speech, development of language and in modern times using machines like the computer, mobile and internet. Over the past five decades, the change in communication is remarkable. Similarly positive patient communication is always necessary to build confidence, increased rapport and cooperation and minimizes misunderstanding. Returning the patient in our fold promotes the patient for further preventive care and review and using them as a positive tool helps us in an ambassador of the growth of our health care unit. Our challenge is to provide the best environment for communication with a diverse population of interest, personalities and culture.

  11. Changing concepts of positive patient communication in dentistry and orthodontics: South Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran AnbuSelvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of communication has changed greatly over the centuries of mankind from sounds, sign languages, speech, development of language and in modern times using machines like the computer, mobile and internet. Over the past five decades, the change in communication is remarkable. Similarly positive patient communication is always necessary to build confidence, increased rapport and cooperation and minimizes misunderstanding. Returning the patient in our fold promotes the patient for further preventive care and review and using them as a positive tool helps us in an ambassador of the growth of our health care unit. Our challenge is to provide the best environment for communication with a diverse population of interest, personalities and culture.

  12. Teen options for change: an intervention for young emergency patients who screen positive for suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the feasibility of screening in emergency departments for adolescent suicide risk. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking general medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Participants were 49 youths, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for nonpsychiatric emergencies. They screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or depression plus substance abuse. Youths were randomly assigned to the TOC intervention or to enhanced treatment as usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two months later. Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d=1.07, a large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly), with small to moderate effect sizes. TOC may be a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services and at risk of suicide.

  13. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: engaging residents to catalyze positive change in food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Folta, Sara C; Sehlke, Mackenzie; Nelson, Miriam E; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Fenton, Mark; Junot, Bridgid

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs) were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators) in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10-15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no) experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  14. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  15. Positive solutions of second order boundary value problems with changing signs Carathéodory nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Boucherif

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of positive solutions of two-point boundary value problems for nonlinear second order differential equations of the form $(py^{\\prime}^{\\prime}(t+q(ty(t=f(t,y(t,y^{\\prime}(t$, where $f$ is a Carathéodory function, which may change sign, with respect to its second argument, infinitely many times.

  16. Turn Down the Volume or Change the Channel?: Emotional Effects of Detached Versus Positive Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one’s interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience,...

  17. Mapping 'consistency' in India's climate change position: Dynamics and dilemmas of science diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himangana; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Ahluwalia, Amrik Singh

    2015-10-01

    India's position on climate change negotiations is likely to have far reaching implications for the success of global climate cooperation. Since the beginning of negotiations, the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) remained the centerpiece of India's stand. The stand started to evolve at the 15th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at Copenhagen in 2009, when India accepted voluntary commitments to reduce emission intensity. Though India still swears by CBDR, status of the principle in the negotiations has become doubtful after the Durban Climate Conference in 2011 committed all parties to take emission targets. This paper traces major transition points in India's negotiating position over the years and provides a descriptive context of its climate-related concerns. It analyzes the interview responses of 15 top scientists, experts, and negotiators to build upon core areas of climate change issues in India, its future role, and position in negotiations. Interviewees, in general, were in favor of protecting the carbon space for the poor who had very low emissions.

  18. Effects of condylar head surface changes on mandibular position in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoo-Jin; Park, Soo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Il; Ok, Soo-Min; Kim, Seong-Sik; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated condylar surface changes in patients after temporomandibular (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) treatment, and used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the relationship between condylar surface and mandibular position changes. Thirty-six patients diagnosed with TMJ OA and receiving non-surgical treatments for TMJ OA were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned to study groups according to the affected side. Those in the unilateral osteoarthritis (OAU) group (n = 20; 8 males and 12 females; aged 22.0 ± 11.5 years) had a unilateral condyle with TMJ OA, and those in the OAB group had bilateral TMJ OA (n = 16; 1 male and 15 females; aged 25.7 ± 6.4 years). Condylar surface and mandibular position changes were investigated by the superimposition of three-dimensional reconstructed images and CBCT data, respectively. For condylar surface changes, the average absolute deviation was 0.32 ± 0.08 mm for the OA side and 0.18 ± 0.03 mm for the non-OA side, a significant difference between sides (p mandibular position changes, measurement points that moved more than 2 mm were Pog, Me, and Mental foramen in both groups. The study results show that the mandible with both condyles affected moved backward and downward after TMJ OA treatment. In the patient ngroup with unilateral TMJ OA, there was deviation on the affected side and downward movement (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of thrombocytopenia and changes in various platelet parameters, in blood culture positive neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartaj Bhat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the incidence of thrombocytopenia and changes in various platelet parameters, in culture positive neonatal sepsis. Methods: This was prospective study conducted over a period of one year from December 2009 to November 2010 in neonatal intensive care unit of DDUH Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. All babies who were admitted during this period were evaluated prospectively for evidence of sepsis. Results: sepsis was diagnosed in 560 neonates. Among 560 neonates, 80/560 (14.28% had Culture positive sepsis. Out of 80 blood culture positive neonates 73 were term neonates and 7 were near term. Gram positive sepsis occurred in 21/80 (26.25%, gram negative sepsis in 54/80 (67.5%, and fungal sepsis in 5/80 (6.25%. Incidence of thrombocytopenia in Gram negative sepsis was (35/54 64.81%, in gram positive sepsis (15/21 71.41% and in fungal sepsis was (3/5 60%. Mean platelet count at the onset of sepsis in all the patients was 123287.5±49428.68. The mean duration of thrombocytopenia in gram positive sepsis was 4.66 ±2.6 days, in gram negative sepsis 4.39 ± 2.22 days and in fungal sepsis 5.2±1.3 days. MPV at the time of onset of sepsis (MPV was high in gram positive sepsis than in gram negative sepsis (11.57±0.88 Vs 11.29 ± 0.76. The MPV of thrombocytopenic neonates was significantly higher than that of non-thrombocytopenic neonates (p < 0.01.

  20. Metabolic Surgery Profoundly Influences Gut Microbial-Host Metabolic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120

  1. [Functional changes in the central nervous system during music perception (study of positive emotions)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N N; Avdeev, V M

    1982-01-01

    Music as a factor of creating a certain emotional state, may be used for studying neurophysiological bases of human positive emotions. Investigations of conservatory students and people without special musical education have shown that music exerts complex influences on the CNS, manifested in changes of a number of neurophysiological reactions attesting changes in the flow of excitations in the cortico-thalamic and cortico-limbic circles. Listening to music is accompanied with a partial replacement of the dominating alpha-rhythm by activity in the frequency range of beta-, theta- and delta-waves and with a change of some vegetative reactions. It was possible to define some qualitative differences in the action of music on the CNS depending on the interpretation of the composition as well as the presence or absence of musical education of the listeners.

  2. Effect of Sustained Typing Work on Changes in Scapular Position, Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Upper Trapezius Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    ...), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Methods: Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer...

  3. Effect of Sustained Typing Work on Changes in Scapular Position, Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Upper Trapezius Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Se-Yeon PARK; Won-Gyu YOO

    2013-01-01

    ...), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. [Methods]: Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer...

  4. Positive emotion-specific changes in the gene expression profile of tickled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Miyo; Hayashi, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Urayama, Osamu; Murakami, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression after tactile stimulation (tickling) accompanied by positive emotion in the adolescent rat brain. We observed a positive emotional response (50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations) after tickling using a modified version of the Panksepp method, and then comprehensively compared gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of the tickled rats and control rats using the microarray technique. After 4 weeks of stimulation, the expression levels of 321 of the 41,012 genes (including transcripts) were changed; 136 genes were up-regulated (>1.5-fold) and 185 were down-regulated (>0.67-fold) in the tickled rat group. Upon ontology analysis, the up-regulated genes were assigned to the following Gene Ontology (GO) terms: feeding behavior, neuropeptide signaling pathway, biogenic amine biosynthesis and catecholamine biosynthesis. Down-regulated genes were not assigned to any GO term categorized as a biological process. In conclusion, repeated tickling stimulation with positive emotion affected neuronal circuitry directly and/or indirectly, and altered the expression of genes related to the regulation of feeding in the adolescent rat hypothalamus.

  5. Changes in the cervical FRR, shoulder muscle pain and position after continuous detailed assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo And, In-Gyu; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Several risk factors for upper-extremity muscle injuries are known, including repetitive and continuous-flow assembly work. However, no study has investigated the changes in the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) and scapular position after continuous detailed assembly work. This study investigated the changes in the cervical FRR, trapezius muscle pain, and acromion and scapular positions after continuous detailed assembly work. Fifteen male workers were recruited. The cervical FRR, pressure-pain threshold (PPT) of the upper and middle trapezius muscle, and acromion and scapular positions were measured in all subjects once before and once after detailed assembly work. The cervical FRR after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The PPT of the upper and middle trapezius muscle after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The acromion angle after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The scapular inferior distance after detailed assembly was significantly increased compared with that before detailed assembly work. Our findings suggest that detailed assembly work may cause the absence of FRR, upper trapezius and middle trapezius pain, and scapular malalignment associated with a potential risk of neck and shoulder pain.

  6. Improving patient experience with spinal cord stimulation: implications of position-related changes in neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Edgar; Abejón, David

    2014-06-01

      The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the clinical implications of position-related changes in spinal cord stimulation and technological improvements to better meet patient needs.   Keywords applicable to spinal cord stimulation therapy, including paresthesia perception, spinal cord position, lead impedance, and sensor technologies, were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Literature analysis, combined with extensive clinical experience with spinal cord stimulation therapy, forms the basis of this review.   Fluctuations in paresthesia perception are largely caused by variation in the distance between the fixed electrodes and the spinal cord consequent to patient movement. Patients employ multiple strategies with varying success to manage position-related fluctuations in stimulation perception, which may result in suboptimum therapy delivery.   A new type of spinal cord stimulation system that incorporates accelerometer technology to automatically adjust stimulation amplitude based on patient position may better meet patient analgesic needs and is in early clinical application. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. Changes in human palatine bone location and tongue position during prenatal palatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, I; Bach-Petersen, S; Graem, N; Kjaer, T

    1993-01-01

    Closure of the palatal shelves during normal prenatal palate formation is commonly supposed to be the result of a complex interaction between tissue growth processes and functional factors such as mandibular and tongue movements. The purpose of the present study was to analyze tongue and palatine bone positions during palatal shelf closure. The material consisted of 40 normal human fetuses (CRL 26-57 mm). The series covers the developmental stages in which palatal shelf closure takes place. The spatial relation between the tip of the tongue and the lips was examined by visual inspection, and radiographic/cephalometric methods were used for analyzing palatine bone positions. On axial radiographs of the upper jaws, the angle in the horizontal plane between the vertical plates of the palatine bones was measured. The study revealed that the vertical plates of the palatine bones rotate on their vertical axes during palatal closure, the mean interpalatine angle changing from 23.7 degrees (SD 2.0 degrees) to 13.3 degrees (SD 3.2 degrees), P palatine bones occurred while the cranial base was still unossified. Moreover, the tip of the tongue became visible between the lips immediately after palate closure. In the present study the rotational changes observed in skeletal tissue provided information about soft tissue changes during palatal closure. These normal developmental aspects are discussed in relation to skeletal deviations in congenital cleft palate malformations.

  8. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  9. Standing Ovations and Profound Learning: Cultural Diversity in Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Describes the profound learning that took place at the International Children's Theatre Festival in Toyama City, Japan in July 2000. Argues that participation by the Japanese-American Drama Ensemble, a youth group from the public schools in Lexington, Massachusetts, and more than 400 children from all over the planet, showcased the cultural…

  10. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  11. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  12. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zachar; Maurine Neiman

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution o...

  13. Moving Beyond the “Lump-Sum”: A Case Study of Partnership for Positive Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bunde-Birouste

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a foundation of an integrated sport program for positive social change and health promotion, this paper presents a case study of the relationship between a corporate sponsor (JP Morgan, and a community-based health promotion/social change organization (Football United. The paper articulates the various issues that arise in management of such a program, and the involvement of sponsors in its operation. Illustrated through the JP Morgan - Football United case study, the paper explores: the difficulties of maintaining a program that remains faithful to the expectations and demands of each stakeholder group involved; the challenges involved in harnessing support for a program when moving beyond the one-dimensional transfer of funds; the different needs and expectations of/for volunteers this type of complex health promotion intervention. This case study has been written to propose that an “integrated partnership” between a corporate body and a social change organization can produce significant advantages beyond the scope of uncomplicated financial contribution The key feature documented is that corporate investment can move beyond abstract “lump-sum” social responsibility, towards targeted contributions to detailed outcomes through sustainable and meaningful involvement in a health promotion framework. This in turn equates to funding stability and a more empowering partnership for the health promotion/social change organization.

  14. Positive emotion is associated with 6-year change in functional status in individuals aged 60 and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brummett, B. H.; Babyak, M. A.; Gronbaek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses examined both positive emotion (PE) at baseline and change in PE from baseline to follow up as predictors of change in functional status (FS). Initial models examined baseline PE, and change in PE, as predictors of change in FS adjusted for baseline PE, negative emotion (NE), FS, and age...

  15. Positive Change in Feedback Perceptions and Behavior: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Mejia, Erika; Rezet, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Providing and learning from feedback are essential components of medical education, and typically described as resistant to change. But given a decade of change in the clinical context in which feedback occurs, the authors asked if, and how, perceptions of feedback and feedback behaviors might have changed in response to contextual affordances. In 2017, the authors conducted a follow-up, ethnographic study on 2 general pediatric floors at the same children's hospital where another ethnographic study on a general pediatric floor was conducted in 2007. Data sources included (1) 21 and 34 hours of observation in 2007 and 2017, respectively, (2) 35 and 25 interviews with general pediatric attending physicians and residents in 2007 and 2017, respectively, and (3) a review of 120 program documents spanning 2007 to 2017. Data were coded and organized around 3 recommendations for feedback that were derived from 2007 data and served as standards for assessing change in 2017. Data revealed progress in achieving each recommendation. Compared with 2007, participants in 2017 more clearly distinguished between feedback and evaluation; residents were more aware of in-the-moment feedback, and they had shifted their orientation from evaluation and grades to feedback and learning. Explanations for progress in achieving recommendations, which were derived from the data, pointed to institutional and national influences, namely, the pediatric milestones. On the basis of follow-up, ethnographic data, changes in the clinical context of pediatric education may afford positive change in perceptions of feedback and feedback behavior and point to influences within and beyond the institution. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Do LGBT aging trainings effectuate positive change in mainstream elder service providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristen E; Krinsky, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to provide empirical evidence regarding whether attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of elder-service providers can be positively affected as a result of attending cultural competency training on the unique challenges of sexual and gender minorities. Stigmatization throughout the lifespan may have a causal influence on barriers to care, social isolation, and concomitant health disparities. Data were collected for this study at 4 Massachusetts training events to pilot a cultural competency workshop on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) aging for mainstream elder service providers. This quasi-experimental study included the analysis of pre- and posttest surveys completed by the service-provider attendees (N = 76). The analytic strategy included descriptive statistics, paired t tests, chi-square analyses, and repeated measures analyses of variance. Findings revealed statistically significant improvement in numerous aspects of providers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions subsequent to the training sessions. These included (p = .000) awareness of LGBT resources, policy disparities, spousal benefits for same-sex couples, and the intention to challenge homophobic remarks. This study concludes that mainstream elder-service provider training on LGBT aging issues results in positive change. Recommendations include long-term follow up of participants, the inception of agency-level surveys to appraise institutional culture change, and increased curriculum on transgender older adults.

  17. The position of marketing in a contemporary organization – character of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Pluta–Olearnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge from the area of marketing is evolving and what reflects this evolution are new marketing concepts formed in response to the challenges arising from the environment of companies. The main problem discussed in this article is the assessment of the character and scope of the changes in the role of marketing in a company in the context of adaptation to new conditions in the market environment, in particular, covering such phenomena as: rivals’ activities, consumers’ preferences, as well as technological changes and the globalization of markets. In the first part of the article an overview of classic solutions for the positioning of marketing in a company, described in literature concerning marketing is presented. In the second part an attempt was made to define the current role of marketing in a company from the perspective of the positioning of this function in the structure of a contemporary organization, as well as to define the tasks ahead of the marketing director (leader. The deliberations were based on secondary sources of information – marketing magazines and practical examples.

  18. Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimus, B F; Ormel, J; Aleman, A; Penninx, B W J H; Riese, H

    2013-11-01

    High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were tested: (1) positive LEs (PLEs) decrease and negative LEs (NLEs) increase neuroticism; (2) LE-driven change in neuroticism is partly long-lasting; and (3) partly independent of LE-driven changes in anxiety/depression; and (4) childhood adversity (before age 16 years) moderates the influence of NLEs/PLEs on neuroticism scores in adult life. Data came from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety [NESDA, n = 2981, mean age 41.99 years (s.d. = 13.08), 66.6% women]. At follow-up (T₂) we assessed PLEs/NLEs with the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) over the prior 24 months and categorized them over recent and distant PLE/NLE measures (1-3 and 4-24 months prior to T₂ respectively) to distinguish distant NLE/PLE-driven change in trait neuroticism (using the Dutch version of the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) from state deviations due to changes in symptoms of depression (self-rated version of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, IDS-SR30) and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI). Distant NLEs were associated with higher and distant PLEs with lower neuroticism scores. The effects of distant LEs were weak but long-lasting, especially for distant PLEs. Distant NLE-driven change in neuroticism was associated with change in symptoms of anxiety/depression whereas the effect of distant PLEs on neuroticism was independent of any such changes. Childhood adversity weakened the impact of distant NLEs but enhanced the impact of distant PLEs on neuroticism. Distant PLEs are associated with small but long-lasting decreases in neuroticism regardless of changes in symptom levels of anxiety/depression. Long-lasting increases in neuroticism

  19. Infant Pupil Diameter Changes in Response to Others' Positive and Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age. PMID:22110605

  20. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  1. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  2. Changes in Energy Metabolism after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Ryo; Ikeda, Kaori; Minami, Takuma; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hamada, Satoshi; Murase, Kimihiko; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Oga, Toru; Akamizu, Takashi; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-09-15

    Disrupted energy homeostasis in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to weight gain. Paradoxically, treating OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may also promote weight gain, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To explore the underlying mechanism by which patients with OSA gain weight after CPAP. A comprehensive assessment of energy metabolism was performed in 63 newly diagnosed OSA study participants (51 men; 60.8 ± 10.1 yr; apnea-hypopnea index >20 h(-1)) at baseline, CPAP initiation, and at a 3-month follow-up. Measurements included polysomnography, body weight, body composition, basal metabolic rate (BMR), hormones (norepinephrine, cortisol, leptin, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1), dietary intake, eating behavior, and physical activity. BMR significantly decreased after CPAP (1,584 kcal/d at baseline, 1,561 kcal/d at CPAP initiation, and 1,508 kcal/d at follow-up; P physical activity and total caloric intake did not significantly change. In multivariate regression, baseline apnea-hypopnea index, Δurine norepinephrine, and CPAP adherence were significant predictors of ΔBMR. The weight gainers had higher leptin levels, lower ghrelin levels, and higher eating behavior scores than the non-weight gainers, indicating a positive energy balance and disordered eating behavior among the weight gainers. Among the parameters related to energy metabolism, increased caloric intake was a particularly significant predictor of weight gain. Although a reduction in BMR after CPAP predisposes to a positive energy balance, dietary intake and eating behavior had greater impacts on weight change. These findings highlight the importance of lifestyle modifications combined with CPAP. Clinical trial registered with http://www.umin.ac.jp/english/ (UMIN000012639).

  3. The effect on snoring of using a pillow to change the head position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazan, Dorotheea; Mehrmann, Uwe; Wenzel, Angela; Maurer, Joachim T

    2017-09-01

    Although not a disease, primary snoring often leads to social problems. In an earlier retrospective pilot study, we found hints that individuals were snoring less in a lateral versus a supine head position. The aim of this study is to elucidate on the effect of an anti-snoring pillow which changes the head position. We designed an interventional, controlled, and randomized crossover study. It included 22 participants, between 18 and 78 years, who snored, had a BMI ≤ 30, and a sleep partner. Obstructive sleep apnea was ruled out by polysomnography (PSG) or by respiratory polygraphy (PG). Two potential participants dropped out. The first two phases were done at home (4 weeks in total), followed by two nights of polysomnography in our sleep laboratory. During all phases, questionnaires regarding snoring, sleep quality, and pillow tolerance were completed by the patients and, as relevant, by their partners. The PSG parameters revealed a significant reduction in the snoring index (p = 0.03) when on the activated pillow without a deterioration in other respiratory parameters. This correlated well with the visual analog scale (VAS) that showed a significant decrease in snoring with the activated pillow according to the bed partners (p pillow during the study period was 100%. This study shows that by using a pillow to change the head position, it is possible to reduce both subjective and objective snoring severity. DRKS 00008744 AND ETHICS COMMISSION REGISTRY NUMBER REGISTRY NUMBER 2013-406 M-MA.

  4. Positive Medication Changes Resulting from Comprehensive and Noncomprehensive Medication Reviews in a Medicare Part D Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Allison; Augustine, Jill; Taylor, Ann M; Martin, Rose; Warholak, Terri L

    2017-03-01

    Health care organizations face the challenge of reducing costs while improving health outcomes. Currently, more than 39 million seniors are enrolled in a Medicare Part D prescription benefit plan, many of whom also qualify for medication therapy management (MTM) services. MTM programs provide valuable services designed to prevent or resolve medication-related problems (MRPs). Two core components of all MTM programs include comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) with followup interventions and focused non-CMR interventions. Currently, there is limited research comparing the rate of MRPs resolved by CMR and non-CMR interventions. To determine whether CMRs versus non-CMR interventions resulted in more pharmacist-initiated intervention recommendations and positive medication changes. This retrospective, cross-sectional quality improvement project evaluated outcomes for individuals who received interventions following a CMR compared with those who received non-CMR interventions as part of a comprehensive MTM program. For this project, eligible individuals qualified for an MTM program. A positive medication change was defined as the addition of an appropriate medication or the removal of an inappropriate medication within 120 days of a pharmacist recommendation. Differences between the groups were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. During the 2-year period (2012 and 2013), 788,756 beneficiaries were enrolled in the MTM program and evaluated for potential MRPs. In both years, pharmacists recommended more medication changes per member for those receiving a CMR (0.81 in 2012 and 0.82 in 2013) compared with the non-CMR group (0.68 in 2012 and 0.61 in 2013; P value MTM program who received non-CMR interventions had a higher likelihood of having positive medication changes than those receiving CMRs. These results are enlightening and may provide initial evidence to support inclusion of a non-CMR performance metric for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service

  5. Changes in the Position of the Zambales Shoreline Before and After the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo Eruption: Controls of Shoreline Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline changes along the southern Zambales coast, both short-term - a few to several tens of years - and long-term - hundreds to a few thousands of years - have been determined from bathymetric and topographic maps, satellite images, space shuttle data, and aerial photographs. The dramatic increase of sediment input along the Zambales coast due to the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption resulted in immediate, extensive, and rapid rates of coastal progradation at and adjacent to river mouths. The Bucao River mouth experienced the highest rates of progradation following the eruption, but rapid retreats also occurred. Furthermore, similar advances and retreats of this shoreline were also observed prior to the 1991 eruption; thus, the net change in shoreline position has been minimal. In contrast, progradation has been more pronounced along the discharge area of the Pamatawan and Sto. Tomas Rivers. This is surprising, given that their combined sediment yield is less than that of the Bucao River. Along the more southern segment of the coast, there has been greater progradation which may be attributed to the relatively gentler gradient of the adjacent shelf. Off the Bucao River, a submarine canyon taps the river mouth directly; thus, most of the sediments bypass the coast and shelf.The deltaic promontory that now characterizes the mouth of Sto. Tomas River was formed only after 1944. The delta formation cannot be due to the shifting of the river mouth because the Sto. Tomas River had been emptying at the same point even before the delta buildup. An increase in precipitation in the early 60's increased the river's discharge, which could have elevated the sediment yield leading to the delta buildup.Autocyclic changes in the distributary system of the Sto. Tomas alluvial fan redirected the flow of sediment to the Pamatawan River probably during the two episodes of eruption of Mt. Pinatubo prior to 1991. This resulted in the buildup of a delta much larger than

  6. Effects of different femoral tunnel positions on tension changes in anterolateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Mai; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Kaori; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Several kinds of anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstructions to augment intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to better control anterolateral rotational instability (ALRI) have been reported. However, the optimal femoral attachment site for ALL reconstruction is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different femoral attachment sites on the tension changes through knee motions in different situations in order to determine a recommended femoral attachment site for ALL reconstruction. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were included. ALL reconstructions were performed with three different femoral attachment sites (F1: 2 mm anterior and 2 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle, F2: 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle and F3: position for the lateral extra-articular tenodesis). The graft tension changes were measured by a graft tensioning system during knee flexion-extension and manual maximum internal/external tibial rotation in the following situations: (1) intact, (2) ALL cut, (3) ALL and ACL cut and (4) ALL cut and ACL reconstructed. Effects of the different femoral attachment sites, the route superficial or deep to the LCL, and the situations of (1) to (4) were calculated via repeated-measures analysis of variance. The tension of F1 was higher in flexion and lower in extension, whereas the tension of F2 and F3 was higher in extension and lower in flexion. F2 showed the smallest tension change. Situations of (1) to (4) did not affect tension changes. The graft tension became higher with internal rotation and lower with external rotation regardless of femoral attachment sites or situations. With F2-4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle-the reconstructed ALL had the least tension change with only a slight increase in tension as the knee extended. This result indicates that F2 is recommended for ALL reconstruction to better control ALRI, which will help determine the

  7. Journal Metrics-Based Position of after the Change of Its Text Language to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After changing its language from Korean or English to English only in 2010, the journal metrics of Diabetes & Metabolism Journal (DMJ were analyzed to assess whether this change in the journal policy was successful. The journal metric items that were analyzed were the following: impact factor; total citations; countries of authors; proportion of the articles funded out of the total number of original articles; and Hirsch-index (H-index. A retrospective, descriptive analysis was carried out using various databases, such as KoreaMed, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, Web of Science, and Journal Citation Ranking. The journal's impact factor was 2.054, which corresponds to 83/122 (68.0% out of the 2012 JCR endocrinology and metabolism category. The number of the journal's total citations was 330 in 2013. In addition to Korean authors, authors from 13 other countries published papers in the journal from 2010 to 2013. The number of funded papers from 2010 to 2013 was 65 out of 148 original articles (43.9%. The journal's H-index from KoreaMed Synapse was 7, and that from Web of Science was 9. It can be concluded that changing the journal's language to English was successful based on journal metrics. DMJ is currently positioned as an international journal based on the international diversity of authors and editors, its sufficiently high proportion of funded articles, its relatively high impact factor, and the number of total citations.

  8. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    supporters having positive assumptions of decision-making capacity as a factor affecting supported decision-making. This commentary aims to give a focus for practice and policy efforts for ensuring people with severe or profound cognitive disability receive appropriate support in decision-making, a clear obligation of signatory nations of the UNCRPD. A focus on changing supporter attitudes rather than placing the onus of change on people with disability is consistent with the social model of disability, a key driver of the UNCRPD.

  9. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...

  10. Profound hyperlipidaemia due to concomitant diabetes and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Samaan, M Constantine; Murphy, Nuala; Costigan, Colm

    2010-01-01

    A previously well 5-year-old girl presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to be profoundly hyperlipidaemic. Further investigations showed that she had associated hypothyroidism. She responded to insulin and L-thyroxine treatments and her lipid profile returned to normal 2 months after diagnosis. Despite starting anticoagulant therapy early, she developed deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. Her family screen did not demonstrate familial hy...

  11. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  12. Developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Kenji; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe; Yaguchi, Chie; Kiyota, Takeo

    2018-01-10

    We investigated developmental changes in shortening of pro-saccade reaction time while maintaining neck flexion. Subjects comprised 135 children (3-14 years) and 29 young adults (19-23 years). Children were divided into six groups in 2-year age strata. Pro-saccade reaction tasks for 30 s were performed in neck rest and flexion positions. Reaction times under each position were averaged in every 10-s period. Under neck rest position, reaction time in the 0-10 s period was significantly longer in the 3- to 4-year-old group than in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above. No significant age effect was found for reaction time in the 0-10 s period in the 5- to 6-year-old group and above. Although a significant effect of neck flexion was not observed until the 9- to 10-year-old group, significant shortening of reaction time with neck flexion was found in the 11- to 12-year-old group and above. Furthermore, this shortening was maintained until the first 20-s period in the 11- to 12-year-old group and during the entire 30 s in the 13- to 14-year-old and above. These results suggest that brain activation with the maintenance of neck flexion, related to shortening of the pro-saccade reaction time, was found from a later age of approximately 11 years and above, compared with the age at which information-processing function in the pro-saccade was enhanced. In addition, brain activation with the maintenance of neck flexion was sustained longer with age.

