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Sample records for profound happened barack

  1. Barack, Berdi ja Eestibaši / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    USA president Barack Obama pälvis oma diplomaatiliste oskuste eest Nobeli rahupreemia. Juttu on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kohtumistest president Barack Obama ja Türkmenistani presidendi Gurbangulõ Berdimuhamedoviga

  2. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  3. Black Orpheus, Barack Obama’s Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Pease

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay constitutes a preliminary effort to explain the state fantasy with which Barack Obama hegemonized an alternative to the biopolitical settlement normalizing George W. Bush’s Global War on Terror (Pease 2009. In what follows, I intend to argue that Obama has not utterly displaced Bush’s Homeland State of Exception but that Obama’s governmentality presupposes it as the structuring logic through which he transformed the US state’s relationship with domestic and planetary peoples. I will be interested in particular in the role that Obama’s complex negotiation with the congeries of racial fantasies that he found condensed in the figure and the film Black Orpheus played in Barack Obama’s governmentality.

  4. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  5. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  6. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  7. Narrator-in-Chief:The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama.The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with...

  8. The NHS could learn from inspiring leaders like Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    I remember November 2008 like it was yesterday. I was the lead for the NHS Leadership Academy's national Breaking Through programme for black and minority ethnic staff, and recall being at our annual conference bursting with pride at the news that Barack Obama had been elected president of the United States.

  9. US Foreign Policy under President Barack Obama and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five years ago, in November 2008, Barack Hussein Obama was elected the 44th US president. Senator Obama's campaign message had been 'change', 'change we need', and 'change we should believe in'. In this post-Cold War era, the US is the only remaining superpower and the American president the world's most ...

  10. Barack Obama, the Exodus Tradition, and the Joshua Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores Barack Obama's invocation of the Exodus during his 2008 presidential campaign. It argues Obama's turn to Exodus, his rare embodiment of Joshua, and his renewal of the American covenant nicely addressed major rhetorical problems that he faced. Of equal importance, his campaign oratory opens an important line of inquiry into the…

  11. Of President Barack H. Obama and Others

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Bill E.

    2017-01-01

    The election of Barack H. Obama as President of the United States was a significant event in the social and political history of the United States. His election as the first non-white male President has been seen as a sign of the changing racial attitudes of white Americans. Nonetheless, the specter of race and racism haunts his presidency. As the first African American president, he has to show the black community that he has their social, political, and economic interests on his public poli...

  12. Start-up rhetoric in eight speeches of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J; Lamia, John F; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-10-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for the excellence of his rhetorical performance, would pursue both constant and variable strategies in his effort to establish contact with his audience. More specifically, it was hypothesized that the make-up of the audience--primarily native or non-native speakers of English--would be a prominent independent variable. A number of temporal and verbal measures were used as dependent variables. Variations were evident in mean length in syllables and duration in seconds of utterances (articulatory phrases), articulation rate in syllables per second of ontime, mean duration of silent pauses in seconds, and frequency of fillers, hesitations, colloquial words and phrases, introductory phrases, and 1st person singular pronominals. Results indicated that formality versus informality of the setting and presence or absence of a teleprompter were more prominent than native versus non-native audiences. Our analyses confirm Obama's skillfulness in challenging and variable settings and clearly detect orderliness and scientific generalizability in language use. The concept of orality/literacy provides a theoretical background and emphasizes dialogical interaction of audience and speaker.

  13. European vector of foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Lymar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the basic principles and conceptual approaches to shaping the foreign policy of the   Barack Obama. It is noted that: the foreign policy of the United States should strengthen U.S. global leadership; the special role in determining the directions of U.S. foreign policy is given to the principle of «smart power»; it is important to cooperate with international organizations; the dialogue with Europe should be based on the axis of NATO­EU. This study examines the main areas of cooperation with the European Union, including: overcoming the global crisis and reforming the international financial system; settling the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan; ensuring energy security; finding the ways to prevent new climate changes; defusing the situation which is related to the deployment of U.S. strategic plans in Eastern Europe. It is analyzed the beginning of Obama administration activity on inetnational area, discussed its achievements and shortcomings. The article marks that the USA focuses its attention more on the «Asian vector» and it causes some concern of the European Community. Attention is drawn to the main priorities of «National Security Strategy 2010». The author concludes that despite the absence of significant changes in U.S.­European relations during the first term of Barack Obama as the president, the current era of transatlantic relations has witnessed a process of constant functional cooperation with varying success.

  14. Barack Obama’s pauses and gestures in humorous speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate speech pauses and gestures as means to engage the audience and present the humorous message in an effective way. The data consist of two speeches by the USA president Barack Obama at the 2011 and 2016 Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner...... and they emphasise the speech segment which they follow or precede. We also found a highly significant correlation between Obama’s speech pauses and audience response. Obama produces numerous head movements, facial expressions and hand gestures and their functions are related to both discourse content and structure....... Characteristics for these speeches is that Obama points to individuals in the audience and often smiles and laughs. Audience response is equally frequent in the two events, and there are no significant changes in speech rate and frequency of head movements and facial expressions in the two speeches while Obama...

  15. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  16. Barack Obama: apoios recebidos na campanha presidencial na visão do New York Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inez Mateus Dota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene por objetivo discutir como son presentados y contextualizados los apoyos dados a Barack Obama, manifiestos en el diario The New York Times, en el periodo de la campaña presidencial del 2008.

  17. Barack Obama : Ameerika väärib paremat / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendivalimiste demokraatide kandidaat Barack Obama kritiseeris parteikongressil president George W. Bushi ja vabariiklaste presidendikandidaati John McCaini. Vt. samas: Bush on meid auku ajanud; Obama ei taha külma sõda

  18. Ilves kohtus esmaspäeval USA-s Barack Obamaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 15. juunil 2009 Washingtonis USA presidendi Barack Obamaga ja vestles temaga nii majanduskriisist kui ka Eesti missioonist Afganistanis. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 9.-16.06.2009

  19. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bordin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

  20. Has the Dream Been Fulfilled? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & President Barack Hussein Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nichelle Boyd; Moore, Virginia J.; Williams-Black, Thea H.

    2015-01-01

    Equality for all was the dream of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and he knowingly laid the foundation for and inspired the first African-American President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama, who also had the dream of "Change" for America. These men exhibited how working together can make dreams become reality. For the…

  1. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood…

  2. Not Stopping at First: Racial Literacy and the Teaching of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author speaks to the teaching of Barack Obama in U.S. schools. Drawing from scholarly literature on the heroification of American historical figures in public memory, the author argues that focusing on Obama's firstness as an African American may lead students to have incomplete and misleading understandings of what the…

  3. Viiteid Barack Obama valitsusstiilile võib leida tema valimiskampaaniast / Liisa Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Past, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Autor on seisukohal, et nii Barack Obama võit kui ka John McCaini leppimine oma kaotusega olid selged juba paar nädalat enne valimisi. Kirjeldades J. McCaini kampaania lõppu, märgib autor, et B. Obama võidule aitas kaasa terav majanduskitsikus ja selgem kampaaniadistsipliin. Lisad

  4. Makedoonia happening / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2003-01-01

    Mooste külalisstuudios viibivad makedoonia tegevuskunstnikud Denis Saraginovski ja Slobodanka Stevceska rühmitusest OPA tutvustasid 8. X Tartu Kunstimajas video vahendusel oma teoseid. Viljeldakse peamiselt happening'i

  5. Barack Obama Blindness (BOB): Absence of Visual Awareness to a Single Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Melara, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we evaluated whether a perceiver's prior expectations could alone obliterate his or her awareness of a salient visual stimulus. To establish expectancy, observers first made a demanding visual discrimination on each of three baseline trials. Then, on a fourth, critical trial, a single, salient and highly visible object appeared in full view at the center of the visual field and in the absence of any competing visual input. Surprisingly, fully half of the participants were unaware of the solitary object in front of their eyes. Dramatically, observers were blind even when the only stimulus on display was the face of U.S. President Barack Obama. We term this novel, counterintuitive phenomenon, Barack Obama Blindness (BOB). Employing a method that rules out putative memory effects by probing awareness immediately after presentation of the critical stimulus, we demonstrate that the BOB effect is a true failure of conscious vision.

  6. When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P

    2016-07-01

    The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. On how Organization Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation-creation. S......This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation......, with such ‘changes in our perceptions and methodologies,’ (Ibid., p. 437) meaning we have now a capacity to step up to this challenge. This, I hope, will also be a contribution to how we can rethink organization processually by placing entreprenuring more at the centre....

  8. Thomas J. Sugrue, Not even Past. Barack Obama and the Burden of Race.

    OpenAIRE

    Wekker, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    With the title “Not even Past,” historian and sociologist Thomas J. Sugrue alludes to a motto used by Barack Obama in his most famous speech “A more perfect union,” held in Philadelphia on March 18, 2008, when, pressured by the uproar around the sermons of his pastor, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, he positioned himself with regard to race. Obama himself borrowed the phrase from William Faulkner, who wrote “The past is not dead. In fact, it’s not even past.” The title also serves as an apt ban...

  9. Gobierno de Barack Obama: una explicación desde el institucionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de explicar, desde el institucionalismo, los problemas domésticos que ha tenido el gobierno de Barack Obama en los Estados Unidos. Se parte del hecho que este gobierno ha tenido una buena imagen en el ámbito internacional, pero ha tenido dificultades para generar consensos en el ámbito doméstico. Para esto, en el artículo se afirma que este gobierno demócrata se aleja de los valores, cultura y sociedad estadounidenses.

  10. Thomas J. Sugrue, Not even Past. Barack Obama and the Burden of Race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Wekker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With the title “Not even Past,” historian and sociologist Thomas J. Sugrue alludes to a motto used by Barack Obama in his most famous speech “A more perfect union,” held in Philadelphia on March 18, 2008, when, pressured by the uproar around the sermons of his pastor, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, he positioned himself with regard to race. Obama himself borrowed the phrase from William Faulkner, who wrote “The past is not dead. In fact, it’s not even past.” The title also serves as an apt ban...

  11. Retorika Barack Hussein Obama Dan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Dalam Menanggapi Isu Isis Di Dunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research discuss about the rhetoric performed by Barack Hussein Obama as President of the United States and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as President of the Republic of Indonesia in delivering feedback over the ISIS issue that circulating around the world. ISIS is an organization who commit acts of terrorism in the name of Islam. The United States is known as ‘anti-Islam’ country’s, while Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Therefore, author used Roland Barthes semiotic to reveal differences in this two figures seen from their rhetoric of verbal and non-verbal language. Thus, we can reveal how this two figures performed their rhetoric over the ISIS issue that conveyed to the international community. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai retorika yang dilakukan oleh Barack Hussein Obama selaku Presiden Amerika Serikat dan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono selaku Presiden Republik Indonesia dalam memberikan tanggapan mengenai isu ISIS yang beredar di dunia. ISIS merupakan sebuah organisasi yang melakukan tindakan terorisme dengan mengatasnamakan Islam. Amerika Serikat merupakan negara yang dikenal sebagai negara ‘anti Islam’, sedangkan Indonesia merupakan negara dengan penduduk muslim terbanyak di dunia. Oleh karena itu, penulis menggunakan semiotik Roland Barthes untuk mengungkapkan perbedaan retorika kedua tokoh dilihat dari bahasa verbal dan non verbalnya. Dengan demikian, dapat terlihat seperti apa retorika yang dilakukan oleh kedua tokoh yang ingin disampaikan kepada masyarakat internasional terkait isu ISIS.

  12. Right Brain/Left Brain President Barack Obama's Uncommon Leadership Ability and How We Can Each Develop It

    CERN Document Server

    Decosterd, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    Right Brain/Left Brain President: Barack Obama's Uncommon Leadership Ability and How We Can Each Develop It is an inspirational guide to leadership as it should be practiced, conveyed through an up-close look at the man who sets the new leadership bar. Author Mary Lou D'costerd uses her Right Brain/Left Brain Leadership Model to frame Barack Obama's leadership skill sets. Her book shows that Obama's unique brand of leadership is the result of his extraordinary ability to leverage full-brain potential in the ways he thinks, decides, and acts. ||Right Brain/Left Brain President examines Obama's

  13. Beyond Post-Racial Narratives: Barack Obama and the (Re)shaping of Racial Memory in US Schools and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…

  14. Continuing Inequity through Neoliberalism: The Conveyance of White Dominance in the Educational Policy Speeches of President Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to examine how the political speeches and statements of President Barack Obama knowingly or unknowingly continue practices and policies of White privilege within educational policy and practice by constructing education in a neoliberal frame. With presidents having the ability to communicate…

  15. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “functional Blackness,” which moves away from questions of racial authenticity and identity politics but recognizes the narrative powers of African American literature to shape a convincing and appealing black self.

  16. Mitos y símbolos en la campaña de Barack Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AracelI Soní-Soto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las redes sociales en Internet desempeñó un papel fundamental en el triunfo electoral de Barack Obama en las últimas elecciones norteamericanas. El análisis de este fenómeno proporciona la pauta para visualizar su incidencia en la transformación cultural y política de la sociedad en la medida que propició una amplia participación ciudadana, coherente con los ideales democráticos. Sin embargo, el éxito de la contienda no se puede atribuir exclusivamente al uso de los medios, sino a la confluencia entre estos y la significación de los mensajes, cuyo arraigo se encuentra en los mitos de origen y en sus representaciones simbólicas.

  17. François Durpaire, Olivier Richomme, L’Amérique de Barack Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Benoit à la Guillaume

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Étoile montante sur la scène politique américaine, premier homme politique noir capable de séduire l’électorat blanc, Barack Obama est aujourd’hui candidat à l’investiture du parti démocrate pour les élections présidentielles de 2008. Bien que son autobiographie publiée en 1995, Dreams from my Father. A Story of Race and Inheritance, se soit vendue à plus d’un million d’exemplaires aux États-Unis, elle n’a toujours pas été traduite. Seul son dernier ouvrage, L’Audace d’espérer : une nouvelle ...

  18. Barack Obama – the new charismatic political actor - a discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Maria Țîrlea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The American president, Barack Obama, is considered to be one of the most charismatic figures of the 21st century. His speeches are the best asset through which he emphasizes this quality. Although, he hasn’t always been considered to be a successful politician, he made his entrance on the political arena in 2004, when he delivered one of his best speeches. The aim of this paper is to reveal the most important elements of a political discourse that can contribute to creating a good image of a political actor. Using the critical discourse analysis method, we are trying to see if there is a connection between a good, coherent discourse strategy and the charisma of the American leader. The sample will include his 2004 speech, delivered at the Democrats’ Convention, the speech that put him in the eyes of the media as a future American leader.

  19. What Happens After Heart Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Happens After Heart Surgery? What are the ICU and CCU? In a ... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ...

  20. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  1. Barack Obama et les organisations de lutte pour les droits civiques : héritages, tensions, adaptations (2004-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Onanga Ndjila, Blanchard

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation discusses how Black Civil Rights Organizations such as the NAACP, the National Urban League and the Rainbow Push Coalition paved the way for the election of the 44th US President, Barack Obama. It specifically establishes a direct link connecting the 1965 Voting Rights Act victory won under the leadership of Dr Martin Luther King, Roy Wilkins, and Whitney Young along with the Reverend Jesse Jackson’s 1984 and 1988 presidential bids, showing from a historical approach how the...

  2. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B Norgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia

  3. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-01-20

    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  4. President Barack Obama addresses the 146th annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    On April 27, 2009, President Barack Obama addressed members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) gathered at its 146th annual meeting in Washington, D.C. In his speech, the president shared his plans to give science and technology a central role in the nation's future and an immediate place in America's economic renewal. He outlined steps he is taking to increase research spending, achieve energy independence, and improve science education. Included was what Mr. Obama cited as the largest commitment to scientific research in American history-devoting more than 3% of our gross domestic product to research and development. "Next, we are restoring science to its rightful place," Mr. Obama told a packed NAS auditorium audience. "Under my administration, the days of science taking a backseat to ideology are over." He appealed to scientists' sense of personal responsibility to reach and educate young Americans: "I want to challenge you to use your love and knowledge of science to spark a sense of wonder and excitement in a new generation." President Obama was welcomed to the National Academy of Sciences by President Ralph J. Cicerone and John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The following is a transcript of that speech.

  5. Paradoxos da política externa de Barack Obama – Anno Primo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martins Vianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Ensaio que faz um balanço crítico da política externa do primeiro ano do governo Barack Obama. Aqui, são inventariados alguns de seus paradoxos quando se comparam formas de ação e os valores norteadores de suas propostas de engajamento para América Latina, África, Oriente Médio e Ásia Central, assim como, as relações ambíguas de diálogo com a Rússia e a China, cujo objetivo foi garantir, ao longo de 2009, uma agenda externa de baixa manutenção, ou evitar a simultaneidade de cenários de fricção. Nesse ensaio, sustenta-se a hipótese de que o governo Obama dividiu, quando interessava, o ônus da sua política externa com instituições mediadoras internacionais, pretendendo compartilhar com muitos o erro acumulado de poucos (em matérias financeira, militar e estratégica de quase uma década.

  6. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.

  7. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    OpenAIRE

    Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian

    2010-01-01

    Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...

  8. Prediction of Audience Response from Spoken Sequences, Speech Pauses and Co-speech Gestures in Humorous Discourse by Barack Obama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to predict audience response from simple spoken sequences, speech pauses and co-speech gestures in annotated video- and audio-recorded speeches by Barack Obama at the Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner in 2011 and 2016. At these dinners, the American...... president mocks himself, his collaborators, political adversary and the press corps making the audience react with cheers, laughter and/or applause. The results of the prediction experiment demonstrate that information about spoken sequences, pauses and co-speech gestures by Obama can be used to predict...

  9. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  10. El rol del discurso político en el manejo de las crisis comunicacionales : Barack Obama y sus expresiones en torno a la raza

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Alejandra; Maurizi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo aborda los discursos del presidente Barack Obama en torno a la problemática de la raza, en el marco del asesinato de un joven afroamericano en 2012. En una primera parte del escrito se describirán los discursos y las reacciones generadas en los medios de comunicación en torno a sus contenidos. En la segunda parte y reflexión final, se abordará lo ocurrido desde el enfoque de la comunicación de crisis. This article discusses President Barack Obama discourses about race in the ...

  11. Remembering President Barack Obama's inauguration and the landing of US Airways Flight 1549: A comparison of the predictors of autobiographical and event memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Brown, Adam D.; Stone, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined and compared the predictors of autobiographical memory (AM) consistency and event memory accuracy across two publicly documented yet disparate public events: the inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th president of the United States on January 20th 2009, and the emergency landing of ...

  12. "What happened to the research?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    From 1998 to 2005 twelve researchers graduated as PhDs from the International Music Therapy Research Training Program in Aalborg. They came from many different countries and clinical areas, and many types of research designs were represented. The researchers are all well-known within...... the international music therapy scene, but no overview has ever been made of how their research was disseminated or promoted in a wider national or international context. This paper addresses the following questions: “What happened to the research after the defence? How were the results of the research published...... and otherwise disseminated? What was the time frame and contexts of this dissemination process? What are the most important obstacles? Are we communicating in an appropriate way with professionals outside the music therapy community?” The paper is based on information provided by the researchers. Their results...

  13. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  14. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  15. Student Engagement and Making Community Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Wayne S.; Partridge, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement and making community happen is a policy manoeuvre that shapes the political subjectivity of the undergraduate student In Australia, making community happen as a practice of student engagement is described as one of the major challenges for policy and practice in research-led universities (Krause, 2005). Current efforts to meet…

  16. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  17. Barack Obama a jeho snaha o omezení vlivu lobbistů a zájmových skupin na federální vládu

    OpenAIRE

    Kršková, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Barack Obama's Efforts to Reduce the Influence of Lobbyists and Interests Groups on Federal Government deals with Barack Obama efforts to reduce the influence of lobbyists and interests groups in regards with federal government rulings. First of all it explains that lobbying is protected by the First Amendment of the US Constitution which implies freedom of speech. Although lobbying has been regulated ever since the 19th century, the first important federal law was not enacted...

  18. Using group consciousness theories to understand political activism: case studies of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Ingo Hasselbach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-12-01

    I describe and integrate several theories of group consciousness and collective action, along with 3 case studies of political activists. I have 2 goals: (1) to use the theories to help us understand something puzzling about each life and (2) to use the cases to complicate and expand the theories. Barack Obama's case raises the question of how someone with a politicized Black identity evolved into a politician working for all oppressed people and complicates racial identity development theory. Hillary Clinton's case raises the question of how a middle-class White girl raised in a conservative family became a prominent Democratic Party politician and complicates group consciousness theories by demonstrating the importance of generation and personality. Ingo Hasselbach's (a former German neo-Nazi leader) case illustrates relative deprivation theory and raises the question of whether theories developed to explain subordinate group consciousness can be applied to movements of dominant group consciousness. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 泰子

    2013-01-01

    We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...

  20. The effects of name and religious priming on ratings of a well-known political figure, President Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary A; Guichard, AnaMarie C; An, JungHa

    2017-01-01

    Priming with race-typed names and religious concepts have been shown to activate stereotypes and increase prejudice towards out-groups. We examined the effects of name and religious word priming on views of a specific and well-known person, President Barack Obama. We predicted that politically conservative participants primed with President Obama's middle name (Hussein) would rate him more negatively and be more likely to view him as a Muslim than those not shown his middle name. We also examined whether conservatives primed with concrete religious words would rate President Obama more negatively and be more likely to view him as Muslim than those primed with other word types. Furthermore, we predicted that those who mis-identify President Obama as Muslim would rate him more negatively than would those who view him as Christian. The results provided mixed support for these hypotheses. Conservatives primed with President Obama's middle name rated him significantly more negatively than did those in the control condition. This effect was not found for politically liberal or moderate participants. Name priming did not significantly affect views of President Obama's religious affiliation. Although not statistically significant, conservatives primed with abstract religious words tended to rate President Obama more negatively than did those primed with other word types. Religious word priming significantly influenced views of President Obama's religious affiliation; interestingly, participants primed with abstract religious words were more likely to think President Obama is Muslim than were those primed with religious agent or non-religious words. As predicted, participants who thought president Obama was Muslim rated him significantly more negatively than did those who thought he was Christian. Overall, our results provide some evidence that ethnic name and religious word priming can significantly influence opinions, even with a well-known and specific person.

  1. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  2. What happens at a car wash?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    ... "What Happens at a Car Wash?" were Barb Gallick, Pam Morbitzer, and Lisa Lee. During this particular semester, our class consisted of 18 children. The majority of children attended for the full day, 5 days a week. Half of the children had attended the child care center the previous semester and had experienced project work during that time. Eight girls a...

  3. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  4. Standing Ovations and Profound Learning: Cultural Diversity in Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Describes the profound learning that took place at the International Children's Theatre Festival in Toyama City, Japan in July 2000. Argues that participation by the Japanese-American Drama Ensemble, a youth group from the public schools in Lexington, Massachusetts, and more than 400 children from all over the planet, showcased the cultural…

  5. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  6. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  7. Profound Haemaological Changes In Rats Fed On Different Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...

  8. Engaging rehabilitation technologies: making things happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kathryn M; Kayes, Nicola M; Hale, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    For some people, the word "technology" in rehabilitation brings to mind equipment and assistive devices. For others - it is a brave new frontier where robotic advance means many of the functional consequences of impairment are/will be alleviated, and many roles health professionals and carers currently perform will disappear. Like most things in life, a simplistic interpretation in complexity rarely capture what is truly going on. This is certainly true for rehabilitation technologies where devices are clearly important for our clients and for our professions but, it is not just about gadgets - it is far more than that. Of the numerous definitions available, most have in common a notion of tools to apply knowledge to practical issues or, as noted in the Britannica Concise Encyclopaedia [ 1 ]: "Whereas science is concerned with how and why things happen, technology focuses on making things happen".

  9. Where and How Do They Happen ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2010-01-01

    This is a two part paper. The first part, written somewhat earlier, presented standard processes which cannot so easily be accommodated within what are presently considered as physical type realms. The second part further elaborates on that fact. In particular, it is argued that quantum superposition and entanglement may better be understood in extensions of what we usually consider as physical type realms, realms which, as it happens, have so far never been defined precisely enough.

  10. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...

  11. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  12. Profound hyperlipidaemia due to concomitant diabetes and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Samaan, M Constantine; Murphy, Nuala; Costigan, Colm

    2010-01-01

    A previously well 5-year-old girl presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to be profoundly hyperlipidaemic. Further investigations showed that she had associated hypothyroidism. She responded to insulin and L-thyroxine treatments and her lipid profile returned to normal 2 months after diagnosis. Despite starting anticoagulant therapy early, she developed deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. Her family screen did not demonstrate familial hy...

  13. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  14. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  15. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  16. El marketing viral como elemento de la estrategia de comunicación en las campañas electorales, caso de estudio : precandidatura y candidatura de Barack Obama a la Presidencia de los Estados Unidos 2007 – 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Guerra, Diego Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Este caso de estudio versa sobre la estrategia de marketing viral utilizada en la campaña de Barack Obama a la Presidencia de Estados Unidos durante el 2008. Se describirá el papel del marketing viral como estrategia de comunicación durante la campaña.

