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Sample records for profitably fractured included

  1. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  2. Stress fracture of the pelvis and lower limbs including atypical femoral fractures-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tins, Bernhard J; Garton, Mark; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Lalam, Radhesh; Singh, Jaspreet

    2015-02-01

    Stress fractures, that is fatigue and insufficiency fractures, of the pelvis and lower limb come in many guises. Most doctors are familiar with typical sacral, tibial or metatarsal stress fractures. However, even common and typical presentations can pose diagnostic difficulties especially early after the onset of clinical symptoms. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of stress fractures and their reflection in the imaging appearances. The role of varying imaging modalities is laid out and typical findings are demonstrated. Emphasis is given to sometimes less well-appreciated fractures, which might be missed and can have devastating consequences for longer term patient outcomes. In particular, atypical femoral shaft fractures and their relationship to bisphosphonates are discussed. Migrating bone marrow oedema syndrome, transient osteoporosis and spontaneous osteonecrosis are reviewed as manifestations of stress fractures. Radiotherapy-related stress fractures are examined in more detail. An overview of typical sites of stress fractures in the pelvis and lower limbs and their particular clinical relevance concludes this review. Teaching Points • Stress fractures indicate bone fatigue or insufficiency or a combination of these. • Radiographic visibility of stress fractures is delayed by 2 to 3 weeks. • MRI is the most sensitive and specific modality for stress fractures. • Stress fractures are often multiple; the underlying cause should be evaluated. • Infratrochanteric lateral femoral fractures suggest an atypical femoral fracture (AFF); endocrinologist referral is advisable.

  3. Stress fracture of the pelvis and lower limbs including atypical femoral fractures?a review

    OpenAIRE

    Tins, Bernhard J.; Garton, Mark; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Tyrrell, Prudencia N. M.; Lalam, Radhesh; Singh, Jaspreet

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures, that is fatigue and insufficiency fractures, of the pelvis and lower limb come in many guises. Most doctors are familiar with typical sacral, tibial or metatarsal stress fractures. However, even common and typical presentations can pose diagnostic difficulties especially early after the onset of clinical symptoms. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of stress fractures and their reflection in the imaging appearances. The role of varying imaging modalities ...

  4. Modelling stress-dependent permeability in fractured rock including effects of propagating and bending fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latham, J.P.; Xiang, J.; Belayneh, M.; Nick, H.M.; Tsang, C.F.; Blunt, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of in-situ stresses on flow processes in fractured rock is investigated using a novel modelling approach. The combined finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) is used to model the deformation of a fractured rock mass. The fracture wall displacements and aperture changes are modelled in

  5. 77 FR 38024 - Oil and Gas; Well Stimulation, Including Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...) published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to regulate hydraulic fracturing on public land and Indian land. The rule would require disclosure to the public of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing on...

  6. Discrete-fracture-model of multi–scale time-splitting two–phase flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-11-23

    In this article, we consider a two-phase immiscible incompressible flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured heterogeneous porous media. The system of the governing equations consists of water saturation, Darcy’s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat, as well as, porosity and permeability variation due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores. The discrete-fracture model (DFM) is used to describe the flow and transport in fractured porous media. Moreover, multiscale time-splitting strategy has been employed to manage different time-step sizes for different physics, such as saturation, concentration, etc. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multi-scale time splitting approach.

  7. Generalized Fracture Toughness and Compressive Strength of Sustainable Concrete Including Low Calcium Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golewski, Grzegorz Ludwik

    2017-12-06

    The paper presents the results of tests on the effect of the low calcium fly ash (LCFA) addition, in the amounts of: 0% (LCFA-00), 20% (LCFA-20) and 30% (LCFA-30) by weight of cement, on fracture processes in structural concretes. In the course of the experiments, compressive strength of concrete and fracture toughness for: I (tensile), II (in-plane shear) and III (anti-plane shear) models of cracking were measured. The tests determined the effect of age of concretes modified with LCFA on the analyzed parameters. The experiments were carried out after: 3, 7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days of curing. Fracture toughness of concretes was determined in terms of the critical stress intensity factors: K I c S , K I I c , K I I I c and then a generalized fracture toughness K c was specified. The obtained results are significant for the analysis of concrete structures subjected to complex loading. The properties of composites with the additive of LCFA depend on the age of the concrete tested. Mature concretes exhibit high fracture toughness at 20% additive of LCFA, while the additive of LCFA in the amount of 30% weight of cement has a beneficial effect on the parameters of concrete only after half a year of curing.

  8. Generalized Fracture Toughness and Compressive Strength of Sustainable Concrete Including Low Calcium Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Ludwik Golewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on the effect of the low calcium fly ash (LCFA addition, in the amounts of: 0% (LCFA-00, 20% (LCFA-20 and 30% (LCFA-30 by weight of cement, on fracture processes in structural concretes. In the course of the experiments, compressive strength of concrete and fracture toughness for: I (tensile, II (in-plane shear and III (anti-plane shear models of cracking were measured. The tests determined the effect of age of concretes modified with LCFA on the analyzed parameters. The experiments were carried out after: 3, 7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days of curing. Fracture toughness of concretes was determined in terms of the critical stress intensity factors: K I c S , K I I c , K I I I c and then a generalized fracture toughness K c was specified. The obtained results are significant for the analysis of concrete structures subjected to complex loading. The properties of composites with the additive of LCFA depend on the age of the concrete tested. Mature concretes exhibit high fracture toughness at 20% additive of LCFA, while the additive of LCFA in the amount of 30% weight of cement has a beneficial effect on the parameters of concrete only after half a year of curing.

  9. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  10. 77 FR 27691 - Oil and Gas; Well Stimulation, Including Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Secretary of Energy's Energy Advisory Board in 2011. Also, current BLM regulations governing hydraulic... Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is proposing a rule to regulate hydraulic...

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®Stress (Fatigue/Insufficiency) Fracture, Including Sacrum, Excluding Other Vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencardino, Jenny T; Stone, Taylor J; Roberts, Catherine C; Appel, Marc; Baccei, Steven J; Cassidy, R Carter; Chang, Eric Y; Fox, Michael G; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Hochman, Mary G; Jacobson, Jon A; Mintz, Douglas N; Mlady, Gary W; Newman, Joel S; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Shah, Nehal A; Small, Kirstin M; Weissman, Barbara N

    2017-05-01

    Stress fractures, including both fatigue and insufficiency types, are frequently encountered in clinical practice as a source of pain in both athletes and patients with predisposing conditions. Radiography is the imaging modality of choice for baseline diagnosis. MRI has greatly improved our ability to diagnose radiographically occult stress fractures. Tc-99m bone scan and CT may also be useful as diagnostic tools. Although fatigue and insufficiency fractures can be self-limited and go onto healing even without diagnosis, there is usually value in initiating prompt therapeutic measures as incomplete stress fractures have the potential of progressing to completion and requiring more invasive treatment or delay in return to activity. This is particularly important in the setting of stress fractures of the femoral neck. Accuracy in the identification of these injuries is also relevant because the differential diagnosis includes entities that would otherwise be treated significantly different (ie, osteoid osteoma, osteomyelitis, and metastasis). The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors for Infection When Teicoplanin Is Included for Prophylaxis in Patients with Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevila, Aina; Navarro, Margarita; Bori, Guillem; Tornero, Eduard; Camacho, Pilar; Bosch, Jordi; García, Sebastián; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) rate after surgery for hip fracture is about 4%. The aim of the present study was to review the efficacy of dual prophylaxis using teicoplanin plus cefuroxime and risk factors for SSI. Operations for hip fracture from 2012 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant information was gathered: Demographics, comorbidities, ASA score, laterality, type of fracture, type of surgery, d from admission to surgery, length of surgery, hemoglobin value at admission, urinary or respiratory infections, and the need for pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Prophylaxis consisted of cefuroxime and teicoplanin during the induction of anesthesia. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for superficial and deep SSI were applied. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed. Six hundred fifty-seven patients were included in the study. Thirteen (2.0%) SSI were identified, six superficial (0.9%), and seven deep (1.1%). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in two infections (one superficial and one deep). The SSI rate was 2.4% in intra-medullary nails (n = 334), 1.4% in prostheses (n = 211), and 1.8% in other synthesis (n = 112). Parameters independently associated with SSI were: Intra-operative RBC transfusion (OR: 11.6, p = 0.002), length of surgery >120 min (OR: 4.5, p = 0.02), and having a urinary infection (OR: 4.28, p = 0.02). Dual prophylaxis including cefuroxime and teicoplanin was associated with a 2% rate of SSI. Staphylococcus aureus caused only two SSIs. Reducing SSI is of utmost importance for patients' quality of life and to avoid additional cost of surgical procedures. Therefore, more experience with dual prophylaxis is needed to confirm our results.

  13. Demographics of extra-articular calcaneal fractures: Including a review of the literature on treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Extra-articular calcaneal fractures represent 25-40% of all calcaneal fractures and an even higher percentage of up to 60% is seen in children. A disproportionately small part of the literature on calcaneal fractures involves the extra-articular type. The aim of this study

  14. Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdin, Blaise; Francfort, Gilles A.

    2011-01-01

    These notes begin with a review of the mainstream theory of brittle fracture, as it has emerged from the works of Griffi th and Irwin. We propose a re-formulation of that theory within the confi nes of the calculus of variations, focussing on crack path prediction. We then illustrate the various possible minimality criteria in a simple 1d-case as well as in a tearing experiment and discuss in some details the only complete mathematical formulation so far, that is that where global minimality ...

  15. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...... annual profit. Higher wage level and lower wage growth is associated with higher profit. A workforce that has less tenure, all else equal, is more profitable....

  16. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  17. METKA - Forest energy profitably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. (FMA Kanta-Hame, Hameenlinna (Finland)); Rieppo, K. (TTS Research, Hameenlinna (Finland)), e-mail: matti.kymalainen@mhy.fi, e-mail: kaarlo.rieppo@tts.fi

    2010-07-01

    The harvesting and profitability of forest energy in Finland is practically entirely dependent on state subsidies. Currently, there is a lot to improve in forest energy knowledge and competence. METKA - Forest energy profitably project (2008-2011) aims at increasing the cost efficiency of the forest energy chain and the volume of the supply chain in Haeme region. The project ia coordinated by Forest Management Association Kanta-Haeme (Kanta-Haemeen Metsanhoitoyhdistys ry). Project partners include FMA Paeijaet-Haeme, TTS Research and the Finnish Forest Research Institute's (METLA) Joensuu unit. METKA -project belongs to the Rural Development Programme for Mainland Finland 2007-2013 and is being funded partly by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). The final project objective is to develop a new operational forest energy model for FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme. In order to create the operational model, the project has been divided into several sub-tasks, in which TTS Research and Metla are responsible for the research. TTS Research conducts studies that focus on forest energy harvesting and processing. The studies investigate especially small-diameter energy wood harvesting. Majority of the studies investigate the use of time, and they form the basis for cost and profit analyses. Metla is responsible or areas of research that contribute to the development of a forest energy storage's moisture estimation algorithm and a forest energy harvesting yield calculation program. Upon completion, the calculation program and the estimation algorithm are integrated to the logistics control system developed by FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme and taken into use as aids in forestry planning. During 2008 and 2009, several practical tests have been performed. Tests will be executed in autumn 2010 as well. The analysis of the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results

  18. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy including identification of uranium phases and hydrochemical characterisation of groundwater in borehole KFR106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Kersti [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    This report presents the fracture mineralogy and hydrochemistry of borehole KFR106. The most abundant fracture minerals in the examined drill core samples are clay minerals, calcite, quartz and adularia; chlorite is also common but is mostly altered and found interlayered with corrensite. The most common clay mineral is a mixed layer clay consisting of illite-smectite. Pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, barite (-celestine) and hematite are also commonly found in the fractures, but usually in trace amounts. Other minerals identified in the examined fractures are U-phosphate, pitchblende, U(Ca)-silicate, asphaltite, biotite, monazite, fluorite, titanite, sericite, xenotime, rutile and (Ca, REEs)-carbonate. Uranium has been introduced, mobilised and reprecipitated during at least four different episodes: 1) Originally, during emplacement of U-rich pegmatites, probably as uraninite. 2) At a second event, uranium was mobilised under brittle conditions during formation of breccia/cataclasite. Uraninite was altered to pitchblende and partly coffinitised. Mobilised uranium precipitated as pitchblende closely associated with hematite and chlorite in cataclasite and fracture sealings prior to 1,000 Ma. 3) During the Palaeozoic U was remobilised and precipitated as U-phosphate on open fracture surfaces. 4) An amorphous U-silicate has also been found in open fractures; the age of this precipitation is not known but it is inferred to be Palaeozoic or younger. Groundwater was sampled in two sections in borehole KFR106 with pumping sequences of about 6 days for each section. The samples from sections KFR106:1 and KFR106:2 (260-300 m and 143-259 m borehole length, i.e. -261 and -187 m.a.s.l. mid elevation of the section, respectively) were taken in November 2009 and yielded groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 3 and 5. In section KFR106:1 and KFR106:2, the chloride contents were 850 and 1,150 mg/L and the drilling water content 6 and 4%, respectively

  19. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  1. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  2. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  3. [Risk factors for infection in total knee artrhoplasty, including previously unreported intraoperative fracture and deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, M; Cordero-Ampuero, J

    2015-01-01

    To carry out a statistical analysis on the significant risk factors for deep late infection (prosthetic joint infection, PJI) in patients with a knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective observational case-control study was conducted on a case series of 32 consecutive knee infections, using an analysis of all the risk factors reported in the literature. A control series of 100 randomly selected patients operated in the same Department of a University General Hospital during the same period of time, with no sign of deep infection in their knee arthroplasty during follow-up. Statistical comparisons were made using Pearson for qualitative and ANOVA for quantitative variables. The significant (p>0.05) factors found in the series were: Preoperative previous knee surgery, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, inflammatory arthritis. prolonged surgical time, inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis, intraoperative fractures. Postoperative secretion of the wound longer than 10 days, deep palpable haematoma, need for a new surgery, and deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Distant infections cutaneous, generalized sepsis, urinary tract, pneumonia, abdominal. This is the first report of intraoperative fractures and deep venous thrombosis as significantly more frequent factors in infected TKAs. Other previously described risk factors for TKA PJI are also confirmed. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  5. For-Profit Colleges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Deming; Claudia Goldin; Lawrence Katz

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college...