  13. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  14. Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ayna B; Brendryen, Håvar; Darnell, Farnad J; Wennesland, Dag K

    2013-07-31

    There is a need for studies that can highlight principles of addiction recovery. Because social relationships are involved in all change processes, understanding how social motivations affect the recovery process is vital to guide support programs. The objective was to develop a model of recovery by examining addicted individuals' social motivations through longitudinal assessment of non-professional support dyads. A qualitative, longitudinal study design was used, combining focus groups and in-depth interviews with addicted individuals and their sponsors. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory: open coding and memos for conceptual labelling, axial coding for category building, and selective coding for theory building. The setting was an addiction recovery social support program in Oslo, Norway. The informants included nine adults affected by addiction, six sponsors, and the program coordinator. The participants were addicted to either alcohol (2), benzodiazepines (1), pain killers (1) or polydrug-use (5). The sponsors were unpaid, and had no history of addiction problems. Support perceived to be ineffective emerged in dyads with no operationalized goal, and high emotional availability with low degree of practical support. Support perceived to be effective was signified by the sponsor attending to power imbalance and the addict coming into position to help others and feel useful. The findings appear best understood as a positive identity-model of recovery, indicated by the pursuit of skill building relevant to a non-drug using identity, and enabled by the on-going availability of instrumental support. This produced situations where role reversals were made possible, leading to increased self-esteem. Social support programs should be based on a positive identity-model of recovery that enable the building of a life-sustainable identity.

  15. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-04-01

    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change.

  16. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; de Wit, S.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability

  17. The Gender Mix among Staff in Schools for Pupils with Severe and Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties and Its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Phil

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on several studies of gender mix among staff in ten schools for students with severe, profound and/or multiple disabilities. Headteachers' perceptions of the impact of women's dominance in these positions are explored, and a series of proposals for future recruitment and staff development is put forth. (Contains seven…

  18. Establishing a Connection between Quality of Life and Pre-Academic Instruction for Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzien, Jonna L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education has begun to concentrate its efforts on developing objectives and procedural strategies that promote a positive quality of life for students with profound multiple disabilities, while determining which educational strategies are the most appropriate. A multi-element design was used to compare the effects of two…

  19. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  20. The impact of treatment for head and neck cancer on positive psychological change within a year of completing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, S; Moss, T P

    2018-03-01

    Head and neck cancer carries a high level of morbidity and mortality. So why could anyone find having such a disease a positive event? The adversity hypothesis of "what doesn't kill you makes you stronger" suggests that people can use adversity to develop as human beings. This positive psychological change has received little attention in relation to head and neck cancer. Responses to the Silver Lining Questionnaire, University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Short-Form 12 were collected from a postal survey, 3 to 12 months after the completion of treatment for head and neck cancer. Fifty-two (63%) people returned the survey and were included in the analysis. Time since completion of therapy did not show any relationship with positive psychological change. Tumour stage and treatment regimen both had a relationship with positive change. Participants with lower stage tumours had higher levels of positive change than those with tumours of higher stages. Participants who had surgery alone reported more positive change than those who had surgery with radiotherapy. A social factor related to greater change was being married or living with a partner when compared to living alone. Further research would aid the identification of bio-psychosocial factors that influence the development of positive psychological change and inform the development of rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intubation of Profoundly Agitated Patients Treated with Prehospital Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a

  2. Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M; Dhingra, Satvinder S; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2010-12-01

    We sought to describe the prevalence of mental health and illness, the stability of both diagnoses over time, and whether changes in mental health level predicted mental illness in a cohort group. In 2009, we analyzed data from the 1995 and 2005 Midlife in the United States cross-sectional surveys (n = 1723), which measured positive mental health and 12-month mental disorders of major depressive episode, panic, and generalized anxiety disorders. Population prevalence of any of 3 mental disorders and levels of mental health appeared stable but were dynamic at the individual level. Fifty-two percent of the 17.5% of respondents with any mental illness in 2005 were new cases; one half of those languishing in 1995 improved in 2005, and one half of those flourishing in 1995 declined in 2005. Change in mental health was strongly predictive of prevalence and incidence (operationalized as a new, not necessarily a first, episode) of mental illness in 2005. Gains in mental health predicted declines in mental illness, supporting the call for public mental health promotion; losses of mental health predicted increases in mental illness, supporting the call for public mental health protection.

  3. Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Brovkin, Victor; Cox, Peter M.

    2006-05-01

    There is good evidence that higher global temperatures will promote a rise of greenhouse gas levels, implying a positive feedback which will increase the effect of anthropogenic emissions on global temperatures. However, the magnitude of this effect predicted by the available models remains highly uncertain, due to the accumulation of uncertainties in the processes thought to be involved. Here we present an alternative way of estimating the magnitude of the feedback effect based on reconstructed past changes. Linking this information with the mid-range Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimation of the greenhouse gas effect on temperature we suggest that the feedback of global temperature on atmospheric CO2 will promote warming by an extra 15-78% on a century-scale. This estimate may be conservative as we did not account for synergistic effects of likely temperature moderated increase in other greenhouse gases. Our semi-empirical approach independently supports process based simulations suggesting that feedback may cause a considerable boost in warming.

  4. The process through which an advocacy intervention resulted in positive change for battered women over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Deborah I; Sullivan, Cris M

    2002-02-01

    A prior experimental evaluation of a community-based advocacy program for women with abusive partners demonstrated positive change in the lives of women even 2 years postintervention (C M. Sullivan & D. I. Bybee, 1999). The current study explored the complex mediational process through which this change occurred, using longitudinal structural equation modeling and formal tests of mediation. As hypothesized, the advocacy intervention first resulted in women successfully obtaining desired community resources and increasing their social support, which enhanced their overall quality of life. This improvement in well-being appeared to serve as a protective factor from subsequent abuse, as women who received the intervention were significantly less likely to be abused at 2-year follow-up compared with women in the control condition. Increased quality of life completely mediated the impact of the advocacy intervention on later reabuse. Discussion places advocacy for women in the context of other efforts that are needed to build an effective community response to preventing intimate violence against women.

  5. The Change of Semen Superoxide Dismutase and Acrosin Activity in the Sterility of Male Patients with Positive Antisperm Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhao, Enyang; Zhang, Chunying; Li, Xuedong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the change of semen superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acrosin activities in the male sterility patients with positive antisperm antibody (AsAb). The activity of SOD was measured by xanthine oxidase assay and sperm acrosin activity was calculated by BAEE/ADH. Our data show that compared with the normal fertility group, the semen SOD activity in AsAb-positive patients was significantly lower. Similarly, the sperm acrosin activity in AsAb-positive patients was also significantly lower. Our results suggest that the sterility resulting from positive AsAb may be related with the changes of semen SOD and sperm acrosin activities.

  6. Changes in Habitual Sleep Duration after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Ryo; Minami, Takuma; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Murase, Kimihiko; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Oga, Toru; Chin, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect not only sleep quality but also sleep duration. Determining the therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on habitual sleep profiles may shed light on the impact of OSA on sleep duration. To determine whether and how CPAP affects habitual sleep duration in patients with OSA. Assessments of sleep duration and sleep quality were performed on 57 newly diagnosed study subjects with OSA (46 men; median age, 63 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, >20 h(-1)) at baseline and 3 months after initiation of CPAP therapy. Measurements included in-laboratory sleep tests (polysomnography), assessments of habitual sleep (actigraphy with sleep diary for 7 d), and questionnaires on subjective symptoms (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Actigraphic night sleep time did not change after CPAP (from 354.0 ± 64.5 min to 353.0 ± 57.0 min; P = 0.87) in the entire group, despite improvements in sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation. Changes in habitual night sleep duration varied among the participants; habitual night sleep duration increased by 33 minutes (interquartile range, 14-45 min) in 28 participants (sleep time restorers) and decreased by 23 minutes (interquartile range, -48 to -11 min) in 29 participants (sleep time nonrestorers). Subgroup analyses revealed that sleep time restorers were characterized at baseline as having shorter and more fragmented sleep with frequent daytime napping. Nonrestorers were characterized by frequent use of hypnotic drugs and comorbid insomnia, despite longer habitual sleep duration. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, daytime sleepiness, and the frequency of daytime napping were improved after CPAP only in the sleep time restorers, whereas subjective sleep quality was improved in the nonrestorers. Multivariate linear regression showed that shorter baseline night sleep time, baseline daytime napping

  7. How guiding coalitions promote positive culture change in hospitals: a longitudinal mixed methods interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika L; Cherlin, Emily; Fosburgh, Heather; Ting, Henry H; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-11-03

    Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative. We conducted a longitudinal, mixed methods intervention study of 10 hospitals over a 2-year period; data included surveys of 223 individuals (response rates 83%-94% depending on wave) and 393 in-depth interviews with clinical and management staff most engaged with the LSL intervention in the 10 hospitals. We measured change in culture and RSMR, and key aspects of working related to team membership, turnover, level of participation and approaches to conflict management. The six hospitals that experienced substantial culture change and greater reductions in RSMR demonstrated distinctions in: (1) effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the 'guiding coalition' in each hospital); (2) authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition; and (3) distinct patterns of managing conflict. Guiding coalition size and turnover were not associated with success (p values>0.05). In the six hospitals that experienced substantial positive culture change, staff indicated that the LSL learnings were already being applied to other improvement efforts. Hospitals that were most successful in a national quality collaborative to shift hospital culture and reduce RSMR showed distinct patterns in membership diversity, authentic participation and capacity for conflict management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. Evaluation of three-dimensional position change of the condylar head after orthognathic surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-made condyle positioning jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Yun; Choi, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM/CAD)-made condyle positioning jig in orthognathic surgery. The sample consisted of 40 mandibular condyles of 20 patients with class III malocclusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with semirigid fixation (6 men and 14 women; mean age, 25 y; mean amount of mandibular setback, 5.8 mm). Exclusion criteria were patients who needed surgical correction of the frontal ramal inclination and had signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorder before surgery. Three-dimensional computed tomograms were taken 1 month before the surgery (T1) and 1 day after the surgery (T2). The condylar position was evaluated at the T1 and T2 stages on the axial, frontal, and sagittal aspects in the three-dimensional coordinates. The linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus between T1 and T2 was also evaluated in 30 condyles (15 patients), with the exception of 10 condyles of 5 patients who received mandibular angle reduction surgery. There was no significant difference in the condylar position in the frontal and sagittal aspects (P > 0.05). Although there was a significant difference in the condylar position in the axial aspect (P change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus, the mean change was 1.4 mm and 60% of the samples showed a minimal change of less than 1 mm. The results of this study suggest that CAD/CAM-made condyle positioning jig is easy to install and reliable to use in orthognathic surgery.

  9. Microswitch Technology for Enabling Self-Determined Responding in Children with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 18 studies reporting on the use of microswitch technology to enable self-determined responding in children with profound and multiple disabilities. Identified studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) experimental design, (c) microswitches and procedures used, and (d) main results. The 18 studies formed three groups based on whether the microswitch technology was primarily intended to enable the child to (a) access preferred stimuli (7 studies), (b) choose between stimuli (6 studies), or (c) recruit attention/initiate social interaction (5 studies). The results of these studies were consistently positive and support the use of microswitch technology in educational programs for children with profound and multiple disabilities as a means to impact their environment and interact with others. Implications for delivery of augmentative and alternative communication intervention to children with profound and multiple disabilities are discussed.

  10. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  11. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  12. Head Position Change Is Not Associated with Acute Changes in Bilateral Cerebral Oxygenation in Stable Preterm Infants during the First 3 Days of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve Ming-Che; Rao, Rakesh; Mathur, Amit M

    2015-06-01

    Several recent intraventricular hemorrhage prevention bundles include midline head positioning to prevent potential disturbances in cerebral hemodynamics. We aimed to study the impact of head position change on regional cerebral saturations (SctO2) in preterm infants (position change were compared using paired t-test. In relatively stable preterm infants (gestational age 26.5 ± 1.7 weeks, birth weight 930 ± 220 g; n = 20), bilateral SctO2 remained within normal range (71.1-75.3%) when the head was turned from midline position to either side. Stable preterm infants tolerated brief changes in head position from midline without significant alternation in bilateral SctO2; the impact on critically ill infants needs further evaluation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Interaural comparison of spiral ganglion cell counts in profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of 25- and 30-degree Trendelenburg positions on intraocular pressure changes during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Tomofumi

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 25-degree and 30-degree Trendelenburg positions on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). This prospective study involved a total of 30 consecutive patients undergoing RARP. All participants were randomly divided into two groups: Trendelenburg position with the head down at 25 degrees or 30 degrees. In addition to representative operative outcomes, IOP was measured at six discrete time points; Time 1 (T1): before induction of general anesthesia, patients in a horizontal supine position; T2: after induction of general anesthesia, patients in a horizontal supine position; T3: 1 hour after adopting the Trendelenburg position; T4: 2 hours after adopting the Trendelenburg position; T5: after pneumoperitoneum resolution in the Trendelenburg position; T6: anesthetized before awakening in a supine position. The total and console operative times, estimated blood loss, and intravenous fluid intake during RARP did not significantly differ between the two groups. While the IOP values measured at the same time points were similar between the two groups, the 25-degree Trendelenburg position significantly attenuated the IOP change from T1 to T3, T4, and T5 compared with those at 30 degrees. These findings suggest that RARP in the 25-degree Trendelenburg position may reduce the risks of position-related ophthalmic complications without increasing the difficulty of the surgical procedure.

  15. Effects of Changes of Foot Position on Romberg's Quotient of Postural Sway and Leg Muscles Electromyographic Activities in Standing

    OpenAIRE

    Morioka, Shu; Okita, Manabu; Takata, Yu; Miyamoto, Shozo; Itaba, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Changing of standing position and visual blocking methods have been used as a convenient evaluation of standing balance by physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of changes of foot positions on Romberg's quotient of postural sway and the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles activities in standing for normal men. Subjects were 45 college students. For the measurement of muscles activities, 15 subjects were selected at random from among the 45 stude...

  16. Profound Muscle Weakness and Pain after One Dose of Actonel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Badayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO defines osteopenia as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviation (SD below the bone density of a normal young adult Iqbal 2000. Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point Iqbal 2000. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications used to treat osteoporosis, Padget's disease of bone, and osteopenia. We report a woman who developed profound muscle weakness and pain after one dose of Risedronate (Actonel.

  17. Positive Developmental Changes after Transition to High School: Is Retrospective Growth Correlated with Measured Changes in Current Status of Personal Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Shuhei; Taku, Kanako

    2018-02-14

    The transition to high school is generally considered as a stressful turning point in adolescent development, but some students experience personal growth (i.e., positive developmental changes) through that experience. It is important to examine the mechanism behind such positive changes to understand various developmental patterns of adolescents during the transition. However, the concept of growth in this research area remains unexplored. Some researchers have questioned whether retrospective, self-reported growth reflects actual positive changes in the perception of personal growth. We elaborated on the concept of growth after high school transition by examining whether retrospective appraisal of personal growth after transition to high school is correlated with measured change in growth. Two hundred and sixty-two Japanese adolescents (aged 14-16 years, 50% girls) participated in surveys right before and right after transition. We assessed five domains of growth, including improved relating to others, identification of new possibilities, increased sense of personal strength, spiritual growth, and greater appreciation of life. The results showed that retrospective assessment of growth and measured change during transition were positively associated, provided the adolescents reported the transition as an important turning point in their lives. Adolescents who experienced salient positive changes across the transition were more likely to engage in intrusive and deliberate rumination and social support than adolescents who reported fewer changes. In summary, retrospective growth covaried with measured change only when adolescents perceived the transition as impactful in their lives.

  18. Changes in lung volume and ventilation following transition from invasive to noninvasive respiratory support and prone positioning in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize secondary lung injury, ventilated preterm infants are extubated as soon as possible. To maximize extubation success, they are often placed in prone position. The effect of extubation and subsequent prone positioning on lung volumes is currently unknown. Changes in end-expiratory lung

  19. Effect of body position changes on postprandial gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in the healthy premature neonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Michiel P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Dent, John; Lontis, Ros; Goodchild, Louise; McCall, Lisa M.; Haslam, Ross; Davidson, Geoffrey P.; Omari, Taher

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify a body-positioning regimen that promotes gastric emptying (GE) and reduces gastroesophageal reflux (GER) by changing body position 1 hour after feeding. Study design Ten healthy preterm infants (7 male; mean postmenstrual age, 36 weeks [range, 33 to 38 weeks]) were monitored

  20. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure on the pulmonary changes promoted by immersion in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Quadros, Janayna Rodembuch Borba; Ribeiro, Bruna Esmerio; Callegaro, Letícia; Veppo, Aline Arebalo; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Peçanha, Franck Maciel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether different levels of CPAP improve the lung volumes and capacities of healthy subjects immersed in water. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, conducted between April and June of 2016, involving healthy female volunteers who were using oral contraceptives. Three 20-min immersion protocols were applied: control (no CPAP); CPAP5 (CPAP at 5 cmH2O); and CPAP10 (CPAP at 10 cmH2O). We evaluated HR, SpO2, FVC, FEV1, the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEF25-75%) at three time points: pre-immersion; 10 min after immersion; and 10 min after the end of each protocol. Results: We evaluated 13 healthy volunteers. The CPAP10 protocol reversed the restrictive pattern of lung function induced by immersion in water, maintaining pulmonary volumes and capacities for a longer period than did the CPAP5 protocol. Conclusions: When the hemodynamic change causing a persistent lung disorder, only the application of higher positive pressures is effective in maintaining long-term improvements in the pulmonary profile. PMID:29340488

  1. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-07-01

    Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Group activities for children with PIMD initiated by a direct support worker were video-recorded. The behaviour and positioning of the children and the behaviour of the direct support workers were coded. Limited peer-directed behaviour of the children with PIMD and peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers are observed. Weak associations were found between the positioning or peer interaction-influencing behaviours and the behaviour of children with PIMD. Children with PIMD show social interest in each other during group activities. More knowledge is needed to create an environment which facilitates peer-directed behaviours of persons with PIMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  3. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  4. Eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graidis, Christos; Golias, Christos; Dimitriadis, Dimokritos; Dimitriadis, Georgios; Bitsis, Theodosis; Dimitrelos, Ilias; Tsiakou, Afroditi; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-02-25

    The interactions among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial pathophysiological process involving some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). Glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors are only restricted to blood platelets and they bind fibrinogen and adhesion proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor to form cross bridges between adjacent platelets. IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are an object of intense research activity for target therapy worldwide during the last decades. Three GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This case report discusses a forty-four-year-old male patient with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and developed profound thrombocytopenia within 4 hours of first administration of eptifibatide. This report adds another case of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia to the medical literature and endorses the importance of platelet count monitoring after initiating therapy with this agent.

  5. Morphological changes in the position of the mandibular foramen in dentate and edentate Brazilian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, F B; Groppo, F C; Volpato, M C; Caria, P H F

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed the mandibular foramen (MF) position variability in dentate and edentate Brazilian mandibles. Eighty dentate and 79 edentate mandibles of unknown sex were measured bilaterally using a digital caliper (0.1-mm precision). Horizontal linear measurements (HM) were done from the MF to the anterior border of the mandibular ramus (MF-A) and from the MF to the posterior border of the mandibular ramus (MF-B). Vertical linear measurements (VM) were done from the MF to the most inferior point of the mandibular notch (MF-C) and from the MF to the inferior border of the mandibular ramus (MF-D). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (alpha = 5%). The HM means and standard deviations (+/-SD) for MF-A were, edentate right (ER): 17.5 (+/-3.2) mm, edentate left (EL): 17.4 (+/-3.4) mm, dentate right (DR): 19.2 (+/-3.6) mm, and dentate left (DL): 18.8 (+/-3.8) mm. The means (+/-SD) for the MF-B measurements were, respectively, ER: 12.8 (+/-2.4) mm, EL: 12.9 (+/-2.3) mm, DR: 14.2 (+/-2.4) mm, and DL: 13.9 (+/-2.6) mm. The VM values for the MF-C measurements were, ER: 23.4 (+/-3.8) mm, EL: 22.9 (+/-3.7) mm, DR: 23.6 (+/-3.1) mm, and DL: 23.1 (+/-3) mm, and for the MF-D measurements, ER: 26.4 (+/-4.2) mm, EL: 26.4 (+/-4) mm, DR 28.3 (+/-3.9) mm, and DL 28 (+/-3.8) mm. Side had no influence (p>0.05) on any edentate or dentate mandible measurement. Dentate mandible measurements showed statistically significant differences compared to the edentate mandibles, except for MF-C. The mandibular foramen position changes with loss of teeth and this variability may be responsible for occasional failure of inferior alveolar nerve block. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  7. No causal link between changes in hand position sense and feeling of limb ownership in the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkarim, Zakaryah; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a perceptual illusion in which participants experience an inanimate rubber hand as belonging to their own body. The illusion is elicited by synchronously stroking the rubber hand and the participant's real hand, which is hidden from sight. The feeling of owning the rubber hand is accompanied by changes in hand position sense (proprioception), so that when participants are asked to indicate the location of their (unseen) hand, they indicate that it is located closer to the rubber hand. This "proprioceptive drift" is the most widely used objective measure of the rubber hand illusion, and from a theoretical perspective, it suggests a close link between proprioception and the feeling of body ownership. However, the critical question of whether a causal relationship exists between changes in hand position sense and changes in limb ownership is unknown. Here we addressed this question by devising a novel setup that allowed us to mechanically manipulate the position of the participant's hand without the participant noticing, while the rubber hand illusion was being elicited. Our results showed that changing the sensed position closer to or farther away from the rubber hand did not change the strength of the rubber hand illusion. Thus, the illusion is not dependent on changes in hand position sense. This finding supports models of body ownership and central body representation that hold that proprioceptive drift and the subjective illusion are related to different central processes.

  8. A Positive Approach to Change: The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Library and Information Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Library and information management (LIM) organisations are on an almost continual path of change driven by changes in technology, service models, staffing structures, and financial allocations. The way in which LIM organisations approach change varies, as does the success rate of change management procedures undertaken. One particular approach to…

  9. Effects of obesity on transcriptomic changes and cancer hallmarks in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Phan, Liem; Zhang, Fanmao; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Jian; Gully, Chris; Carlock, Colin; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Ya; Wu, Yun; Esteva, Francisco J; Luo, Yongde; McKeehan, Wallace L; Ensor, Joe; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Pusztai, Lajos; Fraser Symmans, W; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim

    2014-07-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cancer death among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the direct evidence for the mechanisms is lacking. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating this epidemiologic phenomenon. We analyzed transcriptomic profiles of pretreatment biopsies from a prospective cohort of 137 ER+ breast cancer patients. We generated transgenic (MMTV-TGFα;A (y) /a) and orthotopic/syngeneic (A (y) /a) obese mouse models to investigate the effect of obesity on tumorigenesis and tumor progression and to determine biological mechanisms using whole-genome transcriptome microarrays and protein analyses. We used a coculture system to examine the impact of adipocytes/adipokines on breast cancer cell proliferation. All statistical tests were two-sided. Functional transcriptomic analysis of patients revealed the association of obesity with 59 biological functional changes (P cancer hallmarks. Gene enrichment analysis revealed enrichment of AKT-target genes (P = .04) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes (P = .03) in patients. Our obese mouse models demonstrated activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway in obesity-accelerated mammary tumor growth (3.7- to 7.0-fold; P obesity-induced secretion of adipokines and breast tumor formation and growth (0.5-fold, P = .04; 0.3-fold, P cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Metformin suppress adipocyte-induced cell proliferation and adipocyte-secreted adipokines in vitro. Adipokine secretion and AKT/mTOR activation play important roles in obesity-accelerated breast cancer aggressiveness in addition to hyperinsulinemia, estrogen signaling, and inflammation. Metformin and everolimus have potential for therapeutic interventions of ER+ breast cancer patients with obesity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  11. Parents as experts : the position of parents of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geeter, K.I.; Poppes, P.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Parents of children with disabilities are increasingly considered as experts in the field of care. Their expertise can deliver an important contribution towards planning their child's care and education. The law is increasingly taking this factor into consideration. On the one hand,

  12. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  13. Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Nils Karl; Becker, Julia C; Benz, Angelika; Christ, Oliver; Dhont, Kristof; Klocke, Ulrich; Neji, Sybille; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 ( n = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students' engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 ( N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students' collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students' LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.

  14. Challenging stereotypes and changing attitudes: Improving quality of care for people with hepatitis C through Positive Speakers programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah; Rose, Grenville; Mackenzie, Althea; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    Positive Speakers programs consist of people who are trained to speak publicly about their illness. The focus of these programs, especially with stigmatised illnesses such as hepatitis C (HCV), is to inform others of the speakers' experiences, thereby humanising the illness and reducing ignorance associated with the disease. This qualitative research aimed to understand the perceived impact of Positive Speakers programs on changing audience members' attitudes towards people with HCV. Interviews were conducted with nine Positive Speakers and 16 of their audience members to assess the way in which these sessions were perceived by both speakers and the audience to challenge stereotypes and stigma associated with HCV and promote positive attitude change amongst the audience. Data were analysed using Intergroup Contact Theory to frame the analysis with a focus on whether the program met the optimal conditions to promote attitude change. Findings suggest that there are a number of vital components to this Positive Speakers program which ensures that the program meets the requirements for successful and equitable intergroup contact. This Positive Speakers program thereby helps to deconstruct stereotypes about people with HCV, while simultaneously increasing positive attitudes among audience members with the ultimate aim of improving quality of health care and treatment for people with HCV.

  15. The effect of prolonged lateral positioning during routine care on regional lung volume changes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Pauline S; de Jongh, Frans H; Miedema, Martijn; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H

    2016-03-01

    During routine nursing care, preterm infants are often placed in lateral position for several hours, but the effect of this procedure on regional lung volume and ventilation is unknown. In our study we examined this effect during 3 hrs of lateral positioning in stable preterm infants. Preterm infants on non-invasive respiratory support were eligible for the study. Infants were placed in supine position and subsequently transferred to right or left lateral position, according to their individual routine nursing schedule. Changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volume (VT ) and ventilation distribution were recorded using electrical impedance tomography (EIT), starting 10 min before and up to 180 min after the positional change. Additionally, oxygen requirement, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and respiratory rate were recorded. 15 infants were included (GA 28.9 ± 2.0 wk, BW 1167 ± 290 g). EELV increased significantly after changing to lateral position, stabilizing at a median value of 40.8 (IQR 29.0-99.3) AU/kg at 30 min. This increase could almost be exclusively attributed to the non-dependent lung regions. Tidal volume, oxygenation, and respiratory rate remained stable. Changing to the right, but not the left, lateral position resulted in a rapid but transient shift in ventilation to the dependent lung regions. After 180 min there were no differences in ventilation distribution between lateral and supine positioning. This study shows that lateral position up to 3 hours, as part of normal nursing care of preterm infants, has no adverse effects on lung volumes and its regional distribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. From judgment to understanding mental health nurses' perceptions of changed professional behaviors following positively changed attitudes toward self-harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with

  17. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple

  18. Protected Veterans: The Use of Positive Intersectionality in Achieving Legal Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the LGBT Veteran organization, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Veterans of America, has framed their advocacy for LGBT veterans’ rights, including their unique deployment of joint LGBT and military/veteran identities to strengthen their cause. Specifically, this research explores the way that the positive veteran/military identity that intersects with the less positively viewed LGBT identity facilitates both the cause and potential outcomes of their advocacy. While many soc...

  19. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; de Wit, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability between studies in task design. In the current series of studies, we investigated the influence of feedback valence on reinforcement learning in young and older adults. We used nonprobabilistic learning tasks, to more systematically study the effects of feedback magnitude, learning of stimulus-response (S-R) versus stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations, and working-memory capacity. In most experiments, older adults benefitted more from positive than negative feedback, but only with large feedback magnitudes. Positivity effects were pronounced for S-O learning, whereas S-R learning correlated with working-memory capacity in both age groups. These results underline the context dependence of positivity effects in learning and suggest that older adults focus on high gains when these are informative for behavior.

  20. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position.