  17. Intubation of Profoundly Agitated Patients Treated with Prehospital Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a

  18. Interaural comparison of spiral ganglion cell counts in profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profound Muscle Weakness and Pain after One Dose of Actonel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Badayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO defines osteopenia as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviation (SD below the bone density of a normal young adult Iqbal 2000. Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point Iqbal 2000. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications used to treat osteoporosis, Padget's disease of bone, and osteopenia. We report a woman who developed profound muscle weakness and pain after one dose of Risedronate (Actonel.

  20. Eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graidis, Christos; Golias, Christos; Dimitriadis, Dimokritos; Dimitriadis, Georgios; Bitsis, Theodosis; Dimitrelos, Ilias; Tsiakou, Afroditi; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-02-25

    The interactions among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial pathophysiological process involving some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). Glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors are only restricted to blood platelets and they bind fibrinogen and adhesion proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor to form cross bridges between adjacent platelets. IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are an object of intense research activity for target therapy worldwide during the last decades. Three GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This case report discusses a forty-four-year-old male patient with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and developed profound thrombocytopenia within 4 hours of first administration of eptifibatide. This report adds another case of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia to the medical literature and endorses the importance of platelet count monitoring after initiating therapy with this agent.

  1. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  2. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple

  3. Candidate self presentation in the 2008 American presidential election : A qualitative study of the self presentation strategies and appeals to national identity pursued by John McCain and Barack Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Pålsrud, Christine Helene

    2009-01-01

    This thesis seeks to explore strategies of candidate self presentation in the American presidential election of 2008 by analysing speeches given and interviews participated in by Barack Obama and John McCain. It further aims to look at how candidates used social identities to create emotional connections with the American people. The analysis shows clear patterns of self presentation where the candidates seek to establish strong narratives of who they are and what kind of president they will ...

  4. The acquisition of word connotations: asking 'what happened?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Roberta

    2004-05-01

    Although words have both denotative and connotative meanings, there has been little research on the child's acquisition of connotations. In large segments of written texts, connotations can be studied by examining word co-occurrences (collocations). Using this technique, corpus linguists have found, for example, that 'happen' has a negative connotation; it most often collocates with negative words (e.g. 'accidents', 'something dreadful'). The current research is a case study of the use of the lemma 'happen'. Adult production of 'happen/happens/happening/happened' was examined in 151 American English-speaking, adult-child dyads from the CHILDES database. Within these dyads, 35 children used 'happen' and its variants. Both adults and children were increasingly likely to use 'happen' to describe negative contexts as children's language progressed from MLUs around 1.00 to MLUs greater than 4.00. Results are consistent with usage-based theories of language that claim that the relative frequency of information in the input is critical to language learning.

  5. 45 CFR 681.45 - What happens to collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens to collections? 681.45 Section 681.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.45 What happens to collections? All...

  6. "What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John

    2011-01-01

    The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

  7. Profound sedation with propofol modifies atrial fibrillation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    During atrial fibrillation (AF), multiple wandering propagation wavelets at high rates drift around both atria under controversial hierarchical models. Antiarrhythmic drugs modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria, and can alter AF propagation dynamics and even terminate the arrhythmia. However, some other drugs, theoretically nonantiarrhythmic, may slightly block particular cardiac ionic currents through uncertain mechanisms in such a subtle way at regular heart rates that may have been pharmacologically overlooked. These potential effects might be better exposed at much higher activation rates as in AF, where atrial cells depolarize over 400 times per second. In this review, we aimed to compile and discuss results from several studies evaluating the net effect of profound sedation with propofol on atrial cells and atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Propofol is a very commonly used anesthetic agent, and its possible effect on AF dynamics has systematically not been taken into account in the myriad of clinical studies dealing with AF intracardiac recordings. The possible effect of sedation with propofol on AF was evaluated through the analysis of AF propagation patterns before and after its infusion in a series of patients submitted to pulmonary vein ablation. Effect on AV conduction will be discussed as well. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multisensory speech perception of young children with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M

    1997-10-01

    The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.

  9. EFFECT OF JUMPS IN PROFOUNDNESS ON THE FOOTBALLER REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Đošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.

  10. Cancer Prevention Knowledge of People with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Helen E.; Reed, Barbara D.; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. RESULTS Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p English in multiple situations (p English use (p = 0.01) and believing that smoking was bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. CONCLUSION Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge. PMID:19132325

  11. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic Surgery Profoundly Influences Gut Microbial-Host Metabolic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120

  13. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  14. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  15. Gastric Bypass Surgery: What Happens If I Regain the Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happens if you gain back weight after gastric bypass surgery? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... If you begin to regain weight after gastric bypass surgery, talk to your doctor. You may have ...

  16. What's happening inside the subduction factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniston-Dorland, S. C.; Bebout, G. E.; Gorman, J. K.; Piccoli, P. M.; Walker, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Much research has focused on the inputs and outputs of the 'subduction factory,' however a variety of metamorphic processes occur within the subducting slab and at its interface with the mantle wedge that contribute to creating the mixed signals observed in arc magmas. Subduction-related metamorphic rocks from the Catalina Schist represent a range of metamorphic grades and provide a natural laboratory to investigate these processes. Hybrid rock types such as reaction zones or 'rinds' between mafic (crustal) and ultramafic (mantle) rocks have attracted recent interest since they have a different bulk chemistry and mineralogy compared to the original inputs to the subduction factory. Here we explore the mineralogical and geochemical differences between the metamorphic rocks, their reaction zones, and endmember subduction input lithologies over a range of metamorphic grades including lawsonite albite, lawsonite blueschist, and amphibolite facies (with peak T ranging from ~ 275 to ~ 750°C and peak P ranging up to ~1.1 GPa). The results shed light on chemical changes occurring within the subduction zone and the processes happening inside the 'subduction factory', including mass transfer of elements by both fluid infiltration and mechanical mixing. Elements commonly enriched in arc magmatic rocks, such as the LILE (e.g. Ba, K), are enriched in metamafic rocks at all metamorphic grades relative to likely MORB protoliths. These enrichments are interpreted as the product of metamorphic fluid infiltration. Many major- and trace-element concentrations in reaction rinds fall between those of metamafic blocks and surrounding ultramafic-rich mélange matrix (including TiO2, MgO, FeO, Al2O3, Zr, Ni and Cr). Spatial distributions of these elements within the rinds suggest that the intermediate concentrations may be due to mechanical mixing of crustal and mantle materials. Rind concentrations of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) as well as

  17. What Happened to Leo P's Metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of metal abundances in galaxies present a conundrum: compared to expectations, there are not nearly enough metals observed within galaxies. New observations of a nearby dwarf galaxy may help us understand where this enriched material went.Removal ProcessesStar formation is responsible for the build-up of metals (elements heavier than helium) in a galaxy. But when we use a galaxys star-formation history to estimate the amount of enriched material it should contain, our predictions are inconsistent with measured abundances: large galaxies contain only about 2025% of the expected metals, and small dwarf galaxies contain as little as 1%!So what happens to galaxies metals after they have been formed? The favored explanation is that metals are removed from galaxies via stellar feedback: stars that explode in violent supernovae can drive high-speed winds, expelling the enriched material from a galaxy. This process should be more efficient in low-mass galaxies due to their smaller gravitational wells, which would explain why low-mass galaxies have especially low metallicities.But external processes may also contribute to the removal of metals, such as tidal stripping during interactions between galaxies. To determine the role of stellar feedback alone, an ideal test would be to observe an isolated low-mass, star-forming galaxy i.e., one that is not affected by external processes.Luckily, such an isolated, low-mass galaxy has recently been discovered just outside of the Local Group: Leo P, a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with a total stellar mass of 5.6 x 105 solar masses.Isolated ResultsPercentage of oxygen lost in Leo P compared to the percentage of metals lost in three other, similar-size dwarfs that are not isolated. If the gas-phase oxygen in Leo P were removed, Leo Ps measurements would be consistent with those of the other dwarfs. [McQuinn et al. 2015]Led by Kristen McQuinn (University of Minnesota, University of Texas at Austin), a team of researchers has used

  18. Healhy Ageing in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : Promoting Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities

  19. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  20. Joint Attention Behaviours in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: The Influence of the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Heleen; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of the profound cognitive and physical problems, people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are able to develop joint attention behaviours (JAB) and benefit from positive interactions. Aims: To investigate which context factors influence the JAB of people with PIMD. Method: Based on video recordings of…

  1. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  2. Review the Physicists show EVERYTHING happens at the same time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Physicist Max Tegmark claims flow of time is illusion. EVERYTHING happens at the same time, Max Tegmark said. [1] To understand how this theory is consistent with the truth, it should be compared with physical previous theories and experiences. The theory is backed up Einstein’s theory of relativ......Physicist Max Tegmark claims flow of time is illusion. EVERYTHING happens at the same time, Max Tegmark said. [1] To understand how this theory is consistent with the truth, it should be compared with physical previous theories and experiences. The theory is backed up Einstein’s theory...

  3. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  4. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  5. What Happened to Hyakutake? On the Trail of a Comet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. What Happened to Hyakutake? On the Trail of a Comet. B S Shylaja. General Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/06/0050-0057 ...

  6. 7 CFR 15f.22 - What happens after the hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens after the hearing? 15f.22 Section 15f.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 If I Request a Hearing... law, and if permitted, reply briefs. Briefs should include a summary of evidence relied upon together...

  7. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ONE PICKS UP THE GREEK TEXT? 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cal of a freer type of translation theory. The same applies to the 1983 New. Afrikaans translation, which sometimes moves close to the dynamic-equiva-. 48 What happens when these questions are asked can be seen in the reception- orientated approaches (Hermans 1985:7-15; Even-Zohar 1990:45-51) and fur- ther in the ...

  8. 31 CFR 359.12 - What happens in deflationary conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens in deflationary conditions? 359.12 Section 359.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... value of a Series I bond for any particular month will not be less than the value for the preceding...

  9. Factors influencing attentiveness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in multisensory storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method developed for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The developers of MSST have established specific guidelines aimed at increasing the listener's attention. Whether, and to what extent, these guidelines indeed

  10. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  11. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  12. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  14. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  15. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES – THE WAY OF SOCIALIZATION OF PEOPLE WITH PROFOUND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii I. Netosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.

  16. 12 CFR 617.7015 - What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold? 617.7015 Section 617.7015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS General § 617.7015 What happens to borrower rights when a loan is sold? (a) What happens...

  17. What happens when I turn on the TV set?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyre, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a little known manuscript from 1998 Paddy Scannell asks some dumbfoundingly basic questions about the electronic media: ‘What happens when you turn on your television set? What is the meaning of television?’ The present article presents Scannell’s Heideggerian analysis of the act of turning on the TV set, and relates it to his other writings and lectures. The article doesn’t present Scannell’s work in its full breadth, but focuses on the technological dimension of mass communication. I als...

  18. What will be Happen with New Mandala Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevenpri Candra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business in airline is getting high. The competitive for pricing and services is getting tight. Each airlines battle to get profit growth. This problem is also feeling by Mandala Airlines. They conduct changing through inside and outside organization. They are reshaping the structure of their business to win the battle. Since mid of 2007, Mandala Airlines doing transformation. Under new management, there are full of confidence to changing. Changing their image into new modern airlines with international standard. What will be happen with New Mandala Transformation? Are they successfully doing transformation and can survive in this competition?

  19. Profound Endothelial Damage Predicts Impending Organ Failure and Death in Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively), or...

  20. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  1. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  2. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  3. Staff interactive style during multisensory storytelling with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical

  4. Staff Interactive Style during Multisensory Storytelling with Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical research evidence. In general, there is a lack of…

  5. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  6. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  7. The role of attention in the affective life of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,

  8. The impact of medical conditions on the support of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, HP; Vlaskamp, C

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records

  9. Assessing the Efficacy of an Academic Hearing Peer Tutor for a Profoundly Deaf Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Suzanne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of using a hearing peer tutor to provide daily 20-minute math instruction for a profoundly deaf sixth-grade girl indicated that the peer tutoring intervention was highly successful, with the tutee meeting accuracy criteria for each of 4 curriculum objectives after only a brief period of intervention. (Author/DB)

  10. Profoundly Gifted Girls and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Psychometric Case Study Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    A case study of the psychometric characteristics of two profoundly gifted girls, one with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the other without ASD, is used to describe the nuances and subtleties most relevant in understanding the relationship between extreme giftedness and social difficulties. Through the presentation of the results from…

  11. Identification Audiometry in an Institutionalized Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ernest J.; And Others

    An audiometric screening survey was conducted on a severely and profoundly mentally retarded population using noise-makers and pure tone audiometry. Of those tested with noise-makers, 83% gave an identifiable response to sound, 7% did not respond, and 10% were considered difficult-to-test. By contrast, 4% passed, 2% failed, and 94% were…

  12. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  13. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. L. G.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound

  14. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  15. Multisensory Narrative Tracking by a Profoundly Deaf Subject Using an Electrocutaneous Vocoder and a Vibrotactile Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Observed Mood and Emotions in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…

  17. Eptifibatide induced profound thrombocytopenia in a patient with pelvic malignancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Kathryn C.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Thaker, Premal H.

    2012-01-01

    ► Eptifibatide is associated with profound thrombocytopenia and thrombosis secondary to a HITT-like mechanism associated with drug-dependant antibodies. ► Caution with eptifibatide use is needed in those pre-disposed to hypercoaguability, particularly those with an underlying malignancy.

  18. The Development of Plato Computer-Based Instruction for the Severely and Profoundly Developmentally Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Clapp, Elizabeth Jane

    The 2 year project (July 1, 1978 through June 30, 1980) sought to determine the viability, attractiveness, and effectiveness of computer based instruction with approximately 225 severely and profoundly mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled institutionalized children and adults. Over 100 instructional formats were developed by staff…

  19. Peer Interactions among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during group activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    Background Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the

  20. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  1. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  2. Extent, Duration, and Content of Day Services' Activities for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Hiemstra, Saskia J.; Wiersma, Linda A.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government instituted policies that enable persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to attend day services. Over the past 15 years, surveys have indicated a progressive increase in the number of hours that such adults spend at day activities centers. However, information about how these…

  3. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  4. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  5. A functionally focused curriculum for children with profound multiple disabilities : A goal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Reynders, K; Vlaskamp, C; Nakken, H

    Background This study analysed goals formulated in a functionally focused curriculum called Mobility Opportunities Via Education(TM) (MOVE). Method The subjects were 49 children with profound multiple disabilities (PMD) who attended a centre for special education where the MOVE curriculum was

  6. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  7. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  8. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  9. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  10. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a team of researchers in developing a brain-computer interface (BCI) system to help the profoundly paralyzed communicate. Dr. Wolpaw has received support from two NIH Institutes—NIBIB and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development—and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. "For the ...

  11. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has…

  12. Assessment of Computer-Based Preferences of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bishop, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating the use of computer-based stimuli that may then be used to develop activities and programming for students with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Both studies used an alternating treatments design and systematic assessment strategy to present stimuli sequentially and to measure student…

  13. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  14. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  15. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  16. An Analysis of Snoezelen Equipment to Reinforce Persons with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Smalls, Yemonja

    2004-01-01

    Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with…

  17. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  18. SJIT Happens og ungdoms-tv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2018-01-01

    I kapitlet "SJIT Happens og ungdoms-tv" tager jeg udgangspunkt i, at unge seere i aldersgruppen 12-34 har flyttet sig fra traditionelt lineært tv til online mediebrug siden 2010. Dette udgangspunkt fører til to vinkler: en institutionsanalytisk redegørelse for TV 2’s ungdomskanal ZULU og en analyse...... for kernemålgruppen. Kapitlet indeholder en diskussion af tilgangene enkeltprogramanalyse og programfladeanalyse i forhold til overgangen fra flow-tv til streaming-tjenesternes vækst. Det er dette kapitels hovedpointe, at særligt en series iscenesættelse fungerer som en repræsentation af kernepublikummet, og kapitlet...

  19. 'The music of what happens' in poetry and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T H

    1999-10-01

    The author presents a close reading of a Frost poem and a detailed discussion of an analytic session. Using specific examples from the poem and from the analytic session, he then offers some thoughts concerning the relationship between the way he listens to the language of the poem and the way he and his patient speak with and listen to one another. The author illustrates in this reading of the poem and in the way he speaks to his patient that he is not primarily engaged in an effort to unearth what lies 'behind' the poem's words and symbols or 'beneath' the patient's report of a dream or of a life event. Instead (or perhaps more accurately, in addition), he attempts to listen to the sound and feel of 'what's going on', to the 'music of what happens'. This is achieved to a significant degree in the analytic setting by means of the analyst's attending to his own reverie experience.

  20. Affect attunement in communicative interactions between adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and support workers

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sheridan Lee

    2017-01-01

    The quality of life of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is affected by many factors, including health status, involvement in activities, and social networks; but most critical is the quality of interaction experienced by the person on a daily basis. For many people with PIMD, most of whom reside in residential services where they receive 24-hour support, the primary people for interaction are paid disability support workers (DSWs). Quality interaction is ...

  1. Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents

  2. Not all SCN1A epileptic encephalopathies are Dravet syndrome: Early profound Thr226Met phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Mountier, Emily I; Gill, Deepak; Davis, Suzanne; Joshi, Charuta; DeVile, Catherine; Kurian, Manju A; Mandelstam, Simone; Wirrell, Elaine; Nickels, Katherine C; Murali, Hema R; Carvill, Gemma; Myers, Candace T; Mefford, Heather C; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2017-09-05

    To define a distinct SCN1A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with early onset, profound impairment, and movement disorder. A case series of 9 children were identified with a profound developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and SCN1A mutation. We identified 9 children 3 to 12 years of age; 7 were male. Seizure onset was at 6 to 12 weeks with hemiclonic seizures, bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, or spasms. All children had profound developmental impairment and were nonverbal and nonambulatory, and 7 of 9 required a gastrostomy. A hyperkinetic movement disorder occurred in all and was characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis with prominent oral dyskinesia and onset from 2 to 20 months of age. Eight had a recurrent missense SCN1A mutation, p.Thr226Met. The remaining child had the missense mutation p.Pro1345Ser. The mutation arose de novo in 8 of 9; for the remaining case, the mother was negative and the father was unavailable. Here, we present a phenotype-genotype correlation for SCN1A. We describe a distinct SCN1A phenotype, early infantile SCN1A encephalopathy, which is readily distinguishable from the well-recognized entities of Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. This disorder has an earlier age at onset, profound developmental impairment, and a distinctive hyperkinetic movement disorder, setting it apart from Dravet syndrome. Remarkably, 8 of 9 children had the recurrent missense mutation p.Thr226Met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zachar; Maurine Neiman

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution o...

  4. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in correspo...

  5. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...

  6. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  7. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  8. A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum

    2014-01-01

    V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...... interface on the arm and around the shoulder using the saltation perceptual illusion to induce movement of the corresponding joint. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface and the proposed experimental design to evaluate it....

  9. Localization training results in individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  11. Frequency compression hearing aid for severe-to-profound hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K

    2000-10-01

    Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.

  12. Research Ethics Committees and the Benefits of Involving People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in service user involvement in research, such involvement rarely extends to people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. New developments in visual methodologies offer the potential for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities to be included in research. At the same time, however,…

  13. "It's just one of those things that happens".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    I thought this prenatal visit would be like any other. But then I read the patient's name-Rosa. Six months earlier, Rosa had left Minnesota with her husband and kids to visit their home and family in Mexico. Their 18-month-old, Manuelo, had been dying. He was diagnosed with the neurodegenerative condition Tay-Sachs disease. She had a second pregnancy that developed normally and I worried. Two days later, her baby, Luz was in my clinic and a blood test showed she had Tay-Sachs disease. Luz died on the way home after two days after Rosa' delivered her next baby. Rosa believed U.S. doctors were wrong. Manuelo didn't have Tay-Sachs. Manuelo's difficulties were from mal de ojo-the evil eye. Rosa told me that they had stopped Manuelo's antiseizure medications a month before his death, and he had seemed better, almost rolling over again. This improvement was strong evidence that mal de ojo had caused his problems. But it had been discovered too late, so Manuelo had died. Caught between wanting to respect their beliefs and worrying about the baby, I probed for any doubt in Rosa's thinking. During their last clinic visit, I asked Rosa how she understood what had happened to Manuelo and Luz. She still believed mal de ojo was responsible. It has been 9 years since that farewell. Recently, I heard from Rosa's extended family in Minnesota that Rosa, Pedro, and their kids are well and plan to return to Minnesota this year. I am looking forward to seeing them. My existence as a physician is dependent on and continually shaped by the patients and families that come to me for care. There is a lot in that process that is not in my control. For me, caring for Rosa and her family was "one of those things that happens," and something that has sculpted me into the physician that I am. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia.Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  15. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  16. Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with readministration of eptifibatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kimberly N; Schnabel, Joseph G; Rochetto, Richard P; Tanner, Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Case reports of acute profound thrombocytopenia have been reported with eptifibatide, yet the true incidence of this reaction is unknown. We describe a 50-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after readministration of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide was administered through hospital day 3, when it was discontinued in preparation for coronary angiography and PCI; the drug was restarted on day 5. On hospital day 6, she was noted to have a platelet count below 5 x 10(3)/mm,(3) indicating a profound decrease from a baseline of 456 x 10(3)/mm(3) on admission. Eptifibatide, heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel were potential causative agents. Anticoagulation and vancomycin were stopped, and her platelet count increased to 30 x 10(3)/mm(3) on day 7. Subsequent reexposure to heparin and vancomycin yielded no adverse effects. The patient's platelet count increased over the remainder of her hospitalization, and she was discharged home on day 19. Based on clinical presentation and negative heparin platelet factor 4 antibody test, eptifibatide was the most likely cause of thrombocytopenia. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that eptifibatide was the probable cause of thrombocytopenia (score of 5); scores of 1 (possible) or 0 (doubtful) were derived with heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel. We conducted a literature search and compiled information from published case reports to describe the pattern of onset and recovery of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia. In all patients receiving eptifibatide, routine platelet counts should be monitored at baseline and within 2-6 hours after starting the drug.

  17. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  18. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  19. A profound case of neurally mediated syncope with asystole after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Ramsey, Mitchell J; Ruffin, David M

    2012-06-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is an alarming yet benign condition that may present postoperatively for the first time in otherwise healthy patients. Although VVS is associated anecdotally with nasal manipulation, no data have been found to quantify this incidence with otolaryngology surgeries. We present a case of profound, recurrent syncope and documented asystole with an initial diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conclude with a discussion of neurally mediated syncope particular to the perioperative setting. It is essential to recognize neurocardiogenic etiology to differentiate it from other more concerning causes of syncope and asystole. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  1. Lemierre’s Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Birkner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre’s syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre’s syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant.

  2. Can people guess what happened to others from their reactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Pillai

    Full Text Available Are we able to infer what happened to a person from a brief sample of his/her behaviour? It has been proposed that mentalising skills can be used to retrodict as well as predict behaviour, that is, to determine what mental states of a target have already occurred. The current study aimed to develop a paradigm to explore these processes, which takes into account the intricacies of real-life situations in which reasoning about mental states, as embodied in behaviour, may be utilised. A novel task was devised which involved observing subtle and naturalistic reactions of others in order to determine the event that had previously taken place. Thirty-five participants viewed videos of real individuals reacting to the researcher behaving in one of four possible ways, and were asked to judge which of the four 'scenarios' they thought the individual was responding to. Their eye movements were recorded to establish the visual strategies used. Participants were able to deduce successfully from a small sample of behaviour which scenario had previously occurred. Surprisingly, looking at the eye region was associated with poorer identification of the scenarios, and eye movement strategy varied depending on the event experienced by the person in the video. This suggests people flexibly deploy their attention using a retrodictive mindreading process to infer events.

  3. 20 CFR 408.1225 - What happens if you receive an overpayment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition Payments § 408.1225 What happens... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if you receive an overpayment... record (specifying the amount of the overpayment) to permit us to recoup the overpaid amount if you...

  4. 20 CFR 408.911 - What happens when we waive recovery of an SVB overpayment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....911 What happens when we waive recovery of an SVB overpayment? Waiver of recovery of an overpayment from you (or, after your death, from your estate) frees you and your estate from the obligation to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when we waive recovery of an SVB...

  5. 47 CFR 1.10002 - What happens if the rules conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the rules conflict? 1.10002 Section 1.10002 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE International Bureau Filing System § 1.10002 What happens if the rules conflict? The rules concerning parts 1...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14645 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... Limits § 62.14645 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during periods of CISWI unit startup, shutdown, or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2120 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... 1, 2001 Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2120 What happens during periods of startup... during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each malfunction must last no longer than 3...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2685 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each...