  6. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  7. Determinants of Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Chaudhry; Arjun Chatrath; Ravindra Kamath

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of profitability of U.S. commercial banks in the 1970s and 1980s. It is established that banks, depending on their size, may need to exercise greater control over a defined set of variables in order to maximize profits and/or minimize costs. Further, the study provides some indirect evidence of economies of scale/scope in certain aspects of the banksÕ loan and investment portfolios.

  8. Measuring Bank Profit Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Trevor; McQuinn, Kieran

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that a variant of the Battese and Coelli (1995) inefficiency model can be applied as a consistent and unifying framework in exploring the determinants of credit institutions’ profit inefficiency scores. To date, work concerned with the potential determinants of credit institutions' profit inefficiency levels has addressed the issue in either a single-step or multi-step process. In the former, inefficiency scores are conditioned by region and bank-specific indicators, while...

  9. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  10. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  11. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  12. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and that funding is only spent on that will deliver more or better medical education. So staffing and other resources will be kept to the minimum required to deliver a high‑quality service. Secondly as in other walks of life, the profit motive should be a driver of innovation, and this should also be the case in medical education.

  13. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  14. Inclusive governance in non-profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Borzaga, Carlo; Sacchetti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The study of private non-profit enterprises that offer general interest services is only at the start. The understanding of existing organisations resists an inclusive, public interest view of governance. This contribution aims at providing a reflection on specific features that non-profit enterprises should have, and outlines four main justifications for including stakeholders in production governance: 1) access to knowledge and other resources, 2) trust creation, 3) internal efficiency, 4) ...

  15. Skeletal Metabolism, Fracture Risk, and Fracture Outcomes in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Civitelli, Roberto; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Khosla, Sundeep; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Schwartz, Ann V

    2016-07-01

    Fracture risk is significantly increased in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and individuals with diabetes experience worse fracture outcomes than normoglycemic individuals. Factors that increase fracture risk include lower bone mass in type 1 diabetes and compromised skeletal quality and strength despite preserved bone density in type 2 diabetes, as well as the effects of comorbidities such as diabetic macro- and microvascular complications. In this Perspective, we assess the developing scientific knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of skeletal fragility in patients with diabetes and the emerging data on the prediction, treatment, and outcomes of fractures in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  17. Determinants of Tunisian Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Raoudha Bejaoui; Houssam Bouzgarrou

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the persistence of profit and the effect of bank-specific determinants of Tunisian bank profitability. To account for profit persistence, we apply a dynamic panel model, using Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) system for 16 Tunisian commercial banks, divided into 11 deposit banks and 5 development banks during the period 1999-2010. The estimates show that the evidence for profit persistence is positive and significant for both deposit and development ban...

  18. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  19. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  20. Measurement of area and personal breathing zone concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) during oil and gas extraction operations, including hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Eric J; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Snawder, John; Breitenstein, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing), and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four-year period from 2008-2012. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m3; measurements ranged from 0.1-52 µg/m3. The geometric mean (GM) for the PBZ samples was 7 µg/m3. The AM of the TWA area measurements was 17 µg/m3 and ranged from 0.1-68 µg/m3. The GM for the area measurements was 9.5 µg/m3. Differences between the GMs of the PBZ samples and area samples were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), NIOSH, nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established occupational exposure limits (OEL) for DPM. However, the State of California, Department of Health Services lists a time-weighted average (TWA) OEL for DPM as elemental carbon (EC) exposure of 20 µg/m3. Five of 49 (10.2%) PBZ TWA measurements exceeded the 20 µg/m3 EC criterion. These measurements were collected on Sandmover and Transfer Belt (T-belt) Operators, Blender and Chemical Truck Operators, and Water Transfer Operators during hydraulic fracturing operations. Recommendations to minimize DPM exposures include elimination (locating diesel-driven pumps away from well sites), substitution, (use of alternative fuels), engineering controls using advanced emission control technologies

  1. Nose fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It most ... occurs with other fractures of the face. Nose injuries and neck ...

  2. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  3. PROFIT: Bayesian profile fitting of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D. S.; Tobar, R.; Moffett, A.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We present PROFIT, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. PROFIT consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (PROFIT) and PYTHON (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit, respectively). R PROFIT is also available pre-built from CRAN; however, this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sérsic, Core-Sérsic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source, and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Sérsic profile for the most common values of the Sérsic index n (0.5 automated bulge-disc decomposition with PROFIT on SDSS, KiDS, and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

  4. Summer 2012 Colorado Wildfire Non-Profit Sector Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information organization . Affiliated with the...million. These estimates do not include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information ... organization . Affiliated with the Insurance Information Institute, RMIIA has been serving consumers and the media since 1952. 22 5.0 Observations

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  6. Reconstruction of orbital floor blow-out fractures with autogenous iliac crest bone: a retrospective study including maxillofacial and ophthalmology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, John Edward; Hartnett, Claire; Hickey-Dwyer, Marie; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    This is a 10-year retrospective study of patients with an isolated unilateral orbital floor fracture reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The following inclusion criteria applied: isolated orbital floor fracture without involvement of the orbital rim or other craniofacial injuries, pre-/post-operative ophthalmological/orthoptic follow-up, pre-operative CT. Variables recorded were patient age and gender, aetiology of injury, time to surgery, follow-up period, surgical morbidity, diplopia pre- and post-operatively (Hess test), eyelid position, visual acuity, and the presence of en-/or exophthalmos (Hertel exophthalmometer). Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 29 years. The mean follow up period was 26 months. No patient experienced significant donor site morbidity. There were no episodes of post-operative infection or graft extrusion. Three patients had diplopia in extremes of vision post-operatively, but no interference with activities of daily living. One patient had post-operative enophthalmos. Isolated orbital blow-out fractures may be safely and predictably reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone. The rate of complications in the group of patients studied was low. The value of pre- and post-operative ophthalmology consultation cannot be underestimated, and should be considered the standard of care in all patients with orbitozygomatic fractures, in particular those with blow-out fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry farmers in Yola metropolis of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... The major constraints includes: high input costs, unstable market, power supply, diseases, loans, government assistance and to lack of poultry management ...

  8. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  9. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige for at real......Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige...... sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  10. Skull fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  11. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  12. Profit Patterns Across American Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Moss, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    To remain viable, agriculture in each location must offer returns that are competitive with those from alternative investments and sufficient to cover producers' financial obligations. Economic theory says that rates of return converge over time as resources flow into more-profitable industries and out of less-profitable industries, causing factor price changes. Both traditional growth and trade theories say factor markets will adjust to equalize commodity returns over time. This study examin...

  13. Analysis of alternative approach to determining of customers' profitability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes alternative approach to analysis of customers profitability based just on volume of purchased goods. By including average distance of customers' distributional places as additional criteria for profitability analysis and using cluster analysis as a method for ranking customers is proven that assessing of customers' profitability can be more accurate.This approach to evaluation of customers' profitability changes order of customers listed acordingly to profit they generate. In fact it shows that in business terms is room for improvement and harmonisation of relationship among some business partners in certain cases. Recalculation of business conditions which comes from detailed analysis can bring either increase of competitiveness by price reduction or increase of incomes by rising price of goods.

  14. The Determinants Of European Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Christos K. Staikouras; Wood, Geoffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of return earned by a financial institution is affected by numerous factors. These factors include elements internal to each financial institution and several important external forces shaping earnings performance. The type of explanation would determine possible policy implications and ought to be taken seriously. This paper reviews the literature on bank performance studies and classifies the bank profitability determinants. The second part of the paper quantifies how internal dete...

  15. To Profit or Not To Profit: That Is the Tough Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of organizing a child care operation as a for-profit or a nonprofit organization. Areas discussed include ease of start up; access to capital and funding; exposure to taxes; access to community support; appeal to volunteers, teaching candidates, and parents; challenge of management; risk to management;…

  16. Nasal fracture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  17. Supracondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 15-year-old male presented to the emergency department with right elbow pain after falling off a skateboard. The patient denied a decrease in strength or sensation but did endorse paresthesias to his hand. On exam, the patient had an obvious deformity of his right elbow with tenderness to palpation and decreased range of motion at the elbow. Sensation, motor function, and pulses were intact. Radiographic imaging was obtained. Significant findings: The pre-reduction films show a type III supracondylar fracture. There is complete displacement of the distal humerus anteriorly. Specific findings for supracondylar fracture include: a posterior fat pad (red arrow and a displaced anterior humeral line (yellow line.1 When no fracture is present, the anterior humeral line should intersect the middle third of the capitellum; in this X-ray, it does not intersect the capitellum at all. This X-ray demonstrates a normal radiocapitellar line (blue line that intersects the capitellum. The presence of a narrow anterior fat pad aka “sail sign” can be normal. Discussion: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus occur at the distal portion of the humerus without involving the growth plate.2 This is the second most common fracture in children overall. In children, it is the most common fracture of the elbow.3 This injury has a high risk of neurovascular compromise, such as compartment syndrome or ischemic contracture, and thus the clinician must perform immediate and frequent neurovascular assessments focusing on the distributions of the brachial artery in addition to the median, ulnar, and radial nerves.4 Hyperextension injuries that typically occur following a fall onto an outstretched arm are responsible for 95% of supracondylar fractures.1 A type I supracondylar fracture is non-displaced and can be treated with immobilization through a posterior splint and sling5 with close follow-up, type II is angulated but with an intact

  18. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  19. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  20. Fracture of the styloid process associated with the mandible fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the styloid process (SP of temporal bone is an uncommon injuries. Fracture of the SP can be associated with the facial injuries including mandible fracture. However, injury to the SP may be concealed and missed diagnosis may lead to the improper or various unnecessary treatments. A rare case of SP fracture associated with the ipsilateral mandibular fracture and also the diagnostic and management considerations of the SP fracture are discussed.

  1. New high profitable wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Vrsalovic, Ivan [Rijekaprojekt d.o.o., Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-11-01

    To generate more quantities of electric energy from wind it is necessary to use a new type of wind turbine built in the regulable mantle's nozzle. This wind turbine type replaces the free air stream from wind by a programmed, i.e. regulated, and partially concentrated stream of air. The nozzle shell is designed as an aerodynamically shaped ring with wings with its lower pressure side pointed towards the centre so that the lift force on each part of the wing is directed radially towards the centre. This induces centrifugal reaction force in the airflow that causes the stream field to expand strongly downstream of the rotor and includes a greater number of streamlines in the active stream in front of the rotor (upstream). Thus the nozzle forces a higher mass flow rate of air through the turbine. The higher mass flow and higher velocity reduction behind the rotor result in a higher energy output from the wind turbine in the nozzle. In this way the wind turbine efficiency is multiplied. New turbines induce more power from weaker and medium winds and their lasting time, because of the relation p = f(v{sup 3}) (i.e. the power corresponds to wind velocity raised to third power). Wind turbine nozzle produces three times more energy than conventional wind turbine. Short economic analysis for conditions of the island of Lastovo indicates that profit gained by new turbines is up to five times higher than by conventional turbines. The new wind turbine nozzle should generate interest and demand on an international market, even for regions with weaker winds. (Author)

  2. Profitability of Serbian banking sector during global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko M Miljković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors which contributed to decline of profitability in Serbian banking sector during the period of global economic crisis. There are presented different theories of banking sector profitability and results of scientifically significant empirical researches from economic literature. Following ratios were used as measure of profitability: return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net interest gain to total revenue, net fees and commissions gain to total revenue, and net pre-tax profit/loss to total revenue ratio. The profitability was analyzed for the whole Serbian banking sector in the period 2008-2012 and particularly for the 15 largest banks according to total assets value in 2012. The empirical analysis indicated that one of the most important factors contributing to high amounts of losses of commercial banks in the previous period includes an increase of net operating expenses, especially expenses on account of a write-off of non-performing loans (NPL. Furthermore, there were analyzed the dynamics of interest rates and interest spread as a factor with certain impact on profitability of banks. Finally, it is estimated that the prospects for intensive growth of profitability in the banking sector of Serbia in the mid-term are poor.

  3. Relationship between Non-current Assets & Firms Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Athar; mati, madhu

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relation between capital еxpеnditurе and earnings of the companies which are non-financial. The scope of research is related to the firm’s profitability and the relationship with the noncurrent assets as managing working capital and capital expenditure efficiently affects the profitability of the firm. Last ten years data of non – financial firms listed at KSE 100 index was taken. It includes Cement, Manufacturing, Engineering, Chemical, Paper, Sugar, Textile, T...

  4. Management of common fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennie

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of fractures increases with advancing age partly due to the presence of multiple comorbidities and increased risk of falls. Common fracture sites in older people include femoral neck, distal radius and vertebral bodies. Nurses have an important role in caring for older patients who have sustained fractures, not only to maximise function and recovery, but as part of a team to minimise the morbidity and mortality associated with fractures in this group.

  5. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  6. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  7. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  8. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  9. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  10. 40 CFR 35.936-4 - Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Profits. 35.936-4 Section 35.936-4... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-4 Profits. Only fair and reasonable profits may be earned by contractors in subagreements under EPA grants. See § 35.937-7 for...

  11. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.krestan@meduniwien.ac.at; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.

  12. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research......Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....