  1. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  2. Readiness to Change in Adolescents Screening Positive for Substance Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary care physicians often perceive patients as unlikely to decrease their substance use and suggest this reluctance to change diminishes their willingness to screen and intervene. The literature on readiness to change has primarily focused on adults, and the available studies on adolescents have largely included hospitalized and/or…

  3. Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Brovkin, V.; Cox, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    There is good evidence that higher global temperatures will promote a rise of greenhouse gas levels, implying a positive feedback which will increase the effect of anthropogenic emissions on global temperatures. However, the magnitude of this effect predicted by the available models remains highly

  4. Helping families change: The adoption of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the implementation of the evidence-based Triple P Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands was examined. Because parenting is associated with the wellbeing of children, parenting programs are developed to address the child problems. Among all developed parenting programs, the

  5. Human sound-localization behaviour after multiple changes in eye position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootel, T.J. van; Opstal, A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Orienting the eyes towards a peripheral sound source calls for a transformation of the head-centred sound coordinates into an oculocentric motor command, which requires an estimate of current eye position. Current models of saccadic control explain spatial accuracy by oculocentric transformations

  6. Developmental Changes in the Effect of Verbal, Non-verbal, and Spatial-Positional Cues for Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, Jeffrey

    1976-01-01

    Sixty kindergarten, sixty second grade, and sixty fourth grade students performed several memory tasks under one of six conditions. The conditions differed as to the method of presentation of information. The study focused on developmental changes in children's use of verbal, nonverbal, and spatial-positional cues for memory. (Editor)

  7. Developmental Changes in the Effect of Verbal, Non-Verbal and Spatial-Positional Cues on Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, Jeffrey

    Sixty kindergarten, 60 second-grade, and 60 fourth-grade students performed several memory tasks under one of six conditions. The conditions differed as to the method of presentation of information. The study was focused on developmental changes in children's use of verbal, nonverbal, and spatial-positional cues for memory. The results, in…

  8. When does the left do the right thing? A study of party position change on welfare policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, G.

    2015-01-01

    Why did pro-welfare Social Democrats and Christian Democrats cease to support the welfare state in the 1980s and 1990s, and support measures such as tighter welfare programme conditionality rules and lower social security benefits instead? Building on the party position change literature, I argue

  9. [Changes in positive mood states by analytic and creative information processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, J H; Schmitz, B B

    1993-01-01

    Reviews concerning research on the influence of mood on behavior show (a) that mainly the influence of mood on behavior was investigated and (b) that achievements in memory and cognitive tasks were of central concern (Fiedler, 1988; Isen, 1987). Social behavior was analyzed as a function of these factors. Recent reviews restrict themselves to positive feeling states. Summarizing, Fiedler (1988) describes the information processing style in positive feeling states as "loosening" to capture its qualitative aspects. This study investigates the opposite direction of influence, i.e. the effect of cognitive style on positive feeling states. This study restricts itself to positive feeling states. The compatibility thesis which postulates a necessary interaction of feeling state and information processing style is tested. Equivalent states and productions have to go together to generate the mood effects. In a 2 x 2 x 5 mixed design 70 female students (non-psychologists) served as subjects. Using a 20-minute mood induction procedure (autobiographical recollection methodology) a positive or neutral feeling state was elicited in half of the participants. During the next 10 minutes half of each group worked either on a verbal creativity test (Schoppe, 1975) or on an intelligence test (Amthauer, 1973) to establish an creative or analytic style of information processing. Repeated sampling of a measurement repetition factor served as baseline assessments, manipulation checks, and measurements of the feeling states during the task completion of the creativity or intelligence test. The feeling states were assessed by means of a short version (BSK-1982) of the "Eigenschaftswörterliste" (Janke & Debus, 1978). The results confirm the compatibility thesis. Only the group in which a positive feeling state and a creative processing style interact reported a positive mood throughout the task completion. Unexpectedly, a slight deterioration of mood was found in the group with a neutral

  10. Profound sedation with propofol modifies atrial fibrillation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    During atrial fibrillation (AF), multiple wandering propagation wavelets at high rates drift around both atria under controversial hierarchical models. Antiarrhythmic drugs modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria, and can alter AF propagation dynamics and even terminate the arrhythmia. However, some other drugs, theoretically nonantiarrhythmic, may slightly block particular cardiac ionic currents through uncertain mechanisms in such a subtle way at regular heart rates that may have been pharmacologically overlooked. These potential effects might be better exposed at much higher activation rates as in AF, where atrial cells depolarize over 400 times per second. In this review, we aimed to compile and discuss results from several studies evaluating the net effect of profound sedation with propofol on atrial cells and atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Propofol is a very commonly used anesthetic agent, and its possible effect on AF dynamics has systematically not been taken into account in the myriad of clinical studies dealing with AF intracardiac recordings. The possible effect of sedation with propofol on AF was evaluated through the analysis of AF propagation patterns before and after its infusion in a series of patients submitted to pulmonary vein ablation. Effect on AV conduction will be discussed as well. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. EFFECT OF JUMPS IN PROFOUNDNESS ON THE FOOTBALLER REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Đošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.

  12. Cancer Prevention Knowledge of People with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Helen E.; Reed, Barbara D.; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. RESULTS Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p English in multiple situations (p English use (p = 0.01) and believing that smoking was bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. CONCLUSION Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge. PMID:19132325

  13. X-cephalometric study of different parts of the upper airway space and changes in hyoid position following mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-J; Zhao, M-C; Pan, X-F; Wei, Y-Q; Wang, D-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study analyses the different parts of the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. The results provide a clinical reference for developing timely and effective treatment programmes for patients with mandibular fractures caused by maxillofacial trauma. Standard X-cephalometric measurements of the lateral skull of 210 subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into four fracture groups: condylar, mandibular angle, mandibular body, and parasymphyseal. The radiographs of the mandibular fracture groups were compared with the normal occlusion group to analyse the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. Different types of fractures have different effects on the upper airway space. Bilateral mandibular body fracture and the parasymphyseal fracture have a significant influence on the lower oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airway spaces, with serious obstructions severely restricting the ventilatory function of patients. Fractures at different parts of the mandibular structure are closely related to the upper airway and hyoid position.

  14. Changing communication process with new media: the position of young people in the social sharing networks

    OpenAIRE

    KIRIK, Ali Murat

    2017-01-01

    Today new technologiesfor use in communication are being developed at a fast pace and as aconsequence the world we know is changing rapidly. The most important factor inthe development of the new communication technologies is without doubt theInternet. New media, which is heavily supported by the Internet technology,changed the means used for mass media communication also. The convergence ofTV, an important mass media communication instrument, with Internet created theIPTV, an interactive bro...

  15. The implications of climate change for positive contributions of invertebrates to world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cock, M.J.W.; Jacobus C Biesmeijer; Cannon, R.J.C.; Gerard, Philippa J.; Gillespie, Dave; Jiménez, Juan J.; Lavelle, Patrick; Suresh K. Raina

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Terrestrial invertebrate species play a dominant role in the trophic dynamics of agricultural ecosystems. Subtle changes in the composition of communities and species interactions at different trophic levels, and role of ecosystem engineers can dramatically modify the effects of invertebrates on plant productivity in agricultural systems. The effect of climate change on relevant invertebrates in agricultural systems, and their potential to adapt or move is discussed. All terrestrial syst...

  16. A quantitative review of self-help research with the severely and profoundly mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarski, E A; Diorio, M S

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-seven studies published since 1964 through 1982 on training self-help skills to severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons were analyzed according to 19 parameters reflecting their methodological details. The results showed a steady interest in this research area over time, but 63% of the studies focused on toileting and feeding with fewer studies looking at other self-help skills. Package treatments composed primarily of accelerative techniques were most frequently used to train these skills. Methodologically, it was found that these studies typically involved profoundly mentally retarded people (33% of studies) who were trained by residential staff (69% of studies) in institutional settings (63% of studies). The results also indicated an increase over time in the number of studies rated acceptable on the reliability and design parameters. Finally, very few studies reported assessments of generalization, maintenance, or social validity. It was concluded that, (a) researchers need to broaden their interests in terms of settings, trainers, and behaviors studied to best meet the needs of this population, (b) the experimental quality of this literature is improving, and (c) the social impact of observed behavior changes has yet to be fully explored.

  17. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  18. Change in HER-2/neu Status from Negative to Positive following Treatment in Breast Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Sivarajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately 25–30% of breast cancers are assumed to be HER-2/neu positive. It is well known that HER-2/neu-positive cancers after treatment with trastuzumab can become HER-2/neu negative. Change in HER-2/neu status from negative to positive following treatment has not been well studied. We describe a patient with inflammatory breast cancer who was initially HER-2/neu negative but became positive after treatment. A 59-year-old postmenopausal white female saw her surgeon for violaceous discoloration of the left breast for 4 months. The surgeon palpated a mass measuring 6 cm in the patient’s left breast. Additionally, there was violaceous discoloration involving two thirds of the breast. Biopsy of the breast mass and skin revealed inflammatory breast cancer. The tumor was estrogen receptor positive, progesterone receptor positive and HER-2/neu negative. The patient was given four cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and docetaxol. She subsequently underwent a mastectomy, excision of the skin over the chest wall and axillary node dissection. Of the axillary lymph nodes, 14/14 were involved. The tumor was still estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive, but HER-2/neu was 2+ by immunohistochemistry and amplified at 3.3 as detected by fluorescent in situhybridization. The patient received trastuzumab along with chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy and letrozole. She is currently receiving trastuzumab and letrozole in the adjuvant setting and appears to be doing well. Conclusion: A breast cancer which was initially HER-2/neu negative can become positive following treatment. Therefore, re-biopsy may be necessary during the course of treatment of breast cancer to re-assess the HER-2/neu status. This gives the clinician the opportunity to include drugs like trastuzumab and lapatinib in the treatment of patients with a transformation to HER-2/neu-positive cancer.

  19. Helping families change: The adoption of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the implementation of the evidence-based Triple P Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands was examined. Because parenting is associated with the wellbeing of children, parenting programs are developed to address the child problems. Among all developed parenting programs, the Behavioral Family Interventions (BFI) have the strongest empirical evidence. The aim of Triple P is to prevent and offer treatment for mild and severe behavioral, emotional and developmental problems ...

  20. Positive change in self-concept as a function of improved performance in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salokun, S O

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between improvement in Total Positive Self-concept scores and increase in sports skills before and after training of 10 weeks for 45 minutes daily by 12- to 14-yr.-old junior high school and 16- to 18-yr.-old senior high school boys and girls. The 288 subjects were selected using a stratified (intact class) random technique. Subjects were randomly assigned to different sports, 96 to field-hockey and 96 to athletics (32 to discuss, 32 to long jump, and 32 to sprints). 96 control subjects were randomly selected from one class of each age bracket. Analysis of covariance showed that the trained subjects scored significantly higher in total positive self. A positive correlation between gain in sports skill and increase in self-concept scores was noted for both boys and girls within each age group. Age and sex had no effect on this pattern. The result supports inclusion of success-oriented sports in the high school curriculum.

  1. Changes in lung volume and ventilation following transition from invasive to noninvasive respiratory support and prone positioning in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Pauline S; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H

    2015-03-01

    To minimize secondary lung injury, ventilated preterm infants are extubated as soon as possible. To maximize extubation success, they are often placed in prone position. The effect of extubation and subsequent prone positioning on lung volumes is currently unknown. Changes in end-expiratory lung volume (ΔEELV), tidal volume (VT), and ventilation distribution were monitored during transition from endotracheal to nasal continuous positive airway pressure and following prone positioning using electrical impedance tomography. In addition, the continuous distending pressure (CDP) and oxygen need (FiO₂) were recorded. Twenty preterm infants (GA 28.7 ± 1.7 wk) were included. Following extubation, the CDP decreased from 7.9 ± 0.5 to 6.0 ± 0.2 cmH₂O, while the FiO₂ remained stable. Both ΔEELV and VT increased significantly (P positioning resulted in a further increase in ΔEELV (P positioning increases EELV and shifts tidal ventilation to the ventral lung regions. The latter suggests that infants should preferably be placed in prone position after extubation.

  2. A tomographic study of positional and bony changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Kim Min Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonpook National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the evaluation of prognosis of temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery. For this study, 20 patients (40 TMJ) who undergone orthognathic surgery were examined. Preoperative and postoperative tomograms of TMJ were taken. And the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to postoperative periods. The obtained results were as follows : 1. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in joint spaces in each group and between groups (P<0.05). 2. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative ratio of joint spaces (P<0.05).3. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in the range of motion of condylar head (P<0.05). 4. The bony changes of condylar head were observed in 14 (35%) condyles (6 erosion, 2 flattening, 5 double contour, 1 osteophyte).

  3. Global health and climate change: moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Maslin, Mark; Montgomery, Hugh; Johnson, Anne M; Ekins, Paul

    2011-05-13

    The health effects of climate change have had relatively little attention from climate scientists and governments. Climate change will be a major threat to population health in the current century through its potential effects on communicable disease, heat stress, food and water security, extreme weather events, vulnerable shelter and population migration. This paper addresses three health-sector strategies to manage the health effects of climate change-promotion of mitigation, tackling the pathways that lead to ill-health and strengthening health systems. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is affordable, and low-carbon technologies are available now or will be in the near future. Pathways to ill-health can be managed through better information, poverty reduction, technological innovation, social and cultural change and greater coordination of national and international institutions. Strengthening health systems requires increased investment in order to provide effective public health responses to climate-induced threats to health, equitable treatment of illness, promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and renewable energy solutions within health facilities. Mitigation and adaptation strategies will produce substantial benefits for health, such as reductions in obesity and heart disease, diabetes, stress and depression, pneumonia and asthma, as well as potential cost savings within the health sector. The case for mitigating climate change by reducing GHGs is overwhelming. The need to build population resilience to the global health threat from already unavoidable climate change is real and urgent. Action must not be delayed by contrarians, nor by catastrophic fatalists who say it is all too late. © 2011 Royal Society

  4. Violence on Television: How Teachers Can Help Parents Affect Positive Change. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mary D.

    1999-01-01

    Reports that exposure to televised violence results in increased aggressive attitudes and behaviors, desensitization toward real violence, and unrealistic fears of victimization. Maintains that teachers can effect change by being knowledgeable about the impact of television, communicating to parents ways in which negative effects can be reduced,…

  5. The changing position and meaning of religion and the church in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, G.

    1996-01-01

    The changes that have taken place in religious and ecclesiastical life in Western Europe are characterised as a process of secularisation. Secularisation encompasses three different processes, namely a decline in the religiosity of people, the restriction of the range of influence of religion and

  6. Positive life change and remission of non-psychotic mental illness - A competing outcomes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J

    Background: Episode duration in non-psychotic mental illness is associated with personal characteristics of patients, like age or personality. Part of these links may be mediated by life change, a predictor of episode duration in its own right. Methods: In 170 primary care patients who suffered 4171

  7. Negative and Positive Partial Mobility: A Study of the Relative Changes in Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Atanu; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered the issues concerning dynamic changes in HDI and its various components from a relative standpoint. The analysis of HDI mobility should entail directional movement introduced by Fields (in Distribution and development: a new look at the developing world. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001). However, Fields' analysis was…

  8. 17 CFR 210.3-02 - Consolidated statements of income and changes in financial positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-02 Consolidated statements of income and changes... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated statements of... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  9. How do supporters perceive positive and negative psychological momentum changes during a simulated cycling competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briki, Walid; den Hartigh, Ruud; Markman, Keith; Gernigon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The present study examined changes in sport supporters’ psychological momentum (PM) during a simulated cycling competition through the lens of the dynamical systems approach. Design:Participants were asked to support one of two competing cyclists involved in a race that was displayed on a

  10. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Verner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design: We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results: The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively, which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014. However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions: There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly

  11. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollengode Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT, yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  13. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Kollengode; Mohammed, Hend; Hopkins, Peter; Corley, Amanda; Caruana, Lawrence; Dunster, Kimble; Barnett, Adrian G; Fraser, John F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  14. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation.

  15. Influence of lung volume, fluid and capillary recruitment during positional changes and exercise on thoracic impedance in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Fuglestad, Matthew A; Richert, Maile L Ceridon; Shen, Win K; Johnson, Bruce D

    2014-10-01

    It is unclear how dynamic changes in pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc), alveolar lung volume (derived from end-inspiratory lung volume, EILV) and interstitial fluid (ratio of alveolar capillary membrane conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume, Dm/Vc) influence lung impedance (Z(T)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if positional change and exercise result in increased EILV, Vc and/or lung interstitial fluid, and if Z(T) tracks these variables. 12 heart failure (HF) patients underwent measurements (Z(T), EILV, Vc/Dm) at rest in the upright and supine positions, during exercise and into recovery. Inspiratory capacity was obtained to provide consistent measures of EILV while assessing Z(T). Z(T) increased with lung volume during slow vital capacity maneuvers (p0.05). Impedance appears sensitive to changes in lung volume and body position which appear to generally overwhelm small acute changes in lung fluid when assed dynamically at rest or during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple positive solutions of fourth-order four-point boundary-value problems with changing sign coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanzhi Bai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence of multiple positive solutions of the fourth-order four-point boundary-value problems $$displaylines{ y^{(4}(t = h(t g(y(t, y''(t, quad 0 < t < 1, cr y(0 = y(1 = 0, cr a y''(xi_1-b y'''(xi_1 = 0, quad c y''(xi_2+d y'''(xi_2 = 0, }$$ where $0 < xi_1 < xi_2 < 1$. We show the existence of three positive solutions by applying the Avery and Peterson fixed point theorem in a cone, here $h(t$ may change sign on $[0, 1]$.

  17. Predictors of longitudinal change in bone mineral density in a cohort of HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinago, Willard; Cotter, Aoife G; Sabin, Caroline A; Macken, Alan; Kavanagh, Eoin; Brady, Jennifer J; McCarthy, Geraldine; Compston, Juliet; Mallon, Patrick W G

    2017-03-13

    Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in HIV, changes in BMD over time remain unclear. We aimed to compare rates of, and factors associated with, BMD change between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. In a prospective, 3-year cohort, HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients provided annual demographic and clinical data, fasting bloods, and dual x-ray absorptiometry. Using longitudinal mixed models we compared and determined predictors of rate of change in BMD. Of 384 study participants (45.8% HIV positive), 120 contributed two and 264 contributed three BMD measurements. Those with HIV were younger [median interquartile range 39 (34-46) vs. 43 (35-50) years; P = 0.04], more often men (61 vs. 46%; P = 0.003), and less likely Caucasian (61 vs. 82%; P < 0.001). Although BMD was lower in those with HIV, BMD declined in both groups, with nonsignificant between-group difference in rate of BMD change over time. Within the HIV group, starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 3 months of enrolment was associated with greater BMD decline at all anatomical sites (all P < 0.001). Age more than 30 years, Caucasian ethnicity, and not being on ART during follow-up were associated with greater decline and higher parathyroid hormone associated with a smaller decline in BMD at the femoral neck. We found no association between BMD change and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or protease inhibitors. We observed no difference in rate of BMD decline regardless of HIV status and in HIV-positive patient, having started ART within the previous 3 months was the only factor associated with greater BMD decline at all three sites.

  18. Positive changes in the myocardium of SHR rats induced by photon radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalova, I. M.; Zakharova, N. M.; Khramov, R. N.; Kraev, I. V.; Murashev, A. N.; Averin, A. S.; Frachranurova, L.

    2008-04-01

    Hypertensive SHR male rats were irradiated by a photon light-emitting diode matrix with a maximum irradiation at 612 nm with dose 1.44 J/cm2 per day . After a course of irradiation (13 days) the rhythmoinothropic characteristics of cardiac muscle significantly improved. Morphological analysis shown considerable changes in the structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), i.e. area of SR profiles increased more than twofold compared to control. This suggests a proportional increase in ability of SR to absorb calcium, due to both an increase in its buffer capacity and possibly, an improved functioning of Ca 2+ ATPase of the reticulum. This could lead to an improvement in calcium homeostasis in the myocytes, and explain the improvement of the characteristics of cardiac muscle contraction-relaxation cycle. Furthermore, changes were observed in proportions of the myocardium capillaries (increased by 75%; compared to control, pmetabolic processes and an energy rise occurring in myocardial cells after photon radiation treatment.

  19. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders’ career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Results Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising and drifting from their

  20. Understanding positive employee attitudes to organizational change: the emergence and impact of ‘actor presence’

    OpenAIRE

    Mendy, John; Proctor, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Governments, businesses and other organisations often are forced to restructure their working practices and sometimes radically. This is not unusual. What is unusual though is the way the literature on organisational change has framed the discussion and debate using a predominantly negative language for the past seventy years (see for example Dent and Goldberg, 1999; Ford et al, 2008) The second alarming trend is that as organisations restructure and re-calibrate their relations with staff an...

  1. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Seguin, Rebecca A; Ackerman, Jennifer; Nelson, Miriam E

    2012-05-28

    Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders' career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising and drifting from their original mission. These findings

  2. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change

    OpenAIRE

    Folta Sara C; Seguin Rebecca A; Ackerman Jennifer; Nelson Miriam E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specifi...

  3. BEYOND JOB POSITIONS. A SOCIAL RESPONSE TO THE CHANGES IN JOB DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.

  4. LENGTH CHANGE OF THE SHORT EXTERNAL ROTATORS OF THE HIP IN COMMON STRETCH POSITIONS: A CADAVERIC STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Ryan P; Kivlan, Benjamin R; Martin, RobRoy L

    2017-12-01

    Stretching of the deep rotators of the hip is commonly employed in patients with lumbosacral, sacroiliac, posterior hip, and buttock pain. There is limited research demonstrating the effectiveness of common stretching techniques on the short external rotators of the hip. The objective of this study was to evaluate length change during stretching of the superior and inferior fibers of the piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus. Repeated-measures laboratory controlled cadaveric study. Seventeen hip joints from nine embalmed cadavers (5 male; 4 female) with an age between 49-96 years were skeletonized. Polypropylene strings were attached from the origin to insertion sites of the short external rotators. The change of length (mm) noted by excursion of the strings was used as a proxy for change in muscle length, when the hip was moved from the anatomical position to four specific stretch positions: 1) 45 ° internal rotation from hip neutral flexion/extension, 2) 45 ° external rotation from 90 ° hip and knee flexion, 3) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, and 4) 30 ° of adduction with the hip and knee flexed so the lateral malleolus contacted the lateral femoral epicondyle of the contralateral limb , were recorded. There was a significant effect on string displacement by stretch position, F (15,166) = 14.67, p obturator internus and inferior gemellus had the largest string displacement with 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension. While all stretch positions caused a significant string displacement indicating length changes of the deep rotators of the hip, the three stretch positions that caused the greatest change were: 1) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, 2) 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension, and 3) 45 ° external rotation with 90 ° hip and knee flexion. This study has clinical implications for the effectiveness of specific stretching

  5. A comparison of the effects of four therapy procedures on concentration and responsiveness in people with profound learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Pitcaithly, D; Geelen, N; Buntin, L; Broxholme, S; Ashby, M

    1997-06-01

    This paper is an investigation into the efficacy of four therapeutic treatment procedures increasingly used with people with profound learning disabilities: snoezelen, hand massage/aromatherapy, relaxation, and active therapy (a bouncy castle). In particular, the effects of these procedures on concentration and responsiveness were examined. Eight subjects with profound learning disabilities took part in the study and each subject received each of the treatments. To assess the effects of the treatments, simple concentration tasks were administered and the subjects' responsiveness to each treatment was rated by independent observers. The results suggest that both snoezelen and relaxation had a positive effect on concentration and seemed to be the most enjoyable therapies for clients, whereas hand massage/aromatherapy and active therapy had no or even negative effects on concentration and appeared less enjoyable.

  6. Influence of sleep position experience on ability of prone-sleeping infants to escape from asphyxiating microenvironments by changing head position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszynska, Dorota A; Harris, Kathleen A; Thach, Bradley T

    2004-12-01

    Several studies have found that back- or side-sleeping infants who are inexperienced in prone sleeping are at much higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) when they turn to prone or are placed prone for sleep compared with infants who normally sleep prone. Moreover, such inexperienced infants are more likely to be found in the face-down position at death after being placed prone compared with SIDS infants who are experienced in prone sleeping. We hypothesized that lack of experience in prone sleeping is associated with increased difficulty in changing head position to avoid an asphyxiating sleep environment. We studied 38 healthy infants while they slept prone. Half of these were experienced and half were inexperienced in prone sleeping. To create a mildly asphyxiating microenvironment, we placed infants to sleep prone with their faces covered by soft bedding. We recorded inspired CO2 (CO2I), electrocardiogram, and respiration, and we videotaped head movements. Also, we assessed gross motor development (Denver Development Scale). When sleeping prone, with their faces covered by bedding, all infants experienced mild asphyxia as a result of rebreathing. All aroused and attempted escape from this environment. Infants used 3 stereotyped head-repositioning strategies. The least effective was nuzzling into the bedding with occasional brief head lifts. More effective were head lifts combined with a head turn. Some infants, however, could turn only to 1 side, right or left. Infants who were inexperienced in prone sleeping had less effective protective behaviors than experienced infants. Infant age did not correlate with efficacy of protective behaviors. Infants who were experienced in prone sleep had advanced gross motor development compared with inexperienced infants. Infants who are inexperienced in prone sleeping have decreased ability to escape from asphyxiating sleep environments when placed prone. These observations potentially explain the increased risk

  7. Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course of running injuries

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    Irene S. Davis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, 1 aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominantly forefoot strike (FFS landing to a predominantly rearfoot strike (RFS landing. This change alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience while engaged in an activity for which they were adapted. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern, and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury, will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support our contention that FFS provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia, and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This analysis will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFS pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way for which we were adapted to reduce running-related injuries.

  8. Predictors of Weight Change in Male HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Alice M. Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined clinical and nutritional predictors of weight change over two consecutive 6-month intervals among 99 HIV-positive male injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in Hanoi, Vietnam. The average weight gain was 3.1 ± 4.8 kg in the first six months after ART and 0.8 ± 3.0 kg in the following six months. Predictors of weight change differed by interval. In the first interval, CD4 < 200 cells/μL, excellent/very good adherence to ART, bothersome nausea, and liquid supplement use were all associated with positive weight changes. Moderate to heavy alcohol use and tobacco smoking were associated with negative weight changes. In the second interval, having a CD4 count <200 cells/μL at the beginning of the interval and tobacco smoking were the only significant predictors and both were associated with negative weight changes. We identified several potential areas for interventions to promote weight gain immediately after starting ART in this population. Studies are needed to determine whether improving weight prior to, or at, ART initiation will result in improved outcomes on ART.

  9. Openness to experience as a predictor and outcome of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieß, Christiane; Zacher, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In industrial and organizational psychology, there is a long tradition of studying personality as an antecedent of work outcomes. Recently, however, scholars have suggested that personality characteristics may not only predict, but also change due to certain work experiences, a notion that is depicted in the dynamic developmental model (DDM) of personality and work. Upward job changes are an important part of employees' careers and career success in particular, and we argue that these career transitions can shape personality over time. In this study, we investigate the Big Five personality characteristics as both predictors and outcomes of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. We tested our hypotheses by applying event history analyses and propensity score matching to a longitudinal dataset collected over five years from employees in Australia. Results indicated that participants' openness to experience not only predicted, but that changes in openness to experience also followed from upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. Our findings thus provide support for a dynamic perspective on personality characteristics in the context of work and careers.

  10. Openness to experience as a predictor and outcome of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Nieß

    Full Text Available In industrial and organizational psychology, there is a long tradition of studying personality as an antecedent of work outcomes. Recently, however, scholars have suggested that personality characteristics may not only predict, but also change due to certain work experiences, a notion that is depicted in the dynamic developmental model (DDM of personality and work. Upward job changes are an important part of employees' careers and career success in particular, and we argue that these career transitions can shape personality over time. In this study, we investigate the Big Five personality characteristics as both predictors and outcomes of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. We tested our hypotheses by applying event history analyses and propensity score matching to a longitudinal dataset collected over five years from employees in Australia. Results indicated that participants' openness to experience not only predicted, but that changes in openness to experience also followed from upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. Our findings thus provide support for a dynamic perspective on personality characteristics in the context of work and careers.