  9. Effect of dentate gyrus disruption on remembering what happened where

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min W Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies using Bax knockout (Bax-KO mice, in which newly generated granule cells continue to accumulate, disrupting neural circuitry specifically in the dentate gyrus (DG, suggest the involvement of the DG in binding the internally-generated spatial map with sensory information on external landmarks (spatial map-object association in forming a distinct spatial context for each environment. In order to test whether the DG is also involved in binding the internal spatial map with sensory information on external events (spatial map-event association, we tested the behavior of Bax-KO mice in a delayed-non-match-to-place task. Performance of Bax-KO mice was indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice as long as there was no interruption during the delay period (tested up to 5 min, suggesting that on-line maintenance of working memory is intact in Bax-KO mice. However, Bax-KO mice showed profound performance deficits when they were removed from the maze during the delay period (interruption condition with a sufficiently long (65 s delay, suggesting that episodic memory was impaired in Bax-KO mice. Together with previous findings, these results suggest the role of the DG in binding spatial information derived from dead reckoning and nonspatial information, such as external objects and events, in the process of encoding episodic memory.

  10. Profound loss of neprilysin accompanied by decreased levels of neuropeptides and increased CRP in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gök Sargın

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, CD10 acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected. Substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were extracted from freshly frozen tissues and measured using ELISA. Levels of NEP expression were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunoreactivity scores were calculated. GEBOES grading system was also used. We demonstrated a profound loss (69.4% of NEP expression in UC, whereas all healthy controls had NEP expression. Patients with UC had lower neuronal SP; however non-neuronal SP remained similar. UC patients had also lower neuronal and non-neuronal VIP levels. CGRP were low in general and no significant changes were observed. Additionally, CRP positive patients with UC had higher rates of NEP loss (80% vs 51.9% and lower SP levels when compared with CRP negative patients with UC. Concurrent decreases in SP and VIP with profound loss of NEP expression observed in UC is likely to be one of the factors in pathogenesis. Further studies are required to define the role of neuropeptides and NEP in UC.

  11. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  12. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  13. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  14. A quantitative review of self-help research with the severely and profoundly mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarski, E A; Diorio, M S

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-seven studies published since 1964 through 1982 on training self-help skills to severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons were analyzed according to 19 parameters reflecting their methodological details. The results showed a steady interest in this research area over time, but 63% of the studies focused on toileting and feeding with fewer studies looking at other self-help skills. Package treatments composed primarily of accelerative techniques were most frequently used to train these skills. Methodologically, it was found that these studies typically involved profoundly mentally retarded people (33% of studies) who were trained by residential staff (69% of studies) in institutional settings (63% of studies). The results also indicated an increase over time in the number of studies rated acceptable on the reliability and design parameters. Finally, very few studies reported assessments of generalization, maintenance, or social validity. It was concluded that, (a) researchers need to broaden their interests in terms of settings, trainers, and behaviors studied to best meet the needs of this population, (b) the experimental quality of this literature is improving, and (c) the social impact of observed behavior changes has yet to be fully explored.

  15. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Li, Jie; Yao, Xuerui; Li, Wei; Du, Haibo; Tang, Mingliang; Xiong, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  16. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  17. Use of a Treatment Package in the Management of a Profoundly Mentally Retarded Girl's Pica and Self-Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment involving verbal reprimands, physical restraint, response interruption, and positive practice overcorrection resulted in rapid and dramatic decreases in the levels of pica and self-stimulation of a 4-year-old profoundly retarded girl. (CL)

  18. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  19. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the reversibility of acid secretion in profound hypochlorhydria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Sekine, H; Koike, T; Imatani, A; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

    2004-06-01

    Although profound hypochlorhydria is considered to be an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer, long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on its reversibility remains uncertain. To clarify the change in acid secretion after eradication in a long-term follow-up over 5 years in patients with profound hypochlorhydria. Twenty-three H. pylori-positive patients with hypochlorhydria (hypochlorhydria.

  20. Host-associated and free-living phage communities differ profoundly in phylogenetic composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gregory Caporaso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling has been widely used for comparing bacterial communities, but has so far been impossible to apply to viruses because of the lack of a single marker gene analogous to 16S rRNA. Here we developed a reference tree approach for matching viral sequences and applied it to the largest viral datasets available. The resulting technique, Shotgun UniFrac, was used to compare host-associated and non-host-associated phage communities (130 total metagenomes, and revealed a profound split similar to that found with bacterial communities. This new informatics approach complements analysis of bacterial communities and promises to provide new insights into viral community dynamics, such as top-down versus bottom-up control of bacterial communities by viruses in a range of systems.

  1. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has considered how carers conceptualize bereavement in relation to this group. Semi-structured interviews obtained responses from seven carers. Transcripts were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: 'difficulty articulating the experience of loss' and 'making sense of bereavement through familiar patterns'. Carers conceptualize bereavement primarily in cognitive terms, but also take account of relational factors mediating loss. Implications for training and further research are outlined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Care versus treatment at the end of life for profoundly disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are profoundly mentally handicapped do not have the capacity to make their own decisions and also do not have a past record of decisions, from when they had capacity, to guide us in making decisions for them. They represent a difficult group, ethically, for surrogate decision making. Here I propose some guidelines, distinguishing between these patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As the life span of patients becomes shorter, or their level of consciousness becomes permanently impaired, the presumption for comfort care should become an imperative, and the standard of evidence to justify any invasive intervention should become higher. For members of this population, who have no more ability to refuse treatment than to consent to it, protection of the vulnerable must mean allowing a peaceful death as well as a comfortable life. Reasonable legal safeguards are also proposed to allow improved end-of-life decisions to be made for this population.

  3. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...... intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along...

  4. A longitudinal study of active treatment of adaptive skills of individuals with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-haee, M A

    2001-10-01

    A longitudinal study indicated that a single group of adults living in a large state institution (O'Berry Center in Goldsboro, North Carolina) benefited from receiving active treatment, although no control group was permitted. After five years, 59 individuals with profound mental retardation improved their skills in six general areas of dressing, grooming, eating, toileting, communication, and social interaction. After five more years of active treatment, 51 persons who had remained in the program maintained their skills in dressing, grooming, eating, and communication. Significant improvement in the use of toilet and a loss in social interaction were observed. Although the participants were 10 years older at the end of this study, their adaptive behaviors, in comparison to the date of entry, either improved or were maintained. Therefore, aging was not associated with decline in skills.

  5. Acquisition and generalization of instruction following behavior in profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, R; Dubin, W

    1979-08-01

    Four profoundly retarded male residents of a state institution learned to comply with the instructions "come here," "stay," and "sit." Acquisition occurred in a special therapy room and instructions were presented in a fixed sequence. All subjects learned to comply with the instructions in the training environment. Testing occurred in the subject's ward dayroom where instructions were presented in a random sequence. Despite dramatic changes in the stimulus conditions associated with the transfer to the testing situation the subjects performed close to their asymptotic level. Three experimentally naive subjects participated in a second experiment which was similar to the first, except that the number of acquisition sessions and the number of trials per session were reduced. The reduction in number of acquisition trials did not appear to affect performance in the testing environment. The possibility of terminating off-task behavior of institutionalized individuals by eliciting previously acquired instruction following behavior was discussed.

  6. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  7. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-07-01

    Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Group activities for children with PIMD initiated by a direct support worker were video-recorded. The behaviour and positioning of the children and the behaviour of the direct support workers were coded. Limited peer-directed behaviour of the children with PIMD and peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers are observed. Weak associations were found between the positioning or peer interaction-influencing behaviours and the behaviour of children with PIMD. Children with PIMD show social interest in each other during group activities. More knowledge is needed to create an environment which facilitates peer-directed behaviours of persons with PIMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sensorimotor functioning and prelinguistic communication of severely and profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, D; Barrera, R D; Feldman, R S

    1981-03-01

    The prelinguistic, nonverbal communicative behavior of 40 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded children and adolescents functioning at various stages of Piaget's sensorimotor period was examined. Five scales of the Uzgiris and Hunt (1975) sensorimotor assessment were used to determine general level of sensorimotor functioning. A standard set of communication elicitation tasks was employed to examine the gestures used to communicate in both imperative and declarative contexts. More competent sensorimotor performance was associated with higher frequency of more sophisticated and symbolic forms of gestural communication, and subjects generally used more complex gestures to communicate in the imperative than in the declarative tasks. Applicability of the results to the design of future language-intervention programs and their implications for general theory concerning the relations between language and cognition and between normal and atypical development were discussed.

  9. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  10. Identifying perception behaviours in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Miriam; Verheul, Ellen; Velthausz, Frank

    2017-12-21

    To support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), it is essential to understand how they experience their environment. Insight into perception behaviour may provide an entry point for improved understanding. A random sample of a 30-min video registration of five participants with PIMD was used to code behaviours per second based on an ethogram containing 157 different perception behaviours in nine categories. Eighty-nine different perception behaviours were observed, of which movements with eyes, head and arms were most common. The senses used most were seeing, hearing and touching. Finally, the function of five perception patterns was established in relation to their function:awareness, focusing attention and tension regulation. Close observation using an observation ethogram provides insight into how people with PIMD perceive their environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  12. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  13. Plasma antidiuretic hormone in cases with the early onset of profound unilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Nishioka, Rie; Taguchi, Daizo; Nishimura, Masahiko

    2008-12-01

    The p-ADH level in cases of juvenile unilateral profound deafness (JUPD) and the timecourse of the level were examined to investigate whether or not an increase of p-ADH is involved in the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) in JUPD. In 90 consecutive patients with unilateral profound or total sensorineural deafness with the onset in early childhood, pure-tone audiometric examination and the measurement of p-ADH and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) were followed up once or twice a year as far as possible. At every testing, we performed careful history-taking about episodic vertigo/dizziness, fluctuant hearing loss, and tinnitus in order to find out whether patients had experienced these clinical signs of the development of DEH. Means and standard deviation (S.D.) of p-ADH level and osmolality in all samples tested (n=368) were 7.3+/-7.0 pg/mL (0.7-52.0 pg/mL), and 288.6+/-4.4 mOsm/L (273-306 mOsm/L), respectively. The mean of p-ADH level was much higher than those previously reported in children and adolescents. High levels of p-ADH (over 5.0 pg/mL) were often observed in subjects between 6 and 19 years of age, but not so frequently in subjects of 20 years of age or older. Long-term follow-up of p-ADH levels revealed that DEH frequently developed in cases with persistent elevation of p-ADH. The elevation of p-ADH is likely to promote the development of DEH in cases of JUPD, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  14. Expression and function of striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase is profoundly altered in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Steven P.; Xu, Jian; Leung, John; Urfer, Roman; Nikolich, Karoly; Oksenberg, Donna; Lombroso, Paul J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) acts in the central nervous system to dephosphorylate a number of important proteins involved in synaptic function including ERK and NMDA receptor subunits. These proteins are also linked to stroke, in which cerebral ischemia triggers a complex cascade of events. Here we demonstrate that STEP is regulated at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels in rat models of cerebral ischemia and that its regulation may play a role in the outcome of ischemic insults. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there are profound decreases in the levels of STEP mRNA, whilst in global ischemia STEP mRNA is selectively down-regulated in areas susceptible to ischemic damage. In a neuroprotective preconditioning paradigm, and in regions of the brain that are relatively resistant to ischemic damage, STEP mRNA levels are increased. Furthermore, there is a significant processing of STEP after ischemia to generate a novel species, STEP33, resulting in a redistribution of STEP from membrane-bound to soluble compartments. Concomitant with the cleavage of mature forms of STEP, there are changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK. We show that the cleavage of STEP leads to a catalytically active form, but this cleaved form no longer binds to and dephosphorylates its substrate pERK. Therefore, in response to ischemic insults, there are profound reductions in both the amount and the activity of STEP, its localization, as well as the activity of one of its key substrates, pERK. These changes in STEP may reflect a critical role in the outcomes of ischemic brain injury. PMID:18445231

  15. Urban Geocaching: what Happened in Lisbon during the Last Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Mendes, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Created in 2000 in the United States of America, Geocaching has become a major phenomenon all around the world, counting actually with millions of Geocaches (or caches) that work as a recreational motivation for millions of users, called Geocachers. During the last 30 days over 5,000,000 new logs have been submitted worldwide, disseminating individual experiences, motivations, emotions and photos through the official Geocaching website (www.geocaching.com), and several official or informal national web forums. The activity itself can be compared with modern treasure hunting that uses handheld GPS, Smartphones or Tablets, WEB 2.0, wiki features and technologies to keep Geocachers engaged with their activity, in a strong social-network. All these characteristics make Geocaching an activity with a strong geographic component that deals closely with the surrounding environment where each cache has been hidden. From previous work, significance correlation has been found regarding hides and natural/rural environments, but metropolitan and urban areas like Lisbon municipality (that holds 3.23% of the total 27534 Portuguese caches), still registers the higher density of Geocaches, and logs numbers. Lacking "natural/rural" environment, Geocaching in cities tend to happen in symbolic areas, like public parks and places, sightseeing spots and historical neighborhoods. The present study looks to Geocaching within the city of Lisbon, in order to understand how it works, and if this activity reflects the city itself, promoting its image and cultural heritage. From a freely available dataset that includes all Geocaches that have been placed in Lisbon since February 2001, spatial analysis has been conducted, showing the informal preferences of this activity. Results show a non-random distribution of caches within the study area, similar to the land use distribution. Preferable locations tend to be in iconic places of the city, usually close to the Tagus River, that concentrates 25

  16. La participación política de los jóvenes en la campaña presidencial de Barack Obama 2007-2008, mediante el uso de herramientas de marketing online configuradas a partir de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Ramírez, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio de caso busca realizar una descripción de la participación política de los jóvenes durante la campaña de Barack Obama a la presidencia, mediante el uso de herramientas de marketing online, identificando las herramientas de marketing y posteriormente, haciendo un exámen de cómo los jóvenes se apropiaron de las mismas para participar activamente. Así mismo, se plantea un modelo de análisis que permite comprender el proceso antes y durante el proceso participativo, con el fin de pla...

  17. Two case presentations of profound labial edema as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Jill M; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-09-01

    Hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), an often-missed diagnosis with the potential for serious sequelae, may have a variety of uncommon presentations, some of which may be gynecologic. The aim of this case report is to present two cases of profound labial edema associated with intercourse as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type EDS. A 25-year-old female presented with severe labia minora swelling and bladder pressure associated with intercourse, in addition to persistent genital arousal. History revealed easy bruising, joint pain, and family history of aneurysm. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent profound labial swelling for 6 years, associated with sensitivity and pain with intercourse. The patient has a history of joint pain and easy bruising, as well a sister with joint hypermobility and unexplained lymphedema. The presenting symptom of profound labial edema led to the diagnosis of hypermobility-type EDS. Patients with hypermobility syndrome exhibit an increased ratio of type III collagen to type I collagen, causing tissue laxity and venous insufficiency. Abnormal collagen may lead to gynecologic manifestations, including unexplained profound labial edema, pelvic organ prolapse in the absence of risk factors, and possibly persistent genital arousal. This case report highlights the need for further research to determine incidence of labial edema in hypermobility-type EDS and to further elucidate a potential correlation between profound labial edema and collagen disorders. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Microswitch Technology for Enabling Self-Determined Responding in Children with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 18 studies reporting on the use of microswitch technology to enable self-determined responding in children with profound and multiple disabilities. Identified studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) experimental design, (c) microswitches and procedures used, and (d) main results. The 18 studies formed three groups based on whether the microswitch technology was primarily intended to enable the child to (a) access preferred stimuli (7 studies), (b) choose between stimuli (6 studies), or (c) recruit attention/initiate social interaction (5 studies). The results of these studies were consistently positive and support the use of microswitch technology in educational programs for children with profound and multiple disabilities as a means to impact their environment and interact with others. Implications for delivery of augmentative and alternative communication intervention to children with profound and multiple disabilities are discussed.

  19. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Fu, Bojie; Zhu, Huoxing; Wang, Cong; Jiao, Lei; Zhou, Ji

    2017-06-16

    Although trait choice is crucial to quantify functional diversity appropriately, the quantitative methods for it are rarely compared and discussed. Meanwhile, very little is known about how trait choice affects ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. We presented the four methods of trait selection as alternatives to the ordination axis-based method, which directly identify a subset of key traits to represent the main variation of all the traits. To evaluate their performance, we compared the closeness of association obtained by different methods between species richness and functional diversity indices (FAD, FD, Q, FDis) in the six ecosystems. The evaluation was also benchmarked against the results obtained by calculating the possible indices using all the trait combinations (the complete search method). We found that the trait selection methods were potential alternatives to axis-based method to gain a mechanistic understanding of functional responses and effects of traits, while these methods as well as the axis-based method possibly use mismatched information to interpret the investigated ecosystem properties. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. The complete search method should be used to assess the rationale of different trait choice methods and the quality of the calculated indices.

  20. Profound reversible seasonal changes of individual skull size in a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Javier; Dechmann, Dina K N; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Hertel, Moritz

    2017-10-23

    Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size [1]. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains [2]. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel's phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of red-toothed shrews and some mustelids [3-5]. The seasonal 20% decrease and 15% re-growth of the most common proxy, braincase height, were documented at population level from extracted skulls post-mortem. Quantifying intra-individual change had so far been methodologically prohibitive. Here, we followed the intra-individual change in skull size and body mass throughout the full cycle in wild recaptured shrews (Sorex araneus). Using X-ray images we showed that individuals decreased the size of their braincases in anticipation of winter by an average of 15.3%. Braincases then partially regrew in spring by 9.3%. Body mass decreased by 17.6% and then dramatically increased by 83.4% in spring. Thus, we demonstrate that the dramatic changes incurred by Dehnel's phenomenon occur in the individual's bone and other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The management of children with Down syndrome and profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A

    2016-01-01

    Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.

  2. Dexamethasone exerts profound immunologic interference on treatment efficacy for recurrent glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E T; Lok, E; Gautam, S; Swanson, K D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with recurrent glioblastoma have a poor outcome. Data from the phase III registration trial comparing tumour-treating alternating electric fields (TTFields) vs chemotherapy provided a unique opportunity to study dexamethasone effects on patient outcome unencumbered by the confounding immune and myeloablative side effects of chemotherapy. Methods: Using an unsupervised binary partitioning algorithm, we segregated both cohorts of the trial based on the dexamethasone dose that yielded the greatest statistical difference in overall survival (OS). The results were validated in a separate cohort treated in a single institution with TTFields and their T lymphocytes were correlated with OS. Results: Patients who used dexamethasone doses >4.1 mg per day had a significant reduction in OS when compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day, 4.8 vs 11.0 months respectively (χ2=34.6, Pdexamethasone >4.1 mg per day was 3.2 months compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day was 8.7 months (χ2=11.1, P=0.0009). There was a significant correlation between OS and T-lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Dexamethasone exerted profound effects on both TTFields and chemotherapy efficacy resulting in lower patient OS. Therefore, global immunosuppression by dexamethasone likely interferes with immune functions that are necessary for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26125449

  3. A patient with profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Flannery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A case of profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery with multiple negative evaluations. Case presentation: A 41-year-old African-American female presented with greater-than-expected weight loss after gastric bypass and increasing abdominal pain over a 2-year period. An extensive workup was pursued for the patient with blood analysis, tumor markers, imaging studies both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, arterial studies, and endoscopy from above and below, all of which demonstrated normal results. The patient was followed up without improvement, and repeated studies were also normal. The patient was labeled with a nonorganic etiology for her symptoms, which led to a psychiatry referral which was refused. Conclusion: The patient’s surgeon, who already had removed a normal appendix and gallbladder, repeated a laparoscopic exam. The exam was normal except for a small focus of pancreatic cancer in the celiac plexus. The patient died from perioperative sepsis from peritonitis 2 days after surgery. The case is discussed and findings reviewed.

  4. Vestibular function of patients with profound deafness related to GJB2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Misato; Hayashi, Chieri; Iizuka, Takashi; Inoshita, Ayako; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Okada, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2010-09-01

    GJB2 mutations are responsible not only for deafness but also for the occurrence of vestibular dysfunction. However, vestibular dysfunction tends to be unilateral and less severe in comparison with that of bilateral deafness. The correlation between the cochlear and vestibular end-organs suggests that some children with congenital deafness may have vestibular impairments. On the other hand, GJB2 gene mutations are the most common cause of nonsyndromic deafness. The vestibular function of patients with congenital deafness (CD), which is related to GJB2 gene mutation, remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between GJB2 gene mutation and vestibular dysfunction in adults with CD. A total of 31 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with CD, were enrolled in the study. A hearing test and genetic analysis were performed. The vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured and a caloric test was performed to assess the vestibular function. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction was then statistically analyzed. The hearing level of all CD patients demonstrated a severe to profound impairment. In seven CD patients, their hearing impairment was related to GJB2 mutation. Five of the seven patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation demonstrated abnormalities in one or both of the two tests. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction of the patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation was statistically higher than in patients with CD unrelated to GJB2 mutation and in healthy controls.

  5. Holding Ashley (X): Bestowing Identity Through Caregiving in Profound Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Lisa; Liaschenko, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life. In this article, we analyze the ethics of the Ashley Treatment within the context of family caregiving. Through the physical and emotional work of caregiving, families participate in the formation and maintenance of personal identity, a process that Hilde Lindemann recently called "holding." We argue that, in an intellectually disabled person such as Ashley, who depends on her family for every aspect of her care, the family's contribution to identity is an essential source of personhood. We believe that the treatment can be justified if it is indeed an instance of appropriate family "holding" for Ashley. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum infection early in pregnancy has profound consequences for foetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Matondo, Sungwa; Minja, Daniel T R; Resende, Mafalda; Pehrson, Caroline; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Olomi, Raimos; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Salanti, Ali; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G

    2017-10-06

    Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GApregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0.0099) and shorter pregnancy length (mean reduction 6.6 days [1.0;112.5], P=0.0087). The birth weight (mean reduction 221g [6;436], P=0.044) and the placental weight (mean reduction 84g ([18; 150], P=0.013) at term were also reduced. The study suggests that early exposure to P. falciparum, which are not prevented by current control strategies, has profound impact on foetal growth, pregnancy length and the placental weight at term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The validation of an educational database for children with profound intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien Spangenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability took the South African Government to court in 2010 on its failure to implement the right to education for Children with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability. Subsequently, multidisciplinary teams were appointed by the Western Cape Education Department to deliver services to the Special Care Centres (SCCs. Initially, minimal information was available on this population.Objectives: The purpose is to document the process of developing and validating a database for the collection of routine data.Method: A descriptive analytical study design was used. A sample of convenience was drawn from individuals under the age of 18 years, enrolled in SCCs in the Western Cape. The team who entered and analysed the data reached consensus regarding the utility and feasibility of each item.Results: Data were collected on 134 children. The omission of certain items from the database was identified. Some information was not reliable or readily available. Of the instruments identified to assess function, the classification systems were found to be reliable and useful, as were the performance scales. The WeeFIM, on the other hand, was lengthy and expensive, and was therefore discarded.Discussion and conclusions: A list of items to be included was identified. Apart from an individual profile, it can be useful for service planning and monitoring, if incorporated into the central information system used to monitor the performance of all children. Without such inclusion, this most vulnerable population, despite court ruling, will not have their right to education adequately addressed.