  13. Patient experience and hospital profitability: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Muhlestein, David B

    Patient experience has had a direct financial impact on hospitals since value-based purchasing was instituted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2013 as a method to reward or punish hospitals based on performance on various measures, including patient experience. Although other industries have shown an indirect impact of customer experience on overall profitability, that link has not been well established in the health care industry. Return-to-provider rate and perceptions of health quality have been associated with profitability in the health care industry. Our aims were to assess whether, independent of a direct financial impact, a more positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and whether a more negative patient experience is associated with decreased profitability. We used a sample of 19,792 observations from 3767 hospitals over the 6-year period 2007-2012. The data were sourced from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, we fit four separate models for three dependent variables: net patient revenue, net income, and operating margin. Each model included one of the following independent variables of interest: percentage of patients who definitely recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who definitely would not recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who rated the hospital 9 or 10, and percentage of patients who rated the hospital 6 or lower. We identified that a positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and a negative patient experience is even more strongly associated with decreased profitability. Management should have greater justification for incurring costs associated with bolstering patient experience programs. Improvements in training, technology, and staffing can be justified as a way to improve not only quality but now

  14. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  15. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  16. Analyzing profit efficiency of banks in India with undesirable output – Nerlovian profit indicator approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Jayaraman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a holistic approach to measure the profit efficiency of banks, factoring desirable/undesirable outputs, using Nerlovian profit indicator approach. The profit inefficiency of banks has been decomposed into technical and allocation inefficiency using directional distance function. Results reveal that profit inefficiency of banks is primarily due to allocative inefficiency and the impact of technical inefficiency on profit inefficiency is minimal compared to allocative inefficiency, which indicates that banks need to focus on optimal utilization of input–output mix to enhance profit efficiency.

  17. Home loan profitability optimisation in the financial industry / by Sias Heyns

    OpenAIRE

    Heyns, Sias

    2007-01-01

    Product profitability needs to remain a competitive advantage to a bank's home loan product. Ever changing customer needs and even more demanding customers today enforce reasons to investigate the profitability of home loans. Other aspects to consider includes transfer pricing, ROA, cost to deliver product to market areas (marketing and distribution cost) and break-even period. Banks are facing immense challenges to achieve sustainable profitability. Historically low interest rates are compre...

  18. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  19. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  20. The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we use data for 1981 through 1994 on a large sample of U.S. companies to examine the persistence of incremental industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on profitability. Our results indicate that the incremental effects of industry on profitability persist longer than the incremental effects of the corporate parent and of the specific business. Changes in industry structure have a more persistent impact on profitability than do changes in firm structure. © 199...

  1. The Choice of For-Profit College

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I investigate whether students self-select into the US for-profit colleges or whether the choice of for-profit sector is accidental or due to the reasons external to the students (geographic exposure to for-profit providers, tuition pricing, or random circumstances). The main student-level data samples come from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the associated Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS:2000). I estimate a multinomial logit of co...

  2. Farm profitability and Labour Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Amarender A, Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate choice of cropping systems to local agro-ecology increases profitability and employment. The increased labour shortage and reduced profitability are growing concerns to the farmers. Keeping this, the paper written with the following objectives: i) To assess the profitability among different cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics; ii) To assess the labour use pattern among different cropping systems and farm size; iii) To determine the resource use efficiency of the different cr...

  3. The impact of profitability of hospital admissions on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Konetzka, R Tamara; Navathe, Amol S; Zhu, Jingsan; Chen, Wei; Volpp, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Fiscal constraints faced by Medicare are leading to policies designed to reduce expenditures. Evidence of the effect of reduced reimbursement on the mortality of Medicare patients discharged from all major hospital service lines is limited. We modeled risk-adjusted 30-day mortality of patients discharged from 21 hospital service lines as a function of service line profitability, service line time trends, and hospital service line and year-fixed effects. We simulated the effect of alternative revenue-neutral reimbursement policies on mortality. Our sample included all Medicare discharges from PPS-eligible hospitals (1997, 2001, and 2005). The results reveal a statistically significant inverse relationship between changes in profitability and mortality. A $0.19 average reduction in profit per $1.00 of costs led to a 0.010-0.020 percentage-point increase in mortality rates (p profitable. Policy simulations that target service line inequities in payment generosity result in lower mortality rates, roughly 700-13,000 fewer deaths nationally. The policy simulations raise questions about the trade-offs implicit in universal reductions in reimbursement. The effect of reduced payment generosity on mortality could be mitigated by targeting highly profitable services only for lower reimbursement. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  5. Pediatric Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Karan; Abzug, Joshua M; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2017-02-15

    Distal radius fractures are the most common orthopaedic injury that occur in the pediatric population. The annual incidence of distal radius fractures has increased as a result of earlier participation in sporting activities, increased body mass index, and decreased bone mineral density. Most distal radius fractures are sustained after a fall onto an outstretched arm that results in axial compression on the extremity or from direct trauma to the extremity. Physeal fractures of the distal radius are described based on the Salter-Harris classification system. Extraphyseal fractures of the distal radius are described as incomplete or complete based on the amount of cortical involvement. A thorough physical examination of the upper extremity is necessary to rule out any associated injuries. PA and lateral radiographs of the wrist usually are sufficient to diagnose a distal radius fracture. The management of distal radius fractures is based on several factors, including patient age, fracture pattern, and the amount of growth remaining. Nonsurgical management is the most common treatment option for patients who have distal radius fractures because marked potential for remodeling exists. If substantial angulation or displacement is present, closed reduction maneuvers with or without percutaneous pinning should be performed. Patients with physeal fractures of the distal radius that may result in malunion who present more than 10 days postinjury should not undergo manipulation of any kind because of the increased risk for physeal arrest.

  6. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osteolysis. Symptoms The most common symptoms of periprosthetic hip fracture include: • Pain around the hip or thigh • Swelling ... o en very painful, someone with a periprosthetic hip fracture will most likely go directly to the emergency ...

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Profitability Indicators for Selected Companies of Croatian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the profitability indicators are analysed for the first hundred companies of the Croatian market, which are classified according to the net profit. The profitability indicators included in the analysis are the following: EBIT margin, EBITDA margin, net profit margin, return on assets (ROA, return on invested capital (ROI and return on capital employed (ROCE. By implementing the factor analysis, six chosen profitability indicators have been reduced to two factors, thus solving the multicollinearity problem, which is one of the prerequisites for the cluster analysis. For two extracted factors, the factor scores are calculated and used in the following cluster analysis. By implementing the cluster analysis, selected companies are grouped into clusters according to their similarity in accomplished results that are measured by profitability indicators. The hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses are conducted and resulted into two clusters where ten companies were in the first cluster, while the other ninety were in the second cluster

  8. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  10. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  11. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  12. Risk Management And Organisational Profitability | Ukandu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of growth and profit maximization in the oil industry has been impaired by a lot of risks. Risk control measures and effective plan are used to reduce the occurrence of such risks. Also, proper risk evaluation techniques are used to evaluate the cost implication of risk on production and the profitability level of such ...

  13. Will farm profits shift in 2013?

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Kauffman

    2012-01-01

    Despite a severe drought, profits in the U.S. farm sector soared in 2012. Beginning in late June, U.S. crops and pastures wilted under one of the worst droughts in history. Although total farm incomes remained high, the drought exacerbated a widening gulf in profitability between the crop and livestock sectors.

  14. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    carried out by marketing scholars. This is not likely to advance marketing theory. After all, accounting to profitability lies at the heart of the marketing concept, Kohli & Jaworski (1990:1-18) and Narver and Slater (1990:35). Similarly, according to Buttle (1996) marketing's link to profitability is stressed in the definitions of.

  15. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  16. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  17. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  18. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  19. Non Profit and For-Profit Higher Education Accreditation. Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Fact Sheet #7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet presents data provided to the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) by accrediting organizations for accrediting activity during 2010-2011. It includes both Title IV and Non-Title IV institutions. Data are presented in the following categories: (1) Accrediting Organizations; (2) Fourteen Major For-Profit Higher…

  20. Foal Fractures: Osteochondral Fragmentation, Proximal Sesamoid Bone Fractures/Sesamoiditis, and Distal Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Heidi L

    2017-08-01

    Foals are susceptible to many of the same types of fractures as adult horses, often secondary to external sources of trauma. In addition, some types of fractures are specific to foals and occur routinely in horses under 1 year of age. These foal-specific fractures may be due to the unique musculoskeletal properties of the developing animal and may present with distinct clinical signs. Treatment plans and prognoses are tailored specifically to young animals. Common fractures not affecting the long bones in foals are discussed in this article, including osteochondral fragmentation, proximal sesamoid bone fractures/sesamoiditis, and distal phalanx fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  2. fracture criterion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture in metallic glasses. What are the connections between nano- and micro- mechanisms and toughness? Metallic glasses are schizophrenic in the fracture sense. PDF Create! 5 Trial www.nuance.com ...

  3. Shoulder Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm bone), the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone) (Figure 1). The upper end of the humerus ... age. Most fractures in children occur in the clavicle bone. In adults, the most common fracture is ...

  4. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to arthritis down the road. In addition, fractures in children occasionally affect future growth of that bone. Figure 1: Examples of fractures in fingers Figure 2: Examples of plates, pins ...

  5. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  6. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  7. Displaced patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  9. Reference Tracking and Profit Optimization of a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different methods for implementing reference tracking intro a profit optimization problem of a power plant. It is shown that tracking included as a side constraint results in an significant tracking error only when the reference gradient is large. When tracking...... is included in the cost function, as a quadratic term, the reference is tracked with a small accumulated error. Finally, the two methods are compared both in terms of tracking performance and computational burden....

  10. The Process Management in Non - Profit Organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagmara Bubel; Sylwia Legowik-Swiacik; Michal Dziadkiewicz; Anna Wisniewska-Salek

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to learn about the implementation of the process management concepts in the non-profit organisations and the possible evaluation of effectiveness raise of the organisations' functioning...

  11. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  12. Donations and Differentiation: Three Essays on Non-Profit Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfolds, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given increased competition with for-profit firms, the issue of the comparative advantage of non-profit organizations is renewed. While non-profits may want to differentiate themselves when faced with additional non-profit competition, it is unclear whether they would want to differentiate themselves or converge towards for-profit competitors. This paper addresses this issue by considering the different financing models, human resource systems, and objectives of non-profit organizations, as c...

  13. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  14. Tax Evasion, Monopoly, and Nonneutral Profit Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kangoh

    1998-01-01

    It is known in the literature that tax evasion does not influence the monopolist's output decision, and hence, profit taxes are neutral, even in the presence of tax evasion. This result is based on the assumption that the audit probability and the penalty rate are fixed or depend on the understatement or overstatement of relevant economic indicators. However, under alternative and perhaps more reasonable formulations of the audit probability, the neutrality of profit taxes may not be preserve...

  15. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. \\ud The following findings emerged from the study: \\ud • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public\\ud • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small non...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Kundid; Blanka Škrabić; Roberto Ercegovac

    2011-01-01

    The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overa...

  17. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarín, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  18. Energy Conflicts and Differential Profits: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Bichler, Shimshon; Nitzan, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, we identified a new phenomenon that we called ‘energy conflicts’ and showed that these conflicts were intimately linked to the differential profitability of the leading oil companies. This link remains as true today as it was in the early 1970s. Like earlier energy conflicts, the ‘Arab Spring’, the outsourced wars that followed and the third Gulf War against ISIS continue to march to the drum beat of differential profits.

  19. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth canal. Symptoms Clavicle fractures can be very painful and may make it hard to move your arm. Additional symptoms include: • Sagging shoulder (down and forward) • Inability to li the arm ...

  20. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  1. TURKISH BANKING SECTOR’S PROFITABILITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Kakilli ACARAVCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of banking sector is the most important instrument of financial system for the future of the economy. The objective of this study is to determine by using Johansen and Juselius cointegration test approach of the bank specific and macroeconomic factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks in Turkish banking sector. In study, the data are collected from the three biggest state-owned, privately-owned and foreign banks. The sample period spans from 1998 to 2011. In the study, return of asset, return of equity and net interest margin were used as proxy for profitability of banks. The bank specific determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability are total credits/total assets, total deposits/total assets, total liquid assets/total assets, total wage and commission incomes/ total assets, total wage and commission expenses/total assets, the logarithm of total assets and total equity/total assets. The macroeconomic determinants of study are real gross domestic product, inflation rate, real exchange rate and real interest rate. Empirical findings suggest that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks. The reel gross domestic product and real exchange rate have been effective on the profitability. In addition, the 2001 economic crisis has a negative effect on all Turkish Banking sector.

  2. Analysis of complications and perioperative data after open or percutaneous dorsal instrumentation following traumatic spinal fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine: a retrospective cohort study including 491 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Rillig, Jan; Grützner, Paul A; Küffer, Maike; Tinelli, Marco; Matschke, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study is to analyze perioperative data and complications of open vs. percutaneous dorsal instrumentation after dorsal stabilization in patients suffering from fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine. In the time period from 01/2007 to 06/2009, open surgical approach was used for dorsal stabilization. The percutaneous surgical approach was used from 05/2009 to 03/2014. In every time period, all types of fractures were treated only by open or by percutaneous approach, respectively, to avoid any selection bias. Retrospectively, epidemiological data, complications and perioperative data were documented and statistically analyzed. A total of 491 patients met the inclusion criteria. Open surgery procedure was carried out on 169 patients, and percutaneous surgery procedure was carried out on 322 patients. Fracture level ranged from T1 to L5, and fractures were classified types A, B, and C. In 91.4% of all patients, no complication occured following dorsal stabilization after traumatic spine fracture during their hospital stay. However, 42 complications related to dorsal stabilization have been documented during the hospital stay. The complication rate was 14.8% if open surgical approach has been used and was significantly reduced to 5.3% using percutaneous surgical approach. Post-operative hospital stay was also reduced significantly using the percutaneous surgical approach. According to the current study, percutaneous dorsal stabilization of the spine could also be safely used in trauma cases and is not restricted to degenerative spinal surgery.