  11. Openness to Experience as a Predictor and Outcome of Upward Job Changes into Managerial and Professional Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieß, Christiane; Zacher, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In industrial and organizational psychology, there is a long tradition of studying personality as an antecedent of work outcomes. Recently, however, scholars have suggested that personality characteristics may not only predict, but also change due to certain work experiences, a notion that is depicted in the dynamic developmental model (DDM) of personality and work. Upward job changes are an important part of employees’ careers and career success in particular, and we argue that these career transitions can shape personality over time. In this study, we investigate the Big Five personality characteristics as both predictors and outcomes of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. We tested our hypotheses by applying event history analyses and propensity score matching to a longitudinal dataset collected over five years from employees in Australia. Results indicated that participants’ openness to experience not only predicted, but that changes in openness to experience also followed from upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. Our findings thus provide support for a dynamic perspective on personality characteristics in the context of work and careers. PMID:26110527

  12. Positional isomers of bispyridine benzene derivatives induce efficacy changes on mGlu5 negative allosteric modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Santacana, Xavier; Dalton, James A R; Rovira, Xavier; Pin, Jean Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Gorostiza, Pau; Giraldo, Jesús; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2017-02-15

    Modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) with partial allosteric antagonists has received increased interest due to their favourable in vivo activity profiles compared to the unfavourable side-effects of full inverse agonists. Here we report on a series of bispyridine benzene derivatives with a functional molecular switch affecting antagonistic efficacy, shifting from inverse agonism to partial antagonism with only a single change in the substitution pattern of the benzene ring. These efficacy changes are explained through computational docking, revealing two different receptor conformations of different energetic stability and different positional isomer binding preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change

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    Folta Sara C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders’ career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Results Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising

  14. Correction of ECG variations caused by body position changes and electrode placement during ST-T monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, S P; Meij, S H; van Dam, T B; Kors, J A

    2001-01-01

    Electrocardiogram variations (ECG) due to body position changes and electrode placements are common problems of continuous ST-T monitoring. Body position changes may cause QRS and ST-T changes and trigger false alarms. Placement of arm and leg electrodes in a coronary care unit environment is usually near the thorax instead of standard position at the wrists and ankles. This may affect the limb leads and complicate diagnostic interpretation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of these sources of ECG variation and to correct for them. Continuous 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 160 patients admitted to the coronary care unit. Each patient underwent a body position test (supine, left-lateral, and upright position). Scalar and spatial approaches were investigated for reconstruction of the ECG in supine position. The scalar approach uses linear regression. The spatial approach transforms the ECG into a derived vestorcardiogram. The spatial QRS-loop is then rotated and scaled to match the vector loop in supine position and transformed back to a 12-lead ECG. To assess the effect of electrode placement, monitoring and standard limb leads were simultaneously recorded in a group of 80 patients. To map the monitoring leads to standard leads, general and patient-specific reconstruction coefficients were derived by linear regression from half of the patients and tested on the other half. Similarity between the reference and reconstructed ECGs was measured by correlation, similarity coefficient [(SC=1-RMS(residual error)/RMS(signal)], and difference in frontal QRS-Axis. Only 14% (23 of 160) of the patients showed marked ECG changes (ST elevations, QRS-axis shifts, T-wave inversions). The scalar method (median correlation > 0.994, SC > 0.902, QRS axis difference 0 degrees) performed better than spatial (median correlation 0.946, SC > 0.792, QRS axis difference 0 degrees). Monitoring leads can be mapped to standard limb leads in good to excellent

  15. Acquisition and generalization of instruction following behavior in profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, R; Dubin, W

    1979-08-01

    Four profoundly retarded male residents of a state institution learned to comply with the instructions "come here," "stay," and "sit." Acquisition occurred in a special therapy room and instructions were presented in a fixed sequence. All subjects learned to comply with the instructions in the training environment. Testing occurred in the subject's ward dayroom where instructions were presented in a random sequence. Despite dramatic changes in the stimulus conditions associated with the transfer to the testing situation the subjects performed close to their asymptotic level. Three experimentally naive subjects participated in a second experiment which was similar to the first, except that the number of acquisition sessions and the number of trials per session were reduced. The reduction in number of acquisition trials did not appear to affect performance in the testing environment. The possibility of terminating off-task behavior of institutionalized individuals by eliciting previously acquired instruction following behavior was discussed.

  16. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  17. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

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    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  18. Moisture transport across Central America as a positive feedback on abrupt climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Rostek, Frauke; Sonzogni, Corinne; Beaufort, Luc; Bard, Edouard

    2007-02-22

    Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean across Central America leads to relatively high salinities in the North Atlantic Ocean and contributes to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. This deep water formation varied strongly between Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials and Heinrich events-millennial-scale abrupt warm and cold events, respectively, during the last glacial period. Increases in the moisture transport across Central America have been proposed to coincide with northerly shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and with Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials, with opposite changes for Heinrich events. Here we reconstruct sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean over the past 90,000 years by comparing palaeotemperature estimates from alkenones and Mg/Ca ratios with foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios that vary with both temperature and salinity. We detect millennial-scale fluctuations of sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean of up to two to four practical salinity units. High salinities are associated with the southward migration of the tropical Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, coinciding with Heinrich events and with Greenland stadials. The amplitudes of these salinity variations are significantly larger on the Pacific side of the Panama isthmus, as inferred from a comparison of our data with a palaeoclimate record from the Caribbean basin. We conclude that millennial-scale fluctuations of moisture transport constitute an important feedback mechanism for abrupt climate changes, modulating the North Atlantic freshwater budget and hence North Atlantic Deep Water formation.

  19. Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after spinal surgery in the prone position: a prospective study

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    Baran Gencer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in ocular perfusion play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Ocular perfusion pressure is equal to mean arterial pressure minus intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the intraocular pressure and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients undergoing spinal surgery in the prone position. METHODS: This prospective study included 30 patients undergoing spinal surgery. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured one day before and after the surgery by using optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen six times at different position and time-duration: supine position (baseline; 10 min after intubation (Supine 1; 10 (Prone 1, 60 (Prone 2, 120 (Prone 3 min after prone position; and just after postoperative supine position (Supine 2. RESULTS: Our study involved 10 male and 20 female patients with the median age of 57 years. When postoperative retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were compared with preoperative values, a statistically significant thinning was observed in inferior and nasal quadrants (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively. We observed a statistically significant intraocular pressure decrease in Supine 1 and an increase in both Prone 2 and Prone 3 when compared to the baseline. Mean arterial pressure and ocular perfusion pressure were found to be significantly lower in Prone 1, Prone 2 and Prone 3, when compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown increase in intraocular pressure during spinal surgery in prone position. A statistically significant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness thinning was seen in inferior and nasal quadrants one day after the spinal surgery.

  20. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  1. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  2. Expression and function of striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase is profoundly altered in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Steven P.; Xu, Jian; Leung, John; Urfer, Roman; Nikolich, Karoly; Oksenberg, Donna; Lombroso, Paul J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) acts in the central nervous system to dephosphorylate a number of important proteins involved in synaptic function including ERK and NMDA receptor subunits. These proteins are also linked to stroke, in which cerebral ischemia triggers a complex cascade of events. Here we demonstrate that STEP is regulated at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels in rat models of cerebral ischemia and that its regulation may play a role in the outcome of ischemic insults. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there are profound decreases in the levels of STEP mRNA, whilst in global ischemia STEP mRNA is selectively down-regulated in areas susceptible to ischemic damage. In a neuroprotective preconditioning paradigm, and in regions of the brain that are relatively resistant to ischemic damage, STEP mRNA levels are increased. Furthermore, there is a significant processing of STEP after ischemia to generate a novel species, STEP33, resulting in a redistribution of STEP from membrane-bound to soluble compartments. Concomitant with the cleavage of mature forms of STEP, there are changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK. We show that the cleavage of STEP leads to a catalytically active form, but this cleaved form no longer binds to and dephosphorylates its substrate pERK. Therefore, in response to ischemic insults, there are profound reductions in both the amount and the activity of STEP, its localization, as well as the activity of one of its key substrates, pERK. These changes in STEP may reflect a critical role in the outcomes of ischemic brain injury. PMID:18445231

  3. Evaluation of incisor position and dental transverse dimensional changes using the Damon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajaria, Rohini; BeGole, Ellen; Kusnoto, Budi; Galang, Maria Therese; Obrez, Ales

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypotheses that the Damon system will maintain intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths. To test subsequent hypotheses that the Damon system will not produce a significant difference in maxillary and mandibular incisor position/angulation when compared with control groups treated with conventional fixed orthodontic appliances for similar malocclusion. Subjects treated with the Damon system (N  =  27) were compared with subjects treated with a conventionally ligated edgewise bracket system (N  =  16). Subjects' pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental models were scanned, measured, and compared to see whether significant differences exist between time points and between the two groups. Results did not support the claimed lip bumper effect of the Damon system and showed similar patterns of crowding alleviation, including transverse expansion and incisor advancement, in both groups, regardless of the bracket system used. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths increased significantly after treatment with the Damon system. The mandibular incisors were significantly advanced and proclined after treatment with the Damon system, contradicting the lip bumper theory of Damon. Posttreatment incisor inclinations did not differ significantly between the Damon group and the control group. Patients treated with the Damon system completed treatment on average 2 months faster than patients treated with a conventionally ligated standard edgewise bracket system.

  4. Comparative Study between Perfusion Changes and Positive Findings on Coronary Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Roberto Frack Costantini

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Functional assessment of coronary artery obstruction is used in cardiology practice to correlate anatomic obstructions with flow decrease. Among such assessments, the study of the coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR has become the most widely used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between FFR and findings of ischemia obtained by noninvasive methods including stress echocardiography and nuclear medicine and the presence of critical coronary artery obstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of cases treated with systematized and standardized procedures for coronary disease between March 2011 and August 2014. We included 96 patients with 107 critical coronary obstructions (> 50% in the coronary trunk and/or ≥ 70% in other segments estimated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS. All cases presented ischemia in one of the noninvasive studies. Results: All 96 patients presented ischemia (100% in one of the functional tests. On FFR study with adenosine 140 g/kg/min, 52% of the cases had values ≤ 0.80. On correlation analysis for FFR ≤ 0.80, the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curve in relation to the stenosis degree and length, and presence of ischemia, no significant values or strong correlation were observed. Conclusion: Coronary FFR using a cut-off value of 0.80 showed no correlation with noninvasive ischemia tests in patients with severe coronary artery obstructions on QCA and ICUS.

  5. The Association of Departmental Quality Infrastructure and Positive Change: A Pathology Department Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jody E; Richardson, Hazel; Maters, Amelia W; Carroll, Karen C; Pronovost, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    A vertically and horizontally well-integrated quality improvement team is essential for effective quality data collection and implementation of improvement measures. We outline the quality structure of a large academic pathology department and describe successful projects across multiple divisions made possible by this tightly integrated structure. The physician vice chair for quality organizes departmental quality efforts and provides representation at the hospital level. The department has an independent continuous quality improvement unit and each laboratory of the department has a staff quality improvement representative. Faculty and staff experts have interacted to produce improvements such as accurate container labeling, efficient triage of specimens, and reduction of unnecessary testing. Specialized task forces such as the Courier Task Force are producing concrete recommendations for process improvement. All phases of pathology patient care are represented by faculty and staff who are trained in quality improvement, and each position touches and communicates actively with levels above and below itself. The key to the department's approach has been the daily attention to quality efforts in all of its activities and the close association of faculty and staff to accomplish the goals of greater efficiency, safety, and cost savings.

  6. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D Alan; Proctor, Charles D; Richard, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in morbidly obese patients, with the reported prevalence ranging from 12-78%. There is increasing recognition of the need to diagnose and treat/manage OSA both preoperatively and postoperatively. Nasal CPAP is the preferred treatment of OSA; however, weight loss is associated with a reduction in required pressures. We evaluated the CPAP pressure requirements in a group of patients undergoing rapid weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 15 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA before surgery were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had demonstrated compliance on home CPAP therapy, were minimally 3 months post-surgery and had follow-up reports that their CPAP was less effective. We obtained data on age, sex, weight, BMI, and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Optimal CPAP pressure was obtained initially through attended in-laboratory complex polysomnography. Follow-up CPAP pressure was obtained using an auto-titrating PAP device at home. These data were used to evaluate the pressure changes that accompanied weight loss. This group of patients had lost an average of 44.5 +/- 19.4 kg. Four patients had achieved their goal weight. Their starting CPAP pressures averaged 11 +/- 3.0 cm H2O, with a range of 7-18 cm H2O. Follow-up CPAP pressures averaged 9 +/- 2.7 cm H2O, with a range of 4-12 cm H2O, representing an overall reduction of 18%. The subgroup of patients who had achieved goal weight had a pressure reduction of 22% (9 +/- 2.0 to 7 +/- 1.0 cm H2O). CPAP pressure requirements change considerably in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Auto-titrating PAP devices have promise for facilitating the management of CPAP therapy during this time. Consideration should also be given to the use of autotitrating PAP units as the treatment of choice in these patients.

  7. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  8. Better perineal outcomes in sitting birthing position cannot be explained by changing from upright to supine position for performing an episiotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink-Perdijk, W.D.; Koelewijn, J.M.; Jonge, A. de; Diem, M.T. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: women who give birth in supine position are more likely to have an episiotomy than women who give birth in sitting position. A confounding effect may be that women in upright positions in second stage of labour are asked to lie down if a professional needs to perform an episiotomy. This

  9. Better perineal outcomes in sitting birthing position cannot be explained by changing from upright to supine position for performing an episiotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink-Perdijk, Willemijn D. B.; Koelewijn, Joke M.; de Jonge, Ank; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.

    Background: women who give birth in supine position are more likely to have an episiotomy than women who give birth in sitting position. A confounding effect may be that women in upright positions in second stage of labour are asked to lie down if a professional needs to perform an episiotomy. This

  10. Research regarding the influence of driving-wires length change on positioning precision of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper emphasise positioning precision of an elephant's trunk robotic arm which has joints driven by wires with variable length while operating The considered 5 degrees of freedom robotic arm has a particular structure of joint that makes possible inner actuation with wire-driven mechanism. We analyse solely the length change of wires as a consequence due inner winding and unwinding on joints for certain values of rotational angles. Variations in wires length entail joint angular displacements. We analyse positioning precision by taking into consideration equations from inverse kinematics of the elephant's trunk robotic arm. The angular displacements of joints are considered into computational method after partial derivation of positioning equations. We obtain variations of wires length at about tenths of micrometers. These variations employ angular displacements which are about minutes of sexagesimal degree and, thus, define positioning precision of elephant's trunk robotic arms. The analytical method is used for determining aftermath design structure of an elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires on positioning precision. Thus, designers could take suitable decisions on accuracy specifications limits of the robotic arm.

  11. Bridging the Data Talent Gap: Positioning the iSchool as an Agent for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Lyon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, functions and value of the “iSchool” as an agent of change in the data informatics and data curation arena. A brief background to the iSchool movement is given followed by a brief review of the data decade, which highlights key data trends from the iSchool perspective: open data and open science, big data and disciplinary data diversity. The growing emphasis on the shortage of data talent is noted and a family of data science roles identified. The paper moves on to describe three primary functions of iSchools: education, research intelligence and professional practice, which form the foundations of a new Capability Ramp Model. The model is illustrated by mini-case studies from the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh: the immersive (laboratory-based component of two new Research Data Management and Research Data Infrastructures graduate courses, a new practice partnership with the University Library System centred on RDM, and the mapping of disciplinary data practice using the Community Capability Model Profile Tool. The paper closes with a look to the future and, based on the assertion that data is mission-critical for iSchools, some steps are proposed for the next data decade: moving data education programs into the mainstream core curriculum, adopting a translational data science perspective and strengthening engagement with the Research Data Alliance.

  12. Position of Patriarch Jeremiah II Tranos in the matter of calendar changes by the Vatican

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    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper is a standpoint of ecumenical patriarch Jeremiah II Tranos on the change of calendar introduced by Vatican. Patriarch Jeremiah’s attitude in relations with the Roman Catholic Church has been similar to the earlier one concerning Protestants whohad attempted to attract Orthodox faithful through their far-flungactivities. Nevertheless the patriarch has managed to maintain friendly relations with both denominations. His wisdom and discernment has helped to safeguard the Orthodox Church and the faith against foreigninfluence of the non-Orthodox who have pursued solely to ensure theirbenefits. Orthodox believers in Polish Republic have obediently followed his orders consistently rejecting any novelties and aberrations of the Latin Church who has not accepted a method of dialogue preferring to use calendar reform as a measure to apply papal propaganda. Initialfailure of the Vatican has not restrained its policy on Orthodoxy. Active and uncompromising proselyte activity of Jesuit order has repeatedly led to tensions and fights between faithful of both Churches. Initial trial to impose the new calendar has turned into battlefield of pressure and persecution. Orthodox people of the Polish Republic have protested against the new calendar treating it as one of the main reasons of their struggle. In such a particularly critical period in history ecumenical patriarch Jeremiah II Tranos has himself rushed to the aid of Kiev Metropolis located within boundaries of the Polish Republic. During his visit in 1588–1589 he solved many burning dilemmas.

  13. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  14. Selective changes in sensitivity to benzodiazepines, and not other positive GABAA modulators, in rats receiving flunitrazepam chronically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Tolerance and dependence can develop during chronic benzodiazepine treatment; however, cross tolerance and cross dependence to positive modulators acting at other sites on GABAA receptors might not occur. Objectives The current study evaluated changes in sensitivity to positive GABAA modulators during chronic treatment with the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam to determine whether cross tolerance and cross dependence varied as a function of site of action. Methods Eight rats responded under a fixed ratio 20 schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves were determined before, during and after chronic treatment with 1 or 2 daily injections of 1 mg/kg of flunitrazepam. Results Prior to chronic treatment, benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, midazolam), a barbiturate (pentobarbital), a neuroactive steroid (pregnanolone), and drugs with primary mechanisms of action at receptors other than GABAA receptors (morphine, ketamine) dose dependently decreased responding. Twice daily treatment with flunitrazepam produced 9.5- and 23-fold shifts to the right in the flunitrazepam and midazolam dose-effect curves, respectively. In contrast, dose-effect curves for other drugs either were not changed or were shifted ≤4-fold to the right. Conclusions Decreased sensitivity to benzodiazepines and not to a barbiturate or a neuroactive steroid during chronic flunitrazepam treatment indicates that tolerance and cross tolerance developed only to benzodiazepines. Despite similar acute behavioral effects among positive GABAA modulators, the differential development of cross tolerance suggests that adaptations at GABAA receptors produced by chronic benzodiazepine treatment differentially affect positive modulators depending on their site of action; such differences might be exploited to benefit patients treated daily with positive GABAA modulators. PMID:19274455

  15. Selective changes in sensitivity to benzodiazepines, and not other positive GABA(A) modulators, in rats receiving flunitrazepam chronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R

    2009-07-01

    Tolerance and dependence can develop during chronic benzodiazepine treatment; however, cross tolerance and cross dependence to positive modulators acting at other sites on GABA(A) receptors might not occur. The current study evaluated changes in sensitivity to positive GABA(A) modulators during chronic treatment with the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam to determine whether cross tolerance and cross dependence varied as a function of site of action. Eight rats responded under a fixed ratio 20 schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves were determined before, during and after chronic treatment with one or two daily injections of 1 mg/kg of flunitrazepam. Prior to chronic treatment, benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, midazolam), a barbiturate (pentobarbital), a neuroactive steroid (pregnanolone), and drugs with primary mechanisms of action at receptors other than GABA(A) receptors (morphine, ketamine) dose-dependently decreased responding. Twice daily treatment with flunitrazepam produced 9.5- and 23-fold shifts to the right in the flunitrazepam and midazolam dose-effect curves, respectively. In contrast, dose-effect curves for other drugs either were not changed or were shifted less than or equal to fourfold to the right. Decreased sensitivity to benzodiazepines and not to a barbiturate or a neuroactive steroid during chronic flunitrazepam treatment indicates that tolerance and cross tolerance developed only to benzodiazepines. Despite similar acute behavioral effects among positive GABA(A) modulators, the differential development of cross tolerance suggests that adaptations at GABA(A) receptors produced by chronic benzodiazepine treatment differentially affect positive modulators depending on their site of action; such differences might be exploited to benefit patients treated daily with positive GABA(A) modulators.

  16. Clinical research on postoperative trauma care: has the position of observational studies changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeing, D P J; Houwert, R M; Kruyt, M C; van der Meijden, O A J; Hietbrink, F

    2017-02-01

    The postoperative care regimes of ankle fractures are studied for over 30 years and recommendations have shifted only slightly in the last decades. However, study methodology might have evolved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in time in the design, quality and outcome measures of studies investigating the postoperative care of ankle fractures. The MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched for both RCTs and cohort studies. The original studies were divided into decades of publication over the last 30 years. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the 'traditional' risk of bias assessment tool provided by The Cochrane Collaboration and the 'newer' MINORS criteria. The percentage of RCTs on this subject declined from 67 to 38 % in the last decades. According to the Cochrane tool, the reported quality of RCTs has improved in the last three decades whereas the reported quality of observational studies has remained unchanged. However, when quality was evaluated with the MINORS criteria, equal improvement was observed for both RCTs and observational studies. In the 80s, 67 % of all studies used the range of motion as the primary outcome measure, which decreased to 45 % in the 90s. In the 00s, none of the studies used the range of motion as the primary outcome. For postoperative care of ankle fractures, results of this study showed a relative decrease in the published number of RCTs. The overall quality of the published articles did not decline. In addition, a gradual shift from physician measured to patient-reported outcome variables was observed. However, it should be borne in mind that the findings are based on a small sample (n = 25).

  17. Sox-2 Positive Neural Progenitors in the Primate Striatum Undergo Dynamic Changes after Dopamine Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Cristina; Moreno-Murciano, Paz; Hernandez, Maria; Di Caudo, Carla; Mundiñano, Iñaki-Carril; Carril-Mundiñano, Iñaki; Vazquez, Nerea; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Luquin, Maria-Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The existence of endogenous neural progenitors in the nigrostriatal system could represent a powerful tool for restorative therapies in Parkinson's disease. Sox-2 is a transcription factor expressed in pluripotent and adult stem cells, including neural progenitors. In the adult brain Sox-2 is expressed in the neurogenic niches. There is also widespread expression of Sox-2 in other brain regions, although the neurogenic potential outside the niches is uncertain. Here, we analyzed the presence of Sox-2(+) cells in the adult primate (Macaca fascicularis) brain in naïve animals (N = 3) and in animals exposed to systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine to render them parkinsonian (N = 8). Animals received bromodeoxyuridine (100 mg/kg once a day during five consecutive days) to label proliferating cells and their progeny. Using confocal and electron microscopy we analyzed the Sox-2(+) cell population in the nigrostriatal system and investigated changes in the number, proliferation and neurogenic potential of Sox-2(+) cells, in control conditions and at two time points after MPTP administration. We found Sox-2(+) cells with self-renewal capacity in both the striatum and the substantia nigra. Importantly, only in the striatum Sox-2(+) was expressed in some calretinin(+) neurons. MPTP administration led to an increase in the proliferation of striatal Sox-2(+) cells and to an acute, concomitant decrease in the percentage of Sox-2(+)/calretinin(+) neurons, which recovered by 18 months. Given their potential capacity to differentiate into neurons and their responsiveness to dopamine neurotoxic insults, striatal Sox-2(+) cells represent good candidates to harness endogenous repair mechanisms for regenerative approaches in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Changes in nucleosome position at transcriptional start sites of specific genes in Zea mays mediator of paramutation1 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Jonathan D J; Dorweiler, Jane E; McGinnis, Karen M

    2013-04-01

    Nucleosomes facilitate compaction of DNA within the confines of the eukaryotic nucleus. This packaging of DNA and histone proteins must accommodate cellular processes, such as transcription and DNA replication. The repositioning of nucleosomes to facilitate cellular processes is likely regulated by several factors. In Zea mays, Mediator of paramutation1 (MOP1) has been demonstrated to be an epigenetic regulator of gene expression. Based on sequence orthology and mutant phenotypes, MOP1 is likely to function in an RNA-dependent pathway to mediate changes to chromatin. High-resolution microarrays were used to assay the distribution of nucleosomes across the transcription start sites (TSSs) of ~400 maize genes in wild type and mutant mop1-1 tissues. Analysis of nucleosome distribution in leaf, immature tassel and ear shoot tissues resulted in the identification of three genes showing consistent differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy between wild type and mutant mop1-1. These specific changes in nucleosome distribution were located upstream as well as downstream of the TSS. No direct relationship between the specific changes in nucleosome distribution and transcription were observed through quantitative expression analysis in these tissues. In silico prediction suggests that nucleosome positioning is not dictated by intrinsic DNA sequence signals in the TSSs of two of the identified genes, suggesting a role for chromatin remodeling proteins in MOP1-mediated pathways. These results also indicate that MOP1 contributions to nucleosome position may be either separate from changes in gene expression, or cooperative with development and other levels of regulation in coordinating gene expression.

  19. Changes in the lumbar spine of athletes from supine to the true-standing position in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Frieder; Jung, Christian; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard

    2010-04-20

    Case-control observational study. Determination of dimensional changes in the lumbar spines of athletes between supine and stand-up position in MRI, concerning the lordosis, spinal canal cross-sectional area (SCCA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCA), sagittal dural sac diameter (SDSD), the lateral recess and the neural foramina. The development of positional MRI allows the examination of spine segments under a true weight-bearing situation. About 35 athletes (20m/15f, Ø: 28a) were examined using a 0.25 T open MRI-Scanner (G-Scan, ESAOTE, Italy). In all cases, axial and sagittal SE-T1 + SSE-T2 images were recorded in supine and true standing position. All measurements were performed using MEDIMAGE software (Vepro AG, Germany). The blinded measurements were performed 3 times by 2 independent examiners. Sagittal images were used to determine the lordosis and the narrowing of the left/right foramen at all levels between L1/2 and L5/S1. Axial images were used to determine the SDSD, the SCCA and the DSCA at L3/4, L4/5, L5/S1, and narrowing of the left/right recessus lateralis of L4, L5 and S1. The lordosis showed a significant increase of 6.3 degrees (14%) from supine to true standing position (P SDSD is significantly smaller in true standing position, than in supine position at the level of L3/4 and L4/5 (P SDSD.

  20. Changes in background impair fluency-triggered positive affect: a cross-cultural test using a mere-exposure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether repeated exposure would enhance positive evaluations when only a part of a stimulus (e.g., the central object) was identical to a previously presented stimulus. Japanese and American participants were exposed to photographs of animals with scenery, then asked their preferences for each of four types of photographs of animals (photographs of animals with the original scenery, photographs of animals without scenery, photographs of animals with novel scenery, and photographs of animals not depicted previously). Finally, their recognition of the animals presented in the exposure phase was tested. Members of both groups showed the mere-exposure effect for the first two types of stimuli, irrespective of stimulus recognition accuracy, whereas this effect was not observed for animals presented with novel scenery. This suggests that changes in background impair positive affect as a result of repeated exposure.

  1. Changes in plasma viral load and penile viral shedding after circumcision among HIV-positive men in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyo-June, Elijah; Rogers, John H; Jaoko, Walter; Bailey, Robert C

    2013-12-15

    We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men aged 18-35 years in Kisumu, Kenya to determine if medical circumcision of ART-naive HIV-positive men leads to increased viral load and penile viral shedding. From 108 HIV-positive men circumcised by forceps-guided method and followed up weekly for 6 weeks, 29 men were evaluated for penile viral shedding. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma from 19 men and in penile lavage samples from 29 men. Samples were collected before circumcision and at weekly intervals for 6 weeks or until the circumcision wound was healed. CD4 T-cell counts from 102 HIV-positive men were determined at baseline and at 2 weeks thereafter. Wounds with healthy scar, no scab or opening, and no suture tracks were deemed healed. Among 65 ART-naive men, mean CD4 T-cell count increased from 417 cells per cubic millimeter at baseline to 456 cells per cubic millimeter after 2 weeks (P = 0.04), but did not change in the 37 men on ART (P = 0.81). There was no change in HIV plasma viral load (P = 0.36), but penile viral shedding rose significantly within 1 week after circumcision then declined to undetectable levels by 6 weeks (multivariate analysis of variance; P healing. Medical circumcision among ART-naive HIV-infected men results in a transitory rise in penile viral shedding before complete wound healing, which should pose no additional risk of HIV transmission if men adhere to 6 weeks postcircumcision sexual abstinence and use condoms consistently.