  9. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  10. Participation of adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities: Definition and operationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, Gineke; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van der Putten, Annette A J; Waninge, Aly

    2017-02-01

    The available opinions regarding participation do not appear to be applicable to adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities (VSPID). Because a clear definition and operationalization are lacking, it is difficult for support professionals to give meaning to participation for adults with VSPID. The purpose of the present study was to develop a definition and operationalization of the concept of participation of adults with VSPID. Parents or family members, professionals, and experts participated in an online concept mapping procedure. This procedure includes generating statements, clustering them, and rating their importance. The data were analyzed quantitatively using multidimensional scaling and qualitatively with triangulation. A total of 53 participants generated 319 statements of which 125 were clustered and rated. The final cluster map of the statements contained seven clusters: (1) Experience and discover; (2) Inclusion; (3) Involvement; (4) Leisure and recreation; (5) Communication and being understood; (6) Social relations; and (7) Self-management and autonomy. The average importance rating of the statements varied from 6.49 to 8.95. A definition of participation of this population was developed which included these seven clusters. The combination of the developed definition, the clusters, and the statements in these clusters, derived from the perceptions of parents or family members, professionals, and experts, can be employed to operationalize the construct of participation of adults with VSPID. This operationalization supports professionals in their ability to give meaning to participation in these adults. Future research will focus on using the operationalization as a checklist of participation for adults with VSPID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Risk factors associated with challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A J J; Post, W J; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-06-01

    Several factors that correlate with the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour are mentioned in research. These are factors related to persons with ID, but also to direct support professionals and the context. Although many of these factors seem to affect the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour in people with ID in general, results are often inconclusive and have little focus on people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The present study aimed to assess the extent to which known factors related to challenging behaviour are also applicable to a group of 198 people with PIMD. To determine which factors were associated with challenging behaviour, univariate analyses on associations between known risk factors and challenging behaviour were conducted. The associated factors were then subject to a regression analysis to determine the extent to which they explain the prevalence of challenging behaviour and can thus be seen as factors associated with challenging behaviour. The results show that, in particular, factors concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD, such as sleeping problems and auditory problems, were related to the variance in mean frequency of challenging behaviour. Only one factor related to the direct support professionals was found: when these professionals had been offered training on the subject of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities in general, they identified significantly more withdrawn behaviour. We found no contextual factors related to challenging behaviour. These findings are generally consistent with findings reported in other studies, especially concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD. Further research should focus on the effects of providing safe auditory environments and appropriate sleep schedules for people with PIMD on the occurrence of challenging behaviour. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  13. Initiation of activities and alertness in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V; Vlaskamp, C

    2015-03-01

    When providing activities to individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), direct support persons (DSPs) often face questions that are, among other things, related to the alertness of the person with PIMD. While previous studies have revealed that stimulation might have a greater impact on levels of alertness than the internal conditions of the individual, they have also emphasized the importance of interaction in order to influence the level of alertness. Because the initiation of this interaction has been described as one of its core components, the present study has focused on the relationship between the stimuli presented, the initiation of the activity (by the person with PIMD or the DSP), and the level of alertness of the person with PIMD. Videotapes of the one-to-one interactions of 24 individuals with PIMD and their DSPs in multisensory environments have been scored using the Alertness Observation List. In a sequential analysis, the percentages of stimuli presented were related to the percentages of initiation. Furthermore, two other analyses focused on the relationship between the level of alertness and the preceding and subsequent percentages of initiation respectively. The results show that high percentages of the activities are initiated by the DSPs. In addition, activities that were initiated by the individual with PIMD were preceded and followed by higher percentages of alert behaviour than those initiated by the DSP. Outcomes differed for the different types of stimuli. These results have striking implications for the lives of individuals with PIMD. It is quite possible that DSPs often act too quickly, whereas they would be better off waiting for a reaction on the part of their client. In general, DSPs need to find a balance between being passive themselves and promoting in the individual with PIMD a state of being as active and alert as possible. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  14. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  16. Things begin to happen around Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On 23 February 1994, it will be exactly seven years since the explosion of Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud [1] was first observed, at a distance of approx. 160,000 light-years. It was the first naked-eye supernova to be seen in almost four hundred years. Few events in modern astronomy have met with such an enthusiastic response by the scientists and this famous object has been under constant surveillance ever since. After several years of relative quiescence, things are now beginning to happen in the immediate neighbourhood of SN 1987A. Recent observations with the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) indicate that interaction between the stellar material which was ejected during the explosion and the surrounding ring-shaped nebulae has started. This signals the beginning of a more active phase during which the supernova is likely to display a number of new and interesting phenomena, never before observed. SEVEN YEARS IN THE LIFE OF A SUPERNOVA After brightening to maximum light at about magnitude 3 a few months after the explosion, the long period of steady fading which is typical for supernovae, set in by mid-1987. The matter ejected by the explosion took the form of an expanding fireball, which began to spread through the nearly empty space around the supernova with a velocity of almost 10,000 km/sec. As it cooled, the temperature and therefore the total brightness decreased and the supernova became fainter and fainter. At the present moment, the magnitude of SN 1987A is about 18.5, that is almost 2 million times fainter than it was at maximum. Various phenomena have been observed around SN 1987A during the past years. Already in early 1988, light echoes were seen as concentric, slowly expanding luminous circles; they represent the reflections of the explosion light flash in interstellar clouds inside the Large Magellanic Cloud, between the supernova and us. In 1989, high-resolution observations with the NTT showed an elliptical ``ring

  17. The Hands with Eyes and Nose in the Palm: As Effective Communication Alternatives for Profoundly Deaf People in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutswanga, Phillipa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…

  18. Noonan Syndrome: An Underestimated Cause of Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment. Which Clues to Suspect the Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alban; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; Cavé, Hélène; Baujat, Geneviève; Gherbi, Souad; Couloigner, Vincent; Marlin, Sandrine

    2017-09-01

    To highlight Noonan syndrome as a clinically recognizable cause of severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. New clinical cases and review. Patients evaluated for etiological diagnosis by a medical geneticist in a reference center for hearing impairment. Five patients presenting with confirmed Noonan syndrome and profound sensorineural hearing impairment. Diagnostic and review of the literature. Five patients presented with profound sensorineural hearing impairment and molecularly confirmed Noonan syndrome. Sensorineural hearing impairment has been progressive for three patients. Cardiac echography identified pulmonary stenosis in two patients and was normal for the three other patients. Short stature was found in two patients. Mild intellectual disability was found in one patient. Inconspicuous clinical features as facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism, or easy bruising were of peculiar interest to reach the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. Profound sensorineural hearing impairment can be the main feature of Noonan syndrome. Associated features are highly variable; thus, detailed medical history and careful physical examination are mandatory to consider the diagnosis in case of a sensorineural hearing impairment.

  19. Movement skill assessment in children with profound multiple disabilities : a psychometric analysis of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test (TDMMT), an internationally used instrument in the planning and evaluation of movement-oriented interventions. Setting: Centres for special education in the Netherlands. Subjects: Children with profound multiple

  20. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  1. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  2. Therapeutic interventions in the Netherlands and Belgium in support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han

    For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the

  3. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  4. The effects of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Marleen D.; Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the benefits of physical activity in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is an increase in alertness. This study investigated the effect of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness and the relationship of this effect to the level of additional motor

  5. "Trying, Failing, Succeeding, and Trying Again and Again": Perspectives of Teachers of Pupils with Severe Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phyllis; Riley, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the perspectives of seven teachers in England who teach pupils with severe profound and multiple learning difficulties about their learning to teach this group of students. Teachers' views were captured through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous online communications. Four themes emerged from teachers' perspectives…

  6. Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura: Clinical and histopathological predictors of systemic disease and profound renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Cao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura patients older than 30 years have a threefold increased risk of renal involvement. The risk of profound renal disease necessitating nephrology referral rose significantly with age and the presence of cutaneous bullae and/or necrosis.

  7. The Gender Mix among Staff in Schools for Pupils with Severe and Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties and Its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Phil

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on several studies of gender mix among staff in ten schools for students with severe, profound and/or multiple disabilities. Headteachers' perceptions of the impact of women's dominance in these positions are explored, and a series of proposals for future recruitment and staff development is put forth. (Contains seven…

  8. Camera-based microswitch technology to monitor mouth, eyebrow, and eyelid responses of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for

  9. The documentation of health problems in relation to prescribed medication in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed.

  10. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  11. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  12. See Me, Feel Me. Using Physiology to Validate Behavioural Observations of Emotions of People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioural observations are the most frequently used source of information about emotions of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities but have not yet been validated against other measures of emotion. In this study we wanted to validate the behavioural observations of emotions using respiration (rib cage contribution,…

  13. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent

  14. The False-Friend Effect in Three Profoundly Deaf Learners of French: Disentangling Morphology, Phonology and Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Three profoundly deaf individuals undertook a low-frequency backward lexical translation task (French/English), where morphological structure was manipulated and orthographic distance between test items was measured. Conditions included monomorphemic items (simplex), polymorphemic items (complex), items whose French morphological structure…

  15. Profound Expressive Language Impairment in Low Functioning Children with Autism: An Investigation of Syntactic Awareness Using a Computerised Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as "monkey…

  16. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  17. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  18. From Individualism to Co-Construction and Back Again: Rethinking Research Methodology for Children with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ben; Watson, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are said to experience severe congenital impairments to consciousness and cognition stemming from neurological damage. Such children are understood as operating at the pre-verbal stages of development, and research in the field typically draws conceptual resources from psychology to…

  19. Normalization of Institutional Mealtimes for Profoundly Retarded Persons: Effects and Noneffects of Teaching Family-Style Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated a program for teaching family-style mealtime skills to four profoundly retarded institutionalized adolescents. The program used forward chaining with a less-to-more intrusive prompting sequence and contingent reinforcement to teach the skills. (Author/DB)

  20. Transfer of information between parents and teachers of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities at special educational centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteine, H.; Zijlstra, H. P.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: Because of the complexity of the problems that affect children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), communication between parents and teachers at special educational centres is indispensable. Logs are widely used in the Netherlands although only little is known

  1. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of...

  2. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of…

  3. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Monitor Mouth, Eyebrow, and Eyelid Responses of Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on…

  4. Establishing a Connection between Quality of Life and Pre-Academic Instruction for Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzien, Jonna L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education has begun to concentrate its efforts on developing objectives and procedural strategies that promote a positive quality of life for students with profound multiple disabilities, while determining which educational strategies are the most appropriate. A multi-element design was used to compare the effects of two…

  5. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  6. Efforts to Increase Social Contact in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Analysing Individual Support Plans in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of…

  7. Parental Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in General Primary Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke A.; Munde, Vera S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing introduction of inclusive education, children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are barely included. Because an underlying factor here may be the attitudes of those directly involved, the present study focuses on the attitude of parents and relating variables concerning experience with individuals with…

  8. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  9. Physiological Measurements as Validation of Alertness Observations: An Exploratory Case Study of Three Individuals with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Vera; Vlaskamp, Carla; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Ruijssenaars, Wied

    2012-01-01

    Although observation largely takes into account the needs and abilities of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities, several difficulties are related to this assessment method as well. Our aim in this study was to investigate what possibilities the use of physiological measurements make available to validate alertness…

  10. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  11. Multi-sensory Environments: An Exploration of Their Potential for Young People with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Helen; Cavet, Judith

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy concerning multisensory environments for children and adults with profound and multiple learning difficulties, from a British perspective. The need for critical evaluation of such multisensory interventions as the "snoezelen" approach and the paucity of relevant, rigorous research on educational…

  12. The Documentation of Health Problems in Relation to Prescribed Medication in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed. Method: Persons with PIMD with an…

  13. Associations and Dissociations between Psychoacoustic Abilities and Speech Perception in Adolescents with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Segal, Osnat; Algom, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the relationship between psychoacoustic capabilities and speech perception in adolescents with severe-to-profound hearing loss (SPHL). Method: Twenty-four adolescents with SPHL and young adults with normal hearing were assessed with psychoacoustic and speech perception tests. The psychoacoustic tests included gap detection…

  14. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  15. Ejes Estratégicos de la Política Exterior para América Latina y el Caribe en los Gobiernos de George W. Bush y Barack Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Ayerbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto aborda la percepción de Estados Unidos sobre las fuentes de inseguridad originarias de América Latina, considerada un área de bajo riesgo y prioridad de su política exterior. El análisis se concentra en la evaluación de las amenazas y desafíos a sus intereses estratégicos y las modalidades de actuación privilegiadas en la esfera regional, en que se verifican coincidencias entre las administraciones Demócratas y Republicanas en la adopción de un liderazgo con prerrogativas clasificatorias sobre los tipos de régimen político, con una agenda concebida como promoción de la convergencia hemisférica de democracias y economías liberales. En ese contexto, cabe destacar la prioridad atribuida a los países de la Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas (ALBA como eje opositor de sus políticas.Palabras Clave: América Latina; Seguridad; Estados Unidos; Política Exterior. Strategic Priorities of Foreign Policy for Latin America and the Caribbean in the governments of George W. Bush and Barack ObamaAbstractThe paper approaches the U.S. perceptions about the sources of insecurity from Latin America, considered a low risk area and priority of its foreign policy. El análisis se concentra en la evaluación de las amenazas y desafíos a sus intereses estratégicos y las modalidades de actuación privilegiadas en la esfera regional, en que se verifican coincidencias entre las administraciones Demócratas y Republicanas en la adopción de un liderazgo con prerrogativas clasificatorias sobre los tipos de régimen político, con una agenda concebida como promoción de la convergencia hemisférica de democracias y economías liberales. The analysis focuses on assessing the threats and challenges to its strategic interests and privileged modes of action at the regional level, which verifies similarities between Republican and Democratic administrations in taking a leadership prerogatives qualifiers on the types political regime, with an

  16. Mouse background strain profoundly influences Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S Gulati

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the central role of Paneth cells in maintaining intestinal host-microbial homeostasis. However, the direct impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function remains unclear. Here, we characterize key differences in Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition in two widely utilized, genetically distinct mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129/SvEv. In doing so, we demonstrate critical influences of host genotype on Paneth cell activity and the enteric microbiota.Paneth cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, acid urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Effects of mouse background on microbial composition were assessed by reciprocal colonization of germ-free mice from both background strains, followed by compositional analysis of resultant gut bacterial communities using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and 16 S qPCR. Our results revealed that 129/SvEv mice possessed fewer Paneth cells and a divergent AMP profile relative to C57BL/6 counterparts. Novel 129/SvEv á-defensin peptides were identified, including Defa2/18v, Defa11, Defa16, and Defa18. Host genotype profoundly affected the global profile of the intestinal microbiota, while both source and host factors were found to influence specific bacterial groups. Interestingly, ileal α-defensins from 129/SvEv mice displayed attenuated antimicrobial activity against pro-inflammatory E. coli strains, a bacterial species found to be expanded in these animals.This work establishes the important impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. It further identifies specific AMP and microbial alterations in two commonly used inbred mouse strains that have varying susceptibilities to a variety of disorders, ranging from obesity to intestinal

  17. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Homøe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cochlear implant (CI treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists for evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation. In particular, children treated with CI are in need of long-term post-operative auditory training and other follow-up support. Design. The study is retrospective with updated information on present performance. Results. Since 2001, a total of 11 Greenlandic patients living in Greenland have been treated with CI, 7 children and 4 adults. Of these children, 4 use oral communication only and are full-time CI-users, 2 with full-time use of CI are still in progress with use of oral communication, and 1 has not acquired oral language yet, but has started auditory and speech training. Six children attend mainstream public school while one child is in kindergarten. Of the adults, only 1 has achieved good speech perception with full-time use of CI while 3 do not use the CI. Discussion. From an epidemiological point of view, approximately 1–3 children below 6 years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along with the auditory and speech/language outcomes. Finally, we present a suggestion for the future CI treatment and recommendations for an increased effort in the

  19. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  20. A comparison of the effects of four therapy procedures on concentration and responsiveness in people with profound learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Pitcaithly, D; Geelen, N; Buntin, L; Broxholme, S; Ashby, M

    1997-06-01

    This paper is an investigation into the efficacy of four therapeutic treatment procedures increasingly used with people with profound learning disabilities: snoezelen, hand massage/aromatherapy, relaxation, and active therapy (a bouncy castle). In particular, the effects of these procedures on concentration and responsiveness were examined. Eight subjects with profound learning disabilities took part in the study and each subject received each of the treatments. To assess the effects of the treatments, simple concentration tasks were administered and the subjects' responsiveness to each treatment was rated by independent observers. The results suggest that both snoezelen and relaxation had a positive effect on concentration and seemed to be the most enjoyable therapies for clients, whereas hand massage/aromatherapy and active therapy had no or even negative effects on concentration and appeared less enjoyable.

  1. Acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of acute leukemia--report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T; Namiki, S; Kawabata, I

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports an unusual case in which acute lymphocytic leukemia presented acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of the disease. The patient is a 55-year-old woman who complained of left hearing loss of sudden onset. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear at mid and low frequencies. The patient was tentatively diagnosed as idiopathic sudden deafness and admitted for the treatment, but her laboratory data indicated that she was at an advanced stage of leukemia. The patient's hearing loss did not improve subjectively until she deceased 1 year after the admission. The mechanism producing acute hearing loss in leukemic patients is reviewed and discussed, and the importance of differentiating possible underlying diseases before we diagnose idiopathic sudden deafness is stressed.

  2. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  3. Managing Profound Suffering at the End-of-Life: Should expanding access to continuous deep sedation be the priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in addressing and managing profound suffering at the end-of-life, the priority should not be the legalization of physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia in jurisdictions where these practices are not currently available. Rather, concerted efforts should be made by society and the healthcare provider community to expand patient access to proportionate distress-relieving sedation and continuous deep sedation.

  4. Case report: profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Sana; Mazer, C David; Baker, Andrew J; Choi, Mabel; Hare, Gregory M T

    2006-07-01

    Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings, including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case of profound hypotension, refractory to inotropic and vasopressor therapy following an iv infusion of labetalol. Initiation of an iv labetalol infusion resulted in good blood pressure control in a patient suffering from a Fisher grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage with an initial Glascow coma scale of 14/15 and mild hydrocephalus. Progressive deterioration of neurological symptoms and evidence of worsening hydrocephalus preceded the sudden development of profound hypotension (60/35 mmHg) and bradycardia with a minimum heart rate of 40 beats.min(-1). Initial resuscitative efforts included administration of intravascular fluid, hypertonic saline, atropine, adrenalin (more than 10 mg in divided doses) and noradrenalin. These measures restored the blood pressure to 80/45 with a HR of 98 beats.min(-1). Intraoperative placement of an intraventricular drain released cerebrospinal fluid under pressure with an initial intracranial pressure of 15 cm H(2)O. A combination of adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine and vasopressin infusions were required to restore the blood pressure to 130/65 mmHg after an additional two hours. All inotropic and vasopressor support was weaned off after the 14th hr (about two drug half-lives). The patient was awake and responsive the following day, with no obvious neurological consequences. No evidence of neurological injury, drug administration error or myocardial dysfunction was documented. The episode of profound hypotension which occurred after initiating a labetolol infusion required maximal combined vasopressor therapy to restore the blood pressure suggesting that this patient demonstrated an extreme sensitivity to labetalol. Combination therapy with adrenergic and nonadrenergic agonists may be required for optimal treatment

  5. Through the Looking Glass: What Happens When an Evaluator's Program Is Evaluated and Degrees of Strangeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan G.; Baillie, Lynne E.

    1997-01-01

    Two articles present differing points of view on the evaluation of the development of a teacher education program. "Through the Looking Glass..." describes what happens when an evaluator becomes the evaluation client, and "Degrees of Strangeness" reports on the evaluator's findings and opinions. (SLD)

  6. What Really Happened in Northern Ireland’s Counterinsurgency: Revision and Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Kenya , Oman, Borneo, and Malaya, it is puzzling to confront the fact of how long it took to implement the proper tactics in Northern Ireland of the...Happened in Northern Ireland’s Counterinsurgency When the English monarchy under Henry VIII broke with the Pope and Roman Catholicism and established

  7. 45 CFR 261.56 - What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care arrangements are unavailable. (2) Refusal to work when an acceptable form of child care is... child care? 261.56 Section 261.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY....56 What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (a)(1) If the individual is a single...

  8. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. Methods: In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these

  9. What Happens to Animals during Hurricanes? Teachable Moments with Extreme Weather and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marti

    2006-01-01

    Students are concerned about what happens to the animals in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunami. They have remarkable compassion for animals. Students want to know if dolphins, manatees, and sea turtles survive. Furthermore, they want to know what they can do to help. Hence, a variety of teachable…

  10. 31 CFR 363.41 - What happens if an ACH payment is returned to Public Debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... returned to Public Debt? 363.41 Section 363.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT... TreasuryDirect § 363.41 What happens if an ACH payment is returned to Public Debt? We will notify you...

  11. What Happened during the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) drew to a close at the end of 2014. People ask: What happened? In broad brushstrokes, the author describes activities of the DESD in the formal and nonformal education sector of the education community. The author also identifies some enablers and barriers to advancing…

  12. 43 CFR 44.54 - What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution legislation? 44.54 Section 44.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Distributes Payments § 44.54 What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation? (a) If a State repeals or amends distribution legislation, the State must immediately notify the Department in...

  13. What Happened Next? Making and Using an Interactive DVD Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluman, Jonny

    2013-01-01

    In this article Jonny Sluman describes how he adapted an interactive DVD quiz game at a Christmas family get-together into an exciting, creative science activity to teach his students. The rounds included: a "quick fire" question round, a "what happened next" round, a music round, and a "spot the difference" round.…

  14. "Do You Teach Them Anything?" What Really Happens in a Montessori Toddler Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist" (Montessori, 1967, p. 283). Montessori Toddler teachers spend a great amount of time preparing and perfecting their environments to allow and to encourage learning to happen. The teachers are constantly adjusting and…

  15. How neutrinos get mass and what other things may happen besides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I address the theoretical issue of why new physics is required to obtain a nonzero neutrino mass. I then discuss what other things may happen besides neutrino oscillations. In particular I consider a possible new scenario of leptogenesis in -parity nonconserving supersymmetry.

  16. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  17. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Performance Testing ...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Model Rule—Performance...

  19. How Do We Make Inclusive Education Happen When Exclusion Is a Political Predisposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Convening a conference under the banner: Making Inclusion Happen, reminds us that the struggle for disabled people's rights to the minimum expectations of citizenship; access to education, work, housing, health care, civic connection remains urgent. Notwithstanding the hard fought for United Nations, human rights charters and national…

  20. 45 CFR 681.11 - What happens once an answer is filed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens once an answer is filed? 681.11 Section 681.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Following Service of A Complaint § 681.11...

  1. 45 CFR 681.10 - What happens if a defendant fails to file an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if a defendant fails to file an answer? 681.10 Section 681.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Following Service of A...

  2. 45 CFR 681.38 - What happens if an initial decision is appealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if an initial decision is appealed? 681.38 Section 681.38 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.38 What...

  3. 45 CFR 681.5 - What happens if program fraud is suspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if program fraud is suspected? 681.5 Section 681.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Leading to Issuance of A Complaint § 681.5...

  4. 31 CFR 355.6 - What happens if the presenting bank breaches its warranty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if the presenting bank breaches its warranty? 355.6 Section 355.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS...

  5. 50 CFR 23.21 - What happens if a country enters a reservation for a species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reservation for a species? 23.21 Section 23.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.21 What happens if a country enters a reservation for a species? (a) Purpose. CITES is not subject to general...

  6. 47 CFR 1.10014 - What happens after officially filing my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE International Bureau Filing System § 1.10014 What happens after officially filing my application? (a) We give you an IBFS file number. (b) We electronically route your application to an analyst who... online through the IBFS system. (h) Issuing and Mailing Licenses for Granted Applications. Not all...

  7. 41 CFR 102-38.280 - What happens when there is no award?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens when there is no award? 102-38.280 Section 102-38.280 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL...

  8. Preferred low- and high-frequency compression ratios among hearing aid users with moderately severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Dyrlund, Ole; Carter, Lyndal; Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the low- and high-frequency compression ratios of a fast-acting device that were preferred by people with moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Three compression ratios (1:1, 1.8:1, and 3:1) were combined in the low and high frequencies to produce nine schemes that were evaluated pair-wise for three weeks in the field using an adaptive procedure. The evaluation was performed by 21 experienced hearing aid users with a moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Diaries and an exit interview were used to monitor preferences. Generally, the subjects preferred lower compression ratios than are typically prescribed, especially in the low frequencies. Specifically, 11 subjects preferred linear amplification in the low frequencies, and 14 subjects preferred more compression in the high than in the low frequencies. Preferences could not be predicted from audiometric data, onset of loss, or past experience with amplification. The data suggest that clients with moderately severe to profound hearing loss should be fitted with low-frequency compression ratios in the range 1:1 to 2:1 and that fine-tuning is essential.

  9. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  10. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. "It Should Have Been Happening to Me": The Psychosocial Issues Older Caregiving Mothers Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Pretter, Sheindy; Carrero, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer is an event of significant importance to family functioning. The present analysis reports on an understudied group profoundly affected by this health event: older mothers caring for an adult child with cancer. As part of a study of breast cancer survivors and their family caregivers, a subsample (N = 13) of older…

  12. 7 CFR 15f.11 - Where must I file a hearing request and what happens to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where must I file a hearing request and what happens to it? 15f.11 Section 15f.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER... must I file a hearing request and what happens to it? If you desire a hearing, you must file a request...

  13. 20 CFR 408.404 - What happens if you fail to give us the evidence we ask for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if you fail to give us the... BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.404 What happens if you fail to give us the evidence we ask for? (a) You have not yet qualified for SVB. Generally, we...

  14. 20 CFR 404.621 - What happens if I file after the first month I meet the requirements for benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if I file after the first month... Forms Effective Filing Period of Application § 404.621 What happens if I file after the first month I...-sum death payment. An application for a lump-sum death payment must be filed within 2 years after the...

  15. 25 CFR 30.117 - What happens if a Bureau-funded school fails to make AYP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... YEARLY PROGRESS Failure To Make Adequate Yearly Progress § 30.117 What happens if a Bureau-funded school... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a Bureau-funded school fails to make AYP... by entity operating school for the following school year 1st year of failing AYP No status change...

  16. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... INTERIOR EDUCATION ADEQUATE YEARLY PROGRESS Failure To Make Adequate Yearly Progress § 30.125 What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will work...

  17. 5 CFR 839.903 - What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid when my employer corrects my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens to the Social Security taxes... Social Security Taxes § 839.903 What happens to the Social Security taxes I erroneously paid when my... erroneously paid into Social Security will remain to your credit in the Social Security fund. The Social...

  18. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed to...

  19. 45 CFR 287.30 - If an eligible consortium breaks up, what happens to the NEW Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If an eligible consortium breaks up, what happens to the NEW Program grant? 287.30 Section 287.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... eligible consortium breaks up, what happens to the NEW Program grant? (a) If a consortium should break up...

  20. 20 CFR 411.730 - What happens if an alternate participant signed an employment plan with a beneficiary before...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 411.730 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an alternate participant... Vocational Rehabilitation Services § 411.730 What happens if an alternate participant signed an employment...