  3. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of hospital service line profitability on the likelihood of readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, Amol S; Volpp, Kevin G; Konetzka, R Tamara; Press, Matthew J; Zhu, Jingsan; Chen, Wei; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Quality of care may be linked to the profitability of admissions in addition to level of reimbursement. Prior policy reforms reduced payments that differentially affected the average profitability of various admission types. The authors estimated a Cox competing risks model, controlling for the simultaneous risk of mortality post discharge, to determine whether the average profitability of hospital service lines to which a patient was admitted was associated with the likelihood of readmission within 30 days. The sample included 12,705,933 Medicare Fee for Service discharges from 2,438 general acute care hospitals during 1997, 2001, and 2005. There was no evidence of an association between changes in average service line profitability and changes in readmission risk, even when controlling for risk of mortality. These findings are reassuring in that the profitability of patients' admissions did not affect readmission rates, and together with other evidence may suggest that readmissions are not an unambiguous quality indicator for in-hospital care.

  4. The method of quality indicators evaluation for non-profit organizations activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zelikman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of evaluation method of quality indicators for non-profit organizations activities in existing domestic conditions. Methodology. To achieve the research purposes a comparative analysis of some existing methods which were suggested by famous foreign experts for evaluation of organizational development level of non-profit organizations was used. Findings. The system of indicators suggested by C. McNamara for organizational development level assessment of non-commercial organizations and its correspondence for existing conditions of non-profit organizations activities in Ukraine have been analyzed. The technique of A. Vakulenko for qualitative evaluation of Russian non-commercial organizations has also been considered which includes five blocks of parameters for evaluation of internal organizational environment factors according their influence for external organizational environment and support of this influence. The possibility of the designated parameters application applications for domestic non-profit organizations is determined. Based on the separated elements of considered methodic the method of quality indicators evaluation of activities effectiveness for non-profit organizations in Ukraine is developed. Originality. The adapted method of quality indicators evaluation for non-profit organizations activities based on an analysis of their assessing existing methods is offered. Practical value. Non-profit organizations activities require usage of the certain material and financial resources. It leads to the need of an objective evaluation of the activity effectiveness for the particular non-profit organization and therefore to development of that assessment methods.

  5. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  6. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes to this chal......Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...

  7. Acetabular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Correa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows, so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT scan was ordered. Significant findings: The non-contrast CT images show a minimally displaced comminuted fracture of the right acetabulum involving the acetabular roof, medial and anterior walls (red arrows, with associated obturator muscle hematoma (blue oval. Discussion: Acetabular fractures are quite rare. There are 37 pelvic fractures per 100,000 people in the United States annually, and only 10% of these involve the acetabulum. They occur more frequently in the elderly totaling an estimated 4,000 per year. High-energy trauma is the primary cause of acetabular fractures in younger individuals and these fractures are commonly associated with other fractures and pelvic ring disruptions. Fractures secondary to moderate or minimal trauma are increasingly of concern in patients of advanced age.1 Classification of acetabular fractures can be challenging. However, the approach can be simplified by remembering the three basic types of acetabular fractures (column, transverse, and wall and their corresponding radiologic views. First, column fractures should be evaluated with coronally oriented CT images. This type of fracture demonstrates a coronal fracture line running caudad to craniad, essentially breaking the acetabulum into two halves: a front half and a back half. Secondly, transverse fractures should be evaluated by sagittally oriented CT images. By definition, a transverse fracture separates the acetabulum into superior and inferior halves with the fracture line extending from anterior to posterior

  8. Surgical Management of Patellar Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazu, Rafael; Archdeacon, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The patella plays a crucial role in the extensor mechanism to increase the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps. Fractures can be classified based on displacement, comminution, and fracture pattern, which often guide treatment. Modern treatment options include internal fixation using tension bands with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws, lag screw fixation, partial patellectomy, and rarely total patellectomy. Nondisplaced, closed patellar fractures or fractures with less than 2-mm articular steps can be successfully treated conservatively. Open fractures, articular step of 2 mm or greater, and loss of knee extension are indications for surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone fractures after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength. PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion. Ageing reduces bone strength in post-menopausal women because estrogen deficiency causes accelerated bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) decreased more than 2.5 standard deviation below the mean of healthy young adults defines osteoporosis, a condition associated with an increased risk of fractures. Risk factors such as age and previous fracture are combined with BMD for a more accurate prediction of fracture risk. The most widely used assessment tool is FRAX™ which combines clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD. General preventive measures include physical exercise to reduce the risk of falling and vitamin D to facilitate calcium absorption. Pharmacological interventions consist mainly in the administration of inhibitors of bone resorption. Randomized controlled trials show treatment improves BMD, and may reduce the relative fracture risk by about 50% for vertebral, 20-25% for non-vertebral and up to 40% for hip fractures although the absolute risk reductions are much lower. Although diagnosis of osteoporosis is an important step, the threshold for treatment to prevent fractures depends on additional clinical risk factors. None of the presently available treatment options provide complete fracture prevention.

  10. Correlation of hip fracture with other fracture types: Toward a rational composite hip fracture endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W; Adler, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between 1999 and 2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regard to the timing of the events. 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, the rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, pfractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider the use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Military Veterans’ Experiences in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    AND SUBTITLE Military Veterans’ Experiences in For-Profit Higher Education 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...of accredited public and private higher education institutions— and was funded by the Lumina Foundation for Education. We were asked to study...in higher education institutions from across the nation.5 As shown in Figures 1 and 2, both the focus group and survey samples included a

  12. Invited review: selection on net merit to improve lifetime profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRaden, P M

    2004-10-01

    Genetic selection has made dairy cows more profit-able producers of milk. Genetic evaluations began with 2 traits measured on a few cows but now include many traits measured on millions of cows. Selection indexes from USDA included yield traits beginning in 1971, productive life and somatic cell score beginning in 1994, conformation traits in 2000, and cow fertility and calving ease in 2003. This latest revision of net merit should result in 2% more progress, worth 5 million dollars/yr nationally, with improved cow health and fitness, but slightly less progress for yield. Fertility and longevity evaluations have similar reliability because cows can have several fertility records, each with lower heritability, compared with one longevity record with higher heritability. Lifetime profit can be estimated more accurately if less heritable traits are evaluated and included instead of ignored. Milk volume has a positive value for fluid use, but a negative value for cheese production. Thus, multiple selection indexes are needed for different markets and production systems. Breeding programs should estimate future rather than current costs and prices. Many other nations have derived selection indexes similar to US net merit.

  13. Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R; Kaufmann, Judith; Drahnak, Gwendolen

    Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and a major health problem in the United States (). Eighty percent of hip fractures are experienced by 80-year-old women. Plain radiographs usually confirm the diagnosis, but if there is a high level of suspicion of an occult hip fracture, magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan is the next step to confirm the diagnosis. Areas of the hip bone have varied bone strength and blood supply, making the femoral neck one of the most vulnerable areas for fracture. A consultation to an orthopedic surgeon will determine surgical interventions.

  14. Hamate fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Colles Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, Belisario; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  16. 48 CFR 1615.404-70 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.404-70 Profit analysis factors. (a) OPM contracting officers..., will likely serve to diminish this profit analysis factor in an overall determination of profit. This...

  17. Fracture Patterns Differ Between Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Routine Pediatric Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddada, Kranti V; Sullivan, Brian T; Margalit, Adam; Sponseller, Paul D

    2018-01-19

    It is important to estimate the likelihood that a pediatric fracture is caused by osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), especially the least severe type of OI (type 1). We reviewed records of 29,101 pediatric patients with fractures from 2003 through 2015. We included patients with closed fractures not resulting from motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, nonaccidental trauma, or bone lesions. Patients with OI of any type were identified through International Classification of Diseases-9 code. We randomly sampled 500 pediatric patients in whom OI was not diagnosed to obtain a control (non-OI) group. We reviewed age at time of fracture, sex, fracture type, laterality, and bone and bone region fractured. Bisphosphonate use and OI type were documented for OI patients. Subanalysis of patients with type-1 OI was performed. The Fisher exact and χ tests were used to compare fracture rates between groups. P<0.05 was considered significant. Positive likelihood ratios for OI were calculated by fracture pattern. The non-OI group consisted of 500 patients with 652 fractures. The OI group consisted of 52 patients with 209 fractures. Non-OI patients were older at the time of fracture (mean, 9.0±5.0 y) than OI patients (mean, 5.5±4.4 y) (P<0.001). OI patients had more oblique, transverse, diaphyseal, and bilateral long-bone fractures than non-OI patients (all P<0.001). Non-OI patients had more buckle (P=0.013), metaphyseal (P<0.001), and physeal (P<0.001) fractures than OI patients. For patients with type-1 OI and long-bone fractures (n=18), rates of transverse and buckle fractures were similar compared with controls. Transverse humerus (15.2), olecranon (13.8), and diaphyseal humerus (13.0) fractures had the highest positive likelihood ratios for OI, and physeal (0.09) and supracondylar humerus (0.1) fractures had the lowest. Transverse and diaphyseal humerus and olecranon fractures were most likely to indicate OI. Physeal and supracondylar humerus fractures were least likely

  18. Quality of care in nursing homes: an analysis of relationships among profit, quality, and ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; Harrington, Charlene; Kitchener, Martin; Saliba, Debra

    2003-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted a negative correlation between proprietary status and nursing home quality of care. This relationship might be explained by the context in which proprietary homes operate. However, another possible explanation is that some proprietary homes take excessive profit to the detriment of care quality. To examine the relationship between profit levels and quality in proprietary and nonproprietary nursing homes (NHs), accounting for resident and market characteristics. Data on 1098 free-standing NHs were taken from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the On-line Survey Certification and Reporting System, and California licensing and statistical reports for 1998 and 1999. Tobit multivariate techniques were used to examine the relationship between deficiency citations and a range of explanatory variables, including profit. Proprietary homes in California had significantly lower quality of care than nonproprietary homes. A stratified analysis revealed that, controlling for resident, facility, and market characteristics, profits located within the highest 14% of the proprietary sector's profit distribution were associated with significantly more total deficiencies and serious deficiencies. This relationship was not found in nonproprietary facilities. Other factors related to deficiencies included the ethnic mix of residents and facility size. Within the context in which proprietary homes operate, profit above a given threshold is associated with a higher number of deficiencies. Given this and the role of the proprietary sector in NH care, careful monitoring of profit levels in this sector appears warranted.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overall banking intermediation. Return on assets (ROA is profitability indicator used in the analysis. The presented research results and their economic interpretation may serve as a valuable foundation for the general assessment of commercial bank management in Croatia as well as for identifying several sources of potential improvement and impairment of their financial performance in the future. Thus, corrective actions could be planned and implemented in advance.

  20. IMPROVEMENTS IN ACCOUNTING OF BREWERIES’ PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sklyaruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of the profit of breweries, taking into account the specifics of the production process and business peculiarities were identified. There were found out the specificity of calculation of the expenses, considering the norms of the technological process, the duration of the operating cycle and the specifics of the production of beer and non-alcoholic products, which determine the methodology of formation of the prime price of the products and the price of its sale. The expediency of using the method for phases (with semi-ready and not semi- ready option method of calculation of the semi-finished products of own production there was proved. The irrelevance of using Account 44 “Undistributed profit (uncovered loss” according to its purpose under the current Plan of accounts is shown. The model of using the profit based on the proposed sub-accounts was built and the example of their use was shown.

  1. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  2. Evaluating impacts of unexpected earning on precision of profit estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision in earning report has always been a concern among investors, and when there are some negative adjustments on earning, investor may find it challenging to decide whether they should hold or sell their shares. This paper studies the impact of earning precision and unexpected earning adjustments on firms whose share are listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The proposed study of this paper considers three hypotheses including whether earning precision has negative relationship with unexpected profit, whether it has a negative with unexpected decline in profit and finally, whether, in prediction on negative news compared with positive news, there is a negative relationship between stronger earnings forecast and precision of earning forecast. The study gathers the necessary data from official news released for some firms whose shares were active over the period 2003-2012. The study uses two regression models and the results of regression analysis have confirmed all hypotheses of this survey.

  3. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector......, the article discusses conditions for prospective democracy in the Danish non-profit housing sector....

  4. Greenstick Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small, "green" branch on a tree. Most greenstick fractures occur in children younger than 10 years of age. This type ... mistaken for sprains or bruises. More-severe greenstick fractures may cause an obvious ... your doctor if your child has persistent pain in an injured limb. Seek ...

  5. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    . Crushing experiments conducted on full-scale aluminum plate intersections reveal that the crushing behaviour is highly affected by material fracture during the deformation. Several fracture criteria from the literature have been reviewed and three fracture models have been compared with material...... on these two fracture models a new fracture criterion, denoted RTCL fracture criterion, is proposed and the fracture criterion is implemented in the FE-program LS-DYNA as a user subroutine. The crushing behaviours of the full-scale aluminum plate intersections have been simulated with LS......-DYNA and the implemented fracture criterion and the simulations agree well with the experiments. New closed form solutions for the dissipated energy during axial compression of aluminum plate intersections have been developed and the effect of fracture is included analytically based of the fracture criterion by Cockcroft...

  6. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...