  2. Healhy Ageing in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : Promoting Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities

  3. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  4. Early preimplantation cells expressing Cdx2 exhibit plasticity of specification to TE and ICM lineages through positional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Yayoi; Oka, Sanae; Fujimori, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM) is the first cell lineage segregation to occur in mouse preimplantation development. These two cell lineages arise in a position-dependent manner at the blastocyst stage: the outer cells form TE, which will generate the future placenta, while the inner cells give rise to the ICM, from which the epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE) arise. Previous studies have shown that a portion of cells relocate from the outside position to the inside during this preimplantation stage, but few studies have investigated the correlation between cell relocation and the expression of key transcription factors critical for cell differentiation. To monitor cell movement and the status of the TE-specification pathway in living embryos, we established Cdx2-GFP reporter mice allowing us to visualize the expression of Caudal-type transcriptional factor (Cdx2), a key regulator of the initiation of TE differentiation. Observation of Cdx2-GFP preimplantation embryos by live cell imaging revealed that all cells localized in an initial outer position initiated the expression of Cdx2. Subsequently, cells that changed their position from an outer to an inner position downregulated Cdx2 expression and contributed to the ICM. Finally we showed that internalized cells likely contribute to both the EPI and PrE. Our datas indicate that cells expressing even high levels of Cdx2 can internalize, deactivate an activated TE-specification molecular pathway and integrate into the pluripotent cell population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

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    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  6. Positive Solution to a Singular p-Laplacian BVP with Sign-Changing Nonlinearity Involving Derivative on Time Scales

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    Can-Yun Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a time scale such that 0,T∈T. By using a monotone iterative method, we present some existence criteria for positive solution of a multiple point general Dirichlet-Robin BVP on time scales with the singular sign-changing nonlinearity. These results are even new for the corresponding differential (T=ℝ and difference equation (T=ℤ as well as in general time scales setting. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the results. The interesting point here is that the sign-changing nonlinear term is involved with the first-order derivative explicitly, and the singularity may occur at u=0, t=0, and t=T.

  7. American Indian health. Providers, communities surmount profound problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, J

    1992-07-01

    Minnesota's urban and rural Indian communities today face a similar set of complex and daunting health problems. No one overriding issue exists, nor does an overall solution. While staff shortages, a dire lack of Indian health professionals, and inadequate financial resources play a role, poverty, racism, lifestyle, alcoholism, and cultural change and conflict all further complicate health problems for Indian people.

  8. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  9. Mandibular incisor position changes do not explain increase in keratinized gingiva height after periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to reexamine the relationship between mandibular incisor inclination, prominence and vertical changes in position, and keratinized gingival tissue (KT height changes labial to the mandibular incisors after orthodontic treatment with and without augmented corticotomy (Cort. Materials and Methods: Two orthodontically treated groups of 35 individuals each, with (Cort and without (conventional [Conv] alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting (periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics [PAOO], were matched for sample size, gender, mandibular premolar extractions, pretreatment age, posttreatment observation period, and pretreatment KT height in this case–controlled retrospective study. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated for mandibular incisor vertical, inclination, and prominence changes. Results: As reported previously (Wilcko 2015, KT height had significantly increased by 0.78 mm (P = 0.001 in the Cort group and decreased by 0.38 mm (P = 0.002 in Conv on an average of 1.5 years after completion of active orthodontic therapy. In this study, Cort mandibular incisors proclined and protruded significantly during therapy while Conv incisors did not. Changes in mandibular incisor inclination and prominence explained neither the decrease in keratinized gingiva height in Conv nor the KT height gain in Cort. Conclusions: In spite of mandibular incisor proclination and protrusion, orthodontic therapy combined with alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting resulted in a clinically significant increase in keratinized gingiva height 1.5 years' posttreatment.

  10. Pattern of Changes during Treatment: A Comparison between a Positive Psychology Intervention and a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-10-26

    Research on psychotherapy has traditionally focused on analyzing changes between the beginning and the end of a treatment. Few studies have addressed the pattern of therapeutic change during treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of changes in clinical and well-being variables during a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program compared with an integrative positive psychology interventions program for clinical depression IPPI-D. 128 women with a diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were assigned to the CBT or PPI group. A measure of depressive symptoms (i.e., Beck Depression Inventory) and well-being (i.e., Pemberton Happiness Index) were administered four times: at the beginning and end of the treatment, as well as during treatment (at sessions 4 and 7). Through mixed-model repeated measures ANOVAs, both depressive symptoms (p .08). The percentage of improvement in depressive symptoms in the first treatment period was higher than in the later ones (ps < .005). On the contrary, well-being showed a more gradual improvement (p = .15). These results highlight the importance of assessing the pattern of changes in symptoms and well-being separately.

  11. Peer Instruction in introductory physics: A method to bring about positive changes in students' attitudes and beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin; Mazur, Eric

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n =441 ) in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture) teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI). In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.

  12. Peer Instruction in introductory physics: A method to bring about positive changes in students’ attitudes and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n=441 in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI. In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.

  13. Teen Options for Change (TOC): An Intervention for Adolescent Emergency Patients who Screen Positive for Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous research has documented the feasibility of adolescent suicide risk screening in emergency departments. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Method Participants were 49 adolescents, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for non-psychiatric chief complaints who screened positive for suicide risk due to recent suicidal ideation/attempt and/or depression plus alcohol abuse. They were randomly assigned to TOC or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two-month follow-up. Results Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d = 1.07; large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly) with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusions TOC is a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services who are at risk for suicide. PMID:25321886

  14. Effect of sustained typing work on changes in scapular position, pressure pain sensitivity and upper trapezius activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sustained computer keyboard typing on the human musculoskeletal system by assessing the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer. Activation of the upper trapezius during 20 minutes of computer keyboard work was measured by electromyography, and four consecutive 5-minute segments were analyzed. The vertical distance from the seventh cervical process to the acromion, and the horizontal distance from the inferior angle to the same level of the spinal process were significantly increased after keyboard typing work compared with before keyboard typing work (ptrapezius activity increased with increased time at the keyboard. The percent reference voluntary contraction of phase 1 (from start to 5 minutes) was lower than those of phase 2 (from 5 to 10 minutes), and phase 3 (from 10 to 15 minutes) (ptrapezius. To prevent musculoskeletal problems in the shoulder region, posture reeducation during computer work should be considered in terms not only of neck and trunk posture, but also of scapular position.

  15. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Mitrotasios, Michalis; Pistone, Eugenio M.; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Change Of Direction Speed (CODS) and Reactive Agility (RA) are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22), belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years), 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years) and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years), and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC), and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT) performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball) represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p Agility is a key skill required for soccer success, and it is based on greater levels of motor control, when compared to pre-planned CODS. No significant differences amongst players in different field positions for CODS and Agility performances were found. This study does not recommend to use Agility and CODS as indicators to assign the players roles in youth soccer. PMID:28630578

  16. IMMEDIATE POST SURGICAL RECOVERY AFTER THE REINSERTION OF PROFOUND FLEXOR

    OpenAIRE

    I.Ţopa; T.Stamate; Popa, L.

    2007-01-01

    The hand- the most complicated limb in the body- is often the center of some accidents which suppose surgery of the tendons. The splints and the immediate post surgical recovery have proven better, the choice of immediate recovery techniques have changed in time according to the evolution of anatomy, mechanical and physiological effects of the cicatrisation of the tendons. We present in our paper the steps of immediate functional recovery used by the team of SOS Hand Center Iaşi when regardin...

  17. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Nathan; Riley, Zachary A

    2013-01-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1) in five different static arm positions and, 2) before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT) or similar (FLEX) to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG) reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  18. [Preference Changes Regarding Future Work Area and Intended Position Among German Residents after Four Years of Residency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Stine; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Römer, Farina; Krause-Solberg, Lea; Scherer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Introduction We investigated the preferences of medical residents in Germany with regard to future working place (hospital or private practice) and position (employment/self-employment in private practice; resp. specialist/senior or chief physician in the hospital). This is analysed in a gender comparative perspective, including the influence of parenthood. Methods Annual postal surveys among graduates of seven medical faculties in Germany from their last year ("Practical Year") until after four years of postgraduate training. The return rate at baseline was 48 % and the four surveys after reached rates from 85 % up. In all samples about two thirds were women, which corresponds to the actual gender differentiation in under- and postgraduate training. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed. Results Compared to private practice the hospital is clearly preferred, although the attraction of hospital jobs decreased over the years. The decision for or against the hospital is connected to the discipline. Working in private practice is seen as possibility for part time work. Men prefer self-employment whereas women prefer to work under an employment contract. In the hospital, male doctors prefer to work in leading positions. Those positions are associated with full-time work. Leadership training especially takes place in university hospitals. Discussion Three trends are recognized: Reluctance against leading positions, growing interest for part time work and rising popularity of work as an employee in private practice. Those trends can be understood as a rejection of traditional professional role models. The realization of these preferences is easily feasible because of the current labour market situation. Therefore, emerging problems have to be faced in another way. A change of gender-typical role models was rarely detected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGING SOCIETY AND PERSONALITY: THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH POSITIONS IN RUSSIA AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Pushkareva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article analyzes the problems of continuous education (lifelong education formation in the modern changing environment. The author identify characteristic features and mechanisms of Continuous Education functioning, to integrate basic research position on the issue in Russia and foreign countries. The purpose of this article is to determine the nature of those changes which affect the operation of continuous education and their details. Materials and Methods: the research methodology is a synthesis of the philosophical analysis of the education continuity problems, its orientation and contents at different levels of the modern educational system that allows you to explore Continuing Education primaril y as a process. Results: the author of the article compares key approaches to the problem, the Russian and foreign researchers. It is noted that in the foreign research literature also pays considerable attention to various approaches to the definition of concepts in the field of Continuous Education: primarily, such as “education throughout life” (lifelong learning or “continuing education” (continuing education; and, to this approach as the “adult education” (adult education. The author focuses on the fact that the fundamental factor in the functioning of Continuing Education is its definition, primarily as a process of personality adaptation to the diverse and constantly changing conditions of social development. Discussion and Conclusions: in conclusion of this article author’s research conclusions, revealing defining the specifics of the changes affecting the operation of Continuing Education. The author emphasizes that the conditions of society and the personality development constantly changing and significantly determine the character of Continuous Education development.

  20. Journal metrics-based position of diabetes & metabolism journal after the change of its text language to english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    After changing its language from Korean or English to English only in 2010, the journal metrics of Diabetes & Metabolism Journal (DMJ) were analyzed to assess whether this change in the journal policy was successful. The journal metric items that were analyzed were the following: impact factor; total citations; countries of authors; proportion of the articles funded out of the total number of original articles; and Hirsch-index (H-index). A retrospective, descriptive analysis was carried out using various databases, such as KoreaMed, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, Web of Science, and Journal Citation Ranking. The journal's impact factor was 2.054, which corresponds to 83/122 (68.0%) out of the 2012 JCR endocrinology and metabolism category. The number of the journal's total citations was 330 in 2013. In addition to Korean authors, authors from 13 other countries published papers in the journal from 2010 to 2013. The number of funded papers from 2010 to 2013 was 65 out of 148 original articles (43.9%). The journal's H-index from KoreaMed Synapse was 7, and that from Web of Science was 9. It can be concluded that changing the journal's language to English was successful based on journal metrics. DMJ is currently positioned as an international journal based on the international diversity of authors and editors, its sufficiently high proportion of funded articles, its relatively high impact factor, and the number of total citations.

  1. Unusual cause of profound weight loss in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashu; Uppula, Pavan; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Bhansali, Anil

    2016-11-22

    A 27-year-old woman presented with anorexia, weight loss and psychiatric symptoms for the past 4 years. She did not have history of headache, visual disturbances or symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. She was sarcopenic with body mass index of 10.16 kg/m2Her systemic examination was normal except for temporal hemianopia suggesting a sellar/suprasellar lesion. Hormonal evaluation revealed pan-hypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed sellar-suprasellar mass lesion with intense contrast enhancement and leptomeningeal metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed elevated β human chorionic gonadotropin and the presence of syncytiotrophoblast germ cells. Histopathology from the mass lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma. Immunohistochemistry of the tumour tissue was positive for c-kit and placental alkaline phosphatise. She received a combination of chemotherapy with craniospinal irradiation. Significant weight loss in a young woman may not always be an eating disorder like anorexia nervosa albeit more common than germ cell tumour. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Profound nephrotic syndrome in a patient with ovarian teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Jeroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nephrotic syndrome (NS has been associated with a variety of malignancies in a number of reports in the literature, but has been reported in only nine cases associated with ovarian neoplasms. Membranous nephropathy is the most common glomerular pathology causing the NS in patients with solid tumors. There has been only one report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with minimal change disease (MCD. We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with the NS secondary to biopsy-proven MCD, likely secondary to mature ovarian teratoma. Treatment by tumor removal and prednisone led to remission of the NS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ovarian teratoma and the second report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with MCD.

  3. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fiorilli, Enzo Iuliano, Michalis Mitrotasios, Eugenio M. Pistone, Giovanna Aquino, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alessandra di Cagno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Change Of Direction Speed (CODS and Reactive Agility (RA are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22, belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years, 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years, and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC, and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p < 0.05. The strong and significant Pearson’s Correlation between ICODT with and without the ball (p < 0.01 demonstrated that physical and technical preparations have the same relevance in all positions. No significant differences were found among players in different field positions for CODS and RA performances, both with and without the ball. This study does not recommend to use RA and CODS as indicators to assign the players roles in youth soccer.

  4. Use of the slide positivity rate to estimate changes in malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamya Moses R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As malaria control efforts intensify, it is critical to monitor trends in disease burden and measure the impact of interventions. A key surveillance indicator is the incidence of malaria. Yet measurement of incidence is challenging. The slide positivity rate (SPR has been used as a surrogate measure of malaria incidence, but limited data exist on the relationship between SPR and the incidence of malaria. Methods A cohort of 690 children aged 1-10 years at enrollment were followed for all their health care needs over a four-year period in Kampala, Uganda. All children with fever underwent laboratory testing, allowing us to measure the incidence of malaria and non-malaria fevers. A formula was derived to estimate relative changes in the incidence of malaria (rΔIm based on changes in the SPR and the assumption that the incidence of non-malaria fevers was consistent over time. Observed and estimated values of rΔIm were compared over two, six, and 12 month time intervals after restricting the analysis to children contributing observation time between the ages of 4-10 years to control for aging of the cohort. Results Over the four-year observation period the incidence of malaria declined significantly from 0.93 episodes per person-year in 2005 to 0.39 episodes per person-year in 2008 (p Conclusion Changes in SPR provided a useful estimate of changes in the incidence of malaria in a well defined cohort; however, a gradual decline in the incidence of non-malaria fevers introduced some bias in these estimates.

  5. Dynamics of end expiratory lung volume after changing positive end-expiratory pressure in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnero, Aude; Tuxen, David; Corno, Gaëlle; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Hodgson, Carol; Arnal, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-18

    Lung recruitment maneuvers followed by an individually titrated positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are the key components of the open lung ventilation strategy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The staircase recruitment maneuver is a step-by-step increase in PEEP followed by a decremental PEEP trial. The duration of each step is usually 2 minutes without physiologic rationale. In this prospective study, we measured the dynamic end-expiratory lung volume changes (ΔEELV) during an increase and decrease in PEEP to determine the optimal duration for each step. PEEP was progressively increased from 5 to 40 cmH2O and then decreased from 40 to 5 cmH2O in steps of 5 cmH2O every 2.5 minutes. The dynamic of ΔEELV was measured by direct spirometry as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes over 2.5 minutes following each increase and decrease in PEEP. ΔEELV was separated between the expected increased volume, calculated as the product of the respiratory system compliance by the change in PEEP, and the additional volume. Twenty-six early onset moderate or severe ARDS patients were included. Data are expressed as median [25th-75th quartiles]. During the increase in PEEP, the expected increased volume was achieved within 2[2-2] breaths. During the decrease in PEEP, the expected decreased volume was achieved within 1 [1-1] breath, and 95 % of the additional decreased volume was achieved within 8 [2-15] breaths. Completion of volume changes in 99 % of both increase and decrease in PEEP events required 29 breaths. In early ARDS, most of the ΔEELV occurs within the first minute, and change is completed within 2 minutes, following an increase or decrease in PEEP.

  6. Aging profoundly delays functional recovery from gustatory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Yadgarov, A; Sharif, S; McCluskey, L P

    2012-05-03

    The peripheral taste system remains plastic during adulthood. Sectioning the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, which sends sensory information from the anterior tongue to the central nervous system, causes degeneration of distal fibers and target taste buds. However, taste function is restored after about 40 days in young adult rodents. We tested whether aging impacts the reappearance of neural responses after unilateral CT nerve injury. Taste bud regeneration was minimal at day 50-65 after denervation, and most aged animals died before functional recovery could be assessed. A subset (n=3/5) of old rats exhibited normal CT responses at day 85 postsectioning, suggesting the potential for efficient recovery. The aged taste system is fairly resilient to sensory receptor loss and major functional changes in normal aging. However, injury to the taste system reveals a surprising vulnerability in old rodents. The gustatory system provides an excellent model to study mechanisms underlying delayed recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Strategies to accelerate recovery and restore normal function will be of interest, as the elderly population continues to grow. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring happiness in individuals with profound multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Joseph A; Circo, Deborah K

    2015-12-01

    This quantitative study assessed whether presentation of preferred items and activities during multiple periods of the day (and over multiple days) increased indices of happiness (over time/sustained) in individuals with PMD. A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to measure changes in indices of happiness of the participants. Participants were recruited from an adult day activity program specializing in providing assistance to individuals with disabilities. For Mary, baseline indices of happiness were 26.67% of intervals, increasing 6.76% during intervention to 33.43%. For Caleb, baseline indices of happiness were 20.84% of intervals, increasing 6.34% during intervention to 27.18%. For Mark, baseline indices of happiness were 40.00% of intervals, increasing 12.75% during intervention to 52.75%. Overall interobserver agreement was 82.8%, with interobserver agreement observations occurring during 63.04% of the observations. The results of the investigation demonstrated that presenting preferred items and activities increased the indices of happiness compared to baseline rates of indices of happiness. Results may have been more robust if the participants were assessed for overall responsiveness patterns prior to the initiation of measurement of indices of happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy: A Model for Positive Organizational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Cynthia; Harris, Linda; Squire, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy and its unique contribution to public health and health care in the U.S. The chapter details what the National Action Plan is, how it evolved, and how it has influenced priorities for health literacy improvement work. Examples of how the National Action Plan fills policy and research gaps in health care and public health are included. The first part of the chapter lays the foundation for the development of the National Action Plan, and the second part discusses how it can stimulate positive organizational change to help create health literate organizations and move the nation towards a health literate society.

  9. Positional changes of maxillary central incisors following orthodontic treatment using single-crown implants as fixed reference markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahem Ben, Elissa; Holm, Bente; Sonnesen, L

    2017-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients - thirty-seven with (test group) and twenty without pre-implant orthodontic treatment (control group) - were rehabilitated with 89 single-crown implants in the upper maxilla. Clinical and radiographic data, clinical photographs, and dental casts were collected......OBJECTIVES: This follow-up study (1) compares tooth displacement of central incisors in patients with and without pre-implant orthodontic treatment and (2) investigates whether sex, age, or orthodontic retention have an effect on tooth displacement after the insertion of single-crown implants...... during baseline examinations after prosthetic rehabilitation and at the final follow-up examination at least 5 years later. A total of 114 dental casts were digitalized and aligned using a software program to measure changes in the positions of the central incisors. RESULTS: After a follow-up period...

  10. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  11. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Mitrotasios, Michalis; Pistone, Eugenio M; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    Change Of Direction Speed (CODS) and Reactive Agility (RA) are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22), belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years), 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years) and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years), and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC), and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT) performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball) represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p soccer.

  12. Changes in 4-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Gram-Positive Bacteria at the Main Referral Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Entezari-Maleki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality and the spread of resistant microorganisms is playing a significant role in this regard. The purpose of this study was to assess the trend in antimicrobial resistance of gram-positive bacteria at the main referral teaching hospital in Tehran during a 4-year period. All patients' biological isolates such as blood, urine, wound drainage, synovial fluid, sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid sent to the central laboratory of the hospital from 2007 to 2010 for identification and subsequently, antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method were considered. All isolates (100% of S. aureus were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid and resistant to amoxicillin. The rate of S. aureus resistance to oxacillin increased from 60.78% in 2007 to 72% in 2010. All isolates of Streptococci in 2007 and 2008 were sensitive to vancomycin; while, 3.33% and 4.76% of Streptococci isolates were reported to be vancomycin-resistant in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Enterococci isolated from the entire specimens were identified to be sensitive to teicoplanin and linezolid and resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin. The rates of Enterococci sensitivity to vancomycin were 90.91%, 81.25%, 86.67%, and 93.3% in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Changes of antibiotics sensitivity against g positive pathogens were significant during four years in this study. To minimize the spread of resistant gram positive pathogens, periodic and regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance pattern is highly recommended.

  13. Positive changes in the medical educational environment following introduction of a new systems-based curriculum: DREEM or reality? Curricular change and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Y; Avalos, G; Dunne, F

    2014-06-01

    Evaluation of a new systems-based curriculum in an undergraduate Irish Medical School was carried out with the validated Dundee Ready Educational Environment (DREEM) inventory. Comparison was made with the results from a previous DREEM study in the old curriculum. DREEM was administered to 225 medical students enrolled in the new curriculum. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0 and the Student unpaired t test. Increased mean scores supported greater satisfaction with the educational environment in the new curriculum. Students perceived better opportunities to develop interpersonal skills, ask questions and learn about empathy. Areas of concern included timetabling, support for stressed students and provision of feedback. Clinical students perceived their overall environment more positively. Pre-clinical students were more confident about passing exams and felt better prepared for clinical practice. Male students were more positive about the environment and found the teaching more stimulating. Female students perceived greater development of their problem-solving skills. Non-Irish students no longer perceived the atmosphere and their social self-perceptions more negative than Irish students, as was the case in the old curriculum. DREEM is a valuable tool in evaluating the educational environment and monitoring the impact of curricular change.

  14. Factors influencing attentiveness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in multisensory storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method developed for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The developers of MSST have established specific guidelines aimed at increasing the listener's attention. Whether, and to what extent, these guidelines indeed

  15. Effect of Cast Modification on Linear Dimensional Change of Acrylic Tooth Position Following Maxillary Complete Denture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed E; Swaid, Salma M; Porwal, Amit

    2016-02-16

    To investigate the effect of different cast modifications on the vertical and horizontal tooth position following maxillary complete denture processing. A total of 60 maxillary master casts were prepared and arranged in six groups (n = 10). Variation in modifications between study groups 1 through 6 were as follows: no modification, butterfly post palatal seal preparation only, butterfly post palatal seal preparation with 10 mm wide/4 mm deep box, butterfly post palatal seal preparation with 10 mm wide/4 mm deep box and four round holes, butterfly post palatal seal preparation with 20 mm wide/4 mm deep box, butterfly post dam preparation with 20 mm wide/4 mm deep box and four round holes, respectively. The boxes in the respective groups were prepared on the mid-heel area of the cast. The first group was included in the study as control. The initial master cast was indexed to standardize the measurement technique on all specimens before duplication. Maxillary denture tooth set-up was completed and indexed using laboratory putty to ensure a similar set-up on all specimens. Vertical and horizontal tooth positions were measured for the maxillary left central incisor, right and left first molars in waxed complete dentures, and following processing. The measurements were done using a digital vernier caliper with manufacturing accuracy of up to 0.01 mm. The study data were entered in a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. Statistical analysis was done using a paired Student t-test, ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc test set at 5% level of significance. The paired t-test (within groups) showed significant change in all linear tooth positions for groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 through 6 had significant change in vertical dimension only. One-way ANOVA indicated that no significant difference was seen in the vertical tooth movements between the groups; however, statistically significant reduction was seen in the horizontal tooth movements at the maxillary left central incisor, right and left first

  16. A microfluidic device for reversible environmental changes around single cells using optical tweezers for cell selection and positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Emma; Sott, Kristin; Lundqvist, Fredrik; Sveningsson, Martin; Scrimgeour, Jan; Hanstorp, Dag; Goksör, Mattias; Granéli, Annette

    2010-03-07

    Cells naturally exist in a dynamic chemical environment, and therefore it is necessary to study cell behaviour under dynamic stimulation conditions in order to understand the signalling transduction pathways regulating the cellular response. However, until recently, experiments looking at the cellular response to chemical stimuli have mainly been performed by adding a stress substance to a population of cells and thus only varying the magnitude of the stress. In this paper we demonstrate an experimental method enabling acquisition of data on the behaviour of single cells upon reversible environmental perturbations, where microfluidics is combined with optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy. The cells are individually selected and positioned in the measurement region on the bottom surface of the microfluidic device using optical tweezers. The optical tweezers thus enable precise control of the cell density as well as the total number of cells within the measurement region. Consequently, the number of cells in each experiment can be optimized while clusters of cells, that render subsequent image analysis more difficult, can be avoided. The microfluidic device is modelled and demonstrated to enable reliable changes between two different media in less than 2 s. The experimental method is tested by following the cycling of GFP-tagged proteins (Mig1 and Msn2, respectively) between the cytosol and the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon changes in glucose availability.

  17. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  18. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  19. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  1. Use of the slide positivity rate to estimate changes in malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trevor P; Bukirwa, Hasifa; Njama-Meya, Denise; Francis, Damon; Kamya, Moses R; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant

    2009-09-15

    As malaria control efforts intensify, it is critical to monitor trends in disease burden and measure the impact of interventions. A key surveillance indicator is the incidence of malaria. Yet measurement of incidence is challenging. The slide positivity rate (SPR) has been used as a surrogate measure of malaria incidence, but limited data exist on the relationship between SPR and the incidence of malaria. A cohort of 690 children aged 1-10 years at enrollment were followed for all their health care needs over a four-year period in Kampala, Uganda. All children with fever underwent laboratory testing, allowing us to measure the incidence of malaria and non-malaria fevers. A formula was derived to estimate relative changes in the incidence of malaria (rDeltaIm) based on changes in the SPR and the assumption that the incidence of non-malaria fevers was consistent over time. Observed and estimated values of rDeltaIm were compared over two, six, and 12 month time intervals after restricting the analysis to children contributing observation time between the ages of 4-10 years to control for aging of the cohort. Over the four-year observation period the incidence of malaria declined significantly from 0.93 episodes per person-year in 2005 to 0.39 episodes per person-year in 2008 (p age was associated with a significantly greater incidence of malaria and the incidence of malaria was significantly higher during seasonal peaks occurring each January-February and May-June. Changes in SPR produced reasonably accurate estimates of rDeltaIm over all time intervals. The average absolute difference in observed and estimated values of rDeltaIm was lower for six-month intervals (0.13) than it was for two-month (0.21) or 12 month intervals (0.21). Changes in SPR provided a useful estimate of changes in the incidence of malaria in a well defined cohort; however, a gradual decline in the incidence of non-malaria fevers introduced some bias in these estimates.

  2. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  3. Changes in the position of the Subtropical Front south of New Zealand since the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Hayward, Bruce W.; Neil, Helen L.; Sabaa, Ashwaq T.; Scott, George H.

    2015-07-01

    This study fills an important gap in our understanding of past changes in the Southern Subtropical Front (S-STF) in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Paleo-sea surface temperatures (SST) were estimated from planktic foraminiferal census counts from cores straddling the modern S-STF in the Solander Trough, south of New Zealand. The estimated SST were compared for 6 time slices; glacial period (25-21 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21-18 ka), early deglaciation (18-16 ka), late deglacial/early Holocene period (14-8 ka), mid-Holocene period (8-4 ka), and late Holocene period (4-0 ka). The position of the S-STF was determined by two methods: (1) the location of the 10°C isotherm and (2) the location of the highest SST gradients. These new results suggest that the S-STF was not continuous between east and west of New Zealand during the glacial period. Steep SST gradients indicate that a strong S-STF rapidly shifted south during the LGM and early deglaciation. During the late deglacial and Holocene periods the position of the S-STF differs between the two methods with reduced SST gradients, suggesting a more diffuse S-STF in the Solander Trough at this time. The glacial SST data suggest that the S-STF shifted north to the west of New Zealand, while to the east there was a stronger SST gradient across the front. This was possibly the result of an increased wind stress curl, which could have been caused by stronger, or more northerly Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW), or a merging of the SHWW split jet in this region.

  4. Effect of Load Change on Foot Arch in Different Positions-Assessment of Foot Arch Using a Motion Analysis System and a Caliper-Goniometer System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Takayanagi, Kiyomi; Tsuruga, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of load change on the foot arch in different foot positions using a Vicon motion analysis system and clinical assessment using a goniometer and calipers...

  5. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Chen

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD for invasive breast cancer (IBC is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC, an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC.A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models.Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2. This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes.We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs.

  6. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatich, Albert J.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Jianfang; Kvecher, Leonid; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Mitchell, Edith P.; Rui, Hallgeir; Shriver, Craig D.; Hu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC), an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC. Methods A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA) was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC) were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR) depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2). This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes. Conclusions We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs. PMID:26098961

  7. Globalization and post-Islamic revolution: a changing Iranian woman

    OpenAIRE

    KHAKI G.N.; MIR GOUSIA

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and its core components like modernization, secularization, democracy etc. have become most debatable issues in the post-Revolution Iran. There has been a significant impact of globalization over the changing socio-religious milieu of contemporary Iranian society. Iranian women''s position has also come under its profound influence. In the last three decades, the position of Iranian women has come through different development perspectives. While resisting the Islamization polic...