  1. Reefs happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, R. A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Corals and coral reefs confront us with a variety of paradoxes in terms of their responses to global change. The species appear evolutionarily long-lived and stable, and combinations of organisms recur and persist at levels ranging from endosymbiosis to palaeocommunity structure. The fact that these organisms and communities occupy a seemingly precarious environment near the common interface of land, sea, and air suggests that they possess powerful adaptive and acclimative mechanisms, and the special characteristics associated with their range of reproductive options, their modular (colonial) form, and their symbiotic associations provide multiple pathways for adaptation. At the same time, they are widely considered to be vulnerable to anthropogenic stresses, and to show signs of deterioration on a global scale. Interest in corals is further enhanced by their unique position with regard to the carbon cycle, with inorganic and organic carbon metabolisms that are of comparable magnitudes. The durable limestone structures they create modify the shallow-water environment, and their mineral skeletons preserve in their isotopic, chemical, and structural characteristics records of past environmental conditions. Whether as survivors, recorders, or victims, their relationship to global change is fascinating and instructive. This paper provides a general background and context for the specific papers that make up this topical issue of Global Change Biology. ?? 1996 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  2. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  3. Nothing Happens Until it Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors discuss the new technologies and challenges of data security, data mining and data management. Topics include clustering algorithms in radiobiology and DNA damage quantification; data mining for searching genomic information; data management in the semantic web; and how...... fragile data security can be when the system architecture, authorization and validation is founded on a personal identification number (PIN). (Imprint: Novinka)...

  4. Bilateral Entry and Release of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Profound Apoptosis of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinrong; Hill, Terence E.; Morimoto, Chikao; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, which exclusively infects and releases through the apical route, this virus can do so through either side of polarized Calu-3 cells. Infection results in profound apoptosis within 24 h irrespective of its production of titers that are lower than those of SARS-CoV. Together, our results provide new insights into the dissemination and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and may indicate that the virus differs markedly from SARS-CoV. PMID:23824802

  5. Neuro-Oncology Branch Appointment - what happens at the clinical center | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Happens When I Get To The Clinical Center at NIH? 1. Visit the Admissions Department Registering is the first step to being evaluated by the Brain Tumor Clinic. Visit Admissions to get registered as a patient. They will ask you for your contact information and provide you with a patient identification number. 2. Proceed to the NOB Clinic Proceed to the Brain Tumor Clinic on the 13th floor.

  6. Software startuppers took the medias paycheck Medias fightback happens through startup culture and abstraction shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Alapekkala, Outi; Risku, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of old print media and journalism happened when the Internet, its solutions, services and communities became mature and mobile devices reached the market. The reader abandoned printed dailies for free and mobile access to information. The business of core industries of the early Internet and mobile communication, the mobile network manufacturers and operators are also in stagnation and decline. Therefore these industries may have similar interests to improve or even restructure t...

  7. Why things happen – Developing the critical realist view of causal mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mingers, John; Standing, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Events happen within the organizational world not by chance but for reasons. It is surely the task of management research to try to explain why these events occur. This requires us to understand the nature of causality but, in general, this is seldom discussed in the management or IS literature. The standard, positivist view underlying statistical analysis is the Humean one of constant conjunctions of events leading to universal laws. Against this, many constructivists find the whole idea of ...

  8. What's Happening off the Field? A Report on Higher Education in the Big 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakemacher, Heather; Markley, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Big 12 is famous for its athletics--and well it should be. But what about the rest of the conference--the academic part? The Big 12's website says, "Performance in the classroom is just as important as accolades on the field." So what's happening off the field? How do the Big 12 schools fare when it comes to cost and quality? The…

  9. Demystifying internalization and socialization: linking conceptions of how development happens to organismic-developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeff, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development.

  10. The rhetoric of patient and family centred care: an institutional ethnography into what actually happens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet M

    2015-03-01

    This paper uses Dorothy Smith's institutional ethnography to examine technological advances designed to improve nurses' work. The analysis interrogates how nurses' work is coordinated, in disquieting ways, in an apparent commitment to 'patient and family centred care'. The discussion is part of a larger programme of research that focuses ethnographic attention on nurses' activating technological managerial improvement strategies. This discussion paper describes suboptimal hospital experiences to show how they were organized. The institutional ethnographic analysis addresses discrepancies that arise between the different organizational standpoints. Overall the discussion focuses on how institutional ethnographers enquire into people's everyday activities to discover and make understandable, in the material world, what actually happens that shapes them. Data include observations and interviews with nurses, nurse managers, patients and families. It also includes screenshots of computer fields and other documents being used by nurses. Nursing work is methodically being oriented to interests that undermine nurses' capacity to contribute their knowledgeable activity to intervene in people's health and well-being. Nurses' work is overwhelmed with the imperative to discharge patients. This happens with an ideological construction of patient centred care that obscures what is actually happening. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Navigating Uncertainty: Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Skill, and Confidence in Assessing and Managing Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child’s parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented.

  12. Transient blood-brain barrier permeability following profound temporary global ischemia: an experimental study using /sup 14/C-AIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, J.; Crockard, H.A.; Ross-Russell, R.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of reperfusion after profound incomplete forebrain ischemia on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to a small protein tracer was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The mean cortical blood to brain transfer constant (Ki) for /sup 14/C-amino isobutyric acid (AIB) was significantly greater at 3 and 6 h of reperfusion, 2.5 times the mean values of controls (p less than 0.05) (2.5 microliter g-1 min-1 and 1.0 microliters g-1 min-1 respectively), but had returned to control values after reperfusion for 24 h. Analysis of distribution of Ki values showed that following 15 min and 30 min of profound ischemia, there was a significant increase in transfer of AIB across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after recirculation for up to 6 h, though there was no evidence of protein extravasation as assessed by Evans Blue (EB) dye. After 24 h of reperfusion, the BBB to AIB was restored, and Ki values had returned to control values. It is concluded that following transient global ischemia, the BBB may recover rapidly.

  13. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H sub 2 (15)O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Institute of Medicine, Juelich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 15}O-labeled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H{sub 2}{sup 15}O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients.

  14. Rehabilitation and outcome of severe profound deafness in a group of 16 infants affected by congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Bianchini, Chiara; Arboretti, Rosa; Martini, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the audiological consequences of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) and to evaluate the outcome of rehabilitation with hearing aids and/or cochlear implant (CI), associated with an adequate speech-language therapy. A retrospective review of data was made from a total of 16 infants, affected by severe to profound hearing loss from congenital CMV infection, referred to a tertiary audiological center for rehabilitation. Audiological evaluation was performed using behavioral audiometry, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and/or electrocochleography (ECochG). Of the 16 children (median age at diagnosis of hearing loss: 21.33 +/- 0.7 months) with CMV hearing loss, 14 were affected by profound bilateral hearing loss and received a CI, while 2 were affected by bilateral severe hearing loss and received hearing aids. Cochlear implants can provide useful speech comprehension to patients with CMV-related deafness, even if language development is lower when compared to a group of Connexin (Cx) 26+ cochlear-implanted children (eight subjects), matched for age. Congenital CMV infection still represents a serious clinical condition, as well as an important cause of hearing loss in children. More studies have claimed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of damage and thus to ensure a better therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, in cases of CMV-deafened babies, the overall outcome of cochlear implantation is good.

  15. Effects of early identification and intervention on language development in Japanese children with prelingual severe to profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Norio; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omori, Kana; Sugaya, Akiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Early identification and intervention for prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss is supposed to reduce the delay in language development. Many countries have implemented early detection and hearing intervention and conducted regional universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, the benefits of UNHS in later childhood have not yet been confirmed, although language development at school age has a lifelong impact on children's future. Our Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders project attempted to reveal the effects of UNHS and those of early intervention on the development of verbal communication in Japanese children. In this study, 319 children with prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 4 to 10 years of age, were evaluated with the Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development used as an objective variable. Participation in UNHS and early intervention were used as explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated after adjusting several confounding factors with use of logistic regression analysis. In addition, caregivers' answers were obtained by a questionnaire, and the process of diagnosis with and without UNHS was analyzed retrospectively. Early intervention was significantly associated with better language development (AOR, 3.23; p identification leads directly to early intervention.

  16. Exploring the motor development of young children with possible severe to profound cognitive and motor developmental delay by means of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Aim: Early motor stimulation may be valuable for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however limited knowledge of their typical motor developmental trajectory may be currently restraining the efficacy and specificity of this intervention. Research on young children

  17. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 25 CFR 115.818 - What happens if an Indian adult does not cash his or her per capita check?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an Indian adult does not cash his or her... Funds § 115.818 What happens if an Indian adult does not cash his or her per capita check? (a) If an Indian adult does not cash his or her per capita check within twelve (12) months of the date the check...

  19. A Patient with Interstitial 5q21 Deletion, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Dysmorphic Features, and Profound Neurologic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, results from germ line mutation or deletion of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC gene on chromosome 5q21. Patients with FAP suffer from multiple polyps mainly at the colorectal region as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which has propensity to transform into carcinoma. FAP has also been well described in association with various syndromic extra-gastrointestinal manifestations. Less commonly, patients with FAP present with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction and developmental delay, though the reason for the association is unclear. Herein, we report the case of a male patient born with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, 46,XY, del(5 (q14q23, presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, profound developmental delay, cognitive dysfunction, and multiple congenital anomalies including talipes equinovarus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facial features.

  20. Profound expressive language impairment in low functioning children with autism: an investigation of syntactic awareness using a computerised learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as 'monkey flies'. The game progressed in levels from 2 to 4 word sequences, contingent upon success at each stage. Although performance was highly variable across participants, a detailed review of their learning profiles suggested that no child lacked syntactic awareness and that elementary syntactic control in a non-speech domain was superior to that manifest in their spoken language. The reasons for production failures at the level of speech in children with autism are discussed.

  1. Parental adaptation to out-of-home placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified as either inducing emotional stress (i.e., guilt, sadness, fear and worry, anger and frustration, and uncertainty) or relief. Parental appraisals of responses to placement by children, extended family, and friends were identified as factors affecting the parents' adaptation to placement. The primary coping methods used by parents to decrease emotional stress and increase relief consisted of reappraisals regarding the necessity of placement, involvement in the child's life, psychotherapy, and the passage of time.

  2. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...... input signals. The application of some popular second order sliding mode controllers and their smooth counterparts are analyzed and experimentally verified. The controllers are considered for output feedback control and compared with a conventional PI control approach. The controllers under...... consideration are applied for position tracking control of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive exhibiting strong variations in inertia- and gravitational loads, and furthermore suffer from profound valve dynamics. Results demonstrate that both the twisting- and super twisting algorithms may be successfully applied...

  3. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  4. Parents' experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-03-01

    There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.

  5. Patients' diverse beliefs about what happens at the time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S; Cortez, Josie D; Hazuda, Helen P

    2012-02-01

    Beliefs about what happens at the time of death surely affect a patient's whole dying experience and could help guide end-of-life care. Yet virtually no research describes those beliefs. This exploratory study begins the descriptive process. Assuming culture is key, we interviewed 26 Mexican-American (MA), 18 Euro-American (EA), and 14 African-American (AA) inpatients about their beliefs concerning what happens at the time of death. One belief, that death separates the dead from the living, was widespread. Majorities of all 3 ethnic group samples and of 5 of the 6 gender subsamples expressed this belief, saying the dead "go" or "leave" from this life. Other beliefs differed by ethnic group or gender. For example, more EAs (50%) than others said death is a momentary event, and more MAs (35%) than others said death involves "being taken" by an external force (always God or Jesus). Furthermore, considerably more EA women (45%) than others said some senses persist after death. In contrast, the physiologic signs that participants cited as defining the exact time of death varied from individual to individual with no ethnic or gender pattern, and no one sign predominated. A few beliefs about what happens at the time of death may characterize Americans in general; many other beliefs may characterize only certain ethnic groups, genders, or individuals. To identify such beliefs and to use them to guide end-of-life care, hospitalists and other health professionals may have to elicit them directly from patients or survivors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  6. The effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants for severe-to-profound deafness in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoonhoven, Jelmer; Sparreboom, Marloes; van Zanten, Bert G A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Dreschler, Wouter A; Grolman, Wilko; Maat, Bert

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation compared with unilateral cochlear implantation or bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss. In 2007, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the U.K. conducted a systematic review on cochlear implantation. This study forms an update of the adult part of the NICE review. The electronic databases MEDLINE and Embase were searched for English language studies published between October 2006 and March 2011. Studies were included that compared bilateral cochlear implantation with unilateral cochlear implantation and/or with bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Speech perception in quiet and in noise, sound localization and lateralization, speech production, health-related quality of life, and functional outcomes were analyzed. Data extraction forms were used to describe study characteristics and the level of evidence. The effect size was calculated to compare different outcome measures. Pooling of data was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the studies. As in the NICE review, the level of evidence of the included studies was low, although some of the additional studies showed less risk of bias. All studies showed a significant bilateral benefit in localization over unilateral cochlear implantation. Bilateral cochlear implants were beneficial for speech perception in noise under certain conditions and several self-reported measures. Most speech perception in quiet outcomes did not show a bilateral benefit. The current review provides additional evidence in favor of bilateral cochlear implantation, even in complex listening situations.

  7. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Patrizia; Giuglietti, Marta; Baglioni, Antonella; Verdolini, Norma; Murgia, Nicola; Piccirilli, Massimo; Elisei, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite adequate therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Drug-resistant epilepsy is even more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability. As a result, several non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to improve quality of life in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. A number of studies have demonstrated that music can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges. In particular, Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy as well. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on seizure frequency in institutionalized epileptic subjects with profound/severe intellectual disability. Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 21.6 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a cross-over design; they listened to Mozart K448 once a day for six months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the listening period and both baseline and control periods. During the music period, none of the patients worsened in seizure frequency; one patient was seizure-free, five had a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and the remaining showed minimal (N=2) or no difference (N=4). The average seizure reduction compared to the baseline was 20.5%. Our results are discussed in relation to data in the literature considering differences in protocol investigation. Music may be considered a useful approach as add-on therapy in some subjects with profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy and can provide a new option for clinicians to consider, but further large sample, multicenter studies are needed to better understand the characteristics of responders and non-responders to this type of non

  8. A gene responsible for profound congenital nonsyndromal recessive deafness maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, T.B.; Liang, Y.; Asher, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive deafness is the most common form of human hereditary hearing loss. Two percent of the 2,185 residents of Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia have profound congenital neurosensory nonsyndromal hereditary deafness due to a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation (NARD1). Families, identified through children with profound congenital deafness having hearing parents, give the expected 25% deaf progeny when corrected for ascertainment bias. Congenitally deaf individuals from Bengkala show no response to pure tone audiological examination. Obligate heterozygotes for autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala have normal or borderline normal hearing. A chromosomal location for NARD1 was assigned directly using a linkage strategy that combines allele-frequency dependent homozygosity mapping (AHM) followed by an analysis of historical recombinants to position NARD1 relative to flanking markers. Thirteen deaf Bengkala villagers of hearing parents were typed initially for 148 STRPs distributed across the human genome and a cluster of tightly linked 17p markers with a significantly higher number of homozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium were identified. NARD1 maps closest to STRPs for D17S261 (Mfd41) and D17S805 (AFM234ta1) that are 3.2 cM apart. Recombinant genotypes for the flanking markers, D17S122 (VAW409) and D17S783 (AFM026vh7), in individuals homozygous for NARD1 place NARD1 in a 5.3 cM interval of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 on a refined 17p-17q12 genetic map.

  9. HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not inflammatory cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of accelerated liver damage in subjects coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that ongoing chronic liver inflammation is responsible for the liver injury in HCV-infected patients. We aimed to determine whether HIV-1 coinfection altered intrahepatic inflammatory profiles in HCV infection, thereby hastening liver damage. We used a real-time RT-PCR-based array to comparatively analyze intrahepatic inflammation gene profiles in liver biopsy specimens from HCV-infected (n = 16, HCV/HIV-1-coinfected (n = 8 and uninfected (n = 8 individuals. We then used human hepatocytes to study the molecular mechanisms underlying alternations of the inflammatory profiles. Compared with uninfected individuals, HCV infection and HCV/HIV-1 coinfection markedly altered expression of 59.5% and 50.0% of 84 inflammation-related genes tested, respectively. Among these genes affected, HCV infection up-regulated the expression of 24 genes and down-regulated the expression of 26 genes, whereas HCV/HIV-1 coinfection up-regulated the expression of 21 genes and down-regulated the expression of 21 genes. Compared with HCV infection, HCV/HIV-1 coinfection did not dramatically affect intrahepatic gene expression profiles of cytokines and their receptors, but profoundly altered expression of several chemokine genes including up-regulation of the CXCR3-associated chemokines. Human hepatocytes produced these chemokines in response to virus-related microbial translocation, viral protein stimulation, and antiviral immune responses.HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects. The altered chemokines may orchestrate the tissue-specific and cell-selective trafficking of immune cells and autoimmunity to accelerate liver disease in HCV/HIV-1 coinfection.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  11. PEDAGOGY OF THE HAPPENING: A NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR REGIONALMUSIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sossa Santos

    2010-02-01

    It assumes the Pedagogy of the happening, in order to be in continuous search of elements, situations, images and transformation events up to a point where, after a meeting, things might no longer be the same. It talks about hidden (rhizomatic curriculum and flexible planning, open to the unexpected -so as not to be captured amidst the rigid segmentation of the pedagogical mechanism in music-, and also talks about the appropriation of a body-music, a body-sensitivity and movement, a body-pleasure always ready to enjoy the vibrations of the sonorous, and the aesthetic as a true experience.

  12. Happening'id ja disain - visioon kunsti ja elu terviklikkusest / Mari Laanemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanemets, Mari, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Analüüsitakse kunsti ja disaini vahelist suhet 1970. aastatel esile kerkinud uue kunstikäsitluse ja kunstilise tegevuse ümbermõtestamise kontekstis. Mõlemad pidid lepitama inimest reaalsusega - disain elukeskkonda ülendades, õilistades ja happening'id - elu formaalseid struktuure lõhkudes. Ka almanahhi "Kunst ja Kodu" erilisest positsioonist lääne kaasaegse kunsti ja disaini tuvustamisel (toimetajaks 1973. aastast Andres Tolts) ning rühmitusest SOUP 1969 ja nende ideoloogide - Ando Keskküla, Andres Toltsi ja Leonhard Lapini tegevusest ja mõjust

  13. Assimilation and changes in cohort quality revisited: what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, G J

    1995-04-01

    "This article uses the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Public Use Samples of the U.S. census to document what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s and to determine if pre-1980 immigrant flows reached earnings parity with natives. The relative entry wage of successive immigrant cohorts declined by 9% in the 1970s and by an additional 6% in the 1980s. Although the relative wage of immigrants grows by 10% during the first 2 decades after arrival, recent immigrants will earn 15%-20% less than natives throughout much of their working lives." excerpt

  14. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Aline; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5 different data sources. Results show that private equity owners continued and reinforced several strategies that were already put in place before the takeover, including a focus on keeping staffing levels low; the new owners added restructuring, rebranding, and investment strategies such as establishing new companies, where the nursing home chain served as an essential "launch customer."

  15. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas; Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for the relative efficacy of

  16. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  17. Making a difference? A comparison between multi-sensory and regular storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-11-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards

  18. Supporting end of life decision making: Case studies of relational closeness in supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-11-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions. Five people with severe or profound intellectual disability's experiences of supported decision making were examined. This article is particularly focused on one participant's experiences at the end of his life. All five case studies identified that supporters were most effective in providing decision-making support for participants when they were relationally close to the person and had knowledge of the person's life story, particularly in relation to events that demonstrated preference. Findings from this study provide new understandings of supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability and have particular relevance for supporting decision making at the end of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Left ventricular failure produces profound lung remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice: heart failure causes severe lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjie; Guo, Haipeng; Xu, Dachun; Xu, Xin; Wang, Huan; Hu, Xinli; Lu, Zhongbing; Kwak, Dongmin; Xu, Yawei; Gunther, Roland; Huo, Yuqing; Weir, E Kenneth

    2012-06-01

    Chronic left ventricular failure causes pulmonary congestion with increased lung weight and type 2 pulmonary hypertension. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for type 2 pulmonary hypertension and the development of novel treatments for this condition requires a robust experimental animal model and a good understanding of the nature of the resultant pulmonary remodeling. Here we demonstrate that chronic transverse aortic constriction causes massive pulmonary fibrosis and remodeling, as well as type 2 pulmonary hypertension, in mice. Thus, aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure are associated with a ≤5.3-fold increase in lung wet weight and dry weight, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Interestingly, the aortic constriction-induced increase in lung weight was not associated with pulmonary edema but resulted from profound pulmonary remodeling with a dramatic increase in the percentage of fully muscularized lung vessels, marked vascular and lung fibrosis, myofibroblast proliferation, and leukocyte infiltration. The aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction was also associated with right ventricular hypertrophy, increased right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and right atrial hypertrophy. The massive lung fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and pulmonary hypertension in mice after transverse aortic constriction clearly indicate that congestive heart failure also causes severe lung disease. The lung fibrosis and leukocyte infiltration may be important mechanisms in the poor clinical outcome in patients with end-stage heart failure. Thus, the effective treatment of left ventricular failure may require additional efforts to reduce lung fibrosis and the inflammatory response.

  20. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  1. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  2. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  3. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  4. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  5. Reduced lymphocyte longevity and homeostatic proliferation in lamin B receptor-deficient mice results in profound and progressive lymphopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Anne M; de Graaf, Carolyn A; Baldwin, Tracey M; Goradia, Ankita; Collinge, Janelle E; Kile, Benjamin T; Metcalf, Donald; Starr, Robyn; Hilton, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is a highly unusual inner nuclear membrane protein with multiple functions. Reduced levels are associated with decreased neutrophil lobularity, whereas complete absence of LBR results in severe skeletal dysplasia and in utero/perinatal lethality. We describe a mouse pedigree, Lym3, with normal bone marrow and thymic development but profound and progressive lymphopenia particularly within the T cell compartment. This defect arises from a point mutation within the Lbr gene with only trace mutant protein detectable in homozygotes, albeit sufficient for normal development. Reduced T cell homeostatic proliferative potential and life span in vivo were found to contribute to lymphopenia. To investigate the role of LBR in gene silencing in hematopoietic cells, we examined gene expression in wild-type and mutant lymph node CD8 T cells and bone marrow neutrophils. Although LBR deficiency had a very mild impact on gene expression overall, for common genes differentially expressed in both LBR-deficient CD8 T cells and neutrophils, gene upregulation prevailed, supporting a role for LBR in their suppression. In summary, this study demonstrates that LBR deficiency affects not only nuclear architecture but also proliferation, cell viability, and gene expression of hematopoietic cells.

  6. How parents and physicians experience end-of-life decision-making for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal-Schuller, I H; Willems, D L; Ewals, F V P M; van Goudoever, J B; de Vos, M A

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life decisions (EoLD) often concern children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Yet, little is known about how parents and physicians discuss and make these decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate the experiences of the parents and the involved physician during the end-of-life decision-making (EoLDM) process for children with PIMD. In a retrospective, qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the physicians and parents of 14 children with PIMD for whom an EoLD was made within the past two years. A long-lasting relationship appeared to facilitate the EoLDM process, although previous negative healthcare encounters could also lead to distrust. Parents and physicians encountered disagreements during the EoLDM process, but these disagreements could also improve the decision-making process. Most parents, as well as most physicians, considered the parents to be the experts on their child. In making an EoLD, both parents and physicians preferred a shared decision-making approach, although they differed in what they actually meant by this concept. The EoLDM process for children with PIMD can be improved if physicians are more aware of the specific situation and of the roles and expectations of the parents of children with PIMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  8. The nature of affect attunement used by disability support workers interacting with adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, S; Iacono, T

    2014-12-01

    The interactions experienced by adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) with their disability support workers (DSWs) may have a large impact on life quality. However, defining good-quality interaction has presented challenges for this group. It has been suggested that in typically developing infant-mother dyads, the presence of affect attunement may be an indicator of quality. Affect attunement refers to the recasting of one person's affect by another with emphasis. The presence and nature of affect attunement in interactions between 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs were explored in this study. Natural interactions were videorecorded for 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs. The recordings were analysed for the presence and nature of affect attunement incidents, and analysed using descriptive statistics. Affect attunement incidents were observed in 16 of the pairs. The DSW's attunement behaviour was in response to subtle, short duration behaviours of participants with PIMD. These brief moments of connection may be a basis of good-quality interaction. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Peptide vaccination induces profound changes in the immune system in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the immune status of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients is mostly characterized by immunosuppression, there is an accumulation of in vivo (graft-versus-leukemia effect and in vitro (spontaneous remissions after infections data that indicates that CLL might be effectively targeted by T-cell based immunotherapy. Recently, we characterized receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM as a preferential target for immunotherapy of CLL. We also completed a RHAMM-derived peptide vaccination phase I/II clinical trial in CLL. Here, we present a detailed immunological analysis of six CLL patients vaccinated with HLA-A2 restricted RHAMM-derived epitope R3 (ILSLELMKL. Beside effective induction of R3-specific cytotoxic T-cells, peptide vaccination caused profound changes in different T-cell subsets as well as cytokines. We present longitudinal analyses of Th17, CD8+CD103+, CD8+CD137+ and IL-17 producing CD8+ T cells (CD8+IL- -17+ as well as important cytokines involved in regulation of immune response such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-2 and TNF throughout the peptide vaccination period. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 161–167

  11. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.