  7. Risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.

  8. A fracture prevention service reduces further fractures two years after incident minimal trauma fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kallen, John; Giles, Michelle; Cooper, Kerry; Gill, Kerry; Parker, Vicki; Tembo, Agness; Major, Gabor; Ross, Linda; Carter, Jan

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of a fracture prevention clinic service on initiation of treatment, continuing treatment and subsequent minimal trauma fractures (MTF). Participants were people aged 50 and over, with a minimal trauma fracture presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) in a large tertiary referral hospital in New South Wales, Australia, between February 2007 and March 2009. A cohort of patients who attended a Fracture Prevention Clinic (clinic group) were compared with a cohort who did not attend the clinic (non-clinic group). A telephone questionnaire was conducted with participants or their carers between December 2010 and April 2011 at least 12 months post-fracture presentation. Questionnaire items included demographics, fracture types, osteoporosis treatment, recurrent fractures and smoking and dietary habits. Data were compared using chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Two hundred and fourteen clinic attendees and 220 non-clinic attendees were surveyed between 12 and 40 months (mean 24 months) post-initial fracture. New fracture rates were lower in the clinic group (5.1%) than the non-clinic group (16.4%, P fracture prevention clinic service following a MTF have fewer new fractures and are more likely to be on treatment for bone fragility. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  10. [Profitability analysis of clinical risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banduhn, C; Schlüchtermann, J

    2013-05-01

    Medical treatment entails many risks. Increasingly, the negative impact of these risks on patients' health is revealed and corresponding cases are reported to hospital insurances. A systematic clinical risk management can reduce risks. This analysis is designed to demonstrate the financial profitability of implementing a clinical risk management. The decision analysis of a clinical risk management includes information from published articles and studies, publicly available data from the Federal Statistical Office and expert interviews and was conducted in 2 scenarios. The 2 scenarios result from a maximum and minimum value of preventable adverse events reported in Germany. The planning horizon was a 1-year ­period. The analysis was performed from a hospital's perspective. Subsequently, a threshold-analysis of the reduction of preventable adverse events as an effect of clinical risk management was executed. Furthermore, a static capital budgeting over a 5-year period was added, complemented by a risk analysis. Regarding the given assumptions, the implementation of clinical risk management would save about 53 000 € or 175 000 €, respectively, for an average hospital within the first year. Only if the reduction of preventable adverse events is as low as 5.6 or 2.8%, respectively, will the implementation of clinical risk management produce losses. According to a comprehensive risk simulation this happens in less than one out of 1 million cases. The investment in a clinical risk management, based on a 5-year period and an interest rate of 5%, has an annually pay off of 81 000 € or 211 000 €, respectively. The implementation of clinical risk management in a hospital pays off within the first year. In the subsequent years the surplus is even higher due to the elimination of implementation costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  12. Pelvic fractures resulting from snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2010-03-01

    Information regarding pelvic fractures sustained during snowboarding is scant. To analyze the epidemiologic data, injury patterns, and types of pelvic fractures sustained during snowboarding. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury patterns, and types of pelvic fractures in 145 patients with snowboarding-related pelvic fractures who were admitted to our institution from the 1998-1999 to the 2006-2007 ski season. The incidence of snowboarding-related pelvic fractures was 0.102 per 10 000 ski lift tickets, which amounted to 2% of all snowboarding-related fractures (fifth most common type of fracture among all snowboarding-related fractures). Of the pelvic fractures, 85.5% were stable (type A according to the Tile classification) and 14.5% were unstable (types B and C according to the Tile classification). Isolated sacral fractures had the second-highest incidence (24.1%) after pubic bone and/or ischium fractures (46.9%). A distinct female prevalence was seen (52.4%). Jumps and isolated falls were the main mechanisms of injury (80%), and the incidence of collision was significantly higher in the unstable group than in the stable group (P = .037). In all, 57.9% patients classified their skill level as "intermediate," and only 9.7% of patients had received professional snowboarding lessons. A total of 30 subjects (20.8%) had other injuries along with pelvic fractures; the patients with multiple injuries were significantly more frequent in the unstable group than in the stable group (P = .035). Pelvic fractures resulting from snowboarding accidents included a higher proportion with isolated sacral fractures in the stable group and a lower prevalence of associated injuries in the unstable group compared with those resulting from other causes.

  13. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...

  15. 262 257 Profitability Analysis of Three Met

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Profitability Analysis of Three Methods of Suya Production and Marketing in. Maiduguri metropolitan Council, Borno State, ... N 1.25:1 and N 1.1:1 for Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu production and marketing enterprises, respectively. The marketing ... packaging and retailing. It is retailed to consumers in cement ...

  16. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  17. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  18. Continuous sawmill studies: protocols, practices, and profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...

  19. How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

  20. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato. (Ipomea batatas L.) in a humid Ultisols. ... this permits the growing of two or three crop cycles in a year. This crop is usually produced ...... vegetative growth as evidenced by number of leaves, vines, shorter internodes and ...

  1. Data Sparseness and Variance in Accounting Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); M.J. Burger (Martijn); D. Skuras (Dimitris)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A central question in strategic management is why some firms perform better than others. One approach to addressing this question empirically is to decompose the variance in firm-level profitability into firm, industry, location, and year components. Although it is

  2. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  3. Profitability Analysis of Groundnuts Processing in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the profitability of groundnuts processing in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of groundnut processors, estimate the costs and returns in groundnut processing and determine the return on investment in ...

  4. Fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Jones, Marci D; Ruth, John T; Benjamin, James B; Sheppard, Joseph E; Hunter, Tim B

    2003-01-01

    The basic goal of fracture fixation is to stabilize the fractured bone, to enable fast healing of the injured bone, and to return early mobility and full function of the injured extremity. Fractures can be treated conservatively or with external and internal fixation. Conservative fracture treatment consists of closed reduction to restore the bone alignment. Subsequent stabilization is then achieved with traction or external splinting by slings, splints, or casts. Braces are used to limit range of motion of a joint. External fixators provide fracture fixation based on the principle of splinting. There are three basic types of external fixators: standard uniplanar fixator, ring fixator, and hybrid fixator. The numerous devices used for internal fixation are roughly divided into a few major categories: wires, pins and screws, plates, and intramedullary nails or rods. Staples and clamps are also used occasionally for osteotomy or fracture fixation. Autogenous bone grafts, allografts, and bone graft substitutes are frequently used for the treatment of bone defects of various causes. For infected fractures as well as for treatment of bone infections, antibiotic beads are frequently used. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  5. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  6. Mexican banks: lending and profitability in The context of reforms, 1998–2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Moissinac

    2006-01-01

    This chapter characterizes bank lending and profitability in Mexico since 1998, a period of extensive reforms and structural change, including in bank balance sheets. This is done in two parts. First, we review bank reforms and other factors which may have influenced bank behavior in recent years. In particular, the nature and sequencing of reforms are described. Second, we estimate bank-level regressions which link bank lending to the private sector and profitability with balance sheet indic...

  7. Top income shares, business profits, and effective tax rates in contemporary Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tasha Fairfield; Michel Jorratt

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the burgeoning research on inequality and top incomes around the globe by presenting the first available estimates of top income shares and effective income tax rates in contemporary Chile based on analysis of anonymous income tax return microdata. We pay special attention to business income, which dominates at the top of the distribution. Our analysis includes not only distributed profits, but also the large proportion of accrued profits retained by firms. Our most ...

  8. [Talus fractures--fractures of the most important tarsal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2004-07-01

    The talus is the key bone of the foot due to its location between the ankle and the subtalar joints. Through the flexion and extension of the ankle joint, the talus is the "propulsive bone" situated at the root of the first ray and the hallux. Through the subtalar and talo-navicular joints, the talus allows the foot to be "suspended" using a fancy spring mechanism involving ligaments and tendons. The talus thus transmits forces through two important joints without any direct muscular constraint. The talo-calcaneo-navicular joint may be called the "coxa pedis" due to the anatomical and functional similitudes with the coxofemoral joint ("coxa pelvis"). Fractures of the talus are rare. Talus fractures can be classified in "central" and "peripheral" fractures. Central fractures occur through a strong axial blow provided that the ankle and coxa pedis are locked by extrinsic muscular contraction. Peripheral fractures instead occur in an extreme position of the ankle or the coxa pedis, with a subluxation or complete dislocation of one or more of those joints. Central fractures produce a bony solution of continuity in between at least two of the ankle, subtalar and talo-navicular joints. Peripheral fractures mostly do implement joint surfaces which are sheared off. Aim of treating talus fractures is precise and stable reduction of the fragments because most often, the fractures cross the articular layers. The surgical approaches are critical, especially in displaced central fractures, because the reduction may require visual control all around the bone. There are three approaches which might be used as single approaches or combined simultaneously: the anteromedial approach along the subtalar joint from the navicular to the retro-malleolar region, the anterolateral approach centered on the sinus tarsi (Ollier) and the postero-lateral approach (Gallie). In many cases, a joint distraction device may help visualization of the different joint spaces as well as assist reduction

  9. Fractures of the hallux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petnehazy, Thomas; Schalamon, Johannes; Hartwig, Charlotte; Eberl, Robert; Kraus, Tanja; Till, Holger; Singer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Foot fractures account for 5% to 13% of pediatric fractures. Fractures of the hallux require special attention due to its role in weight bearing, balance, and pedal motion. In this study, a large series of children with hallux fractures is presented. All children treated with fractures of the hallux between June 2004 and December 2011 were included. The medical records were analyzed and X-rays were reviewed. The fractures were classified according to their anatomic location and the type of fracture. Three hundred seventeen patients (mean age = 11.7 years; range, 1-18 years; 65% male) sustained a fracture of the hallux. Most accidents (28%) occurred at sports facilities, and soccer was the most common cause of a fracture of the hallux (28%). Closed injuries were diagnosed in 92% of the patients; 8% of the children presented with open fractures. In 144 children, the growth plate was affected. Fifty-nine patients presented with diaphyseal fractures, 42 patients with osseous avulsions, and 40 patients with fractures of the distal part of the phalanx. Nineteen children had incomplete and 13 patients comminuted fractures. The vast majority of the children (86%) were treated conservatively. Operative interventions were required in 14% of the patients. Good outcome was achieved in both conservatively and operatively treated patients. In children, fractures of the hallux were most often caused by ball sports and had a good prognosis. The vast majority of these fractures could be treated conservatively yielding good outcome. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Avulsion Fracture: How Is It Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the best way to treat an avulsion fracture in a young athlete? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Treatment of an avulsion fracture typically includes resting and icing the affected area, ...

  11. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  12. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2009-09-01

    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  13. Relative performance of for-profit psychiatric hospitals in investor-owned systems and nonprofit psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Clement, J P

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed the differences in operational and financial performance between 42 matched pairs of for-profit psychiatric hospitals belonging to multifacility organizations and nonprofit psychiatric hospitals for the fiscal years ending in 1986 through 1990. The pairs of short-term hospitals were matched according to location, standard metropolitan statistical area, or wage index. Analyses were based on data on these hospitals from the Health Care Financing Administration. The groups of variables studied included the hospitals' operational performance and productivity, profitability and payer mix, revenue and expenses, and capital structure. Differences in the mean values of the variables for the for-profit hospitals and the nonprofit hospitals were analyzed by pairwise t tests. The for-profit organization hospitals had significantly higher net revenue, lower salary expenses, and higher profits than the nonprofit hospitals. Patients in the for-profit hospitals had longer stays, and these hospitals had fewer full-time employees per adjusted inpatient day and per adjusted discharge. The higher prices and operating margins of the for-profit hospitals belonging to investor-owned systems reflect the profit-maximizing goal of these facilities. The ability of for-profit organization hospitals to achieve economies of scale in expenses, however, was not evident except in the case of salary expenses.

  14. Fracture healing: mechanisms and interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are the most common large-organ, traumatic injuries to humans. The repair of bone fractures is a postnatal regenerative process that recapitulates many of the ontological events of embryonic skeletal development. Although fracture repair usually restores the damaged skeletal organ to its pre-injury cellular composition, structure and biomechanical function, about 10% of fractures will not heal normally. This article reviews the developmental progression of fracture healing at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Innate and adaptive immune processes are discussed as a component of the injury response, as are environmental factors, such as the extent of injury to the bone and surrounding tissue, fixation and the contribution of vascular tissues. We also present strategies for fracture treatment that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials or case series. The biophysical and biological basis of the molecular actions of various therapeutic approaches, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone therapy, are also discussed. PMID:25266456

  15. Analysis of the financial factors governing the profitability of lunar helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Thompson, H.; Ott, S.

    1989-01-01

    Financial factors influencing the profitability of the mining and utilization of lunar helium-3 are examined. The analysis addressed the following questions: (1) which financial factors have the greatest leverage on the profitability of He-3; (2) over what range can these factors be varied to keep the He-3 option profitable; and (3) what ultimate effect could this energy source have on the price of electricity for U.S. consumers. Two complementary methods of analysis were used in the assessment: rate of return on incremental investment required and reduction revenue requirements (total cost to customers) achieved. Some of the factors addressed include energy demand, power generation costs with and without fusion, profitability for D-He(3) fusion, annual capital and operating costs, launch mass and costs, He-3 price, and government funding. Specific conclusions are made with respect to each of the companies considered: utilities, lunar mining company, and integrated energy company.

  16. Modelling fracture in ferritic steel

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G

    2002-01-01

    Results from mathematical models and computer simulations of fracture in polycrystalline steels are presented for a range of temperatures. The proportions of intergranular and intragranular failure predicted are compared with experimental results for brittle fracture, ductile fracture and in the transition region. Interactive software to create two-dimensional polycrystalline models, which allow a range of physical to be varied independently, is described. The results include those for model materials chosen to match steels used by the power generation industry. The models simulate segregation and cavitation effects in steel and fracture of weldments and their associated heat-affected zones.

  17. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  18. Comparison of Hospitalization Rates among For-Profit and Nonprofit Dialysis Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Romano, Patrick S.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Mu, Yi; Ishida, Julie H.; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The vast majority of US dialysis facilities are for-profit and profit status has been associated with processes of care and outcomes in patients on dialysis. This study examined whether dialysis facility profit status was associated with the rate of hospitalization in patients starting dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & methods This was a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries starting dialysis between 2005 and 2008 using data from the US Renal Data System. All-cause hospitalization was examined and compared between for-profit and nonprofit dialysis facilities through 2009 using Poisson regression. Companion analyses of cause-specific hospitalization that are likely to be influenced by dialysis facility practices including hospitalizations for heart failure and volume overload, access complications, or hyperkalemia were conducted. Results The cohort included 150,642 patients. Of these, 12,985 (9%) were receiving care in nonprofit dialysis facilities. In adjusted models, patients receiving hemodialysis in for-profit facilities had a 15% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 13% to 18%) higher relative rate of hospitalization compared with those in nonprofit facilities. Among patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, the rate of hospitalization in for-profit versus nonprofit facilities was not significantly different (relative rate, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.17). Patients on hemodialysis receiving care in for-profit dialysis facilities had a 37% (95% CI, 31% to 44%) higher rate of hospitalization for heart failure or volume overload and a 15% (95% CI, 11% to 20%) higher rate of hospitalization for vascular access complications. Conclusions Hospitalization rates were significantly higher for patients receiving hemodialysis in for-profit compared with nonprofit dialysis facilities. PMID:24370770

  19. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage tha...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  20. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyadi, Imron; Purnomo, Didit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provi...