  8. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  9. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting in violin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Visentin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the “how” and “what” of left-hand position changes (shifting, a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer’s personal artistic style.

  10. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the "how" and "what" of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer's personal artistic style.

  11. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  12. Changing the Past, Present, and Future: Potential Applications of Positive Psychology in School-Based Psychotherapy with Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2007-01-01

    There has recently been a growing movement within psychology toward placing a greater emphasis on the positive aspects of human nature. This movement, known as positive psychology, focuses on the scientific study of human strengths and virtues as well as the variables that promote positive traits, emotions, and institutions. The purpose of this…

  13. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  15. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES – THE WAY OF SOCIALIZATION OF PEOPLE WITH PROFOUND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii I. Netosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.

  16. Radiology Exposure in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Medical Student Perspective on Quality and Opportunities for Positive Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Kari L; Faden, Lisa; Nassrallah, Georges; Speer, Stacey; Wiseman, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    This article is a continuation of a qualitative study designed to explore how radiology exposures can impact medical student opinions and perceptions of radiology and radiologists. We focused on: 1) conducting a radiology exposure inventory from the perspective of the medical student; 2) student evaluation of the quality of the radiology exposures and suggestions for positive change; and 3) development of a framework to address the needs of medical students as it relates to radiology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Research methodology and design for this qualitative study were described in detail in a previous article by Visscher et al [1]. Participants included 28 medical students; 18 were in medical school years 1 and 2 (preclerkship), and 10 were in years 3 and 4 (clerkship). Specific to the focus of this article, the data revealed 3 major findings: 1) multiple exposures to radiology exist, and they are received and valued differently depending on the medical student's stage of professional development; 2) medical students value radiology education and want their radiology exposure to be comprehensive and high quality; 3) Medical students have constructive suggestions for improving the quality of both formal and informal radiology exposures. Performing a radiology exposure inventory from a medical student perspective is a useful way to explore how students receive and value radiology instruction. Medical students want a more comprehensive radiology education that can be summarized using the 5 C's of Radiology Education framework. The 5 C's (curriculum, coaching, collaborating, career and commitment) reflect medical students' desires to learn content that will support them in clinical practice, be supported in their professional development, and have the necessary information to make informed career decisions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  18. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  19. Mental health and positive change among Japanese mothers of children with intellectual disabilities: Roles of sense of coherence and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    We investigated predictors of mental health and positive change among mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Japan based on the concept of the Double ABCX model. We used variables of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and dissatisfaction with systems as stressors, availability of social support and social capital (SC) as existing resources, sense of coherence (SOC) as appraisal of the stressor, and mental health and positive change as adaptation. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 10 intellectual disability-oriented special needs schools in Tokyo, and obtained 613 responses from mothers of children under age 20 attending these schools. The results showed that our Double ABCX model explained 46.0% of the variance in mothers' mental health and 38.9% of the variance in positive change. The most powerful predictor of this model was SOC, and SC may be directly and indirectly related to maternal mental health and positive change through mothers' SOC. Increasing opportunity for interaction between neighbors and family of children with disabilities may be one effective way to enhance SOC through SC. Since maternal SOC, SC, mental health, and positive change were significantly correlated with each other, synergy among these elements could be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...... input signals. The application of some popular second order sliding mode controllers and their smooth counterparts are analyzed and experimentally verified. The controllers are considered for output feedback control and compared with a conventional PI control approach. The controllers under...... consideration are applied for position tracking control of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive exhibiting strong variations in inertia- and gravitational loads, and furthermore suffer from profound valve dynamics. Results demonstrate that both the twisting- and super twisting algorithms may be successfully applied...

  1. Parents' experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-03-01

    There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.

  2. The effect of prolonged lateral positioning during routine care on regional lung volume changes in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; de Jongh, Frans H.; Miedema, Martijn; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2016-01-01

    During routine nursing care, preterm infants are often placed in lateral position for several hours, but the effect of this procedure on regional lung volume and ventilation is unknown. In our study we examined this effect during 3 hrs of lateral positioning in stable preterm infants. Preterm

  3. The effect of prolonged lateral positioning during routine care on regional lung volume changes in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, P.S.; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Miedema, M.; Frerichs, I.; van Kaam, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During routine nursing care, preterm infants are often placed in lateral position for several hours, but the effect of this­­­­ procedure on regional lung volume and ventilation is unknown. In our study we examined this effect during 3 hrs of lateral positioning in stable preterm

  4. Profound Endothelial Damage Predicts Impending Organ Failure and Death in Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively), or...

  5. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  6. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  7. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  8. Staff interactive style during multisensory storytelling with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical

  9. Staff Interactive Style during Multisensory Storytelling with Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical research evidence. In general, there is a lack of…

  10. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  11. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  12. The role of attention in the affective life of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,

  13. The impact of medical conditions on the support of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, HP; Vlaskamp, C

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records

  14. Assessing the Efficacy of an Academic Hearing Peer Tutor for a Profoundly Deaf Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Suzanne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of using a hearing peer tutor to provide daily 20-minute math instruction for a profoundly deaf sixth-grade girl indicated that the peer tutoring intervention was highly successful, with the tutee meeting accuracy criteria for each of 4 curriculum objectives after only a brief period of intervention. (Author/DB)

  15. Profoundly Gifted Girls and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Psychometric Case Study Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    A case study of the psychometric characteristics of two profoundly gifted girls, one with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the other without ASD, is used to describe the nuances and subtleties most relevant in understanding the relationship between extreme giftedness and social difficulties. Through the presentation of the results from…

  16. Identification Audiometry in an Institutionalized Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ernest J.; And Others

    An audiometric screening survey was conducted on a severely and profoundly mentally retarded population using noise-makers and pure tone audiometry. Of those tested with noise-makers, 83% gave an identifiable response to sound, 7% did not respond, and 10% were considered difficult-to-test. By contrast, 4% passed, 2% failed, and 94% were…

  17. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  18. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. L. G.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound

  19. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  20. Multisensory Narrative Tracking by a Profoundly Deaf Subject Using an Electrocutaneous Vocoder and a Vibrotactile Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Observed Mood and Emotions in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…

  2. Eptifibatide induced profound thrombocytopenia in a patient with pelvic malignancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Kathryn C.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Thaker, Premal H.

    2012-01-01

    ► Eptifibatide is associated with profound thrombocytopenia and thrombosis secondary to a HITT-like mechanism associated with drug-dependant antibodies. ► Caution with eptifibatide use is needed in those pre-disposed to hypercoaguability, particularly those with an underlying malignancy.

  3. The Development of Plato Computer-Based Instruction for the Severely and Profoundly Developmentally Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Clapp, Elizabeth Jane

    The 2 year project (July 1, 1978 through June 30, 1980) sought to determine the viability, attractiveness, and effectiveness of computer based instruction with approximately 225 severely and profoundly mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled institutionalized children and adults. Over 100 instructional formats were developed by staff…

  4. Peer Interactions among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during group activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    Background Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the

  5. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  6. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  7. Extent, Duration, and Content of Day Services' Activities for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Hiemstra, Saskia J.; Wiersma, Linda A.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government instituted policies that enable persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to attend day services. Over the past 15 years, surveys have indicated a progressive increase in the number of hours that such adults spend at day activities centers. However, information about how these…

  8. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  9. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  10. A functionally focused curriculum for children with profound multiple disabilities : A goal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Reynders, K; Vlaskamp, C; Nakken, H

    Background This study analysed goals formulated in a functionally focused curriculum called Mobility Opportunities Via Education(TM) (MOVE). Method The subjects were 49 children with profound multiple disabilities (PMD) who attended a centre for special education where the MOVE curriculum was

  11. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  12. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  13. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  14. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a team of researchers in developing a brain-computer interface (BCI) system to help the profoundly paralyzed communicate. Dr. Wolpaw has received support from two NIH Institutes—NIBIB and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development—and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. "For the ...

  15. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has…

  16. Assessment of Computer-Based Preferences of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bishop, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating the use of computer-based stimuli that may then be used to develop activities and programming for students with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Both studies used an alternating treatments design and systematic assessment strategy to present stimuli sequentially and to measure student…

  17. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  18. Specific needs of families of young adults with profound intellectual disability during and after transition to adulthood: What are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present

  19. Changes in seed oil and protein contents of maize cultivars at different positions on the ear in response to water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out as split-split plot in 2014 to assess the effects of four irrigation treatments (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation, respectively on oil and protein changes of maize cultivars (SC704, NS640 and DC303: Late, mid and early maturing cultivars, respectively at different seed positions on the ear (upper, middle and lower positions on the ear. Overall, the highest seed yield was obtained from SC704, followed by NS640 and DC303 cultivars. Seed yield of all cultivars was higher at lower seed position on ear than at middle and upper parts of the ear under different irrigation treatments. The highest oil and protein yields were also recorded for seeds at lower position on the ear. Seed yield of all maize cultivars at various seed positions decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Oil percentage decreased, but protein percentage increased with decreasing water availability. Water limitation decreased oil and protein yields of maize cultivars. Changes in protein and oil yields of maize cultivars at different seed positions and irrigation treatments were attributed to changes in seed yield.

  20. The impact of change in a doctor's job position: a five-year cohort study of job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction among physicians may be of importance to their individual careers and their work with patients. We lack prospective studies on whether a change in a doctor's job position influences their job satisfaction over a five-year period if we control for other workload factors. Methods A longitudinal national cohort of all physicians who graduated in Norway in 1993 and 1994 was surveyed by postal questionnaire in 2003 (T1) and 2008 (T2). Outcomes were measured with a 10-item job satisfaction scale. Predictor variables in a multiple regression model were: change in job position, reduction in work-home interface stress, reduction in work hours, age, and gender. Results A total of 59% of subjects (306/522) responded at both time points. The mean value of job satisfaction in the total sample increased from 51.6 (SD = 9.0) at T1 to 53.4 (SD = 8.2) at T2 (paired t test, t = 3.8, p positions at T1 were senior house officers (45%), chief specialists in hospitals (23%), and general practitioners (17%), and the latter showed the highest levels of job satisfaction. Physicians who changed position during the period (n = 176) experienced an increase in job satisfaction from 49.5 (SD = 8.4) in 2003 to 52.9 (SD = 7.5) in 2008 (paired t test, t = 5.2, p Job satisfaction remained unchanged for physicians who stayed in the same position. There was also an increase in satisfaction among those who changed from positions other than senior house officer at T1 (p position from senior house officer at T1 to any other position (β = 2.83, p job position (from any position except SHO at T1) (β = 4.18, p job satisfaction over a five-year period, which was predicted by a change in job position and a reduction in work-home stress. This study has implications with respect to career advice for young doctors. PMID:22340521

  1. Exploring daily affective changes in university students with a mindful positive reappraisal intervention: A daily diary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina; Craig, Jacqueline; Chris, Alexandra; O'Shea, Deirdre; González-Morales, M Gloria

    2017-05-17

    Brief and cost-effective interventions focused on emotion regulation techniques can buffer against stress and foster positive functioning. Mindfulness and positive reappraisal are two techniques that can mutually enhance one another to promote well-being. However, research testing the effectiveness of interventions combining mindfulness and reappraisal is lacking. The current pilot examined the effect of a combined mindful-reappraisal intervention on daily affect in a 5-day diary study with 106 university students. Participants were randomized to a mindful-reappraisal intervention (n = 36), a reappraisal-only intervention (n = 34), or an active control activity (n = 36). All participants described a negative event each day but only reappraised the event in the intervention conditions. Using multilevel growth modelling, results indicated that negative affect in both interventions declined over 5 days compared to the control; however, there were no differences in the growth of positive affect. Compared to reappraisal-only, the mindful-reappraisal group reported overall lower daily negative affect and marginally higher daily positive affect over the 5-day intervention. These findings suggest that brief daily practice combining mindfulness and positive reappraisal can be trained as a self-regulatory resource to promote positive affect and buffer negative affect above and beyond reappraisal practice alone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations,...

  4. Comparative analysis of maximum renal longitudinal length with positional changes on ultrasound with multiplanar reconstructed MR image in Korea Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Kang, Woo Young; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Yook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Yong [Public Health Medical Service, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable position in which the measured length on ultrasound is close to the true renal length obtained through a multiplanar reconstructed MR image. A total of 33 individuals (males: 15, females: 18) without any underlying renal disease were included in the present study. Renal length was measured as the longest axis at the level of the renal hilum in three positions-supine, lateral decubitus, and prone, respectively. With a 3.0 T MR scanner, 3D eTHRIVE was acquired. Subsequently, the maximum longitudinal length of both the kidneys was measured through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Paired t-test was used to compare the renal length obtained from ultrasonographic measurement with the length obtained through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Our study demonstrated significant difference between sonographic renal length in three positions and renal length through MRI (p < 0.001). However, the longest longitudinal length of right kidney among the measured three values by ultrasound was statistically similar to the renal length measured by reconstructed MR image. Among them, the lateral decubitus position showed the strongest correlation with true renal length (right: 0.887; left: 0.849). We recommend measurement of the maximum renal longitudinal length in all possible positions on ultrasonography. If not allowed, the best measurement is on the lateral decubitus showing the strongest correlation coefficient with true renal length.

  5. Improving the Robustness of Real-Time Myoelectric Pattern Recognition against Arm Position Changes in Transradial Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have showed that arm position variations would significantly degrade the classification performance of myoelectric pattern-recognition-based prosthetic control, and the cascade classifier (CC and multiposition classifier (MPC have been proposed to minimize such degradation in offline scenarios. However, it remains unknown whether these proposed approaches could also perform well in the clinical use of a multifunctional prosthesis control. In this study, the online effect of arm position variation on motion identification was evaluated by using a motion-test environment (MTE developed to mimic the real-time control of myoelectric prostheses. The performance of different classifier configurations in reducing the impact of arm position variation was investigated using four real-time metrics based on dataset obtained from transradial amputees. The results of this study showed that, compared to the commonly used motion classification method, the CC and MPC configurations improved the real-time performance across seven classes of movements in five different arm positions (8.7% and 12.7% increments of motion completion rate, resp.. The results also indicated that high offline classification accuracy might not ensure good real-time performance under variable arm positions, which necessitated the investigation of the real-time control performance to gain proper insight on the clinical implementation of EMG-pattern-recognition-based controllers for limb amputees.

  6. Static and dynamic loading of mandibular condyles and their positional changes after bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicker, G.J.; Tuijt, M.; Koolstra, J.H.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the effects of change of direction of masseter (MAS) and medial pterygoid muscles (MPM) and changes of moment arms of MAS, MPM and bite force on static and dynamic loading of the condyles after surgical mandibular advancement. Rotations of the condyles were assessed on axial

  7. Change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with antiretroviral treatment initiation and nutritional intervention in HIV-positive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilma, Daniel; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette F

    2016-01-01

    daily allowance of vitamin D (10 μg/200 g). The level of serum 25(OH)D before nutritional intervention and ART initiation was compared with serum 25(OH)D of HIV-negative individuals. A total of 348 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative persons were recruited. The median baseline serum 25(OH)D level......Low vitamin D level in HIV-positive persons has been associated with disease progression. We compared the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons, and investigated the role of nutritional supplementation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on serum 25......(OH)D levels. A randomised nutritional supplementation trial was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. The trial compared 200 g/d of lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) with no supplementation during the first 3 months of ART. The supplement provided twice the recommended...

  8. Change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with antiretroviral treatment initiation and nutritional intervention in HIV-positive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilma, Daniel; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D level in HIV-positive persons has been associated with disease progression. We compared the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons, and investigated the role of nutritional supplementation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on serum 25......(OH)D levels. A randomised nutritional supplementation trial was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. The trial compared 200 g/d of lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) with no supplementation during the first 3 months of ART. The supplement provided twice the recommended...... daily allowance of vitamin D (10 μg/200 g). The level of serum 25(OH)D before nutritional intervention and ART initiation was compared with serum 25(OH)D of HIV-negative individuals. A total of 348 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative persons were recruited. The median baseline serum 25(OH)D level...

  9. Changes in relative potency among positive GABA(A) receptor modulators upon discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine treatment in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Lance R; Javors, Martin A; France, Charles P

    2007-05-01

    Benzodiazepine treatment can result in dependence as evidenced by signs of withdrawal upon discontinuation of use. Positive GABA(A) receptor modulators were examined for their capacity to attenuate flumazenil-like discriminative stimulus effects (i.e., withdrawal) that emerge upon discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine treatment. Rhesus monkeys receiving chronic diazepam (5.6 mg(-1) kg(-1) 24 h(-1) p.o.) discriminated flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) from vehicle. Upon discontinuation of diazepam treatment, responding switched from the vehicle to the flumazenil lever, although at different times among monkeys. The shorter-acting benzodiazepine lorazepam (3.2 mg(-1) kg(-1) 8 h(-1)) was substituted for diazepam and, 11 h after lorazepam, monkeys consistently responded on the flumazenil lever. Flumazenil-lever responding after acute lorazepam deprivation was attenuated not only by benzodiazepines (lorazepam and midazolam) but also by positive GABA(A) receptor modulators acting at neuroactive steroid (pregnanolone and alfaxalone) and barbiturate sites (pentobarbital). Deprivation-induced responding on the flumazenil lever was not attenuated by low efficacy positive GABA(A) modulators (bretazenil and L-838,417) or non-GABA(A) receptor ligands (ketamine and cocaine). Neuroactive steroids were relatively more potent than other positive GABA(A) receptor modulators in attenuating deprivation-induced flumazenil-lever responding, as compared to their relative potency in monkeys discriminating midazolam and otherwise not receiving benzodiazepine treatment. These results suggest that positive GABA(A) receptor modulators acting at different sites attenuate withdrawal induced by discontinuation of benzodiazepine treatment, consistent with previous studies suggesting that the same compounds attenuate flumazenil-precipitated withdrawal. Differences in the relative potency of positive modulators as a function of acute versus chronic benzodiazepine treatment suggest that neuroactive

  10. An overview of research on increasing indices of happiness of people with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G E; Singh, N N; O'Reilly, M F; Oliva, D; Basili, G

    2005-02-04

    This paper was to provide an overview of research studies aimed at increasing indices of happiness of persons with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Computerized and manual searches were carried out to identify the studies published from 1990 to 2004 (i.e., the period during which the issues of quality fo life and happiness in people with disabilities have become more prominent). Twenty-four research studies were identified. They involved the use of six different procedures, that is, structured stimulation sessions, microswitch-based simulation sessions, leisure activities and favourite work tasks or conditions, positive environment or positive behaviour support programmes and mindful caregiving, favourite stimulation automatically delivered on exercise engagement, and snoezelen. Data tended to be positive with increases in the participants' indices of happiness, but some failures also occurred. The outcomes were discussed in relation to (a) methodological issues, such as designs of the studies, length of the intervention, and number of participants, and (b) personal and practical implications of the procedures. Some suggestions for future research (particularly focused on extending evidence and overcoming present methodological weakness) were also examined.

  11. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  12. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  13. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  14. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangNam Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC. Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.

  15. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  16. Change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with antiretroviral treatment initiation and nutritional intervention in HIV-positive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilma, Daniel; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D level in HIV-positive persons has been associated with disease progression. We compared the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons, and investigated the role of nutritional supplementation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on serum 25...... daily allowance of vitamin D (10 μg/200 g). The level of serum 25(OH)D before nutritional intervention and ART initiation was compared with serum 25(OH)D of HIV-negative individuals. A total of 348 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative persons were recruited. The median baseline serum 25(OH)D level......-supplemented group had a 10·8 (95 % CI 7·8, 13·9) nmol/l decrease in serum 25(OH)D level after 3 months of ART. Nutritional supplementation that contained vitamin D prevented a reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels in HIV-positive persons initiating ART. Vitamin D replenishment may be needed to prevent reduction...

  17. A gene responsible for profound congenital nonsyndromal recessive deafness maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, T.B.; Liang, Y.; Asher, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive deafness is the most common form of human hereditary hearing loss. Two percent of the 2,185 residents of Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia have profound congenital neurosensory nonsyndromal hereditary deafness due to a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation (NARD1). Families, identified through children with profound congenital deafness having hearing parents, give the expected 25% deaf progeny when corrected for ascertainment bias. Congenitally deaf individuals from Bengkala show no response to pure tone audiological examination. Obligate heterozygotes for autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala have normal or borderline normal hearing. A chromosomal location for NARD1 was assigned directly using a linkage strategy that combines allele-frequency dependent homozygosity mapping (AHM) followed by an analysis of historical recombinants to position NARD1 relative to flanking markers. Thirteen deaf Bengkala villagers of hearing parents were typed initially for 148 STRPs distributed across the human genome and a cluster of tightly linked 17p markers with a significantly higher number of homozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium were identified. NARD1 maps closest to STRPs for D17S261 (Mfd41) and D17S805 (AFM234ta1) that are 3.2 cM apart. Recombinant genotypes for the flanking markers, D17S122 (VAW409) and D17S783 (AFM026vh7), in individuals homozygous for NARD1 place NARD1 in a 5.3 cM interval of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 on a refined 17p-17q12 genetic map.

  18. Game changing - tracing the positions, strategies and interaction modes of the German Länder towards the (ever expanding?) European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how the positions, strategies and modes of interaction of the German Länder have changed over time in response to the process of Europeanization. By applying the method of process tracing within a theoretical framework of rational choice institutionalism, the article...

  19. Immediate postoperative outcome of orthognathic surgical planning, and prediction of positional changes in hard and soft tissue, independently of the extent and direction of the surgical corrections required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Ole; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Jens; Hermund, Niels Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the immediate postoperative outcome of preoperatively planned and predicted positional changes in hard and soft tissue in 100 prospectively and consecutively planned and treated patients; all had various dentofacial deformities that required single or double jaw orthog...

  20. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  1. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyasu Komasawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP and taper-shaped (taper cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n=20; HVLP group or taper-shaped (n=20; Taper group cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  2. The Impact of Escape Alternative Position Change in Multiple-Choice Test on the Psychometric Properties of a Test and Its Items Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Iyad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact changing of escape alternative position in multiple-choice test on the psychometric properties of a test and it's items parameters (difficulty, discrimination & guessing), and estimation of examinee ability. To achieve the study objectives, a 4-alternative multiple choice type achievement test…

  3. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  4. Quantitative changes in cerebral blood flow of Shy-Drager syndrome induced by upright position. Assessment by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomi, Tatsuya; Terada, Hitoshi; Kuwajima, Akira; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Hamazaki, Kazuhiro; Uehara, Hideo; Kinoshita, Masao [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1995-11-01

    We assessed orthostatic changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 4 patients with Shy-Drager syndrome. Brain perfusion index (BPI) was measured by {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Cerebral angiography using aortic time-activity curve as an input function BPI values in supine and upright positions in Shy-Drager syndrome were compared with those in 2 cerebrovascular disease patients without orthostatic hypotension. BPI values in the upright position were significantly decreased in patients with Shy-Drager syndrome as compared with these in the supine position. No significant decrease in BPI was noted in the patients without orthostatic hypotension. These results suggest that the BPI measurement by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO cerebral angiography is useful for the noninvasive evaluation of the orthostatic changes of the CBF. (author).

  5. Change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with antiretroviral treatment initiation and nutritional intervention in HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Daniel; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette F; Abdissa, Alemseged; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel; Krarup, Henrik; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Ritz, Christian; Kirk, Ole; Andersen, Åse B; Friis, Henrik

    2016-11-08

    Low vitamin D level in HIV-positive persons has been associated with disease progression. We compared the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons, and investigated the role of nutritional supplementation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on serum 25(OH)D levels. A randomised nutritional supplementation trial was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. The trial compared 200 g/d of lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) with no supplementation during the first 3 months of ART. The supplement provided twice the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D (10 μg/200 g). The level of serum 25(OH)D before nutritional intervention and ART initiation was compared with serum 25(OH)D of HIV-negative individuals. A total of 348 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative persons were recruited. The median baseline serum 25(OH)D level was higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative persons (42·5 v. 35·3 nmol/l, P17 kg/m2 were randomised to either LNS supplementation (n 189) or no supplementation (n 93) during the first 3 months of ART. The supplemented group had a 4·1 (95 % CI 1·7, 6·4) nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D, whereas the non-supplemented group had a 10·8 (95 % CI 7·8, 13·9) nmol/l decrease in serum 25(OH)D level after 3 months of ART. Nutritional supplementation that contained vitamin D prevented a reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels in HIV-positive persons initiating ART. Vitamin D replenishment may be needed to prevent reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels during ART.

  6. Shape change in mouthguard sheets during thermoforming - part 2: effect of the anteroposterior position of the model on mouthguard thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Araie, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Yoshihide; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    Mouthguards can reduce the risk of sports-related injuries, but the sheet material and thickness have a large effect on their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of model position in the molding machine on the reduction in mouthguard thickness. Ethylene vinyl acetate sheets and olefin copolymer sheets were used for thermoforming by a pressure- or a vacuum-forming machine. The working model was trimmed to the height of 25 mm at the maxillary central incisor and 20 mm at maxillary first molar. For both pressure forming and vacuum forming, the model was placed with the anterior rim of the model positioned 40, 30, 25, 20, or 10 mm from the front of the sheet frame. An additional test was carried out at 50 mm for vacuum forming. The sheet thickness after fabrication was determined for the incisal edge, labial surface, and buccal surface using a specialized caliper. The difference of the model position on the reduction in thickness in each forming device and sheet material was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The reductions in thickness at the incisal edge and labial surface were about -60% and -50%, respectively, for the distance of 25 mm from the front of forming table. That position was the same as the height of the anterior part of the model for each molding machine and sheet material. The anterior thickness after molding became greater as the distance between the model and the sheet frame became smaller. The results showed that the thickness reduction was large when the distance from the model to the frame was small. This demonstrates the importance of centering the sheet and the model to achieve the most stable molding when positioning the model in the forming unit. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Journal Metrics-Based Position of Diabetes & Metabolism Journal after the Change of Its Text Language to English

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Huh

    2014-01-01

    After changing its language from Korean or English to English only in 2010, the journal metrics of Diabetes & Metabolism Journal (DMJ) were analyzed to assess whether this change in the journal policy was successful. The journal metric items that were analyzed were the following: impact factor; total citations; countries of authors; proportion of the articles funded out of the total number of original articles; and Hirsch-index (H-index). A retrospective, descriptive analysis was carried out ...

  8. Tailored nutritional guidance for home-dwelling AD families: the Feasibility of and Elements Promoting Positive Changes in Diet (NuAD-Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranen, T M; Pitkala, K H; Suominen, M H

    2015-04-01

    To describe the process and feasibility of our randomised, controlled intervention study (NuAD trial) that positively affected the nutrition and quality of life, and prevented falls of home-dwelling persons with Alzheimer disease (AD). This qualitative study comprised 40 persons with AD and spousal caregivers of our trial. Our intervention during one year involved tailored nutritional guidance for these couples. The nutritionist's field notes (about 100 pages) and the participant feedback questionnaires (N = 28) served to analyse the feasibility of intervention, factors promoting the application of intervention and challenges hindering it. Thematic content analysis served to analyse our data with the grounded theory approach. We identified several positive elements promoting better nutrition: positive attitudes on nutrition to participants including a participant-centred approach, positive feedback, findings of food diaries and practical suggestions. Home visits by the nutritionist were convenient and participants felt that someone cares. Group meetings which included protein-rich snacks strengthened the nutritional message by enabling discussions and socialising. The oral nutritional supplements (ONS) helped participants to regain their energy and to motivate them to exercise and make changes in their diets. Obstacles to making changes in diets included participants' false ideas about nutrition, especially with regard to weight gain. Health problems and functional limitations hampered food management, and some families had inveterate eating habits. The positive feedback from participants indicated the feasibility of our tailored nutritional guidance. Assessment-based, tailored nutritional guidance implemented with a personal and positive approach may inspire and empower AD families to make positive changes in their diets, leading them to improved nutrition and quality of life.

  9. Long term reference change value of creatinine in HIV-positive patients with anti-retroviral therapy: A new tool in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiou, S; Cournil, A; Toubal, S; Bargnoux, A S; Dupuy, A M; Fernandez, C; Peyriere, H; Reynes, J; Cristol, J P

    2015-06-01

    The use of reference change value (RCV) instead of reference interval emerged as an alternative approach for longitudinal interpretation of biological marker. Follow-up of creatinine variation in HIV-positive adults remains a challenge in order to prevent renal complications. To determine the long term RCV of creatinine in HIV-positive adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) according to the use of tenofovir or ritonavir. Longitudinal study of 24 months that include 124 HIV-positive patients followed in HIV outpatient unit. Plasma creatinine was measured at 0, 6, 12 and 24 months in order to calculate the RCV. In the whole group, a 24-month RCV of creatinine was 22.5%. Whatever the ART, the index of individuality was serial creatinine results in HIV-positive adults. RCV of creatinine under ART was around 20% but reached 28% in case of association of tenofovir and ritonavir. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Affect attunement in communicative interactions between adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and support workers

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sheridan Lee

    2017-01-01

    The quality of life of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is affected by many factors, including health status, involvement in activities, and social networks; but most critical is the quality of interaction experienced by the person on a daily basis. For many people with PIMD, most of whom reside in residential services where they receive 24-hour support, the primary people for interaction are paid disability support workers (DSWs). Quality interaction is ...