  12. An overview of research on increasing indices of happiness of people with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G E; Singh, N N; O'Reilly, M F; Oliva, D; Basili, G

    2005-02-04

    This paper was to provide an overview of research studies aimed at increasing indices of happiness of persons with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Computerized and manual searches were carried out to identify the studies published from 1990 to 2004 (i.e., the period during which the issues of quality fo life and happiness in people with disabilities have become more prominent). Twenty-four research studies were identified. They involved the use of six different procedures, that is, structured stimulation sessions, microswitch-based simulation sessions, leisure activities and favourite work tasks or conditions, positive environment or positive behaviour support programmes and mindful caregiving, favourite stimulation automatically delivered on exercise engagement, and snoezelen. Data tended to be positive with increases in the participants' indices of happiness, but some failures also occurred. The outcomes were discussed in relation to (a) methodological issues, such as designs of the studies, length of the intervention, and number of participants, and (b) personal and practical implications of the procedures. Some suggestions for future research (particularly focused on extending evidence and overcoming present methodological weakness) were also examined.

  13. Developing a Sense of Knowing and Acquiring the Skills to Manage Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairments: Mothers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with profound cognitive impairment (PCI are a heterogenous group who often experience frequent and persistent pain. Those people closest to the child are key to assessing their pain. This mixed method study aimed to explore how parents acquire knowledge and skills in assessing and managing their child’s pain. Eight mothers completed a weekly pain diary and were interviewed at weeks 1 and 8. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and the quantitative data using descriptive statistics. Mothers talked of learning through a system of trial and error (“learning to get on with it”; this was accomplished through “learning to know without a rule book or guide”; “learning to be a convincing advocate”; and “learning to endure and to get things right.” Experiential and reflective learning was evident in the way the mothers developed a “sense of knowing” their child’s pain. They drew on embodied knowledge of how their child usually expressed and responded to pain to help make pain-related decisions. Health professionals need to support mothers/parents to develop their knowledge and skills and to gain confidence in pain assessment and they should recognise and act on the mothers’ concerns.

  14. "Everything happens for a reason": children's beliefs about purpose in life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Do children believe that "everything happens for a reason?" That is, do children endorse purpose-based, teleological explanations for significant life events, as they do for social behavior, artifacts, biological properties, and natural kinds? Across three experiments, 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 80), 8- to 10-year-olds (N = 72), and adults (N = 91) chose between teleological and nonteleological accounts of significant life events and judged how helpful those accounts were for understanding an event's cause. Five- to 7-year-olds favored teleological explanations, but this preference diminished with age. Five- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 10-year-olds also found teleological explanations more helpful than did adults. Perceiving purpose in life events may therefore have roots in childhood, potentially reflecting a more general sensitivity to purpose in the social and natural worlds. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. What would have happened if Darwin had known Mendel (or Mendel's work)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzano, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The question posed by the title is usually answered by saying that the "synthesis" between the theory of evolution by natural selection and classical genetics, which took place in 1930s-40s, would have taken place much earlier if Darwin had been aware of Mendel and his work. What is more, it nearly happened: it would have been enough if Darwin had cut the pages of the offprint of Mendel's work that was in his library and read them! Or, if Mendel had come across Darwin in London or paid him a visit at his house in the outskirts! (on occasion of Mendel's trip in 1862 to that city). The aim of the present paper is to provide elements for quite a different answer, based on further historical evidence, especially on Mendel's works, some of which mention Darwins's studies.

  16. Shit happens – a glimpse into males’ mating tactics in a polygynous ungulate - the reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is about the two big "guys", Spot and Mika, and their endeavour to propagate their genes during the mating season 2007. They were 6 and 5 years old weighting 172 and 141 kg before rut, respectively. Together with 23 other males (one 5 yrs, two 4 yrs, three 3 yrs, six 2 yrs and eleven 1 yr old they roamed within a ~15 km2 fenced area competing for access to 87 females. Indeed, the competition was intense and all males present contributed to the dynamic observed. Especially Hot, the heaviest 4 yrs old male weighing 155 kg before rut, played a prominent role - in addition to Spot and Mika, their mating tactics being highly dynamic. However there is no short cut to success - strength have to be coupled with smartness - but shit happens - as we'll see.

  17. Remembering what could have happened: Neural correlates of episodic counterfactual thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brigard, F; Addis, D.R.; Ford, J.H.; Schacter, D.L.; Giovanello, K.S

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that our capacities to remember the past and to imagine what might happen in the future largely depend on the same core brain network that includes the middle temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the lateral temporal cortex. However, the extent to which regions of this core brain network are also responsible for our capacity to think about what could have happened in our past, yet did not occur (i.e., episodic counterfactual thinking), is still unknown. The present study examined this issue. Using a variation of the experimental recombination paradigm (Addis et al., 2009), participants were asked both to remember personal past events and to envision alternative outcomes to such events while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three sets of analyses were performed on the imaging data in order to investigate two related issues. First, a mean-centered spatiotemporal partial least square (PLS) analysis identified a pattern of brain activity across regions of the core network that was common to episodic memory and episodic counterfactual thinking. Second, a non-rotated PLS analysis identified two different patterns of brain activity for likely and unlikely episodic counterfactual thoughts, with the former showing significant overlap with the set of regions engaged during episodic recollection. Finally, a parametric modulation was conducted to explore the differential engagement of brain regions during counterfactual thinking, revealing that areas such as the parahippocampal gyrus and the right hippocampus were modulated by the subjective likelihood of counterfactual simulations. These results suggest that episodic counterfactual thinking engages regions that form the core brain network, and also that the subjective likelihood of our counterfactual thoughts modulates the engagement of different areas within this set of regions. PMID:23376052

  18. Profoundly Expanded T-cell Clones in the Inflamed and Uninflamed Intestine of Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenspleet, M E; Westera, L; Peters, C P; Hakvoort, T B M; Esveldt, R E; Vogels, E; van Kampen, A H C; Baas, F; Buskens, C; Bemelman, W A; D'Haens, G; Ponsioen, C Y; Te Velde, A A; de Vries, N; van den Brink, G R

    2017-07-01

    T cells are key players in the chronic intestinal inflammation that characterises Crohn's disease. Here we aim to map the intestinal T-cell receptor [TCR] repertoire in patients with Crohn's disease, using next-generation sequencing technology to examine the clonality of the T-cell compartment in relation to mucosal inflammation and response to therapy. Biopsies were taken from endoscopically inflamed and uninflamed ileum and colon of 19 patients with Crohn's disease. From this cohort, additional biopsies were taken after 8 weeks of remission induction therapy from eight responders and eight non-responders. Control biopsies from 11 patients without inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] were included. The TCRβ repertoire was analysed by next-generation sequencing of biopsy RNA. Both in Crohn's disease patients and in non-IBD controls, a broad intestinal T-cell repertoire was found, with a considerable part consisting of expanded clones. Clones in Crohn's disease were more expanded [p = 0.008], with the largest clones representing up to as much as 58% of the total repertoire. There was a substantial overlap of the repertoire between inflamed and uninflamed tissue and between ileum and colon. Following therapy, responders showed larger changes in the T-cell repertoire than non-responders, although a considerable part of the repertoire remained unchanged in both groups. The intestinal T-cell repertoire distribution in Crohn's disease is different from that in the normal gut, containing profoundly expanded T-cell clones that take up a large part of the repertoire. The T-cell repertoire is fairly stable regardless of endoscopic mucosal inflammation or response to therapy.

  19. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioenergetics of the heart at high altitude: environmental hypoxia imposes profound transformations on the myocardial process of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, Baltazar D; Marticorena, Emilio

    2002-12-01

    The low concentration of O2 in the thin air at high altitude is undoubtedly the reason for the remarkable modifications in the structure and function of the heart, lung, and blood of humans permanently living under these conditions. The effect of natural hypoxia on the energy metabolism of the cell is however not well understood. Here we study the proces of ATP synthesis in the heart of guinea pigs native to high altitude (4500 m) as compared with those native to sea level. The following are the novel findings of this study. (1) The rates and extents of ATP synthesis in the presence of low concentrations of ADP (<30 microM) are significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. (2) The Hill coefficient, i.e. the degree of cooperativity between the three catalytic sites of the ATP synthase, is lower at high altitude (n = 1.36) than at sea level (n = 1.94). (3) Both, the affinity for ADP and the fractional occupancy of the catalytic sites by ATP, are higher at high altitude than at sea level but the P50, i.e. the concentration of ADP at which 50% of the catalytic sites are filled with ADP and/or ATP, is the same (approximately 74.7 microM). (4) In the physiological range of ADP concentrations, the phosphorylation potential deltaGp is significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. It is concluded that the molecular mechanism of energy transduction is profoundly modified at high altitude in order to readily and efficiently generate ATP in the presence of low concentrations of O2 and ADP.

  2. Odor-Induced Neuronal Rhythms in the Olfactory Bulb Are Profoundly Modified in ob/ob Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelminski, Yan; Magnan, Christophe; Luquet, Serge H; Everard, Amandine; Meunier, Nicolas; Gurden, Hirac; Martin, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing. Therefore, we studied the fate of odor-induced activity in the olfactory bulb in the genetic context of leptin deficiency using the obese ob/ob mice. By means of an odor discrimination task with concomitant local field potential recordings, we showed that ob/ob mice perform better than wild-type (WT) mice in the early stage of the task. This behavioral gain of function was associated in parallel with profound changes in neuronal oscillations in the olfactory bulb. The distribution of the peaks in the gamma frequency range was shifted toward higher frequencies in ob/ob mice compared to WT mice before learning. More notably, beta oscillatory activity, which has been shown previously to be correlated with olfactory discrimination learning, was longer and stronger in expert ob/ob mice after learning. Since oscillations in the olfactory bulb emerge from mitral to granule cell interactions, our results suggest that cellular dynamics in the olfactory bulb are deeply modified in ob/ob mice in the context of olfactory learning.

  3. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A A J; ten Brug, A; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-01-01

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give for challenging behaviour in this group. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the way staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD; and (2) to analyse whether more experienced staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD differently than less experienced staff. In total, 195 direct support staff and an equal number of children and adults with PIMD participated in the study. Direct support staff filled out the Challenging behaviour Attribution Scale (five causal explanatory models of challenging behaviour) to explain challenging behaviour in one individual that they supported. The results show that direct support staff as a whole report the biomedical model as the most plausible explanation for challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD. However, in the present study the mean scores on all models are low. This might indicate that a large number of staff found none of the models particularly useful as possible explanations of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. This could mean that staff have difficulties stating the cause of challenging behaviour in this group. Another possible explanation could be that there is little scientific knowledge about causing and maintaining factors of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. It could also mean that staff have additional explanations for challenging behaviour in this target group that are not mentioned in the instrument used. Future research should address these issues. No differences were found between more experienced and less experienced direct support staff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  5. Att Tolka Barns Signaler: Gravt utvecklingsstorda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation (To Interpret Childrens' Signals: Play and Communication in Profoundly Mentally Retarded and Multiply Handicapped Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane

    Written in Swedish with an English-language summary, this report describes a study which examined the interaction between mothers or caregivers and their children with profound mental retardation and multiple disabilities, particularly looking at the function of play in communicative interaction. The six children all had five or six handicaps in…

  6. Physical health issues in adults with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities : A systematic review of cross-sectional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmeren, van Dinette; van der Schans, C. P.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, H. A.; Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; Waninge, A.

    BackgroundPeople with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) encounter several risk factors associated with higher mortality rates. They are also likely to experience a cluster of health problems related to the severe brain damage/dysfunction. In order to earlier detect

  7. Supporting Children with Severe-to-Profound Learning Difficulties and Complex Communication Needs to Make Their Views Known: Observation Tools and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathead, Scot; Yates, Rhiannon; Hill, Vivian; Kenny, Lorcan; Croydon, Abigail; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    All children have the right to shape decisions that influence their lives. Yet, children with severe-to-profound intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs are often marginalized from this process. Here, we examined the utility of a set of tools incorporating ethnographic and structured observational methods with three such…

  8. Look closer : The alertness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during multi-sensory storytelling, a time sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the

  9. A good read : A study into the use and effects of multi-sensory storytelling; a storytelling method for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brug, Annet

    2015-01-01

    In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the

  10. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility : A pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention.

  11. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  12. The use of a Multisensory Environment for Assessment of Sensory Abilities and Preferences in Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla; Schuivens, Evelyne

    Background To offer appropriate activities within the curriculum for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is a challenge. An important determinant of the adequacy of an activity is whether teachers have detailed and specific knowledge about the sensory abilities and

  13. Feasibility, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…

  14. Becoming Aware of What You Know or Need to Know: Gathering Client and Context Characteristics in Day Services for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, C.; Hiemstra, S. J.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with profound and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are dependent on staff to be sufficiently knowledgeable as to provide them with appropriate day services. One important determinant of the appropriateness and adequacy of a day support program is the level to which staff have detailed and specific knowledge about the functional abilities and…

  15. Supporting End of Life Decision Making: Case Studies of Relational Closeness in Supported Decision Making for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions.…

  16. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  17. Relabelling Behaviour. The Effects of Psycho-Education on the Perceived Severity and Causes of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…

  18. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  19. Parents' Experiences of Collaborating with Professionals in the Support of Their Child with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L. G.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. Method: A…

  20. Effects of Inservice Teacher Training on Correct Implementation of Assessment and Instructional Procedures for Teachers of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Erin L.; Morgan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A multicomponent training package (live training, video modeling, role playing, and feedback) was used to train teachers to conduct assessment and to instruct students with profound multiple disabilities. Phase 1 of the study involved training seven teachers to conduct assessment in three areas: (a) preference assessment (i.e., identification of…

  1. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  2. Learn and Apply: Using Multi-Sensory Storytelling to Gather Knowledge about Preferences and Abilities of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities--Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead…

  3. Multi-Sensory Rooms: Comparing Effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference Environment on the Behavior of Adults with Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N = 27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were…

  4. The Tell-Tale: What Do Heart Rate; Skin Temperature and Skin Conductance Reveal about Emotions of People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2012-01-01

    Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement…

  5. Specific needs of families of young adults with profound intellectual disability during and after transition to adulthood: What are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present

  6. Development, Validation and Application of a Modified Arabic Translation of the What Is Happening in This Class? (WIHIC) Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Cheri; Fraser, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development, translation, validation and application of a modified Arabic version of a modified form of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire. When parallel Arabic and English versions of this questionnaire were field tested with a sample of 763 college students in 82 classes, the WIHIC exhibited sound…

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA? 102-85.205 Section 102-85.205 Public...

  8. 41 CFR 102-73.40 - What happens if the dollar value of the project exceeds the prospectus threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dollar value of the project exceeds the prospectus threshold? 102-73.40 Section 102-73.40 Public... § 102-73.40 What happens if the dollar value of the project exceeds the prospectus threshold? Projects require approval by the Senate and the House of Representatives if the dollar value of a project exceeds...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1695 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1695 Section 60.1695 Protection of... Requirements § 60.1695 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1220 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1220 Section 60.1220 Protection of Environment... Emission Limits § 60.1220 What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and... waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or malfunction must...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15150 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15150 Section 62.15150 Protection of... § 62.15150 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.170 - What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition? 102-75.170 Section 102-75.170 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL...

  13. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or...

  14. "It Happened in Seconds" Firefighter Burn Prevention Program: Evaluation of a "Train the Trainer" Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Held, Jenny M; Hollowed, Kathleen A; Woods, Jason; Holmes, James H

    2016-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 100 firefighter fatalities and tens of thousands of injuries in the United States. 'It Happened in Seconds' is a firefighter burn injury awareness program offered to firefighters nationwide. The course focuses on situational awareness, personal protective equipment, and burn injury prevention. In order to create more instructors, a 'Train the Trainer' instructor course was developed to prepare experienced firefighters and healthcare providers from around the United States to teach firefighters in their respective communities. This study evaluates trainees' perception of the instructor course. Three instructor courses were held in a period between November 2013 and January 2015. Trainees were asked to complete both precourse/postcourse assessments and provide demographics. In both surveys, trainees rated their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention and their awareness about firefighter-specific burn issues using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = none and 5 = high). The postassessment asked if trainees thought the course should be mandatory for all firefighters. Pretest and post-test scores were compared using a Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A total of 140 experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals completed the Train the Trainer course. The average age was 40 ± 9 years, and 41 were women and 99 men. The average trainee had 13.6 ± 9 years experience in his or her respective job and 11 ± 9 years experience in burn care. Trainees reported a significant increase in their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention (2.9/5 precourse vs. 4.5/5 postcourse, P firefighter-specific burn issues (3.2 precourse vs. 4.4 postcourse, P firefighters. This study showed that experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals thought that the course significantly improved their awareness level of issues specific to firefighter burn injury as well as their confidence in teaching these concepts to firefighters

  15. The relationship between challenging behaviours, mood and interest/pleasure in adults with severe and profound intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A M; Visconti, K J; Csorba, J; Radvanyi, K; Rojahn, J

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether current mood and interest/pleasure ratings in adults with moderate to profound intellectual disabilities were predictive of challenging behaviour [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), aggressive/destructive behaviour and stereotypic behaviour] and vice versa. In this combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study, staff members of a Hungarian residential facility completed translated versions of the Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S), the Challenging Behaviour Interview (CBI) and the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire-Short Form (MIPQ-S) for 50 participants at two time points, approximately 4 to 5 months apart. Bivariate correlations from data concurrently assessed at Time-1 showed significant linear relationships between the SIB (both frequency and severity scores) and Interest/Pleasure sub-scales, and the Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour (severity scores) and the MIPQ-S Mood sub-scales (unadjusted for multiple correlations). All of these effects were found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Multiple regression analyses revealed that (1) low interest/pleasure assessed at Time-1 predicted high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-2. (2) Interest/pleasure was not predictive of aggressive or stereotypic behaviour. (3) Mood at Time-1 did not predict any of the three types of behaviour problems at Time-2. (4) In reverse, high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-1 predicted low interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. (5) Surprisingly, frequent aggressive/destructive behaviour predicted high interest/pleasure. (6) Stereotypic behaviour scores at Time-1 did not predict interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. Again, all of these effects were only found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Hungarian versions of all three questionnaires had generally satisfactory outcomes. The fact that increasingly frequent and severe SIB was predicted by declining

  16. A doctor of the highest caliber treats an illness before it happens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    "A doctor of the highest caliber treats an illness before it happens," a seemingly antiquated doctrine in traditional Chinese medicine, is enjoying surging popularity among practitioners in urban China and the United States today. In this essay, I examine how the meanings and contours of traditional Chinese medicine have shifted in recent decades as it is molded into a "preventive medicine" through translocal encounters. From the 1960s and the early 1970s, the emphasis China's socialist health care placed on preventive health among the rural poor shaped the practice of Chinese herbal medicine and especially acupuncture. This version of preventive medicine was also exported to the Third World, which China strove to champion. Since the end of the Cold War and especially during the 1990s, as China strives to "get on track with the world" (specifically, affluent nation-states, especially in North America and the European Union), traditional Chinese medicine has been rapidly commodified and reinvented as a new kind of preventive medicine tailored for cosmopolitan, middle-class lifestyles. The emergence of this radically new preventive medicine resuscitates certain stories of antiquity and continuity, emphasizing that traditional Chinese medicine has always been "preventive" while obliterating recent memories of the proletariat world and its preventive medicine.

  17. Making Nothing Happen: Yeats, Heidegger, Pessoa, and the Emergence of Post-Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Corby

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Through close readings of the work of two major poets of the twentieth century—W.B. Yeats and Fernando Pessoa—this paper identifies and attempts to make sense of an important shift in European modernism away from a broadly Romantic aesthetic toward what might be called “post-Romanticism.” Taking its cue from W.H. Auden’s “In Memory of W.B. Yeats,” where having stated that “poetry makes nothing happen” he asserts that it survives as “a way of happening,” and drawing on the philosophy of Heidegger and Jean-Luc Nancy, this paper argues that this shift from Romanticism to post-Romanticism hinges on a deep metaphysical reconceptualization of poetry understood as poiesis. In light of this reassessment of the aesthetics and philosophical affinities of poetic modernism, it is argued that post-Romanticism should be understood as offering a modest, salutary, phenomenological re-acquaintance with our involvement with the everyday world, in sharp contrast to the transcendental ambitions of the Romantic aesthetic that preceded it.

  18. How decisions happen: focal points and blind spots in interdependent decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Chou, Eileen Y

    2014-03-01

    Decision makers often simplify decision problems by ignoring readily available information. The current multimethod research investigated which types of information about interdependence situations are psychologically prominent to decision makers and which tend to go unnoticed. Study 1 used eye-tracking measures to investigate how decision makers allocate their attention in interdependence situations and revealed that individuals fixated on mutual cooperation earlier and longer as compared with alternative combinations of strategies and outcomes. In addition, participants' behavioral cooperation was consistent with their attention allocation. Study 2 introduced a novel information-search paradigm: Participants exchanged yes/no questions and answers to discover which of 25 different games their counterpart chose. Analyzing the contents of participants' questions showed that, consistent with Study 1, participants focused primarily on desirable outcomes and symmetric behavioral choices. Study 3 revealed that outcome desirability is a robust basis of psychological prominence across different types of social relations; in contrast, the psychological prominence of symmetry was moderated by the nature of social relations. Study 4 revealed that whether different bases of psychological prominence directed individuals' attention to the same aspects of the decision-making task moderated the effect of information availability on decision latency and cooperation rates. Taken together, these findings contribute to the mapping of bounded rationality, demonstrate how people think about their interdependence, and enhance our understanding of how decisions happen. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Learning to make things happen: Infants' observational learning of social and physical causal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-10-01

    Infants learn about cause and effect through hands-on experience; however, they also can learn about causality simply from observation. Such observational causal learning is a central mechanism by which infants learn from and about other people. Across three experiments, we tested infants' observational causal learning of both social and physical causal events. Experiment 1 assessed infants' learning of a physical event in the absence of visible spatial contact between the causes and effects. Experiment 2 developed a novel paradigm to assess whether infants could learn about a social causal event from third-party observation of a social interaction between two people. Experiment 3 compared learning of physical and social events when the outcomes occurred probabilistically (happening some, but not all, of the time). Infants demonstrated significant learning in all three experiments, although learning about probabilistic cause-effect relations was most difficult. These findings about infant observational causal learning have implications for children's rapid nonverbal learning about people, things, and their causal relations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The transformation from custodial to recovery-oriented care: a paradigm shift that needed to happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Park, Malcolm; Connally, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    As custodial mental health services are beginning to adopt a recovery-oriented model of care, it is imperative that successes in the transformation to recovery are captured. The aim of this illustrative case study was to describe the organizational procedure that enabled the systematic transformation of a custodial mental health service to a service with a self-professed recovery orientation as its model of service delivery. One-to-one interviews with key stakeholders and a document analysis were completed to thoroughly describe the transformation of the service. Four major themes arose from the data: (a) "We had this whole paradigm shift that needed to happen;" (b) "Think recovery," the development of a manualized guide; (c) "Stepping out my recovery;" adaptation of the service guide to the secure care context; and (d) developing the culture. The "developing the culture" major theme was subcategorized to consist of (a) the right people, (b) education, (c) reflective learning, and (d) leadership. The themes provided insights to assist mental health nurses to understand the processes involved in systems transformation. However, the major successes of the service, although only recently evaluated, commenced over a decade ago and yet continue to evolve.

  1. Dynamic Response of Rub Caused by a Shedding Annular Component Happening in a Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rub caused by a shedding annular component is a severe fault happening in a steam turbine, which could result in a long-term wearing effect on the shaft. The shafting abrasion defects shortened the service life and damaged the unit. To identify the fault in time, the dynamic response of rub caused by a shedding annular component was studied as follows: (I a rotor-bearing model was established based on the structural features of certain steam turbines; node-to-node contact constraint and penalty method were utilized to analyze the impact and friction; (II dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system and the shedding component was simulated with the development of rub after the component was dropping; (III fault features were extracted from the vibration near the bearing position by time-domain and frequency-domain analysis. The results indicate that the shedding annular component would not only rotate pivoting its axis but also revolve around the shaft after a period of time. Under the excitation of the contact force, the peak-peak vibration fluctuates greatly. The frequency spectrum contains two main components, that is, the working rotating frequency and revolving frequency. The same phenomenon was observed from the historical data in the field.