  1. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  2. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  3. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alarcón; M. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation) on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relat...

  4. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  5. Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

  6. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Ganesh; Apfelbaum Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Fractures of the odontoid process are common, accounting for 10% to 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Odontoid process fractures are classified into three types depending on the location of the fracture line. Various treatment options are available for each of these fracture types and include application of a cervical orthosis, direct anterior screw fixation, and posterior cervical fusion. If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of...

  7. Can worksite nutritional interventions improve productivity and firm profitability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This paper investigates whether and how worksite nutrition policies can improve employee productivity. Methods: The questions are pursued through a literature review, including a systematic search of literature – combined with literature identified from backward references – on randomized......’ nutritional knowledge, food intake and health and on the firm’s profitability, mainly in terms of reduced absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusions: Well-targeted and efficiently implemented diet-related worksite health promotion interventions may improve labour productivity by 1%–2%. On larger worksites...

  8. Profit-Sharing – A Tool for Improving Productivity, Profitability and Competitiveness of Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibirova Jana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of appropriate utilization of rewards for performance is still growing and therefore this type of rewards can be seen as a significant part of a total rewards package. Companies that are able to appropriately implement rewards for performance may gain competitive advantage over their competitors, but successful implementation requires a good knowledge of these rewards. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the growth of this knowledge by identifying possible positive and negative impacts of profit-sharing on various areas that are important for the performance of a company, nevertheless, addressed are also macroeconomic consequences of profit-sharing. Furthermore, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the relevant literature is provided, under-researched areas are identified and suggestions for further research are given. To accomplish these goals, we applied methods of bibliometric analysis to the articles indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge to identify the most important articles, authors and topics. According to our findings, the majority of studies report a neutral or positive impact of profit-sharing on productivity and profitability. This impact may be achieved by direct influence of profit-sharing on productivity of employees (due to the dependence of their pay on profit, but it seems that yet more important are various mediating mechanisms, especially effects on employment stability, absenteeism, quits and related issues, as well as effects on attitudes of employees and on relationships between employees. We argue that a well-designed profit-sharing plan is crucial for its success, but it is a relatively under-researched problem.

  9. Tibial Plateau Fracture Characteristics: Computed Tomography Mapping of Lateral, Medial, and Bicondylar Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaars, Rik J; Mellema, Jos J; Doornberg, Job N; Kloen, Peter

    2015-09-16

    Computed tomography (CT) is seen as a useful diagnostic modality in preoperative planning for tibial plateau fractures. The purpose of this study was to characterize patterns of tibial plateau fractures with use of CT mapping. We hypothesized that CT mapping of fractures of the tibial plateau would reveal recurrent patterns of fragments and fracture lines, including patterns that do not fit into Schatzker's original classification. One hundred and twenty-seven tibial plateau fractures were retrospectively included in this study. Fracture lines and zones of comminution were graphically superimposed onto an axial template of an intact subarticular tibial plateau to identify major patterns of fracture and comminution. This fracture map of the tibial plateau was subsequently divided into lateral (Schatzker types I, II, and III), medial (Schatzker type IV), and bicondylar (Schatzker types V and VI) fracture maps. This study included seventy-three female and fifty-four male patients (average age, forty-seven years [range, seventeen to ninety-one years]) with a tibial plateau fracture. Sixty-four of the fractures were Schatzker type I, II, or III; fifteen were Schatzker type IV; and forty-eight were Schatzker type V or VI. Analysis of the fracture maps suggested patterns in the Schatzker type-IV, V, and VI fractures beyond those described in Schatzker's original classification. The maps of the 127 fractures revealed four recurrent major fracture features: the lateral split fragment (A), found in 75%; the posteromedial fragment (B), seen in 43%; the tibial tubercle fragment (C), seen in 16%; and a zone of comminution that included the tibial spine and frequently extended to the lateral condyle (D), seen in 28%. Tibial plateau fracture maps show recurrent patterns of fracture lines, revealing four major fracture characteristics. An understanding of these recurrent features of tibial plateau fractures can aid surgeons during diagnosis, preoperative planning, and execution of

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also lost in Year 1, P would have decreased its earnings and profits for Year 1 by the additional $50... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.1502-33 Section 1.1502... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-33 Earnings and...

  11. Relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability: an empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores relationships between customer satisfactions; repurchase intentions, purchase behavior, and customer profitability with empirical data on attitudes, behavior, and profitability at the customer level of analysis. Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ...

  12. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  13. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.312-6 Section 1.312-6...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the amount of earnings and profits (whether of the taxable year, or accumulated since February 28, 1913, or accumulated...

  14. An Algorithm for the Nucleolus of Airport Profit Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Inarra, E.; Tijs, S.H.; Zarzuelo, J.

    2003-01-01

    Airport profit games are a generalization of airport cost games as well as of bankruptcy games.In this paper we present a simple algorithm to compute the nucleolus of airport profit games.In addition we prove that there exists an unique consistent allocation rule in airport profit problems, and it

  15. Taxing across Borders: Tracking Personal Wealth and Corporate Profits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel Zucman

    2014-01-01

    ... that UScompanies are shifting profits to Bermuda, Luxembourg, and similar countries on a large and growing scale. About 20percent of all US corporate profits are now booked in such havens, a tenfoldincrease since the 1980s. This profit-shifting is typically done within the letter of the law and thus would be best described as tax avoidance rather than fraud. ...

  16. Determinants Of Profitability And Willingness To Pay For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to analyse the profitability of urban agriculture using metropolitan organic waste in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The results show that the enterprise is profitable, and that output price is the most important determinant of maximum variable profit. Other price factors, specifically planting ...

  17. Effective application of improved profit-mining algorithm for the interday trading model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Lung; Yang, Don-Lin; Wu, Jungpin

    2014-01-01

    Many real world applications of association rule mining from large databases help users make better decisions. However, they do not work well in financial markets at this time. In addition to a high profit, an investor also looks for a low risk trading with a better rate of winning. The traditional approach of using minimum confidence and support thresholds needs to be changed. Based on an interday model of trading, we proposed effective profit-mining algorithms which provide investors with profit rules including information about profit, risk, and winning rate. Since profit-mining in the financial market is still in its infant stage, it is important to detail the inner working of mining algorithms and illustrate the best way to apply them. In this paper we go into details of our improved profit-mining algorithm and showcase effective applications with experiments using real world trading data. The results show that our approach is practical and effective with good performance for various datasets.

  18. Determinants of Food Crop Diversity and Profitability in Southeastern Nigeria: A Multivariate Tobit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study jointly determines the factors influencing decisions to diversify into multiple food crops (i.e., rice, yam and cassava vis-à-vis profitability of 400 farmers from Ebonyi and Anambra states of Southeastern Nigeria using a multivariate Tobit model. Model diagnostic reveals that the decisions to diversify into multiple crops and profits generated therefrom are significantly correlated, thereby justifying use of a multivariate approach. Results reveal that 68% of the farmers grew at least two food crops and profitability is highest for only rice producers followed by joint rice and yam producers, which are mainly for sale. Farm size is the most dominant determinant of crop diversity vis-à-vis profitability. A rise in the relative price of plowing significantly reduces profitability of yam and rice. High yield is the main motive for growing yam and cassava whereas ready market is for rice. Other determinants with varying level of influences are proximity to market and/or extension office, extension contact, training, agricultural credit, subsistence pressure and location. Policy recommendations include investments in market infrastructure and credit services, land and/or tenurial reform and input price stabilization to promote food crop diversity vis-à-vis profitability in Southeastern Nigeria.

  19. Traditions and Management Perspectives of Community and Non-Profit Organizations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiukynas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.

  20. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of

  1. Hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, R.L.

    1973-04-17

    A method of fracturing a subterranean porous formation penetrated by a well bore consists of injecting down the well and into the formation, at a pressure sufficient to fracture the formation, a fracturing fluid comprising an aqueous gel. This gel is composed of water to which there has been added: a water-thickening amount of a water-dispersible polymer selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamides and polymethacrylamides; crosslinked polyacrylamides and crosslinked polyacrylamides; polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid; polyacrylates; polymers of N-substituted acrylamides; copolymers of acrylamide with another ethylenically unsaturated monomer copolymerizable therewith; mixtures of the polymers; a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal which is capable of gelling the water when the valence of the metal is reduced to a lower valence state; and a water-soluble reducing agent. (31 claims)

  2. [Stress fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, M

    2016-07-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to repetitive mechanical overuse of the skeleton and occur as a result of microscopic lesions sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stress. Over time accumulation of such injuries can lead to bone failure and fractures. Stress-related bone injuries are relatively common among otherwise healthy persons who have recently started new or intensified forms of physical training activities. Stress injuries lead to typical findings on radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and need to be discriminated from other conditions, in particular infections and neoplasms. Stress fractures must be differentiated from insufficiency fractures that occur in bones with reduced mechanical resistance or disturbed structure.

  3. Organizational Structure and Behaviour in Day Care: Differences between Non-Profit and For-Profit Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…

  4. Fracture Blisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing, Claire M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn.These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;131-133.

  5. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  6. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should be avoided. Steps to take after the fracture has healed include: • Chair cushions to provide support to the lower spine • Getting up out of a desk chair at least a few minutes every hour • A gradual return to exercise such as walking and/or swimming 2007; reviewed ...

  7. Interpersonal violence and facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai H

    2009-09-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major health hazard that contributes to the high volume of trauma seen in the emergency department. It is also one of the principal causes of maxillofacial fractures. The present study was a retrospective analysis of patients referred to, and treated at, the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit at Christchurch Hospital during an 11-year period (1996 to 2006). The variables examined included patient demographics, fracture types, mode of injury, and treatment delivered. An increase was found in the number of fractures due to interpersonal violence in the second half of the study, although the proportion remained the same. The age of the patients ranged from 9 to 89 years (mean 28). The male-to-female ratio was 9:1. Of the patients, 87% had alcohol involvement. The mandible was the most common site of fracture, followed by the zygoma. Other midface fractures, including Le Fort fractures, were less frequently observed. Of the patients, 59% were hospitalized and 56% required surgery, with internal fixation necessary in 41% of patients. An increase occurred in the number of facial fractures associated with interpersonal violence during the study period. Young male adults were the most affected demographic group, with alcohol a main contributing factor. Violence-related facial fracture is a health hazard that deserves more public awareness and implementation of preventive programs.

  8. Sustainability, productivity, and profitability of agroecosystems under variable rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements. Hence, it is becoming imperative to sustainably manage the available water resources, while simultaneously meeting yield and profitability targets. Simple, widely applicable models of irrigation provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability and are necessary for short- and long-term water resource management. We consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework that includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. Mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount are employed to compute water requirements, yields, and net economic gain as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point to quantify the risks that a certain target yield or profit is not met for given irrigation strategies, with clear implications on food security

  9. DOD Contractor Profitability 1980-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    compdny’s control), surf)lus, and retdined earnings. 2. Seleccion of a Profit ~~asure A number of prot1t measures have been used in s t u d y i n g de E...iC- GGG GGG GGG L"II .:)S. 0.. S.t?ACr; F1ŕC COHPOkA’l’ I ON 1. ~1C Corp. is the world’s largest ~roducer of natural sod~ ash and

  10. Fractures of the calcaneus in racing greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, P C; Dee, J F; Dee, L G; Hohn, R B

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one calcaneus fractures associated with (41) or without (10) central tarsal bone (Tc) fractures in racing greyhounds were evaluated and categorized. All calcaneal fractures with no Tc fractures had a plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation. No subluxations were found in dogs with both calcaneal and central tarsal fractures. The calcaneal fractures were treated either with coaptation splints or surgical repair. Surgical techniques included a Steinmann pin with a figure eight tension band device or screw or plate fixation as primary techniques supplemented by Kirschner wires and cerclage wires. In all calcaneal fractures associated with plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation, an arthrodesis of the calcaneoquartal joint was performed. All 22 surgically repaired fractures in dogs available for physical and radiographic reexamination had healed within 1 to 6 months. Eight dogs with fractures of the calcaneus associated with fractures of Tc returned to a racing career. None of the dogs with plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation raced again. Based on the orientation of the fracture lines and on dissection of two tarsi with calcaneal fractures, a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of calcaneal fractures in racing greyhounds was formulated.

  11. [Development and application of fracture risk assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-06-01

    Definition of osteoporosis by BMD T-score has been accepted globally. However, the age-dependent changes in BMD values differ on the different sites for measurements and the sensitivity of BMD to predict the risk of osteoporotic fracture, assessed by the risk gradient value, is as small as 1.7. Reportedly, WHO Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX®) tool to compute 10-year probabilities of osteoporotic fracture, is sensitive enough to select the high fracture risk subjects with the risk gradient value of 2.57 - 2.77 in Japanese men and women. The combination of the three major risk factors such as age, BMD and prevalent fractures, when both morphometric spine and clinical non-spine fracture are included, represents the value of 2.49 - 2.71. Radiographic assessment of prevalent vertebral fracture, along with FRAX®evaluation, seems to be important in assessing the fracture risk in Japanese subjects.