  11. Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents

  12. Not all SCN1A epileptic encephalopathies are Dravet syndrome: Early profound Thr226Met phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Mountier, Emily I; Gill, Deepak; Davis, Suzanne; Joshi, Charuta; DeVile, Catherine; Kurian, Manju A; Mandelstam, Simone; Wirrell, Elaine; Nickels, Katherine C; Murali, Hema R; Carvill, Gemma; Myers, Candace T; Mefford, Heather C; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2017-09-05

    To define a distinct SCN1A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with early onset, profound impairment, and movement disorder. A case series of 9 children were identified with a profound developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and SCN1A mutation. We identified 9 children 3 to 12 years of age; 7 were male. Seizure onset was at 6 to 12 weeks with hemiclonic seizures, bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, or spasms. All children had profound developmental impairment and were nonverbal and nonambulatory, and 7 of 9 required a gastrostomy. A hyperkinetic movement disorder occurred in all and was characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis with prominent oral dyskinesia and onset from 2 to 20 months of age. Eight had a recurrent missense SCN1A mutation, p.Thr226Met. The remaining child had the missense mutation p.Pro1345Ser. The mutation arose de novo in 8 of 9; for the remaining case, the mother was negative and the father was unavailable. Here, we present a phenotype-genotype correlation for SCN1A. We describe a distinct SCN1A phenotype, early infantile SCN1A encephalopathy, which is readily distinguishable from the well-recognized entities of Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. This disorder has an earlier age at onset, profound developmental impairment, and a distinctive hyperkinetic movement disorder, setting it apart from Dravet syndrome. Remarkably, 8 of 9 children had the recurrent missense mutation p.Thr226Met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in correspo...

  14. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...

  15. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  16. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  17. A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum

    2014-01-01

    V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...... interface on the arm and around the shoulder using the saltation perceptual illusion to induce movement of the corresponding joint. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface and the proposed experimental design to evaluate it....

  18. The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of distinctive group attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R

    2009-06-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that group members establish and emphasize characteristics or attributes that define their in-group in relation to comparison out-groups. We extend this research by exploring the range of ways in which members of the same social category (Welsh people) deploy a particular attribute (the Welsh language) as a flexible identity management resource. Through a thematic analysis of data from interviews and two public speeches, we examine how the deployment of the Welsh language is bound up with characterizations of the in-group's wider intergroup position (in terms of power relations and their legitimacy and stability), and one's position within the in-group. We focus in particular on the rhetorical and strategic value of such characterizations for policing in-group boundaries on the one hand, and for the in-group's intergroup position on the other. We conclude by emphasizing the need to (1) locate analyses of the uses and importance of group-defining attributes within the social setting that gives them meaning and (2) to appreciate such characterizations as attempts to influence, rather than simply reflect that setting.

  19. Localization training results in individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  1. Frequency compression hearing aid for severe-to-profound hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K

    2000-10-01

    Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.

  2. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle...... varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure...

  3. Speech perception, production and intelligibility in French-speaking children with profound hearing loss and early cochlear implantation after congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, L; Ettienne, V; Prang, I; Couloigner, V; Garabedian, E-N; Loundon, N

    2015-12-01

    To analyze speech in children with profound hearing loss following congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection with cochlear implantation (CI) before the age of 3 years. In a cohort of 15 children with profound hearing loss, speech perception, production and intelligibility were assessed before and 3 years after CI; variables impacting results were explored. Post-CI, median word recognition was 74% on closed-list and 48% on open-list testing; 80% of children acquired speech production; and 60% were intelligible for all listeners or listeners attentive to lip-reading and/or aware of the child's hearing loss. Univariate analysis identified 3 variables (mean post-CI hearing threshold, bilateral vestibular areflexia, and brain abnormality on MRI) with significant negative impact on the development of speech perception, production and intelligibility. CI showed positive impact on hearing and speech in children with post-cCMV profound hearing loss. Our study demonstrated the key role of maximizing post-CI hearing gain. A few children had insufficient progress, especially in case of bilateral vestibular areflexia and/or brain abnormality on MRI. This led us to suggest that balance rehabilitation and speech therapy should be intensified in such cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Positive Therapeutic Change for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Client, Carer and Clinical Psychologist Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Sarah; Tickle, Anna; Dawson, David L.; Harris, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted successful outcomes of psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities. However, processes underlying these outcomes are uncertain. Thematic analysis was used to explore the perceptions of three clinical psychologists, six clients and six carers of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change for…

  5. Zooming into the binding groove of HLA molecules : which positions and which substitutions change peptide binding most?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Kesmir, C.

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most polymorphic genes in the human genome. Almost all polymorphic residues are located in the peptide-binding groove, resulting in different peptide-binding preferences. Whether a single amino acid change can alter the peptide-binding repertoire of an HLA

  6. Openness to experience as a predictor and outcome of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieß, Christiane; Zacher, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In industrial and organizational psychology, there is a long tradition of studying personality as an antecedent of work outcomes. Recently, however, scholars have suggested that personality characteristics may not only predict, but also change due to certain work experiences, a notion that is

  7. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Berg, M.P.; Aerts, R.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven

  8. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  9. Impact of implant-abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant-abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P bone crest amounted to -0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant-abutment connection lacks documentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine S.; Pedersen, Anders N.; Persson, Gitte F.; Aarup, Lasse R.; Nystroem, Haakan; Olsen, Mikael; Tarnavski, Nikolai; Specht, Lena (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Introduction. With the purpose of implementing gated radiotherapy for lung cancer patients, this study investigated the interfraction variations in tumour size and internal displacement over entire treatment courses. To explore the potential of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) the variations were measured using a set-up strategy based on imaging of bony landmarks and compared to a strategy using in room lasers, skin tattoos and cupper landmarks. Materials and methods. During their six week treatment course of 60Gy in 2Gy fractions, ten patients underwent 3 respiratory gated CT scans. The tumours were contoured on each CT scan to evaluate the variations in volumes and position. The lung tumours and the mediastinal tumours were contoured separately. The positional variations were measured as 3D mobility vectors and correlated to matching of the scans using the two different strategies. Results. The tumour size was significantly reduced from the first to the last CT scan. For the lung tumours the reduction was 19%, p=0.03, and for the mediastinal tumours the reduction was 34%, p=0.0007. The mean 3D mobility vector and the SD for the lung tumours was 0.51cm (+-0.21) for matching using bony landmarks and 0.85cm (+-0.54) for matching using skin tattoos. For the mediastinal tumours the corresponding vectors and SD's were 0.55cm (+-0.19) and 0.72cm (+-0.43). The differences between the vectors were significant for the lung tumours p=0.004. The interfractional overlap of lung tumours was 80-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. Conclusions. Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were dependent on the set-up strategy. Set-up using IGRT was superior to set-up using skin tattoos.

  12. Research Ethics Committees and the Benefits of Involving People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in service user involvement in research, such involvement rarely extends to people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. New developments in visual methodologies offer the potential for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities to be included in research. At the same time, however,…

  13. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  14. Signatures of positive selection: from selective sweeps at individual loci to subtle allele frequency changes in polygenic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 years, numerous methods have been developed to detect selective sweeps underlying adaptations. These methods are based on relatively simple population genetic models, including one or two loci at which positive directional selection occurs, and one or two marker loci at which the impact of selection on linked neutral variation is quantified. Information about the phenotype under selection is not included in these models (except for fitness). In contrast, in the quantitative genetic models of adaptation, selection acts on one or more phenotypic traits, such that a genotype-phenotype map is required to bridge the gap to population genetics theory. Here I describe the range of population genetic models from selective sweeps in a panmictic population of constant size to evolutionary traffic when simultaneous sweeps at multiple loci interfere, and I also consider the case of polygenic selection characterized by subtle allele frequency shifts at many loci. Furthermore, I present an overview of the statistical tests that have been proposed based on these population genetics models to detect evidence for positive selection in the genome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N

    2008-01-01

    measured using a set-up strategy based on imaging of bony landmarks and compared to a strategy using in room lasers, skin tattoos and cupper landmarks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During their six week treatment course of 60Gy in 2Gy fractions, ten patients underwent 3 respiratory gated CT scans. The tumours...... landmarks and 0.85 cm (+/-0.54) for matching using skin tattoos. For the mediastinal tumours the corresponding vectors and SD's were 0.55 cm (+/-0.19) and 0.72 cm (+/-0.43). The differences between the vectors were significant for the lung tumours p=0.004. The interfractional overlap of lung tumours was 80......-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were...

  16. Studies on changes in bulks of body per dose and in the positioning of duodenum by respiration when treating pancreatic cancer patients with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyeong Jun; Chun, Geum Seong; Park, Yeong Gyu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    In the case of treating pancreatic cancer, the importance is put on the spread of dose. Changes take place in duodenum in accordance with respiration. Thus, in this paper, I am going to trace the positioning of duodenum and the changes in bulks of body per dose by scanning the patients' Kilo voltage Cone-Beam CT using the hospital equipped CT-on rail System. Seeing three patients, I have acquired KVCBCT by using CT-on rail System and spotted the change in positioning at duodenum after comparing with the preliminary image of treatment plan by using SYNGO Software. Then, I followed the change in the bulk of duodenum and analyzed the changes in bulks of body on the same dose by transmitting the acquired KVCBCT into Pinnacle, a treatment plan system. The changes in the positioning shall be as set forth like this: 1.2 cm, 1.0 cm in Left-Right Direction, 0 cm, 0.8 cm in Craniocaudal Direction, 0.1 cm, and 1.0 cm in Anterior-Posterior Direction. Patient number one showed that his bulks in body had increased by maximum 460%, minimum 120%, the bulks in patient number two had increased by maximum 490%, minimum 160%, and the bulks of patient number three had increased by maximum 150%. But Minimum volume decreased 30%. Patient number one showed only a little bit of change at first when compared with the preliminary treatment plan. However, the dose increased the bulks in the patient's body: V{sub 10} 118%, V{sub 20} 117%, V{sub 30} 400%, and V{sub 40} 480% In treating patients with radiation therapy using 3D-CRT, the dose amount penetrated into duodenum needs to be minimized by planning appropriate treatment beforehand. In order to establish an appropriate treatment plan it is required to comprehend the changes at positioning of the duodenum by respiration and predict the changes in the bulks of duodenum by setting precise Planning Target Volume.

  17. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Geffen, van, LCMM; Berg, M.P.; Aerts, R.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all pos...

  18. Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

    2011-07-15

    The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

  19. Using position emission tomography to investigate hormone-mediated neurochemical changes across the female lifespan: implications for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsido, Rachel G; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Ovarian hormones, particularly oestrogen and progesterone, undergo major fluctuations across the female lifespan. These hormone transition periods, such as the transition from pregnancy to postpartum, as well as the transition into menopause (perimenopause), are also known to be times of elevated susceptibility to depression. This study reviews how these transition periods likely influence neurochemical changes in the brain that result in disease vulnerability. While there are known associations between oestrogen/progesterone and different monoaminergic systems, the interactions and their potential implications for mood disorders are relatively unknown. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allows for the in-vivo quantification of such neurochemical changes, and, thus, can provide valuable insight into how both subtle and dramatic shifts in hormones contribute to the elevated rates of depression during pre-menstrual, post-partum, and perimenopausal periods in a woman's life. As one better understands how to address the challenges of PET studies involving highly vulnerable populations, such as women who have recently given birth, one will gain the insight necessary to design and individualize treatment and therapy. Understanding the precise time-line in younger women when dramatic fluctuations in the hormonal milieu may contribute to brain changes may present a powerful opportunity to intervene before a vulnerable state develops into a diseased state in later life.

  20. Micro-CT assessment of changes in the morphology and position of the immature mandibular canal during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, E F; Florentino, G; Hoffman, J; Kramer, B

    2017-02-01

    The mandibular canal contributes to the development and growth of the mandible, as it acts as a conduit for the growing inferior alveolar neurovascular structures. A clear understanding of the canal's pathway is, therefore, important in interpreting the growth pattern of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. This study investigated the position of the mandibular canal within the body of the mandible and its general dimensions within a pediatric collection of mandibles. The sample included 45 mandibles and was subdivided into three: group 1 (30 gestational weeks to birth), group 2 (birth to 12 months), and group 3 (1 to 4 years). Mandibles were scanned using a Nikon XTH 225L micro-CT unit. Scanning conditions ranged between 85 kV/83 µA and 100 kV/100 µA. Measurements included: the maximum width and height of the mandibular canal and distances between the mandibular canal and the relevant surfaces of the mandible. Data analysis included an ANOVA, MANOVA, and principal component analysis. The mandibular canal increased significantly in size from 30 gestational weeks to 12 months relative to the deciduous molar crypts. Postnatally, the mandibular canal increased significantly in height at the level of the second deciduous molar crypt. The canal lies closer to the buccal surface in the region of the first and second deciduous molar teeth. The consistency in the positioning of the mandibular canal within the body of the mandible may assist in predicting the occurrence of aberrant growth patterns, particularly during the initial stages of growth.

  1. The dependence of the axial position of the output beam of emission from an He/Ne laser on the change in the index of refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, V.Y.; Klimkov, Y.M.; Perebyakin, V.A.; Pipchenko, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is proposed for employing a matrix method to compute the dependence of the axial position of the output beam from a laser whose active element is sealed by Brewster windows, on the index of refraction of the medium, accounting for the influence of diaphragms and the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. Results are given from theoretical and experimental investigations of the axial position of the output beam from an He/Ne laser with changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium. It is demonstrated that the primary contribution to resonator detuning in such a laser is the change in the index of refraction of the medium. The possibility of reducing the axial shifts in the output beam using an outcoupling mirror with a substrate in the form of a converging lens is examined.

  2. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  3. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compen- sation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Gool

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye withintraocular lens placed 5 mm behind the cornea the sensitivity to errors in the power of the intraocular lens is about  71 . 0 − 71 for an intraocular lens of power   for an intraocular lens of power 20 D, that is, the refractive compensation decreases by about 0.71 dioptres per dioptre increase in the power of the intraocular lens.  More generally the sensitivity is approximately  ( I m   0037 . 0 63 . 0 F − − 0.63 ( 003 . 0 63 . 0 − − (0.0037mFIwhere FI is the power of the intraocular lens.  Also for Gullstrand’s simplified eye the sensitivity of refractive compensation to axial displacement of the intraocular lens is approximately linear in FI , about  (64D FI, in fact.  That is, for each dioptre of the power of the intraocular lens the refractive compensation increases by about 0.064 dioptres per millimetre of axial displacement towards the retina.

  4. The impact of change in a doctor's job position: a five-year cohort study of job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg Ingunn; Rø Karin; Aasland Olaf; Gude Tore; Moum Torbjørn; Vaglum Per; Tyssen Reidar

    2012-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction among physicians may be of importance to their individual careers and their work with patients. We lack prospective studies on whether a change in a doctor's job position influences their job satisfaction over a five-year period if we control for other workload factors. Methods A longitudinal national cohort of all physicians who graduated in Norway in 1993 and 1994 was sur...

  5. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Resu...

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Pressure Injuries From Spine Surgery in the Prone Position: Do Body Morphological Changes During Deformity Correction Increase the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuxun; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Lau, Eugene Tze Chun; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Thambiah, Joseph Shantakumar; Lau, Leok-Lim; Kumar, Naresh; Liu, Ka-Po Gabriel; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2017-11-15

    MINI: Pressure injuries are prevalent in patients undergoing spine surgery while prone. Multiple risk factors exist and should be addressed. We found that patients undergoing spinal deformity correction surgery are at unique risk (odds ratio 3.31, P = 0.010) due to body morphological changes occurring secondary to intraoperative changes in spinal alignment. Review of data and prospective study. To investigate the prevalence and predictive factors of pressure injuries in spine surgery performed in the prone position, and to determine whether morphological changes and truncal shifts occurring during deformity correction predispose to this complication. Spine surgery performed in the prone position presents the risk of developing pressure injuries. This risk is potentially increased in deformity correction, because it tends to involve more extensive procedures, with associated longer operating times. Cases of pressure injuries after spine surgery in the prone position were reviewed to ascertain prevalence and determine risk factors. Data including patient factors (age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, comorbidities, Braden scale, neurological status, spinal pathology) and surgical factors (approach, procedure type, number of screws, operated levels, operative time) were collected. Independent risk factors were identified via multivariate analysis. A subsequent prospective analysis of all patients undergoing spinal deformity correction was conducted by performing intraoperative measurements of body morphological changes and shifts in truncal positions. Statistical correlation was performed to determine whether positional shifts cause pressure injuries. The prevalence of pressure injuries was 23.0%. Previous skin problems (P = 0.034), myelopathy (P = 0.013), operative time >300 minutes (P = 0.005), and more than four operated levels (P = 0.006) were independent predictors of pressure injuries. Being a

  7. Changing Mental Health and Positive Psychological Well-Being Using Ecological Momentary Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F

    2016-06-27

    Mental health problems are highly prevalent, and there is need for the self-management of (mental) health. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) can be used to deliver interventions in the daily life of individuals using mobile devices. The aim of this study was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effect of EMI on 3 highly prevalent mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress) and positive psychological outcomes (eg, acceptance). PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched for relevant publications, and the last search was done in September 2015. Three concepts were used to find publications: (1) mental health, (2) mobile phones, and (3) interventions. A total of 33 studies (using either a within- or between-subject design) including 43 samples that received an EMI were identified (n=1301), and relevant study characteristics were coded using a standardized form. Quality assessment was done with the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Most of the EMIs focused on a clinical sample, used an active intervention (that offered exercises), and in over half of the studies, additional support by a mental health professional (MHP) was given. The EMI lasted on average 7.48 weeks (SD=6.46), with 2.80 training episodes per day (SD=2.12) and 108.25 total training episodes (SD=123.00). Overall, 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis, and after removing 6 outliers, a medium effect was found on mental health in the within-subject analyses (n=1008), with g=0.57 and 95% CI (0.45-0.70). This effect did not differ as function of outcome type (ie, anxiety, depression, perceived stress, acceptance, relaxation, and quality of life). The only moderator for which the effect varied significantly was additional support by an MHP (MHP-supported EMI, g=0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.88; stand-alone EMI, g=0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.69; stand-alone EMI with access to care as usual, g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.11-0.64). In the between-subject studies, 13 studies were included, and a small

  8. The Extended Trust Hypothesis: Single-Attractor Self-Contagion in Day-to-Day Changes in Implicit Positive Affect Predicts Action-Oriented Coping and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Julius; Mitina, Olga; Koole, Sander L

    2017-10-01

    According to the extended trust hypothesis, the ability to cope with negative experiences is grounded in intuitive positive feelings about one's existence (Kuhl, Quirin, & Koole, 2015). In the present study, the authors empirically tested this hypothesis by examining the nonlinear dynamics in a series of day-to-day autoregressive functions of affective states taken from a 30-day daily mood diary study among 40 participants. A parameter (?) related to the asymptotic level of day-to-day changes in implicit positive mood predicted action orientation, a personality variable that relates to coping with negative affect, and psychological symptoms. This effect did not emerge when using a similar parameter l for self-reported positive affect or any linear characteristic (mean or standard deviation) of changes in positive or negative mood. These findings are considered within the broader framework of Personality Systems Interaction theory (PSI theory) that interprets l, under specified conditions, as a form of basic trust that enables people to confront negative affect and permit self-growth through self-confrontational rather than defensive coping.

  9. Change in self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia enrolled in rehabilitation: associations with self-esteem and positive and emotional discomfort symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David; Ringer, Jamie; Gilmore, Emily M; Yanos, Philip T

    2012-08-01

    Self-stigma is a barrier to the recovery of persons with schizophrenia. Little is known about whether participation in rehabilitation is naturalistically linked to declines in self-stigma, and if so, what is correlated with changes in self-stigma. The current study examined in a quasi-experimental design the rate of change of self-stigma and whether changes were correlated with self-esteem, positive symptoms, and emotional distress for persons enrolled in rehabilitation. Symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (Kay, Fizsbein, & Opler, 1987), self-esteem was measured with the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (Lysaker, Ringer, & Davis, 2008), and self-stigma was assessed using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (Ritsher, Otilingam, & Grajales, 2003). Seventy persons with schizophrenia who worked at least one month in a vocational rehabilitation program were assessed on all measures at baseline and five months later. Results indicated a 25% decrease in self-stigma for 38% of the sample; these individuals tended to have less emotional distress both at baseline and follow-up, and had higher levels of self-esteem at follow-up. No differences in positive symptoms were found for groups whose stigma did or did not decrease. Results suggest that decreases in self-stigma may be correlated with increased self-esteem, while higher levels of emotional distress may be a barrier to stigma reduction. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Self-Reported Napping Behavior Change After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Riha, Renata L; Morrison, Ian; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on napping behavior in adults aged 60 and older with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Retrospective cohort study using questionnaires. Sleep center. Individuals starting CPAP treatment between April 2010 and March 2012 (mean age 65.2 ± 4.7; M:F = 3.9:1; N = 107). All subjects underwent sleep studies, clinical reviews, and CPAP adherence checks and completed a questionnaire regarding CPAP adherence, current employment status, sleep patterns before and after CPAP, and factors affecting their current sleep patterns. CPAP treatment duration was 82.7 ± 30.0 weeks, and objective adherence was 5.4 ± 2.0 hours per night overall. Daytime nap frequency before CPAP treatment was higher in those with a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Both sexes had a significant reduction in daytime napping (men, P napping (men, P nap duration (men, P nap duration was associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, P = .04), a decrease in ESS score (OR = 1.20, P = .03), and longer self-reported daily nap duration at baseline (OR = 31.52, P nap frequency and daily nap duration. Aging or shorter baseline daily nap duration may attenuate this effect. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years. The latter relation was attenuated when educational status at age 18 years and adult social class were adjusted for, while birth characteristics and childhood activities had minor influence. Having an unskilled father at birth, low education, few...... intellectual and many social activities in childhood as well as low adult social class were associated with decline in cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Adverse social circumstances early in life were associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, as well as with a decline between...

  12. [Parameters of cardiac muscle repolarization on the electrocardiogram when changing anatomical and electric position of the heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭkovskiĭ, I A; Baum, O V; Popov, L A; Voloshin, V I; Budnik, N N; Frolov, Iu A; Kovalenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    While discussing the diagnostic value of the single channel electrocardiogram a set of theoretical considerations emerges inevitably, one of the most important among them is the question about dependence of the electrocardiogram parameters from the direction of electrical axis of heart. In other words, changes in what of electrocardiogram parameters are in fact liable to reflect pathological processes in myocardium, and what ones are determined by extracardiac factors, primarily by anatomic characteristics of patients. It is arguable that while analyzing electrocardiogram it is necessary to orient to such physiologically based informative indexes as ST segment displacement. Also, symmetry of the T wave shape is an important parameter which is independent of patients anatomic features. The results obtained are of interest for theoretical and applied aspects of the biophysics of the cardiac electric field.

  13. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compensation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behind the cornea the sensitivity to errors in the power of the intraocular lens is about  71 . 0 − 71 for an intraocular lens of power   for an intraocular lens of power 20 D, that is, the refractive compensation decreases by about 0.71 dioptres per dioptre increase in the power of the intraocular lens.  More generally the sensitivity is approximately  ( m   0037 . 0 63 . 0 F − − 0.63 ( 003 . 0 63 . 0 − − (0.0037mF where FI is the power of the intraocular lens.  Also for Gullstrand’s simplified eye the sensitivity of refractive compensation to axial displacement of the intraocular lens is approximately linear in FI about  (64D FI, in fact.  That is, for each dioptre of the power of the intraocular lens the refractive compensation increases by about 0.064 dioptres per millimetre of axial displacement towards the retina. 

  14. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-12-01

    We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. A cohort of 11 532 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953-7906, 10 246 and 2483 participants-had completed assessments of cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, respectively. Linear regression was used to investigate the association of early-life characteristics with cognitive test scores at these ages and with score changes from early to mid-adulthood. The cognitive scores at age 57 years had high correlations with scores at ages 12 (r = 0.67) and 18 years (r = 0.70), and these two scores also showed bivariate correlation (r = 0.69). Having a father from the working class at birth was associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years. The latter relation was attenuated when educational status at age 18 years and adult social class were adjusted for, while birth characteristics and childhood activities had minor influence. Having an unskilled father at birth, low education, few intellectual and many social activities in childhood as well as low adult social class were associated with decline in cognitive function. Adverse social circumstances early in life were associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, as well as with a decline between these ages. Educational status at age 18 years and adult social class seemed to account for most of the associations, whereas childhood activities were independent predictors that did not explain the social inequality.

  15. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia.Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  16. Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with readministration of eptifibatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kimberly N; Schnabel, Joseph G; Rochetto, Richard P; Tanner, Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Case reports of acute profound thrombocytopenia have been reported with eptifibatide, yet the true incidence of this reaction is unknown. We describe a 50-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after readministration of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide was administered through hospital day 3, when it was discontinued in preparation for coronary angiography and PCI; the drug was restarted on day 5. On hospital day 6, she was noted to have a platelet count below 5 x 10(3)/mm,(3) indicating a profound decrease from a baseline of 456 x 10(3)/mm(3) on admission. Eptifibatide, heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel were potential causative agents. Anticoagulation and vancomycin were stopped, and her platelet count increased to 30 x 10(3)/mm(3) on day 7. Subsequent reexposure to heparin and vancomycin yielded no adverse effects. The patient's platelet count increased over the remainder of her hospitalization, and she was discharged home on day 19. Based on clinical presentation and negative heparin platelet factor 4 antibody test, eptifibatide was the most likely cause of thrombocytopenia. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that eptifibatide was the probable cause of thrombocytopenia (score of 5); scores of 1 (possible) or 0 (doubtful) were derived with heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel. We conducted a literature search and compiled information from published case reports to describe the pattern of onset and recovery of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia. In all patients receiving eptifibatide, routine platelet counts should be monitored at baseline and within 2-6 hours after starting the drug.

  17. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  18. A profound case of neurally mediated syncope with asystole after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Ramsey, Mitchell J; Ruffin, David M

    2012-06-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is an alarming yet benign condition that may present postoperatively for the first time in otherwise healthy patients. Although VVS is associated anecdotally with nasal manipulation, no data have been found to quantify this incidence with otolaryngology surgeries. We present a case of profound, recurrent syncope and documented asystole with an initial diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conclude with a discussion of neurally mediated syncope particular to the perioperative setting. It is essential to recognize neurocardiogenic etiology to differentiate it from other more concerning causes of syncope and asystole. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  20. Lemierre’s Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Birkner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre’s syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre’s syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant.