  2. Can adults with autism spectrum disorders infer what happened to someone from their emotional response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sarah; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Can adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) infer what happened to someone from their emotional response? Millikan has argued that in everyday life, others' emotions are most commonly used to work out the antecedents of behavior, an ability termed retrodictive mindreading. As those with ASD show difficulties interpreting others' emotions, we predicted that these individuals would have difficulty with retrodictive mindreading. Sixteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome and 19 typically developing adults viewed 21 video clips of people reacting to one of three gifts (chocolate, monopoly money, or a homemade novelty) and then inferred what gift the recipient received and the emotion expressed by that person. Participants' eye movements were recorded while they viewed the videos. Results showed that participants with ASD were only less accurate when inferring who received a chocolate or homemade gift. This difficulty was not due to lack of understanding what emotions were appropriate in response to each gift, as both groups gave consistent gift and emotion inferences significantly above chance (genuine positive for chocolate and feigned positive for homemade). Those with ASD did not look significantly less to the eyes of faces in the videos, and looking to the eyes did not correlate with accuracy on the task. These results suggest that those with ASD are less accurate when retrodicting events involving recognition of genuine and feigned positive emotions, and challenge claims that lack of attention to the eyes causes emotion recognition difficulties in ASD. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Making School Happen: Children-Parent-Teacher Collaboration as A Practice of Citizenship

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    Teresa Sarmento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The exercise of citizenship is today understood as a duty and as a right to be enjoyed within any educational context. Within the school, all of its protagonists are invited to exercise practices of citizenship. No one is excluded; even the less important parties have the right to participate in decisions that, for some reason, may have an influence on their academic life. The citizenship of the child is, thus, a challenge to the changing political, social and educational structures, to the transformation of institutions and to cultural renewal. The existence of harmonious relations between the educational community, the school, the children and the family is dependent on everyone’s ability to understand and communicate with each other. Parents and teachers have made a commitment to a fruitful and unison dialogue on behalf of the quality of education. In this article, we set out from an analysis of the new social realities and of the different meanings assigned to education, to afterwards reflect upon the current educational values and upon the practices that are consistent with those purposes. Citizenship, as well as autonomy, rise, thus, as central concepts, in which each educational community finds reasons for Making School Happen.

  4. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  5. Prevalence of Mutations in Deafness-Causing Genes in Cochlear Implanted Patients with Profound Nonsyndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianfen; Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengguo; Xiao, Yun; Gu, Lintao; Han, Yuechen; Fan, Zhaomin; Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    The mutations of GJB2, SLC26A4, and mtDNA12SrRNA are the most common inherited causes of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) in China, yet previous genetic screenings were mainly carried on patients with moderate-to-profound impairment. We aimed to detect the mutation frequencies in NSHL population within a more specified range of severity. Patients with profound NSHL who had undergone cochlear implantation in the Shandong Provincial Hospital (Shandong, China) were recruited. The majority (n  =  472) were between 0.7 and 6 years old, and the remaining (n  =  63) were between 6 and 70 years old. In total, 115 mutation alleles of the three genes were screened with SNP scan assay. Of the patients, 19.44% (104/535) were found to have GJB2 mutations, and the most common allele was c.235delC, followed by c.299_300delAT and c.109G>A. SLC26A4 mutations were detected in 13.46% patients (72/535), and the most common allele was c.919-2A>G (IVS7-2A>G), followed by c.1174A>T and c.2168A>G. Seven patients (1.31%) carried mutations in mtDNA12SrRNA, with the alleles of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T. We found the allele frequency of c.109G>A (GJB2) was relatively lower in the profound NSHL population in comparison to the moderate-to-profound ones, and the c.1174A>T (SLC26A4) relatively higher. It suggests those mutations may be connected with the degree of deafness, which needs more observations and analyses to support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  6. Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Robbert J; van Geel, Koos; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-08-01

    Lack of published studies on students' practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1-3 using a pre-established interview guide. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. The interview guide was based on questionnaire results; overall response rate for Years 1-3 was 90% (n = 875). Students report a variety of activities to improve their physical examination skills. On average, students devote 20% of self-study time to skill training with Year 1 students practising significantly more than Year 3 students. Practice patterns shift from just-in-time learning to a longitudinal selfdirected approach. Factors influencing this change are assessment methods and simulated/real patients. Learning resources used include textbooks, examination guidelines, scientific articles, the Internet, videos/DVDs and scoring forms from previous OSCEs. Practising skills on fellow students happens at university rooms or at home. Also family and friends were mentioned to help. Simulated/real patients stimulated students to practise of physical examination skills, initially causing confusion and anxiety about skill performance but leading to increased feelings of competence. Difficult or enjoyable skills stimulate students to practise. The strategies students adopt to master physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions are self-directed. OSCE assessment does have influence, but learning takes place also when there is no upcoming assessment. Simulated and real patients provide strong incentives to work on skills. Early patient contacts make students feel more prepared for clinical practice.

  7. Make Change Happen at the Program or Institutional Scale: Converting Community Expertise into Practical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Orr, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    As geoscience and STEM programs address common challenges like increasing the diversity of graduates or implementing active learning pedagogies, it is important to learn from the experiences of others in the community. Individual faculty members embody a wealth of experience on these topics but distilling that experience into practical guidance that has value for a broad audience is not as simple as knowing exactly what one person did. Context is important, not only because activities used in similar contexts are easier to adapt, but also because activities that work across multiple contexts are more robust. The development of any best practices guidance benefits from the engagement of a community. Synthesizing across multiple viewpoints leads to a consensus that builds on the diversity of individual experiences. The Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College has had success generating such resources in geoscience and STEM education. Working with different groups of educators, we have helped develop content around making change happen at the program or institutional levels, increasing the diversity of students graduating in geoscience and STEM, fostering interdisciplinary learning, translating the results of education research into practice, and several others. These resources draw out common practices, situate them in the education research base, and highlight examples of their use in the real world but also communicate the different ways individuals or institutions have adapted these practices for their particular situation. These resources were developed through a group synthesis process involving the contribution of individual or group expertise, a face-to-face meeting of teams working on themes drawn from the contributed work, and asynchronous group revision and review following the meeting. The materials developed via this process provide reliable and adaptable guidance firmly rooted in the community's experience. This presentation will

  8. What happens to patients on antiretroviral therapy who transfer out to another facility?

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    Joseph Kwong-Leung Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long term retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa's rapidly expanding programmes is said to be 60% at 2 years. Many reports from African ART programmes make little mention of patients who are transferred out to another facility, yet Malawi's national figures show a transfer out of 9%. There is no published information about what happens to patients who transfer-out, but this is important because if they transfer-in and stay alive in these other facilities then national retention figures will be better than previously reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of all patients started on ART over a three year period in Mzuzu Central Hospital, North Region, Malawi, those who transferred out were identified from the ART register and master cards. Clinic staff attempted to trace these patients to determine whether they had transferred in to a new ART facility and their outcome status. There were 805 patients (19% of the total cohort who transferred out, of whom 737 (92% were traced as having transferred in to a new ART facility, with a median time of 1.3 months between transferring-out and transferring-in. Survival probability was superior and deaths were lower in the transfer-out patients compared with those who did not transfer. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In Mzuzu Central Hospital, patients who transfer-out constitute a large proportion of patients not retained on ART at their original clinic of registration. Good documentation of transfer-outs and transfer-ins are needed to keep track of national outcomes. Furthermore, the current practice of regarding transfer-outs as being double counted in national cohorts and subtracting this number from the total national registrations to get the number of new patients started on ART is correct.

  9. New speech tests reveal benefit of wide-dynamic-range, fast-acting compression for consonant discrimination in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Josephine E; Moore, Brian C J

    2003-10-01

    Fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) has been shown to give better discrimination of soft speech and shouted speech than linear amplification for moderately hearing-impaired young adults. For severe and profound hearing losses, higher compression ratios are needed. The resultant distortion of the temporal envelope and reduced modulation depth may offset improvements in audibility offered by WDRC. This study compares the effectiveness of WDRC and linear amplification for children with different degrees of hearing loss. Pre-recorded tests of closed-set consonant confusions and open-set word recognition were developed to assess performance. Three groups of subjects (aged 4-14 years) with moderate (51-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB) and profound (91-115 dB) hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids programmed with WDRC or linear amplification. The frequency response was adjusted to match each child's own hearing aid prescription. For each group, stimuli were presented both in quiet and in noise at levels chosen to avoid floor and ceiling effects. Consonant confusion scores for the profound and severe groups combined and for the moderate group were significantly better with WDRC than with linear amplification. Open-set test results showed greater variability. Although mean scores were higher for WDRC than for linear processing, the effects were of marginal statistical significance.

  10. Factors influencing speech and language outcomes of children with early identified severe/profound hearing loss: Clinician-identified facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Anne Nivelles; Purcell, Alison; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Early identification of severe/profound childhood hearing loss (HL) gives these children access to hearing devices and early intervention to facilitate improved speech and language outcomes. Predicting which infants will go on to achieve such outcomes remains difficult. This study describes clinician identified malleable and non-malleable factors that may influence speech and language outcomes for children with severe/profound HL. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six experienced auditory verbal clinicians. A collective case study design was implemented. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using constant comparative analysis. Clinicians identified that, for children with severe/profound HL, early identification, early amplification and commencing auditory-verbal intervention under 6 months of age may facilitate child progress. Possible barriers were living in rural/remote areas, the clinicians' lack of experience and confidence in providing intervention for infants under age 6-months and belonging to a family with a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The results indicate that multiple factors need to be considered by clinicians working with children with HL and their families to determine how each child functions within their own environment and personal contexts, consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Such an approach is likely to empower clinicians to carefully balance potential barriers to, and facilitators of, optimal speech and language outcomes for all children with HL.

  11. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  12. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Florian M; Lorenz, Ingrid; Lorch, Annette; Constable, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85) are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  13. Speech perception, production and intelligibility in French-speaking children with profound hearing loss and early cochlear implantation after congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, L; Ettienne, V; Prang, I; Couloigner, V; Garabedian, E-N; Loundon, N

    2015-12-01

    To analyze speech in children with profound hearing loss following congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection with cochlear implantation (CI) before the age of 3 years. In a cohort of 15 children with profound hearing loss, speech perception, production and intelligibility were assessed before and 3 years after CI; variables impacting results were explored. Post-CI, median word recognition was 74% on closed-list and 48% on open-list testing; 80% of children acquired speech production; and 60% were intelligible for all listeners or listeners attentive to lip-reading and/or aware of the child's hearing loss. Univariate analysis identified 3 variables (mean post-CI hearing threshold, bilateral vestibular areflexia, and brain abnormality on MRI) with significant negative impact on the development of speech perception, production and intelligibility. CI showed positive impact on hearing and speech in children with post-cCMV profound hearing loss. Our study demonstrated the key role of maximizing post-CI hearing gain. A few children had insufficient progress, especially in case of bilateral vestibular areflexia and/or brain abnormality on MRI. This led us to suggest that balance rehabilitation and speech therapy should be intensified in such cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  15. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of

  16. 'Tell me exactly what's happened': When linguistic choices affect the efficiency of emergency calls for cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Marine; Ball, Stephen; Williams, Teresa A; Whiteside, Austin; O'Halloran, Kay L; Bray, Janet; Perkins, Gavin D; Smith, Karen; Cameron, Peter; Fatovich, Daniel M; Inoue, Madoka; Bailey, Paul; Brink, Deon; Finn, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Clear and efficient communication between emergency caller and call-taker is crucial to timely ambulance dispatch. We aimed to explore the impact of linguistic variation in the delivery of the prompt "okay, tell me exactly what happened" on the way callers describe the emergency in the Medical Priority Dispatch System®. We analysed 188 emergency calls for cases of paramedic-confirmed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated the linguistic features of the prompt "okay, tell me exactly what happened" in relation to the format (report vs. narrative) of the caller's response. In addition, we compared calls with report vs. narrative responses in the length of response and time to dispatch. Callers were more likely to respond with a report format when call-takers used the present perfect ("what's happened") rather than the simple past ("what happened") (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.07; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 2.05-8.28, p<0.001). Reports were significantly shorter than narrative responses (9s vs. 18s, p<0.001), and were associated with less time to dispatch (50s vs. 58s, p=0.002). These results suggest that linguistic variations in the way the scripted sentences of a protocol are delivered can have an impact on the efficiency with which call-takers process emergency calls. A better understanding of interactional dynamics between caller and call-taker may translate into improvements of dispatch performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SERGEI DURYLIN'S ANCIENT TRIPTYCH AND IVAN SHMELYOV'S HOW DID IT ALL HAPPEN?: CHRISTIAN REALISM POETICS

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    Evgeniya Alexandrovna Korshunova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the investigation of creative connections between Sergei Durylin and Ivan Shmyolev, two émigré writers of the fi rst half of the 20th century. They were brought together not only by common religious values, but also by their tragic destiny. That is why we believe the comparison of their artistic principles — through the example of Durylin’s Ancient Triptych (1919–1923 and Shmelyov’s How did it all happen? (1944 to be very productive, especially considering that no serious comparative analyze of these works has been done before. The comparison of two texts clearly shows that their problematic and poetics are quite closely connected. Both writers depict the final period of life of outwardly successful, but spiritually devastated personalities (professor of ancient history and general Patrikiy Patrikiyevich Drevlyaninov. Durylin and Shmelyov tried to help their heroes to overcome the spiritual deadlock, senselessness of existence and their personal obsessions (for the professor it is the idea of scientifi c labour corrupting the society, for the general it is gambling. Both the professor and the general travel their road of purifi cation, their ‘way of the Cross’, their Golgotha and their Resurrection. Durylin directly connects his character’s road with the liturgical cycle, because ‘fi ghting with the devil’ takes place during the Great Lent, while the grandfather sees his life-changing dream on the eve of Easter and the Passion Week. The hero’s pilgrimage to Easter forms the plot of this story, actualizing the importance of Easter archetype for Russian literature. The methods used by both authors to free their characters from spiritual emptiness (introduction of a ‘spirit character’ as a reference to the devil from Dostoyevsky’s novel The Karamazov Brothers are also similar. Stylistic features of Durylin’s and Shmelyov’s poetics — plotlessness, prevailing of metaphysical problematic, Easter

  18. A sociologia pública em tempos de Barack Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burawoy

    Full Text Available O presente artigo, baseado em discurso dirigido à Sociedade Japonesa de Sociologia, na Universidade de Tohoku, recoloca as formulações centrais da sociologia pública, identificando os quatro estilos do fazer sociológico. Isso é feito à luz do cenário aberto com a profunda crise por que passa o sistema capitalista mundial. Mesmo ciente das diferentes tradições nacionais e da desigualdade internacional, e apesar delas, acreditamos que, como sociólogos, compartilhamos uma ambição e uma missão comum, que seria o combate ao paradigma baseado no fundamentalismo do mercado, que atualmente demonstra gravíssimos sinais de crise e de exaustão. Nesse sentido, resulta como tarefa primordial que os sociólogos canalizem as reações à crise em direção à criação de uma sociedade civil mais fortalecida e democrática, e de uma esfera pública mais robusta e inclusiva.

  19. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M Trefz

    Full Text Available Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH < 6.85. When exclusively considering laboratory parameters, classification tree analysis identified plasma glucose concentrations < 3.2 mmol/L, plasma sodium concentrations ≥ 151 mmol/L, serum GGT activity < 31 U/L and a thrombocyte count < 535 G/L as predictors of mortality. However, multivariable logistic regression models based on these laboratory parameters did not have a sufficiently high enough sensitivity (59% and specificity (79% to reliably predict treatment outcome. The sensitivity and specificity of jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 were 11% and 97%, respectively, for predicting non-survival in this study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  20. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossink, Leontien Wm; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention. Pilot randomised controlled trial. A large-scale twenty-four-hour residential facility in the Netherlands. Thirty-seven persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Participants in the intervention group received a power-assisted exercise intervention three times a week for thirty minutes over a twenty-week period. Participants in the control group received care as usual. Trial feasibility by recruitment process and outcomes completion rates; intervention feasibility by programme compliance rates; potential outcomes by functional abilities, alertness, body composition, muscle tone, oxygen saturation, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life. Thirty-seven participants were recruited ( M age = 32.1, SD = 14.6) and were randomly allocated to intervention ( n = 19) and control ( n = 18) groups. Programme compliance rates ranged from 54.2% to 97.7% with a mean (SD) of 81.5% (13.4). Oxygen saturation significantly increased in the intervention group. Standardised effect sizes on the difference between groups in outcome varied between 0.02 and 0.62. The power-assisted exercise intervention and the trial design were feasible and acceptable to people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility. This pilot study suggests that the intervention improves oxygen saturation, but further implementation with the aim of improving other outcomes should be considered with caution.

  1. Vibroacoustic sound therapy: case studies with children with profound and multiple learning difficulties and the elderly in long-term residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy, an approach which is being developed for use in special schools for children with profound and multiple learning difficulties, and in long-term care homes for the elderly and the elderly mentally infirm. Using non-invasive techniques and music/sound technology, children and the elderly are being empowered and enabled to (re)discover self expression and communication skills. Two case studies drawn from the world of the young disabled, and from the elderly, illustrate the potential for improving quality of life and well-being in these institutional settings.

  2. It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Lynne H

    2016-08-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.1 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses," found on pages 356-360, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Suggest strategies targeted for emergency department nurses to prevent or mitigate their exposure

  3. Measurement tools for mental health problems and mental well-being in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Samantha; Vereenooghe, Leen; Hastings, Richard P; Adams, Dawn; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Gore, Nick; Hatton, Chris; Hood, Kerry; Jahoda, Andrew; Langdon, Peter E; McNamara, Rachel; Oliver, Chris; Roy, Ashok; Totsika, Vasiliki; Waite, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Mental health problems affect people with intellectual disabilities (ID) at rates similar to or in excess of the non-ID population. People with severe ID are likely to have persistent mental health problems. In this systematic review (PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015024469), we identify and evaluate the methodological quality of available measures of mental health problems or well-being in individuals with severe or profound ID. Electronic searches of ten databases identified relevant publications. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved records (n=41,232) and full-text articles (n=573). Data were extracted and the quality of included papers was appraised. Thirty-two papers reporting on 12 measures were included. Nine measures addressed a broad spectrum of mental health problems, and were largely observational. One physiological measure of well-being was included. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped Scale-II and Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire are reliable measures in this population. However, the psychometric properties of six other measures were only considered within a single study - indicating a lack of research replication. Few mental health measures are available for people with severe or profound ID, particularly lacking are tools measuring well-being. Assessment methods that do not rely on proxy reports should be explored further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Xq22 inversion breakpoint interrupted a novel Ras-like GTPase gene in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Masahiro; Agarwala, Kishan Lal; Hayashi, Masaharu; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imoto, Issei; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inazawa, Johji

    2002-09-01

    A male patient with profound mental retardation, athetosis, nystagmus, and severe congenital hypotonia (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD]) was previously shown to carry a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome, 46,Y,inv(X)(p21.2q22.2). His mother carried this inversion on one X allele. The patient's condition was originally misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy, and only later was it diagnosed as DMD. Because the DMD gene is located at Xp21.2, which is one breakpoint of the inv(X), and because its defects are rarely associated with severe mental retardation, the other clinical features of this patient were deemed likely to be associated with the opposite breakpoint at Xq22. Our precise molecular-cytogenetic characterization of both breakpoints revealed three catastrophic genetic events that had probably influenced neuromuscular and cognitive development: deletion of part of the DMD gene at Xp21.2, duplication of the human proteolipid protein gene (PLP) at Xq22.2, and disruption of a novel gene. The latter sequence, showing a high degree of homology to the Sec4 gene of yeast, encoded a putative small guanine-protein, Ras-like GTPase that we have termed "RLGP." Immunocytochemistry located RLGP at mitochondria. We speculate that disruption of RLGP was responsible for the patient's profound mental retardation.

  5. Simultaneous Labyrinthectomy and Cochlear Implantation for Patients with Single-Sided Ménière’s Disease and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Doobe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the treatment outcome of a simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation in patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Prospective study. Method. Five patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease with active vertigo and functional deafness were included. In all cases, simultaneous cochlear implantation combined with labyrinthectomy surgery was performed. The outcome has been evaluated by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and speech recognition. Results. The combined labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation led in all patients to a highly significant reduction of dizziness up to a restitutio ad integrum. After activation of the cochlear implant and rehabilitation, a mean monosyllabic speech understanding of 69% at 65 dB was observed. Conclusion. For patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss the simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation are efficient method for the treatment of vertigo as well as the rehabilitation of the auditory system.

  6. Funny Games 1997 vs 2007 comparison : What happens when you remake exactly the same film 10 years later?

    OpenAIRE

    Syväjärvi, Pietari

    2014-01-01

    My thesis is a comparative analysis about the Austrian Funny Games (1997) and its U.S. remake (2007). I chose these two specific films, because both of them are directed by the same director (Michael Haneke) and are really identical. The purpose of my thesis is to explore what happens when you make basically the same film ten years later. The re- search questions in my thesis are: 1. Why did the remake get worse reviews from the crit- ics and the audience than the original? 2. How does the fi...

  7. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  8. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  9. Speech reading and learning to read: a comparison of 8-year-old profoundly deaf children with good and poor reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret; Moreno, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Nine children with severe-profound prelingual hearing loss and single-word reading scores not more than 10 months behind chronological age (Good Readers) were matched with 9 children whose reading lag was at least 15 months (Poor Readers). Good Readers had significantly higher spelling and reading comprehension scores. They produced significantly more phonetic errors (indicating the use of phonological coding) and more often correctly represented the number of syllables in spelling than Poor Readers. They also scored more highly on orthographic awareness and were better at speech reading. Speech intelligibility was the same in the two groups. Cluster analysis revealed that only three Good Readers showed strong evidence of phonetic coding in spelling although seven had good representation of syllables; only four had high orthographic awareness scores. However, all 9 children were good speech readers, suggesting that a phonological code derived through speech reading may underpin reading success for deaf children.

  10. Technology-assisted programmes to promote leisure engagement in persons with acquired brain injury and profound multiple disabilities: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; De Pace, Claudia; Chiapparino, Claudia; Ricci, Irene; Navarro, Jorge; Addante, Luigi M; Spica, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate technology-assisted programmes for enabling a woman and a man with brain injury and profound multiple disabilities to acquire leisure engagement. METHOD. The technology for the woman (Study I) involved a portable computer with mouse, a Clicker 4 software package, a touch/pressure microswitch, and an interface to connect the Clicker with the microswitch. This technology allowed the woman to choose with a simple hand response among four stimulus categories (e.g., watching a film and interacting with others), each of which included several alternatives. The technology for the man (Study II) involved a computer-based choice system that allowed him to select preferred songs through a microswitch-aided finger-movement response. RESULTS. Data showed that the two participants learned to use the technology available and selected among the stimulus events thus reaching positive leisure engagement. CONCLUSION. Technology-assisted programmes may provide persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities leisure engagement opportunities.

  11. Single-centre experience with the Impella CP, 5.0 and RP in 109 consecutive patients with profound cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Blom; Veien, Karsten Tange; Møller-Helgestad, Ole Kristian

    2017-01-01

    patients (13%). CONCLUSION: Impella treatment is feasible in profound cardiogenic shock at an acceptable rate of complications. Despite an aggressive approach to restore cardiac output, mortality was high. Besides the severity of lactic acidosis there were no strong predictors of early death.......RATIONALE: Short-term mechanical circulatory support is increasingly used in the management of cardiogenic shock, but data from controlled studies are sparse. Thus, real-life data on complication rates and predictors of adverse outcome are important. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study...... and predictors of death while on Impella support and within 180 days were identified. In 79 patients (72%) cardiogenic shock was caused by myocardial infarction, acute heart failure in 16 (15%) and post-cardiotomy shock in 14 patients (13%). Thirty-five patients (32%) were comatose after cardiac arrest...