  12. A study on the effect of different factors on profitability of banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghadimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the effect of different influencing factors on profitability of banking system in Iran for a panel data from 2001 to 2010. The sample of banking system includes ten different banks and two different types of internal and external variables are considered. Internal factors include ownership ratio, ratio of bank customers' deposit to banks' assets, ratio of total loans given to all assets, ratio of total interest free loans on total assets, ratio of interest free revenues on total revenue. External factors include economic growth, actual rate of interest and inflation rate. The proposed model of this paper uses econometrics method to investigate the proposed model and the preliminary results indicate that ownership ratio, ratio of total equity on total assets, along with inflation rate have negative impact on profitability. In addition, the ratio of customers' deposit on total assets, the ratio of total loans on total assets and economic growth have positive impact on profitability.

  13. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  14. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  15. Hydraulic fracturing model based on the discrete fracture model and the generalized J integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, Z. F.; Wang, X. H.; Zeng, B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydraulic fracturing technique is an effective stimulation for low permeability reservoirs. In fracturing models, one key point is to accurately calculate the flux across the fracture surface and the stress intensity factor. To achieve high precision, the discrete fracture model is recommended to calculate the flux. Using the generalized J integral, the present work obtains an accurate simulation of the stress intensity factor. Based on the above factors, an alternative hydraulic fracturing model is presented. Examples are included to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed model and its ability to model the fracture propagation. Subsequently, the model is used to describe the relationship between the geometry of the fracture and the fracturing equipment parameters. The numerical results indicate that the working pressure and the pump power will significantly influence the fracturing process.

  16. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included children and adolescents (0-17 years old) diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne (Switzerland). Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. Results - Of 2,292 upper extremity fractures in 2,203 children and adolescents, 26% involved the humerus and 74% involved the forearm. In the humerus, 61%, and in the forearm, 80% of single distal fractures involved the metaphysis. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. 47% of combined forearm fractures were distal metaphyseal fractures. Only 0.7% of fractures could not be classified within 1 of the child-specific fracture patterns. Of the single epiphyseal fractures, 49% were Salter-Harris type-II (SH II) fractures; of these, 94% occurred in schoolchildren and adolescents. Of the metaphyseal fractures, 58% showed an incomplete fracture pattern. 89% of incomplete fractures affected the distal radius. Of the diaphyseal fractures, 32% were greenstick fractures. 24 Monteggia fractures occurred in pre-school children and schoolchildren, and 2 occurred in adolescents. Interpretation - The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and

  17. Financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in for-profit and not-for-profit nursing homes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo

    Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.

  18. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  19. Radiographic evaluation of maxillofacial fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litwan, M.; Fliegel, C.

    1986-09-01

    The course and configuration of typical maxillofacial fractures (type Le Fort I-III) and lateral maxillary fractures including the zygomatic arch were reconstructed in detail by application of barium paste on a bony skull and radiogrpahs in standard projections were performed and evaluated. It was obvious from the resulting radiographs that for most maxillofacial fractures a half axial or Water's view was most helpful. Lateral views only give additional information when there is a considerable degree of dislocation of fragments. Comparison with a prediatric skull of 8 years of age demonstrated that fractures of the zygomatic arch in this age group cannot be demonstrated by the typical submento-vertical view, but are shown on a Towne projection. The radiographic appearance of important maxillofacial fractures is demonstrated. The necessity of further studies in cases where reconstructive surgery appears necessary is discussed and CT rather then conventional tomography is advocated.

  20. Stream maintenance as a profit center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchillon, J.L.

    1997-06-01

    Probably one of the most overlooked profit centers in industrial management strategy is savings in energy costs. Every $1 in certified energy savings is often worth over $10 in increased sales. The author has found from actual practice that there is big corporate profit in a shrewd, diligent steam trap management program. He describes a way to restructure corporate handling of trap maintenance to turn it into a source of revenue. Cited is a case history of building an intensive trap maintenance program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This article will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months generate over $125,000 annually in tax-free cash per 1000 traps with an investment payback of 18 months or less. The author is a businessman and energy management consultant that has no trap sales or promotion.

  1. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alarcón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relative roles played by each. The empirical work takes place in the agro-food industry in the Ebro Valley, one of Spain’s most competitive regions. The estimates from profitability quantile and truncated regressions of the efficiency scores reveal that market orientation has a positive effect on economic and productivity performance. The impact of pro-active, innovation-seeking, and risk-averse entrepreneurship is nevertheless more debatable, despite some influence of these entrepreneurial styles on observed performance values. This enables conclusions regarding the possibility of combining a market-oriented business culture with innovation and entrepreneurial activity with a view to obtaining business performance gains.

  2. Wise Investment? Modeling Industry Profitability and Risk of Targeted Chemotherapy for Incurable Solid Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conter, Henry J.; Chu, Quincy S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pharmaceutical development involves substantial financial risk. This risk, rising development costs, and the promotion of continued research and development have been cited as major drivers in the progressive increase in drug prices. Currently, cost-effective analyses are being used to determine the value of treatment. However, cost-effective analyses practically function as a threshold for value and do not directly address the rationale for drug prices. We set out to create a functional model for industry price decisions and clarify the minimum acceptable profitability of new drugs. Methods: Assuming that industry should only invest in profitable ventures, we employed a linear cost-volume-profit breakeven analysis to equate initial capital investment and risk and post–drug-approval profits, where drug development represents the bulk of investment. A Markov decision analysis model was also used to define the relationships between investment events risk. A systematic literature search was performed to determine event probabilities, clinical trial costs, and total expenses as inputs into the model. Disease-specific inputs, current market size across regions, and lengths of treatment for cancer types were also included. Results: With development of single novel chemotherapies costing from $802 to $1,042 million (2002 US dollars), pharmaceutical profits should range from $4.3 to $5.2 billion, with an expected rate of return on investment of 11% annually. However, diversification across cancer types for chemotherapy can reduce the minimum required profit to less than $3 billion. For optimal diversification, industry should study four tumor types per drug; however, nonprofit organizations could tolerate eight parallel development tracks to minimize the risk of development failure. Assuming that pharmaceutical companies hold exclusive rights for drug sales for only 5 years after market approval, the minimum required profit per drug per month per patient ranges

  3. [Aftercare for durability and profitability of single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; van Loveren, C; van der Maarel-Wierink, C D; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2013-01-01

    An important aim ofa treatment with single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses is a durable and profitable treatment outcome. That requires aftercare, too. First, the frequency of routine oral examinations should be assessed, using an individual risk profile. The objectives of the routine oral examinations are the prevention and, when necessary, the treatment of pathological conditions and complications. With regard to prevention, attention should be paid to information and instruction, oral biofilm and calculus, non-functional activities, hard tooth tissues, periodontal and peri-implant tissues, and saliva. Subsequently, it can be determined whether the intended durability and profitability have been achieved or can still be achieved, whether or not through indicated adjustments. Special attention should be paid to endodontically treated teeth. Restorative, repair or replacement treatments may be indicated in case ofcomplications, such as loose single- or multi-unitfixed dental prosthesis, fracture of a fixed dental prosthesis unit, lost tooth pulp vitality, tooth root fracture, and implant or implant abutment problems.

  4. Cournot competition between a non-profit firm and a for-profit firm with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a Cournot competition between a nonprofit firm and a for-profit firm in a homogeneous goods market, with uncertain demand. Given an asymmetric tax schedule, we compute explicitly the Bayesian-Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the tax rate and the degree of altruistic preference on market equilibrium outcomes.

  5. Do non-profits make a difference? : Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifying

  6. Arthroscopy-assisted fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Whipple, Terry; Mann, Gideon; Mei-Dan, Omer; Atay, O Ahmet; Beer, Yiftah; Lowe, Joseph; Soudry, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-02-01

    the purpose of this article was to systematically analyze the results of published studies in the literature which evaluated the use of arthroscopically assisted techniques in intra-articular fracture fixation. published investigations to date were analyzed by classifying them according to joints that were involved with intra-articular fractures including: knee, ankle, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The results were studied to assess the feasibility, efficiency, and outcomes of arthroscopy-assisted fracture fixation. arthroscopy-assisted techniques have been used successfully for the treatment of fractures of the tibial plateau, tibial eminence, malleoli, pilon, calcaneus, femoral head, glenoid, greater tuberosity, distal clavicle, radial head, coronoid, distal radius, and scaphoid. The major advantages of arthroscopic fracture fixation over open methods are direct visualization of the intra-articular space, decreased invasiveness, and the possibility for multitask interventions through which fixation of the fracture, and repair of the soft tissues and the cartilage can be performed simultaneously. The time-consuming and technically demanding nature of the procedures with a prolonged learning curve and limited fixation alternatives are the main disadvantages of this technique. arthroscopic fixation is increasingly utilized for certain intra-articular fracture types due to the minimally invasive nature of the procedures and high accuracy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to justify wider use of arthroscopy-assisted techniques for treatment of intra-articular fractures.

  7. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  8. Odontoid fracture biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2014-11-15

    In vitro biomechanical study. To investigate mechanisms of odontoid fracture. Odontoid fractures in younger adults occur most often due to high-energy trauma including motor vehicle crashes and in older adults due to fall from standing height. Horizontally aligned head impacts into a padded barrier were simulated using a human upper cervical spine specimen (occiput through C3) mounted to a surrogate torso mass on a sled and carrying a surrogate head. We divided 13 specimens into 3 groups on the basis of head impact location: upper forehead in the midline, upper lateral side of the forehead, and upper lateral side of the head. Post-impact fluoroscopy and anatomical dissection documented the injuries. Time-history biomechanical responses were determined. Four of the 5 specimens subjected to impact to the upper forehead in the midline sustained type II or high type III odontoid fractures due to abrupt deceleration of the head and continued forward torso momentum. Average peak force reached 1787.1 N at the neck at 50.3 milliseconds. Subsequently, the motion peaks occurred for the head relative to C3 reaching 15.2° for extension, 2.1 cm for upward translation, and 5.3 cm for horizontal compression, between 62 and 68 milliseconds. We identified impact to the upper forehead in the midline as a mechanism that produced odontoid fracture and associated atlas and ligamentous injuries similar to those observed in real-life trauma. We were not able to create odontoid fractures during impacts to the upper lateral side of the forehead or upper lateral side of the head. Dynamic odontoid fracture was caused by rapid deceleration of the head, which transferred load inferiorly combined with continued torso momentum, which caused spinal compression and anterior shear force and forward displacement of the axis relative to the atlas.

  9. How to plan a flood for efficiency and profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.A.; Bass, W.A. Jr.

    1972-10-01

    There are proven, planned steps that will assist an operator achieve maximum profit from a secondary waterflood of a previously unprofitable lease. The operator has a major decision to make: plug and abandon, or attempt some form of secondary recovery. The present need for additional oil and the inherent risk of exploration drilling are incentives for the small operator to review these marginal leases for a possible secondary project. The operations should follow definite planning steps to insure the financial success of his project, as follows: (1) conduct a preliminary check to determine if there is a chance to waterflood the producing reservoir; (2) contact all field operators to determine their interest in a secondary recovery project; (3) prepare an engineering feasibility study; (4) unitize operating interest and royalty interest; (5) develop the project for waterflooding using detailed cost analysis for equipment, water supply and water system, well workovers, and power sources; and (6) maintain accurate performance and cost records on water injection, handling of water, including power and chemicals, equipment, and the reservoir. Secondary waterflooding today requires complete and accurate performance records, if they are to be operated efficiently and profitably. An example is given.

  10. bilateral recon nailing of comminuted fracture femur in a severely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... Severely comminuted fractures of the femur can be challenging injuries to manage. The incidence of these ... (KNH). Injuries identified included almost identical bilateral fracture femur consisting of high subtrochanteric fracture with .... nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. Strategies Trauma ...

  11. The Influence of Temperature on Mode I Fracture Toughness and Fracture Characteristics of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gan; Kang, Yong; Meng, Tao; Hu, Yao-qing; Li, Xiao-hong

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of temperature on the mode I fracture toughness of sandstone using semicircular bend specimens. Fracture characteristics were studied using scanning electron microscopy and other means. The results showed that temperature influenced fracturing in three stages along a temperature gradient. In the low-temperature stage (20-100 °C), fracture toughness increases slowly, with a total increase of approximately 11%. At the medium-temperature stage (100-500 °C), fracture toughness decreases slowly, at a rate of approximately 18%. During the high-temperature stage (500-800 °C), fracture toughness was reduced by approximately 44%. The mode I fracture toughness has a clear temperature threshold (500-600 °C). Below this threshold, the fracture toughness decreases slowly. When the temperature threshold is reached, the fracture toughness decreases sharply. The sharp decrease is mainly caused by the creation of a fragmentation structure. The sandstone experiences more transgranular fracture mechanics in the low-temperature stage compared to the high-temperature stage. Above 100 °C, the mechanisms include transgranular fracturing, intergranular fracturing, thermal cracking, and mutual coupling fracturing. When the temperature exceeds 500 °C, several different fragmentation structures are seen. This research study provides significant data to evaluate fracture characteristics and rock safety and stability after heat treatment.

  12. Avoiding occlusal derangement in facial fractures: An evidence based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Mendonca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial fractures with occlusal derangement describe any fracture which directly or indirectly affects the occlusal relationship. Such fractures include dento-alveolar fractures in the maxilla and mandible, midface fractures - Le fort I, II, III and mandible fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, and condyle. In some of these fractures, the fracture line runs through the dento-alveolar component whereas in others the fracture line is remote from the occlusal plane nevertheless altering the occlusion. The complications that could ensue from the management of maxillofacial fractures are predominantly iatrogenic, and therefore can be avoided if adequate care is exercised by the operating surgeon. This paper does not emphasize on complications arising from any particular technique in the management of maxillofacial fractures but rather discusses complications in general, irrespective of the technique used.