  1. Changes in Foxp3-Positive Regulatory T Cell Number in the Intestine of Dogs With Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Intestinal Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S; Ohno, K; Fujiwara-Igarashi, A; Uchida, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2016-01-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an integral role in immunologic tolerance and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, their involvement in canine gastrointestinal diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma, remains unclear. Here we show altered numbers of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive Tregs in the intestine of dogs with IBD and intestinal lymphoma. IBD was diagnosed in 48 dogs; small cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 46 dogs; large cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 30 dogs; and 25 healthy beagles were used as normal controls. Foxp3-positive Tregs in the duodenal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Duodenal expression of interleukin-10 mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The number of Foxp3-positive lamina propria cells and the expression of interleukin-10 mRNA were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs and dogs with intestinal lymphoma. The number of Foxp3-positive intraepithelial cells was higher in dogs with small cell intestinal lymphoma. Some large cell intestinal lymphoma cases had high numbers of Foxp3-positive cells, but the increase was not statistically significant. Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that CD3-positive granzyme B-negative helper T cells expressed Foxp3. In small cell intestinal lymphoma cases, the overall survival of dogs with a high Treg density was significantly worse than that of dogs with a normal Treg density. These results suggest that a change in the number of Foxp3-positive Tregs contributes to the pathogenesis of canine IBD and intestinal lymphoma by disrupting mucosal tolerance and suppressing antitumor immunity, respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predictors of limb fat gain in HIV positive patients following a change to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Martin

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment (cART in HIV causes lipoatrophy. We examined predictors of anthropometric outcomes over 96 weeks in HIV-infected, lipoatrophic adults receiving stable cART randomised to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC fixed dose combinations.The STEAL study was a prospective trial of virologically suppressed participants randomised to either TDF-FTC (n = 178 or ABC-3TC (n = 179. Anthropometric assessment was conducted at baseline, weeks 48 and 96. The analysis population included those with baseline and week 96 data remaining on randomised therapy. Distribution of limb fat change was divided into four categories (≤ 0%, >0-10%, >10-20%, >20%. Baseline characteristics [demographics, medical history, metabolic and cardiovascular biomarkers] were assessed as potential predictors of change in percent subcutaneous limb fat using linear regression. 303 participants (85% of STEAL population were included. Baseline characteristics were: mean (± SD age 45 (± 8 years; thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI duration 4 (± 3 years; limb fat 5.4 (± 3.0kg; body mass index 24.7 (± 3 .5 kg/m(2. Mean (SD limb fat gain to week 48 and 96 was 7.6% (± 22.4 and 13.2% (± 27.3, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. 51.5% of all participants had >10% gain in limb fat. Predictors of greater limb fat gain at week 96 were baseline tNRTI (10.3, p = 0.001, glucose >6 mmol/L (16.1, p = 0.04, higher interleukin 6 (IL-6 (2.8, p = 0.004 and lower baseline limb fat (3.8-6.4 kg - 11.2; >6.4 kg - 15.7, p trend<0.001.Modest peripheral fat gain occurred with both TDF-FTC and ABC-3TC. Baseline factors associated with more severe lipodystrophy (lipoatrophy, baseline tNRTI, raised IL6, and glucose predicted greater limb fat recovery at 96 weeks.

  4. A five-year observance of changes in the cardiovascular risk profile in 505 HIV-positive individuals

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    A Potthoff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART and the extension of life expectancy, HIV-infected persons have shown an increasing number of cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a new challenge in HIV care. One of the main objectives of the HIV&HEART study is to examine the development of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: This study is an on-going, prospective, regional multicentre trial that was conducted to analyse the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders as well as cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients. 505 HIV-infected outpatients were recruited at baseline (BL and re-examined during 5-year follow up (5YFU. Results: 84% of 505 eligible HIV-infected patients were male. The average age was 44.3±9.5 years at BL. The proportion of ART-treated patients increased from 85.7% at BL to 96.4% at 5YFU. During the 5-year observation period mean cardiovascular risk detected by Framingham score increased from 6% at BL to 10% at 5YFU. Even after adjusting for age there was a difference in the Framingham score of 2%. Between BL and 5YFU systolic blood pressure increased from 128.4±19.8 mmHg to 138.3±19.9 mmHg in spite of an intensified use of antihypertensive drugs, from 11.9% at BL to 24.0% at 5YFU. The rate of participants with adiposity, characterised by a BMI>30, increased from 7.9% at BL to 11.2% at 5YFU. Lipid-lowering therapy was applied in 10.3% of the patients at BL and in 13.9% at 5YFU. Triglycerides (TAG≥200 mg/dl reduced from 38.9% at BL to 36.8% at 5YFU; in contrast cholesterol values≥200 mg/dl elevated from 57.8% to 61.8%. The same trend was observed in HDL≤40 mg/dl. Here we found a change from 29.2% versus 31.3%. Doing regular sports elevated from 1.9% to 3.3%. The count of smokers increased for 2.8% and also mean pack-years changes from 24 to 26.5 pack-years. Conclusion: During a 5-year period the

  5. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  6. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

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    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  7. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.

  8. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  9. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

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    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  10. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Li, Jie; Yao, Xuerui; Li, Wei; Du, Haibo; Tang, Mingliang; Xiong, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  11. Pathological changes in hippocampal neuronal circuits underlie age-associated neurodegeneration and memory loss: positive clue toward SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P; Premkumar, P; Priyanka, R; Jayachandran, K S; Anusuyadevi, M

    2015-08-20

    Among vertebrates hippocampus forms the major component of the brain in consolidating information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Aging is considered as the major risk factor for memory impairment in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) like pathology. Present study thus aims at investigating whether age-specific degeneration of neuronal-circuits in hippocampal formation (neural-layout of Subiculum-hippocampus proper-dentate gyrus (DG)-entorhinal cortex (EC)) results in cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol (RSV) was attempted to study in the formation of hippocampal neuronal-circuits. Radial-Arm-Maze was conducted to evaluate hippocampal-dependent spatial and learning memory in control and experimental rats. Nissl staining of frontal cortex (FC), subiculum, hippocampal-proper (CA1→CA2→CA3→CA4), DG, amygdala, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, layers of temporal and parietal lobe of the neocortex were examined for pathological changes in young and aged wistar rats, with and without RSV. Hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (EC layerII→DG→CA3→CA1) forming new memory and monosynaptic circuit (EC→CA1) that strengthen old memories were found disturbed in aged rats. Loss of Granular neuron observed in DG and polymorphic cells of CA4 can lead to decreased mossy fibers disturbing neural-transmission (CA4→CA3) in perforant pathway. Further, intensity of nissl granules (stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM)-SR-SO) of CA3 pyramidal neurons was decreased, disturbing the communication in schaffer collaterals (CA3-CA1) during aging. We also noticed disarranged neuronal cell layer in Subiculum (presubiculum (PrS)-parasubiculum (PaS)), interfering output from hippocampus to prefrontal cortex (PFC), EC, hypothalamus, and amygdala that may result in interruption of thought processes. We conclude from our observations that poor memory performance of aged rats as evidenced through radial arm maze (RAM) analysis was due to the

  12. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  13. Predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care at 13 large UK clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUNTINGTON, Susie E; THORNE, Claire; BANSI, Loveleen K; ANDERSON, Jane; NEWELL, Marie-Louise; TAYLOR, Graham P; PILLAY, Deenan; HILL, Teresa; TOOKEY, Pat A; SABIN, Caroline A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care. Methods Data were obtained through the linkage of two separate studies; the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study (UK CHIC), a cohort of adults attending 13 large HIV clinics, and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a national surveillance study of HIV-positive pregnant women. Pregnancy incidence was measured using the proportion of women in UK CHIC with a pregnancy reported to NSHPC. Generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of pregnancy and assess changes in pregnancy incidence in 2000-2009. Results The number of women accessing care at UK CHIC sites increased as did the number of pregnancies (from 72 to 230). Older women were less likely to have a pregnancy (adjusted Relative Rate (aRR) 0.44 per 10 year increment in age [95% CI [0.41-0.46], ppregnancy increased over the study period (aRR 1.05 [1.03-1.07], ppregnancy rate among women accessing HIV clinical care increased in 2000-2009. HIV-positive women with, or planning, a pregnancy require a high level of care and this is likely to continue and increase as more women of older age have pregnancies. PMID:22713479

  14. The Changes of Positive Selection Within env Gene of HIV-1 B', CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC from China Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Sun, Binlian; Jiang, Yanyan; Zeng, Haiyan; Li, Yanpeng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear about the possible evolutionary changes of the three predominant strains of HIV-1 in China over the course of the epidemic. Envelope (env) gene of HIV-1 is a good target for this evolutionary pressure for its enriched epitopes. We collected 159 full or part of env sequences sampled between 1997 and 2010 from database of China, we calculated the genetic distance, detected the positively selected sites by PAML suite and then compared the number using Fisher's exact test between the early period 1997 to 2003 and the late period 2004 to 2010. We found that the diversity of env genes had increased significantly and the positively selected sites were significantly becoming more over time. V2, V4, and C3 regions had suffered an increase positive selection pressure, while V1, V3, V5 and other conserved regions were relatively stable. Several sites were widely selected and compactly located in C3 and V4, five sites were consecutive in V4.There were two common positively selected sites in all groups: 413T in gp120 and 619L in gp41. The common positively selected sites identified in our study implied that they are important in viral survival and adaptation. Based on the role of V3 region in coreceptor determination and disease progression, our results suggested that the virulence of HIV-1 in China might be stable in the short time span. Given the overall increased tendency of positively selection sites in env, we might predict a less virulent state in the long run. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. "Comparative Study Of The Profiles Of Th1 And Th2 Cytokines In Patients With Sputum Smear- Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis And PPD–Positive Healthy Persons And Their Changes During Treatment "

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    M. Hajiabdolbaghi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The better understanding of immunopathologic mechanism of tuberculosis (TB is necessary for the production of new vaccines and adjunctive immunomodulator drugs. Intended to this object, the following study including the measurement of serum concentrations of Th1 (Interferon (IFN-y and interkeukin (IL-2 and Th2 cytokines(IL-4AND IL-10 in patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB and comparisons of them with PPpositive healthy persons, was designed. Materials and Methods: The HIV-negative patients that had sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB as defined WHO criteria and hospitalized in the infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini hospital or referred to health care centers in the south of Tehran, were included in the study. The PPD-positive healthy persons who were close contacts with pulmonary TB patients, were considered as control group. Results: In this research 34 active pulmonary TB patients (including17men and 17 womanand 23 healthy persons with PPD skin test results  or = 10mm (including 12men and 11 woman were studied. The mean ages of the patients and the healthy persons were 73 and 41 years and 74 and 27 years, respectively. The mean serum IFN-Y concentration was significantly higher in TB patients but the mean serum IL-2 IL-4and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in healthy persons. The com parison of the mean serum levels of these cytokines before and during treatment (about 2 months after starting treatment showed that the amounts of IFN-y and IL4 were increased and the amounts of IL2 and IL-10 were decreased but only the changes of IL-10 were statistically significant. There were no effect on the cytokine changes before and during treatment by age and gender of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study of serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines in pulmonary TB patients were different in comparison with the results of the studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with

  16. Research of dependence of electrodynamic characteristics of the crack which have been cut in the rectangular wave guide, from change of its sizes and position

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    Karashchuk N.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrodynamic characteristics of the crack which have been cut in a wide wall of a rectangular wave guide are investigated. In resonant and non-resonant wave guide slot-hole aerials, one of the reasons of loss of capacity of a signal is a mismatch of entrance resistance of cracks with wave resistance of a wave guide. Possibility of reduction of influence of the specified lack by change of electrodynamic characteristics of a crack is offered. By a technique outlined in [1] dependency diagrams of active сonductivity crack radiations in a wave guide and from a wave guide, jet conductivity and factor of reflexion of a crack from its arrangement, the geometrical sizes and change of working length of a wave are constructed. The analysis of the received results from the point of view of possibility of maintenance of reduction of losses of capacity of a signal of a wave guide slot-hole radiator is carried out. Possibility of maintenance of radiation of a crack in single-mode operation in the set range of frequencies with low factor of reflexion under condition of change of the geometrical sizes and crack position is shown. We specify recommendations about a purposeful choice of the sizes of a crack (width, length and its positions in a wide wall of a wave guide. Reliability of settlement results is confirmed by their convergence on units of measure and check in boundary conditions.

  17. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  18. Dimensional changes in height of labial alveolar bone of proclined lower incisor after lingual positioning by orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric study on adult Bengali population

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    Amit Shaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to know whether modern orthodontic treatment procedure do actually cause permanent bone loss at the alveolar bone crest or improve alveolar bone morphology on labial aspect of permanent incisors which are to be moved lingually. Settings and Design: manual tracings of pre and post treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were used. Material and Method: The cephalometric radiographs of 34 adult bengali subjects whose orthodontic treatment involved lingual positioning of procumbent mandibular central incisors were examined to determine the morphologic changes (bone height in the labial alveolar bone that resulted from orthodontic treatment. Result: Comparison of tracings of radiographs taken before and after treatment indicated that 57.6% shows an increase in labial alveolar bone height, 30.3% shows decreased value and 12.1% shows no change with the decrease in the angulation between long axis of lower incisor and mandibular plane (GoGn. In the increase group there is a significant increase in the distance ′incisal edge to D point′ whereas this dimension decreased significantly in the rest of the cases. In addition, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.56 was found between the changes in the distance from the incisal edge to the ′D′ point and the alveolar bone height. But no significant relation was found between alveolar bone height and decrease in angulation of lower incisor either in the ′increase group′ (r = 0.13, p > 0.05 or in the ′decrease group′ (r = 0.37, p > 0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that during orthodontic treatment that involves lingual positioning of procumbent teeth but no intrusion, an increase in the amount of buccal alveolar bone may take place.

  19. Dimensional changes in height of labial alveolar bone of proclined lower incisor after lingual positioning by orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric study on adult Bengali population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to know whether modern orthodontic treatment procedure do actually cause permanent bone loss at the alveolar bone crest or improve alveolar bone morphology on labial aspect of permanent incisors which are to be moved lingually. Manual tracings of pre and post treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were used. The cephalometric radiographs of 34 adult bengali subjects whose orthodontic treatment involved lingual positioning of procumbent mandibular central incisors were examined to determine the morphologic changes (bone height) in the labial alveolar bone that resulted from orthodontic treatment. Comparison of tracings of radiographs taken before and after treatment indicated that 57.6% shows an increase in labial alveolar bone height, 30.3% shows decreased value and 12.1% shows no change with the decrease in the angulation between long axis of lower incisor and mandibular plane (GoGn). In the increase group there is a significant increase in the distance 'incisal edge to D point' whereas this dimension decreased significantly in the rest of the cases. In addition, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.56) was found between the changes in the distance from the incisal edge to the 'D' point and the alveolar bone height. But no significant relation was found between alveolar bone height and decrease in angulation of lower incisor either in the 'increase group' (r = 0.13, p > 0.05) or in the 'decrease group' (r = 0.37, p > 0.05). These findings indicate that during orthodontic treatment that involves lingual positioning of procumbent teeth but no intrusion, an increase in the amount of buccal alveolar bone may take place.

  20. Making a difference? A comparison between multi-sensory and regular storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-11-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards

  1. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  2. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Host-associated and free-living phage communities differ profoundly in phylogenetic composition.

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    J Gregory Caporaso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling has been widely used for comparing bacterial communities, but has so far been impossible to apply to viruses because of the lack of a single marker gene analogous to 16S rRNA. Here we developed a reference tree approach for matching viral sequences and applied it to the largest viral datasets available. The resulting technique, Shotgun UniFrac, was used to compare host-associated and non-host-associated phage communities (130 total metagenomes, and revealed a profound split similar to that found with bacterial communities. This new informatics approach complements analysis of bacterial communities and promises to provide new insights into viral community dynamics, such as top-down versus bottom-up control of bacterial communities by viruses in a range of systems.

  4. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has considered how carers conceptualize bereavement in relation to this group. Semi-structured interviews obtained responses from seven carers. Transcripts were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: 'difficulty articulating the experience of loss' and 'making sense of bereavement through familiar patterns'. Carers conceptualize bereavement primarily in cognitive terms, but also take account of relational factors mediating loss. Implications for training and further research are outlined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Care versus treatment at the end of life for profoundly disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are profoundly mentally handicapped do not have the capacity to make their own decisions and also do not have a past record of decisions, from when they had capacity, to guide us in making decisions for them. They represent a difficult group, ethically, for surrogate decision making. Here I propose some guidelines, distinguishing between these patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As the life span of patients becomes shorter, or their level of consciousness becomes permanently impaired, the presumption for comfort care should become an imperative, and the standard of evidence to justify any invasive intervention should become higher. For members of this population, who have no more ability to refuse treatment than to consent to it, protection of the vulnerable must mean allowing a peaceful death as well as a comfortable life. Reasonable legal safeguards are also proposed to allow improved end-of-life decisions to be made for this population.

  6. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...... intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along...

  7. A longitudinal study of active treatment of adaptive skills of individuals with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-haee, M A

    2001-10-01

    A longitudinal study indicated that a single group of adults living in a large state institution (O'Berry Center in Goldsboro, North Carolina) benefited from receiving active treatment, although no control group was permitted. After five years, 59 individuals with profound mental retardation improved their skills in six general areas of dressing, grooming, eating, toileting, communication, and social interaction. After five more years of active treatment, 51 persons who had remained in the program maintained their skills in dressing, grooming, eating, and communication. Significant improvement in the use of toilet and a loss in social interaction were observed. Although the participants were 10 years older at the end of this study, their adaptive behaviors, in comparison to the date of entry, either improved or were maintained. Therefore, aging was not associated with decline in skills.

  8. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  9. Sensorimotor functioning and prelinguistic communication of severely and profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, D; Barrera, R D; Feldman, R S

    1981-03-01

    The prelinguistic, nonverbal communicative behavior of 40 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded children and adolescents functioning at various stages of Piaget's sensorimotor period was examined. Five scales of the Uzgiris and Hunt (1975) sensorimotor assessment were used to determine general level of sensorimotor functioning. A standard set of communication elicitation tasks was employed to examine the gestures used to communicate in both imperative and declarative contexts. More competent sensorimotor performance was associated with higher frequency of more sophisticated and symbolic forms of gestural communication, and subjects generally used more complex gestures to communicate in the imperative than in the declarative tasks. Applicability of the results to the design of future language-intervention programs and their implications for general theory concerning the relations between language and cognition and between normal and atypical development were discussed.

  10. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  11. Identifying perception behaviours in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Miriam; Verheul, Ellen; Velthausz, Frank

    2017-12-21

    To support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), it is essential to understand how they experience their environment. Insight into perception behaviour may provide an entry point for improved understanding. A random sample of a 30-min video registration of five participants with PIMD was used to code behaviours per second based on an ethogram containing 157 different perception behaviours in nine categories. Eighty-nine different perception behaviours were observed, of which movements with eyes, head and arms were most common. The senses used most were seeing, hearing and touching. Finally, the function of five perception patterns was established in relation to their function:awareness, focusing attention and tension regulation. Close observation using an observation ethogram provides insight into how people with PIMD perceive their environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Changes in Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Alter the Distribution of Ventilation within the Lung Immediately after Birth in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Siew, Melissa L.; Wallace, Megan J.; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; te Pas, Arjan B.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC) and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation) were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL), upper right (UR), lower left (LL) and lower right (LR) quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (pventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation. PMID:24690890

  13. Using global positioning system-derived crustal velocities to estimate rates of absolute sea level change from North American tide gauge records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snay, Richard; Cline, Michael; Dillinger, William; Foote, Richard; Hilla, Stephen; Kass, William; Ray, Jim; Rohde, Jim; Sella, Giovanni; Soler, TomáS.

    2007-04-01

    We identified 37 tide gauges; each located within 40 km of a geodetic station whose International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ITRF2000) crustal velocity had been rigorously derived from continuous global positioning system (GPS) observations, spanning from 3 to 11 years. The tide gauges are located along the coasts of North America, Bermuda, Hawaii, and Kwajalein (in the Marshall Islands). We obtained the ITRF2000 crustal velocities by averaging values from six solutions; each produced by a team of investigators acting, essentially, independently of the other teams. We then applied crustal velocities to convert rates of relative sea level change to rates of absolute sea level change. In a sample containing 30 sites, we found that the mean rate of absolute sea level change equals 1.80 ± 0.18 mm/yr in the 1900-1999 period. The scatter about the mean for individual sites in this sample is characterized by a (weighted) RMS value of 0.85 mm/yr. This scatter primarily reflects the uncertainty associated with derived crustal velocities. The remaining seven sites, i.e., five sites on the Pacific coast of Alaska, one on Dauphin Island (Alabama), and one on Kwajalein (an atoll in the Pacific Ocean), experienced relatively low rates of absolute sea level change. We hypothesize the low rates in Alaska are caused by ongoing melting of mountain glaciers and ice masses near the stations, while the low rates found for Dauphin Island and Kwajalein remain unexplained.

  14. Secular change and inter-annual variability of the Gulf Stream position, 1993-2013, 70°-55°W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, James J.; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Sanchez-Franks, Alejandra

    2017-07-01

    The Gulf Stream (GS) is the northeastward-flowing surface limb of the Atlantic Ocean's meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) ;conveyer belt; that flows towards Europe and the Nordic Seas. Changes in the GS position after its separation from the coast at Cape Hatteras, i.e., from 75°W to 50°W, may be key to understanding the AMOC, sea level variability and ecosystem behavior along the east coast of North America. In this study we compare secular change and inter-annual variability (IAV) of the Gulf Stream North Wall (GSNW) position with equator-ward Labrador Current (LC) transport along the southwestern Grand Banks near 52°W using 21 years (1993-2013) of satellite altimeter data. Results at 55°, 60°, and 65°W show a significant southward (negative) secular trend for the GSNW, decreasing to a small but insignificant southward trend at 70°W. IAV of de-trended GSNW position residuals also decreases to the west. The long-term secular trend of annual mean upper layer (200 m) LC transport near 52°W is positive. Furthermore, IAV of LC transport residuals near 52°W along the southwestern Grand Banks are significantly correlated with GSNW position residuals at 55°W at a lag of +1-year, with positive (negative) LC transport residuals corresponding to southward (northward) GSNW positions one year later. The Taylor-Stephens index (TSI) computed from the first principal component of the GSNW position from 79° to 65°W shows a similar relationship with a more distal LC index computed along altimeter ground track 250 located north of the Grand Banks across Hamilton Bank in the western Labrador Sea. Increased (decreased) sea height differences along ground track 250 are significantly correlated with a more southward (northward) TSI two years later (lag of +2-years). Spectral analysis of IAV reveals corresponding spectral peaks at 5-7 years and 2-3 years for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), GSNW (70°-55°W) and LC transport near 52°W for the 1993-2013 period

  15. Plasma antidiuretic hormone in cases with the early onset of profound unilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Nishioka, Rie; Taguchi, Daizo; Nishimura, Masahiko

    2008-12-01

    The p-ADH level in cases of juvenile unilateral profound deafness (JUPD) and the timecourse of the level were examined to investigate whether or not an increase of p-ADH is involved in the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) in JUPD. In 90 consecutive patients with unilateral profound or total sensorineural deafness with the onset in early childhood, pure-tone audiometric examination and the measurement of p-ADH and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) were followed up once or twice a year as far as possible. At every testing, we performed careful history-taking about episodic vertigo/dizziness, fluctuant hearing loss, and tinnitus in order to find out whether patients had experienced these clinical signs of the development of DEH. Means and standard deviation (S.D.) of p-ADH level and osmolality in all samples tested (n=368) were 7.3+/-7.0 pg/mL (0.7-52.0 pg/mL), and 288.6+/-4.4 mOsm/L (273-306 mOsm/L), respectively. The mean of p-ADH level was much higher than those previously reported in children and adolescents. High levels of p-ADH (over 5.0 pg/mL) were often observed in subjects between 6 and 19 years of age, but not so frequently in subjects of 20 years of age or older. Long-term follow-up of p-ADH levels revealed that DEH frequently developed in cases with persistent elevation of p-ADH. The elevation of p-ADH is likely to promote the development of DEH in cases of JUPD, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  16. Soft-tissue mobility of the lower face depending on positional changes and age: a three-dimensional morphometric surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iblher, Niklas; Gladilin, Evgeny; Stark, Björn G

    2013-02-01

    Reliable evaluation of the complex three-dimensional anatomy of the face has proven to be extremely difficult. Three-dimensional surface scanning technology has not yet reached widespread acceptance in clinical research in plastic surgery. This study aimed to describe two parameters that allow quantification of soft-tissue movements and to compare the surface changes of the lower face during positional changes and with increasing age. Two groups, each with 20 voluntary female subjects aged 20 to 35 and 45 to 60 years, were examined with a three-dimensional surface scanner in both supine and sitting positions. After registration of the two surface scans, the soft-tissue mobility of the lower face was examined using two new parameters. Deformability describes the mean distance between the surfaces and stretchability describes the relative stretching of one surface when mapped onto the other. Both parameters show highly significant differences for tissue mobility of young versus old lower faces. The trend for the soft tissues to lose projection in the upper posterior aspect and gain projection in the lower anterior aspect increases strongly. In the older subjects, larger parts of the examined area show tissue displacements of up to 6 mm, whereas in the young faces the displacement is far less and does not exceed 4 mm. Computational analysis of the authors' experimental results using two new parameters shows a statistically significant increase of facial tissue displacement and surface stretching when comparing young and old subjects.

  17. Secular Change and Inter-annual Variability of the Gulf Stream Position, 1993-2013, 70°-55°W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, J. J.; Gangopadhyay, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf Stream (GS) is the northeastward-flowing surface limb of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) "conveyer belt" that flows towards Europe and the Nordic Seas. Changes in the GS position after its separation from the coast at Cape Hatteras, i.e., from 75°W to 50°W, may be key to understanding the AMOC, sea level variability and ecosystem behavior along the east coast of North America. In this study we compare secular change and inter-annual variability (IAV) of annual mean Gulf Stream North Wall (GSNW) position with equator-ward Labrador Current (LC) transport along the southwestern Grand Banks near 52° W using 21 years (1993-2013) of satellite altimeter data. Results at 70°, 65°, 60° and 55° W show a southward secular trend for the GSNW, decreasing to the west. IAV of de-trended GSNW position residuals also decreases to the west. The long-term secular trend of annual mean upper layer LC transport increases near 52° W. Furthermore, IAV of LC transport residuals near 52° W is significantly correlated with GSNW position residuals at 55° W at a lag of +1-year. Spectral analysis reveals inter-annual peaks at 5-7 years and 2-3 years for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), GSNW (65°-55°W) and LC transport for 1993-2013. A volume calculation using the LC rms residual of +1.04 Sv near 52° W results in an estimated GSNW residual of 79 km, or 63% of the observed 125.6 km (1.13°) rms value at 55° W. A similar volume calculation using the positive long-term, upper-layer LC transport trend accounts for 68% of the observed southward shift of the GSNW over the 1993-2013 period. Our work provides observational evidence of direct interaction between the upper layers of the sub-polar and sub-tropical gyres within the North Atlantic over secular and inter-annual time scales as suggested by previous workers.

  18. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  19. Quality of life among untreated sleep apnea patients compared with the general population and changes after treatment with positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Erla; Keenan, Brendan T; Eysteinsdottir, Bjorg; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea leads to recurrent arousals from sleep, oxygen desaturations, daytime sleepiness and fatigue. This can have an adverse impact on quality of life. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) quality of life between the general population and untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea; and (ii) changes of quality of life among patients with obstructive sleep apnea after 2 years of positive airway pressure treatment between adherent patients and non-users. Propensity score methodologies were used in order to minimize selection bias and strengthen causal inferences. The enrolled obstructive sleep apnea subjects (n = 822) were newly diagnosed with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea who were starting positive airway pressure treatment, and the general population subjects (n = 742) were randomly selected Icelanders. The Short Form 12 was used to measure quality of life. Untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea had a worse quality of life when compared with the general population. This effect remained significant after using propensity scores to select samples, balanced with regard to age, body mass index, gender, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We did not find significant overall differences between full and non-users of positive airway pressure in improvement of quality of life from baseline to follow-up. However, there was a trend towards more improvement in physical quality of life for positive airway pressure-adherent patients, and the most obese subjects improved their physical quality of life more. The results suggest that co-morbidities of obstructive sleep apnea, such as obesity, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have a great effect on life qualities and need to be taken into account and addressed with additional interventions. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Influence of skin incision position on physiological and biochemical changes in tissue after primary total knee replacement - a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, David Q; Torkington, Matthew; Anthony, Iain C; Wheelwright, Eugene F; Blyth, Mark Jg; Jones, Bryn G

    2015-04-16

    Influence of skin incision position on physiological and biochemical changes in tissue after primary total knee replacement. A prospective randomised controlled trial. The blood supply to the skin covering the anterior knee has been shown to arise predominantly from blood vessels on the medial side of the knee. Skin incisions for primary Total Knee Replacement (TKR) positioned medially therefore risk creating a large lateral skin flap that may be poorly perfused. Poorly perfused skin is likely to result in hypoxia at the wound edges and consequently may lead to delayed wound healing and complications. We have carried out a randomised controlled trial (n = 20) to compare blood flow on both the medial and lateral sides of two commonly used skin incisions in TKR (midline and paramedian). We have also assessed interstitial biochemistry (glucose, pyruvate and lactate levels) in the presumed at risk lateral skin flap of both incision types. In both incision types tissue hyper-perfusion occurs post-operatively and is maintained for at least 3 days. We found no significant difference between blood flow between the two incision types on the medial side of the incision at either day 1 (p = 0.885) or day 3 post-op (p = 0.269), or, on the lateral side of the incision (p = 0.885 at day 1, p = 0.532 at day 3). Glucose levels are maintained post-operatively in the at risk lateral flap with only minimal changes. Lactate levels rise post-operatively and remain elevated for at least 24 hours. However, the levels did not reach levels suggestive of critical ischaemia in either incision group and no significant difference was observed between incision types. We conclude that the use of a paramedian incision results in only minimal biochemical changes, which are unlikely to alter wound healing. ISRCTN06592799 .