  12. Effectiveness of a nurse-led preadmission intervention for parents of children with profound multiple disabilities undergoing hip-joint surgery: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a family-centered care (FCC) intervention provided by an advanced practice nurse (APN) for parents of children with profound disabilities undergoing surgery. In a quasi-experimental design, we used the MPOC-20 to assess satisfaction with FCC and interviews to identify potential mechanisms for improving satisfaction. There was a positive effect on the MPOC-20 domain "general information," albeit with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.35). The interviewed parents expected additional support. Emphasis should be placed on providing comprehensive care coordination by an experienced APN. Shared care management is crucial in improving FCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rat liver mitochondrial membrane characteristics and mitochondrial functions are more profoundly altered by dietary lipid quantity than by dietary lipid quality: effect of different nutritional lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Manar; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Chabi, Béatrice; Crouzier, David; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Cristol, Jean Paul; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Coudray, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Dietary lipids are known to affect the composition of the biological membrane and functions that are involved in cell death and survival. The mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are membrane protein complexes whose function depends on the composition and fluidity of the mitochondrial membrane lipid. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of different nutritional patterns of dietary lipids on liver mitochondrial functions. A total of forty-eight Wistar male rats were divided into six groups and fed for 12 weeks with a basal diet, lard diet or fish oil diet, containing either 50 or 300 g lipid/kg. The 30 % lipid intake increased liver NEFA, TAG and cholesterol levels, increased mitochondrial NEFA and TAG, and decreased phospholipid (PL) levels. SFA, PUFA and unsaturation index (UI) increased, whereas MUFA and trans-fatty acids (FA) decreased in the mitochondrial membrane PL in 30 % fat diet-fed rats compared with 5 % lipid diet-fed rats. PL UI increased with fish oil diet v. basal and lard-rich diets, and PL trans-FA increased with lard diet v. basal and fish oil diets. The 30 % lipid diet intake increased mitochondrial membrane potential, membrane fluidity, mitochondrial respiration and complex V activity, and decreased complex III and IV activities. With regard to lipid quality effects, β-oxidation decreased with the intake of basal or fish oil diets compared with that of the lard diet. The intake of a fish oil diet decreased complex III and IV activities compared with both the basal and lard diets. In conclusion, the characteristics and mitochondrial functions of the rat liver mitochondrial membrane are more profoundly altered by the quantity of dietary lipid than by its quality, which may have profound impacts on the pathogenesis and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  14. Activation-induced cell death drives profound lung CD4(+) T-cell depletion in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Iulia; Drummond, M Bradley; Gama, Lucio; Coon, Tiffany; Merlo, Christian A; Wise, Robert A; Clements, Janice E; Kirk, Gregory D; McDyer, John F

    2014-10-01

    As overall survival improves, individuals with HIV infection become susceptible to other chronic diseases, including accelerated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether individuals with HIV-associated COPD exhibit dysregulated lung mucosal T-cell immunity compared with control subjects. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated peripheral blood and lung mucosal T-cell immunity in 14 HIV(+)COPD(+), 13 HIV(+)COPD(-), and 7 HIV(-)COPD(+) individuals. HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals demonstrated profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion with reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived lung mononuclear cells, not observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and diminished CD4(+) T cell absolute numbers, compared with control subjects. Furthermore, HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals demonstrated decreased pulmonary HIV-specific and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-reactive CD4(+) memory responses, including loss of multifunctionality, compared with HIV(+)COPD(-) control subjects. In contrast, lung mucosal HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were preserved. Lung CD4(+) T cells from HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals expressed increased surface Fas death receptor (CD95) and programmed death-1, but similar bronchoalveolar lavage viral loads as control subjects. However, programmed death-1 expression inversely correlated with HIV-specific lung CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T-cell responses, suggesting functional exhaustion. Moreover, lung CD4(+) T cells from HIV(+)COPD(+) patients demonstrated increased basal and HIV antigen-induced expression of the early apoptosis marker annexin V compared with control subjects, which was significantly attenuated with anti-Fas blockade. Lastly, lung mucosal, but not blood, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios from HIV(+) patients significantly correlated with the FEV1, but not in HIV(-)COPD(+) patients. Together, our results provide evidence for profound lung mucosal CD4(+) T-cell depletion via a Fas-dependent activation-induced cell death mechanism, along with

  15. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  16. The Profound Power of Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition,…

  17. Ritual's role in profound change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In today's healthcare environment, characterized by downsizing, restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, organizational cultures and employees are experiencing rapid--and often tense--changes. Ritual can facilitate change by acknowledging it and allowing the grieving process to take its course. The success of an organizational culture change can depend on whether the organization and its members have been given an opportunity to grieve. Until they grieve their losses, people cannot embrace the new. Organizational leaders who have survived downsizing must come to grips with their own survivor status first and then lead others in the organization through the current painful but irrevocable shift in their relationship to the organization. The use of ritual helps organizational survivors see the connection between the grieving process and their survivor symptoms of denial, anger, depression, guilt, fear, insecurity, anxiety, and uncertainty. A good ritual should allow those present to rise above barriers that separate, worries that overburden, and blindness that limits and to gather as one with God. As a rule, a good ritual is participative and recognizes the audience's diversity. The ritual should not just address those present but invite them to act, pray, or sing. Ritual is an important way to provide a structure that allows people to express their emotions. For leaders, it can be a visible way to acknowledge grief and show support for organizational members. For ritual to have any meaning, key leaders need to be present and perhaps have a role in the creation and enactment of the ritual.

  18. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  19. Influenza or not influenza: Analysis of a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Ting F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bible describes the case of a woman with high fever cured by our Lord Jesus Christ. Based on the information provided by the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, the diagnosis and the possible etiology of the febrile illness is discussed. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. If the postulation is indeed correct, the woman with fever in the Bible is among one of the very early description of human influenza disease. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. We analysed a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time and discussed possible etiologies.

  20. Influenza or not influenza: Analysis of a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Bible describes the case of a woman with high fever cured by our Lord Jesus Christ. Based on the information provided by the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, the diagnosis and the possible etiology of the febrile illness is discussed. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. If the postulation is indeed correct, the woman with fever in the Bible is among one of the very early description of human influenza disease. Infectious diseases continue to be a threat to humanity, and influenza has been with us since the dawn of human history. We analysed a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time and discussed possible etiologies. PMID:20663162

  1. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golpour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study performed on 10 normal-hearing children with mean age of 4-5, from Gazvin kindergartens and 10 hearing impaired children with similar IQ and age from Nioosha Rehabilitation Center. The language and non language information was received by spontaneous and descriptive speech, and questionnaire, respectively and for comparing syntax comprehension, Specific language impairment test was used. Then these results were compared between two groups. Results: Difference between spontaneous speech and descriptive speech in hearing impaired child is just like normal child. These differences are that the number of utterance, the mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme in spontaneous speech is greater than descriptive speech but the mean length of utterance and richness of vocabulary in descriptive speech is greater than spontaneous speech. Mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme and richness of vocabulary related to morphological part and the number of utterance, the mean length of utterance and syntax comprehension related to syntax, in spontaneous and descriptive speech of normal children speech is greater than hearing impaireds`. Conclusion: According to recent researches, compared with normal child, the hearing impaired child nearly never to reach equal level, and for this reason, training for this group is necessary. It is concluded that although these children have severe to profound hearing loss they are developing their

  2. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe-to-profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with

  3. The dilemma for staff in 'playing a game' with a person with profound intellectual disabilities: empowerment, inclusion and competence in interactional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W M L; Antaki, Charles; Walton, Chris; Stribling, Penny

    2008-05-01

    Games between staff and people with intellectual disabilities serve to promote social engagement and inclusion. However, when the person has limited and idiosyncratic communicative abilities, it may be hard to gauge what his/her own view of the matter is. We examine video-taped records of two episodes in which a staff member of a group home prompted a resident with profound intellectual disabilities to play a verbal and a non-verbal 'game'. We examine how the staff member in these two cases designs her actions to solve the dilemma she faces between, on the one hand, abandoning an activity when the resident does not provide clear indications that she/he wants to continue or, on the other hand, persisting with it until the resident begins to enjoy it or, at least, participate more fully. The solution lies in a pervasive institutional practice: treat resistance or ambiguity as temporary reluctance. We discuss these interactions as examples of how principles of empowerment, inclusion and independence play out in the details of everyday interaction.

  4. Topochemical synthesis of Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at varied Fe/Co ratios: unique intercalation of triiodide and its profound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2011-01-26

    Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at different Fe/Co ratios were synthesized from brucite-like Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) via oxidative intercalation reaction using an excess amount of iodine as the oxidizing agent. A new redoxable species: triiodide (I(3)(-)), promoted the formation of single-phase Co-Fe LDHs. The results point to a general principle that LDHs with a characteristic ratio of total trivalent and divalent cations (M(3+)/M(2+)) at 1/2 may be the most stable in the oxidative intercalation procedure. At low Fe content, e.g., starting from Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (x triiodide and iodide into the interlayer gallery of as-transformed LDH phase, which profoundly impacted the relative intensity ratio of basal Bragg peaks as a consequence of the significant X-ray scattering power of triiodide. In combination with XRD simulation, the LDH structure model was constructed by considering both the host layer composition/charge and the arrangement of interlayer triiodide/iodide. The work provides a clear understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors associated with the oxidative intercalation reaction and is helpful in elucidating the formation of LDH structure in general.

  5. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  7. Framework for assessing individuals with rare genetic disorders associated with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): the example of Phelan McDermid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorya, Latha; Leon, Jill; Trelles, M Pilar; Thurm, Audrey

    2017-12-21

    Specialized strategies are needed to understand the complex neuropsychological impairments reported in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) associated with rare genetic disorders. This narrative review focuses on assessment of individuals with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) as a condition commonly associated with PIMD. Published case series and prospective studies were reviewed to evaluate approaches to cognitive, language, motor/sensory, and behavioral domains. This review is framed using general principles for neuropsychological evaluation in PIMD. Neuropsychological assessment domains and tools varied across published reports. Adaptive behavior measures, out-of-range developmental assessments, and social-communication measures were commonly used. Available findings were used to shape a recommended framework with potential to improve measurement of clinical outcomes and advance scientific discovery. The recommended framework outlines an inter-disciplinary and multimodal neuropsychological assessment process relying on modified standardized assessments, functional assessments, and caregiver/informant reports when evaluating individuals with PIMD. Arrested development and skill variability/regression are also discussed as additional, important considerations in neuropsychological evaluation of individuals with PIMD and rare genetic disorders.

  8. Very good performance with bimodal stimulation in a like-hybrid modality in a patient with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with low-frequencies preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laria, Carla; Auletta, Gennaro; Riccardi, Pasquale; Papa, Carmine; Malesci, Rita; Franzé, Annamaria; Marciano, Elio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we describe the experimental protocol set up to obtain very good results in speech performance and in time course, with a subject presenting profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with low-frequencies preservation. We used a bimodal stimulation with a like-hybrid modality. Auditory functions have been analyzed by standard tonal and speech audiometry tests, and verbal perception test. The fitting protocol permitted the subject to reach a perception at 65 dB of 100% in a very short time. The subject showed a sufficient recovery of the language spectral information and a good integration of verbal information with high consonantal recognition is present. This case report shows the importance to realize a correct cochlear implant fitting and that, in the case of bimodal stimulation, it is very important to obtain the mutual adjustment of the two hearing aids. Moreover, this study enhances the importance of realizing a preservative surgery to make the most of cochlear implants capacity. © 2013.

  9. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime perio...

  10. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract... SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.134 At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

  11. 42 CFR 62.27 - What will happen if an individual does not comply with the terms and conditions of participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the terms and conditions of participation in the Loan Repayment Program? 62.27 Section 62.27..., TRAINING NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS SCHOLARSHIP AND LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program § 62.27 What will happen if an individual does not comply with the terms...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of an...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help...

  14. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods...

  15. Nye koncert-fænomener, Happenings, Action Music etc., Copenhagen, 29-30 August, 3-4 and 6 September 1964

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen skitserer omstændighederne for tilblivelsen af en Fluxusfestival med titel "Nye koncert-fænomener, happenings, action music etc." som blev afholdt i rammen af Majudstillingen 1964 på Det kongelige danske kunstakademi i København d. 29. og 30. august og d. 3., 4., og 6. september 1964, samt...

  16. 41 CFR 102-38.240 - What happens to the deposit bond if the bidder defaults or wants to withdraw his/her bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposit bond if the bidder defaults or wants to withdraw his/her bid? 102-38.240 Section 102-38.240 Public... happens to the deposit bond if the bidder defaults or wants to withdraw his/her bid? (a) When a bid... to withdraw his/her bid, you should return the deposit bond to the bidder. Late Bids ...

  17. 31 CFR 355.10 - What happens if I present my check to the payor Reserve Bank more than six months after the issue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.10 What... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if I present my check to...

  18. 41 CFR 102-38.300 - What happens to sales proceeds that neither we nor the holding agency are authorized to retain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens to sales... Section 102-38.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Completion of Sale...

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.690 - What happens if property that was transferred for use as a public park or recreation area is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that was transferred for use as a public park or recreation area is revested in the United States by... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.690 What happens if property that was transferred for use as a public park or recreation area is revested in the United States by reason of...

  20. Owners and Veterinary Surgeons in the United Kingdom Disagree about What Should Happen during a Small Animal Vaccination Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-01-18

    Dog and cat vaccination consultations are a common part of small animal practice in the United Kingdom. Few data are available describing what happens during those consultations or what participants think about their content. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the attitudes of dog and cat owners and veterinary surgeons towards the content of small animal vaccination consultations. Telephone interviews with veterinary surgeons and pet owners captured rich qualitative data. Thematic analysis was performed to identify key themes. This study reports the theme describing attitudes towards the content of the consultation. Diverse preferences exist for what should be prioritised during vaccination consultations, and mismatched expectations may lead to negative experiences. Vaccination consultations for puppies and kittens were described to have a relatively standardised structure with an educational and preventative healthcare focus. In contrast, adult pet vaccination consultations were described to focus on current physical health problems with only limited discussion of preventative healthcare topics. This first qualitative exploration of UK vaccination consultation expectations suggests that the content and consistency of adult pet vaccination consultations may not meet the needs or expectations of all participants. Redefining preventative healthcare to include all preventable conditions may benefit owners, pets and veterinary surgeons, and may help to provide a clearer structure for adult pet vaccination consultations. This study represents a significant advance our understanding of this consultation type.

  1. Shifting the culture of continuing medical education: what needs to happen and why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, A

    2000-01-01

    A revolution in health care is occurring as a result of changes in the practice of medicine and in society. These include changing demographics and the pattern of disease; new technologies; changes in health care delivery; increasing consumerism, patient empowerment, and autonomy; an emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency; and changing professional roles. The issues raised by these changes present challenges for the content and delivery of the whole continuum of medical education. The ways in which continuing medical education (CME) needs to respond to these challenges are outlined. The Informed Shared Decision Making (ISDM) Project at the University of British Columbia is used as a case study to illustrate some of the practical problems in providing CME that address these current trends in health care, is effective, and is attractive to physicians. Two particular problems are posed: how to respond to a demonstrated need when there is no perceived need on the part of physicians and how to enable change agents on the margins to develop allies and get ownership from stakeholders and opinion leaders on the inside. Two strategies for change are discussed: the substantive incorporation of CME into the continuum of medical education and the involvement of patients in the planning and delivery of CME. A final challenge is raised for the leaders of CME to define and agree what "shifting the culture of CME" means and to make a commitment of time and energy into making it happen.

  2. Prefrontal EEG alpha asymmetry changes while observing disaster happening to other people: cardiac correlates and prediction of emotional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M; Lackner, Helmut K

    2014-12-01

    Changes of EEG alpha asymmetry in terms of increased right versus left sided activity in prefrontal cortex are considered to index activation of the withdrawal/avoidance motivational system. The present study aimed to add evidence of the validity of individual differences in the EEG alpha asymmetry response and their relevance regarding the impact of emotional events. The magnitude of the EEG alpha asymmetry response while watching a film consisting of scenes of real injury and death correlated with components of transient cardiac responses to sudden horrifying events happening to persons in the film which index withdrawal/avoidance motivation and heightened attention and perceptual intake. Additionally, it predicted greater mood deterioration following the film and film-related intrusive memories and avoidance over the following week. The study provides further evidence for prefrontal EEG alpha asymmetry changes in response to relevant stimuli reflecting an individual's sensitivity to negative social-emotional cues encountered in everyday life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Making green roofs happen : a discussion paper presented to Toronto's Roundtable on the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    Interest in green roof technology as a means of alleviating a number of Toronto's environmental problems is growing. This paper provided an overview of recent studies and discussions surrounding green roof technology applications in the city. The study forms part of a larger project created to advise city councils on current and emerging environmental sustainability issues. Green roof policies used by various international municipalities were discussed. Barriers to green roof development in Toronto were reviewed. Input from various workshops was presented. The report was divided into 5 sections: (1) a summary of the consultant's report on environmental benefits and costs of green roofs; (2) learning from international leaders in green roof policy; (3) summary of findings from the green roof technology stakeholder workshops; (4) defining green roofs, and responses to workshop input, and (5) making green roofs happen, options and strategies to implement green roof technology. The final section presented various recommendations for green roof strategies in Toronto, as well outlines of incentive programs and public outreach projects. 29 figs.

  4. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II--content of the first lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Lexical content is commonly understood to refer to the various categories of words that children produce and has been studied extensively in children with normal hearing. Unlike the hearing child, however, little is known about the word categories that make up the first lexicon of children with hearing loss (HL). Knowledge of the first lexicon is increasingly important, as infants with HL are now being detected through universal newborn hearing screening programs and fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants in before 12 months of age. For these children, emergence of the first spoken words is a major milestone eagerly awaited by parents and one of the first verbal language goals of teachers and therapists working with such children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lexical content of the first 50 and 100 words produced by children with HL and to contrast this with that of a group of hearing children. Lexical content was compared in two groups of children: one group composed of 24 participants with severe profound or profound HL and a second group composed of 16 participants with normal hearing. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All were "switched on" or fitted before 30 months of age. The Diary of Early Language (Di-EL) was used to collect a 100-word lexicon from each participant. All single word and frozen phrase data from each child's Di-EL were allocated to 1 of 15 word types grouped into four word categories (noun, predicate, grammatical, and paralexical), and the results were compared for both groups. The hearing and HL groups showed similar distributions of word categories, with nouns constituting the largest portion of the lexicon followed by predicates and paralexicals. Grammaticals made up the smallest portion of the lexicon. However, several significant differences were evident between the two groups. In both the 50- and 100-word lexicons, the hearing group

  5. Beneficios económicos del implante coclear para la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Peñaranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB, costo-utilidad (CU y costo-efectividad (CE de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group and 38 belonging to the control group who used

  6. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chuanyin; Zhao, Na; Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  7. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of Şfty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes. As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative

  8. The impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding, subjective hearing performance, and tinnitus perception in patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Marino, Roberta; Acharya, Aanand; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise, subjective perception of hearing, and tinnitus perception of adult patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss and to investigate whether duration of deafness and age at implantation would influence the outcomes. In addition, this article describes the auditory training protocol used for unilaterally deaf patients. This is a prospective study of subjects undergoing cochlear implantation for unilateral deafness with or without associated tinnitus. Speech perception in noise was tested using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise test presented at 65 dB SPL. The Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate the subjective perception of hearing with a cochlear implant and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance was measured using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire. Data were collected before cochlear implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Twenty-eight postlingual unilaterally deaf adults with or without tinnitus were implanted. There was a significant improvement in speech perception in noise across time in all spatial configurations. There was an overall significant improvement on the subjective perception of hearing and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance reduced significantly across time. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not influence the outcomes significantly. Cochlear implantation provided significant improvement in speech understanding in challenging situations, subjective perception of hearing performance, and quality of life. Cochlear implantation also resulted in reduced tinnitus disturbance. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not seem to influence the outcomes.

  9. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  10. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  11. Profound Transcriptomic Differences Found between Sperm Samples from Sperm Donors vs. Patients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques Tends to Disappear after Swim-up Sperm Preparation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meseguer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although spermatozoa delivers its RNA to oocytes at fertilization, its biologicalrole is not well characterized. Our purpose was to identify the genes differentially and exclusivelyexpressed in sperm samples both before and after the swim-up process in control donors andinfertile males with the purpose to identify their functional significance in male fertility.Materials and Methods: This was a nested case-control study. Ten sperm samples were obtainedfrom infertile patients [n=5 (two aliquots each from five samples; one before the swim-upprocess and one after] and donors [n=5 (two aliquots from five samples, one before the swim-upprocess and one after]. Oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to study the genome-wideexpression of pooled samples from infertile patients vs. donors. A total of four microarrays wereperfomed: two with sperm sample aliquots before swim-up and two with sperm samples aliquotsafter swim-up, from both the case and control groups. The results were evaluated to detect whichgenes expressed differentially [fold change (FC>5 and p<0.05] and which genes were exclusiveto each of the groups, both before and after swim-up.Results: Profound differences were detected between the fresh sperm samples of donors vs.infertile patients with respect to both differentially and exclusively expressed genes. Neverthelessthese differences seemed to decrease after the swim-up selection process.Conclusion: There are important differences between the expression profiles of sperm samplesof fertile donors vs. infertile patients who require assisted reproduction techniques (ART. Thesedifferences are potential forecasters of fertility success, although their reliability needs to beexplored further.

  12. Combination of atorvastatin with sulindac or naproxen profoundly inhibits colonic adenocarcinomas by suppressing the p65/β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Nanjoo; Reddy, Bandaru S; DeCastro, Andrew; Paul, Shiby; Lee, Hong Jin; Smolarek, Amanda K; So, Jae Young; Simi, Barbara; Wang, Chung Xiou; Janakiram, Naveena B; Steele, Vernon; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2011-11-01

    Evidence supports the protective role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and statins against colon cancer. Experiments were designed to evaluate the efficacies atorvastatin and NSAIDs administered individually and in combination against colon tumor formation. F344 rats were fed AIN-76A diet, and colon tumors were induced with azoxymethane. One week after the second azoxymethane treatment, groups of rats were fed diets containing atorvastatin (200 ppm), sulindac (100 ppm), naproxen (150 ppm), or their combinations with low-dose atorvastatin (100 ppm) for 45 weeks. Administration of atorvastatin at 200 ppm significantly suppressed both adenocarcinoma incidence (52% reduction, P = 0.005) and multiplicity (58% reduction, P = 0.008). Most importantly, colon tumor multiplicities were profoundly decreased (80%-85% reduction, P < 0.0001) when given low-dose atorvastatin with either sulindac or naproxen. Also, a significant inhibition of colon tumor incidence was observed when given a low-dose atorvastatin with either sulindac (P = 0.001) or naproxen (P = 0.0005). Proliferation markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, and β-catenin in tumors of rats exposed to sulindac, naproxen, atorvastatin, and/or combinations showed a significant suppression. Importantly, colon adenocarcinomas from atorvastatin and NSAIDs fed animals showed reduced key inflammatory markers, inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2, phospho-p65, as well as inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-4. Overall, this is the first report on the combination treatment using low-dose atorvastatin with either low-dose sulindac or naproxen, which greatly suppress the colon adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity. Our results suggest that low-dose atorvastatin with sulindac or naproxen might potentially be useful combinations for colon cancer prevention in humans.

  13. Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J

    2013-07-01

    Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetic variants on rat chromosome 8 exhibit profound effects on hypertension severity and survival during nitric oxide inhibition in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Angela; Schütten-Faber, Sabrina; Schulte, Leonard; Unland, Johannes; Kossmehl, Peter; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension and mortality is aggravated by nitric oxide inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats. MWF rats carry major albuminuria quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome (RNO) 6 and RNO8; susceptibility of SHRs to L-NAME is enhanced by transfer of RNO6 from MWF rats into the SHR background. Here, we tested whether the sensitivity to L-NAME in SHRs is affected by transfer of RNO8 from MWF rats in consomic SHR-8(MWF) rats. In study 1, we analyzed survival in male SHR and SHR-8(MWF) rats in response to 18 weeks of treatment with either normal drinking water (vehicle-treated) or water containing 20mg/L L-NAME. In study 2, we analyzed blood pressure and renal damage in both strains in response to 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME compared with vehicle-treated groups. In study 1, starting after 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME, mortality reached 90% in SHRs in contrast with the group of L-NAME treated SHR-8(MWF) rats (P rats survived similar to vehicle-treated rats. In study 2, L-NAME resulted in a more pronounced increase in mean arterial blood pressures in SHRs compared with SHR-8(MWF) rats (216 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 11 mm Hg; P rats after L-NAME treatment (P < 0.05), whereas albuminuria was not different between strains. The blood pressure increase and impaired survival of SHRs in response to nitric oxide inhibition is profoundly influenced by genes on RNO8.

  15. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  16. The nature of peer-directed behaviours in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and its relationship with social scaffolding behaviours of the direct support worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B

    2016-01-01

    The multiple and complex disabilities of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) form a barrier for peer interactions and peer-directed behaviours. In this study, we further explore the nature of peer-directed behaviours in persons with PIMD and its relationship with social scaffolding behaviour of direct support workers (DSWs). Fourteen dyads of children with PIMD, who knew each other for at least 12 months, participated. They were sitting in close proximity while they were filmed with and without the presence of the DSW. Video recordings were coded continuously making use of observation schemes for the peer-directed behaviours of the children and the peer interaction influencing behaviours of the DSW. Significantly more singular peer-directed behaviour (without DSW: 18.00%; with DSW: 3.81%) was observed than multiple peer-directed behaviour (without DSW: 4.01%; with DSW: 0.52%). The amount of time the singular and multiple peer-directed behaviours were observed was significantly lower in the presence of a DSW. When the DSW shows peer interaction influencing behaviour, it was mostly social scaffolding behaviour (2.17%). The conditional probability of observing social scaffolding behaviour in the 10 s following on singular peer-directed behaviour was 0.02 with a Yule's Q of 0.04 and following on multiple peer-directed behaviour 0.04 with a Yule's Q of 0.33. The way in which peer interactions in children with PIMD are defined could have an impact on the amount of observed peer-directed behaviours and on the effect of the social scaffolding behaviours presented by DSW. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points: an international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pühringer, Friedrich K; Rex, Christopher; Sielenkämper, Andreas W

    2008-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969), a novel, selective relaxant binding agent, was specifically designed to rapidly reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for the reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was evaluated....

  18. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points - An international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhringer, F.K.; Rex, C.; Sielenkamper, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex (Org 25969), a novel, selective relaxant binding agent, was specifically designed to rapidly reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for the reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was evalua...

  19. What Happens During Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding Opportunities & Notices Contract Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career Development For Applicants Sample Applications ...

  20. What Happened to Hyakutake?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996-03-27

    Mar 27, 1996 ... B S Shylaja is with the. Bangalore Association for. Science Education, which administers the Jawaharlal. Nehru Plaaetarium as well as a Science Centre. After obtaining her Ph.D. on. Wolf-Rayet stars from the. Indian Institute of. Astrophysics, she continued her research on novae, peculiar stars and comets.