  13. Determinants of profitability differences among major refiner/marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report attempts to shed light on the factors affecting the differing profitabilities among companies, particularly, the effect of refinery upgrading, to contribute toward a better understanding of the performance of the domestic petroleum refining industry. The determinants of domestic refining-marketing profitability in the short run are evaluated. The focus is on those factors affecting the profitability of operations using the existing capital stock. Of particular interest is the effect on profitability of investments made for refinery upgrading. The refining-marketing segment is assumed to be operated to maximize profits of that segment rather than the profits of some other segment. The cost and financial data used in the analysis are proprietary line-of-business data from the FRS. The FRS provides detailed information on refining-marketing revenue, cost, income, and investment. The specific data used are discussed and key definitions provided later in this report. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Profitable solutions to climate, oil, and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B

    2010-05-01

    Protecting the climate is not costly but profitable (even if avoided climate change is worth zero), mainly because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel. The two biggest opportunities, both sufficiently fast, are oil and electricity. The US, for example, can eliminate its oil use by the 2040s at an average cost of $15 per barrel ($2000), half by redoubled efficiency and half by alternative supplies, and can save three-fourths of its electricity more cheaply than operating a thermal power station. Integrative design permits this by making big energy savings cheaper than small ones, turning traditionally assumed diminishing returns into empirically observed expanding returns. Such efficiency choices accelerate climate-safe, inexhaustible, and resilient energy supply-notably the "micropower" now delivering about a sixth of the world's electricity and 90% of its new electricity. These cheap, fast, market-financeable, globally applicable options offer the most effective, yet most underestimated and overlooked, solutions for climate, proliferation, and poverty.

  15. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  16. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  17. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  18. Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hertzberg, Richard W; Vinci, Richard Paul; Hertzberg, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    "Hertzberg's 5th edition of Deformation & Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials offers several new features including a greater number and variety of homework problems using more computational software...

  19. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  20. Analisis Teknikal Untuk Mendapatkan Profit Dalam Forex Trading Online

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanto, .; Alwiyah, .

    2012-01-01

    Technical Analysis To Obtain Profit From Online Forex Trading. The purpose of the research is to find profitable consistency in predicting price movement, especially on pairs GBPUSD and EURUSD using candlestick, moving average convergence divergence (MACD) and stochastic oscillator as parts of technical analysis before taking an action whether to buy or to sell forex. The profit is calculated for every given buy-sell signal after considering transaction cost in the amount of spread. The desig...

  1. Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact on profitability in petrochemical industry.

  2. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  3. Components of the Profitability of Technical Currency Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of the profitability of 1024 moving average and momentum models when trading in the German mark (euro)/U.S. dollar market based on daily data. The main results are as follows. First, each of these models would have been profitable over the entire sample period. Second, this profitability is exclusively due to the exploitation of persistent exchange rate trends. Third, these results do not change substantially when trading is examined within subperiods. Four...

  4. Risk Sharing and Layoff Risk in Profit Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Raul V.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if the employer is risk averse, however slightly, there is always a profit sharing contract that will Pareto-dominate the spot wage contract in the sense of pure risk sharing. The smaller is the employer risk aversion, the narrower is the room for profit sharing. The higher the workers value employment stability (less layoff risk), the more Pareto attractive is profit sharing regardless of employer risk aversion.

  5. Distal radius triplane fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, A A H; Marya, S; Auplish, S

    2014-11-01

    A triplane fracture is so named because of the three planes traversed by the fracture line. These are physeal fractures that result from injury during the final phase of maturation and cessation of growth. This fracture pattern typically involves the distal tibia. We present a rare case of a triplane fracture involving the distal radius.

  6. Geriatric trauma hip fractures: is there a difference in outcomes based on fracture patterns?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangram, Alicia; Moeser, Phillip; Corneille, Michael G; Prokuski, Laura J; Zhou, Nicolas; Sohn, Jacqueline; Chaliki, Shalini; Oguntodu, Olakunle F; Dzandu, James K

    2014-01-01

    Background Annually in the US, there are over 300,000 hospital admissions due to hip fractures in geriatric patients. Consequently, there have been several large observational studies, which continue to provide new insights into differences in outcomes among hip fracture patients. However, few hip fracture studies have specifically examined the relationship between hip fracture patterns, sex, and short-term outcomes including hospital length of stay and discharge disposition in geriatric trau...

  7. Health care joint ventures between tax-exempt organizations and for-profit entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    Health care exempt organizations have many options regarding their structure and affiliations with for-profit entities. As long as any joint ventures are carefully structured and the nonprofit retains control over the exempt health care activities, the Internal Revenue Service should not question the structure. However, as outlined above, if the for-profit entity effectively gains control over the activities of the venture, the structure is not likely to be upheld by the IRS or the courts, and either the exempt status of the nonprofit will be denied or revoked, or health care income will be subject to the unrelated business income tax. In summary, the health care industry has been severely impacted by many economic forces, including uncertainty in the area of joint ventures between nonprofits and for-profit health care systems. The uncertainty as to whether the joint venture would negatively impact the nonprofit's tax-exempt status undoubtedly caused many nonprofits to form for-profit subsidiaries and otherwise expanded operations in a for-profit marketplace. Fortunately, with the guidance that is currently available in the form of Revenue Ruling 98-15, Redlands, St. David's, and now Revenue Ruling 2004-51, health care institutions can move forward with properly structured joint ventures with greater confidence that the joint venture will not endanger the tax-exempt status of the nonprofit.

  8. ECO PROFIT - A NEW DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crecană Cornel Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a review of theoretical concepts including a conceptual delimitation of the term "sustainable development" from the first definition given in 1987 to concrete implementation of EU law and develop a strategy in this regard. Aim of the work is to emphasize the importance of the transition from an economy focused on obtaining maximum profits in a responsible economy, which does not exclude profit, but prioritizes basic maintenance of ecological balance. The innovative character of such a theoretical-methodological approach is limited only by the practicality of implementing the macroeconomic and microeconomic level. It is noteworthy, however, increasing research activities in this field of sustainable development literature study clearly reflects a new direction in the economy, the paradigm shift is expected by all professionals, but was seriously hampered by the financial crisis. Serious impetus was given to research done by the German company Puma, launched in 2010 through the development and publication of a profit and loss "green", taking into account the impact of the natural environment over activities, impact measured clear and published in financial statements of the company. Starting from these considerations, I propose in this paper, introducing the term ECOPROFIT or profit obtained under maintaining fundamental ecological balances, justifying the need for, and practical possibilities to implement this concept in economic and financial analysis, accounting and fiscal management economic entities by developing a model of differential taxation of profits, depending on the impact the entity's economic activities on the ecological balance.

  9. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ganesh; Apfelbaum, Ronald I

    2005-12-01

    Fractures of the odontoid process are common, accounting for 10% to 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Odontoid process fractures are classified into three types depending on the location of the fracture line. Various treatment options are available for each of these fracture types and include application of a cervical orthosis, direct anterior screw fixation, and posterior cervical fusion. If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of treatment may affect fusion rates, particularly if direct anterior odontoid screw fixation is selected as the treatment method. For example, type II odontoid fractures treated within the first 6 months of injury with direct anterior odontoid screw fixation have an 88% fusion rate, whereas fractures treated after 18 months have only a 25% fusion rate. In this review, we discuss the etiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment (including factors affecting fusion such as timing and fracture orientation) options available for odontoid process fractures.

  10. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

  11. Alternative quality measures and profitability of hospital inpatient services offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Hegji, Charles E; Self, Robin M

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis, we study the relationship between hospital quality and hospital profits for a sample of 88 Alabama (USA) hospitals. Quality is measured by three groups of procedures performed on newly admitted patients as suggested by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Health Quality Alliance (HQA) as well as a weighted quality measure. Profit is measured for eight hospital services. Profits from cardiac care were most responsive to the quality measures studied. Moreover, profits from six of the inpatient services increased as the weighted quality measure increased. Finally, in two cases quality increased with the relative number of employees a hospital utilized.

  12. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  13. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, NP; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    and the variable costs. A multivariable hierarchical model was constructed to investigate the association between the risk factors: oral treatment (yes/no), parenteral treatment (yes/no), pathological findings (yes/no), breed (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Yorkshire) and weight at 4 weeks with the outcome variable...... kg were included in the study. Oral and parenteral treatments were used as indicator of disease in the finishing period and, pathological lesions were used as indicator of disease at slaughter. Profit margin was calculated individually for each boar as the difference between the total revenue...... of 17%. Boars treated orally had a reduction of 0.88 €, which corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin of 7%. Pathological findings, breed and weight at 4 weeks were also significantly associated with the profit margin. The effect of pathological findings was influenced by breed and caused...

  14. Profit rates in the developed capitalist economies: a time series investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Trofimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is empirical evidence to support the hypothesis of a secular decline in the economy-wide profit rates, as predicted by classical economic theories. We specifically consider profit rates in the OECD economies based on the national accounts data contained in the Extended Penn World Table database. We use linear trend, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, and allow for structural breaks and instabilities in the series. Our results suggest that profit rates in OECD economies exhibited a variety of patterns, including stochastic and deterministic trends, random walk, reversals, as well as stability. The secular decline (fluctuation around a falling deterministic trend hypothesis is supported for Canada, Portugal and the USA, while secular rise is witnessed for Greece and Norway. JEL Classification: B5, C22, P17

  15. Profitability of buffalo’s milk in the province of Latina (Italy in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Roest

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the profitability of buffalo milk production in the Province of Latina (Italy. The study, based on a constant sample of 10 farms, was carried out between 2004 and 2005. It shows the average levels of revenue and production costs, including specific indicators such as returns to labour and family farm income, which are used to define the level of profitability of these enterprises. These results are compared with figures from conventional dairy farming in the same region.

  16. Profitability Analysis of Banks An Application on the Turkish Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Cerci,; Serkan Yilmaz Kandir; Yildirim Beyazit Onal

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks, operating in Turkey, between January 2003 and May 2010. A multiple linear regression model is used for the econometric analysis. Independent variables include; loan loss provisions to non-performing loans, non-interest expense to net profit, total loans to total deposits and non-interest income to total assets and growth of money supply. Our findings suggest that loans to deposit ratio and non-i...

  17. Hexapod External Fixation of Tibia Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iobst, Christopher A

    2016-06-01

    Most tibia fractures in children can be treated nonoperatively. For fractures that do require surgery, however, the most common methods of management include plating or flexible nail insertion. Some fracture patterns, such as periphyseal fractures, fractures with bone and/or soft tissue loss, or fractures with delayed presentation, are not easily amenable to these techniques. Hexapod external fixators are especially helpful in these difficult cases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the principles of performing hexapod circular external fixation applied to pediatric tibia fractures. Some of the additional capabilities of the hexapod external fixator will also be highlighted.

  18. Computed tomography of calcaneal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.; Seddiqi, M.S.A.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of 25 fractured calcanei was performed to investigate the potential of CT in evaluating the pattern and biomechanics of these fractures. The characteristic findings of typical fractures are presented, including the number and type of principal fragments, size and dislocation of the sustentacular fragment, and involvement of the anterior and posterior facets of the subtalar joint. In 17 cases, the calcaneus consisted of four or more fragments. Furthermore, in 17 cases the sustentacular fragment included all or part of the posterior facet joint. In 18 of the 25 cases, the sustentacular fragment was displaced. It is concluded that well performed CT is an invaluable adjunct in understanding the fracture mechanism and in detecting pain-provoking impingement between the fibular malleolus and the tuberosity fragment.

  19. Understanding the Impact of Human Mobility Patterns on Taxi Drivers’ Profitability Using Clustering Techniques: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. H. Naji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxi trajectories reflect human mobility over the urban roads’ network. Although taxi drivers cruise the same city streets, there is an observed variation in their daily profit. To reveal the reasons behind this issue, this study introduces a novel approach for investigating and understanding the impact of human mobility patterns (taxi drivers’ behavior on daily drivers’ profit. Firstly, a K-means clustering method is adopted to group taxi drivers into three profitability groups according to their driving duration, driving distance and income. Secondly, the cruising trips and stopping spots for each profitability group are extracted. Thirdly, a comparison among the profitability groups in terms of spatial and temporal patterns on cruising trips and stopping spots is carried out. The comparison applied various methods including the mash map matching method and DBSCAN clustering method. Finally, an overall analysis of the results is discussed in detail. The results show that there is a significant relationship between human mobility patterns and taxi drivers’ profitability. High profitability drivers based on their experience earn more compared to other driver groups, as they know which places are more active to cruise and to stop and at what times. This study provides suggestions and insights for taxi companies and taxi drivers in order to increase their daily income and to enhance the efficiency of the taxi industry.

  20. Impact of Partially Cemented and Non-persistent Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Ames, Brandon C.; Bunger, Andrew P.; Savitski, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents laboratory experiments exploring the interaction between hydraulic fractures and preexisting natural fractures that are strongly cemented relative to the host material strength but over only a portion of the natural fracture. Two sets of experiments were conducted, including the central region cemented case and the top-bottom region cemented case. Three main patterns are observed for the interaction between hydraulic fractures and partially cemented natural fractures: (1) complete crossing, (2) crossing with mismatched crack path and (3) no crossing. The results show that a hydraulic fracture penetrates directly through a fully and strongly cemented preexisting natural fracture. When the proportion of the strongly cemented region decreases or the height of the weak natural fracture increases, the hydraulic fracture is observed to persist through the entire height of the specimen both before and after the interface. However, the fracture path proceeds directly through strongly cemented portions while causing mismatched crack path at uncemented portions. No crossing results are obtained when the strongly cemented region is sufficiently small, around 30 % of the natural fracture's height. Results of this seldom considered but almost certainly realistic configuration of partial cementing suggest that the hydraulic fracture path is strongly influenced by the size of the cemented region of the natural fracture.

  1. Sports-related fractures in South East Scotland: an analysis of 990 fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart A; Watson, Bruce S; Wood, Alexander M; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of all sports related fractures in patients aged ≥ 15 years in South East Scotland in one year. Medical records of 990 consecutive patients aged ≥ 15 years who presented to the Orthopaedic Trauma Unit of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh with sports-related fractures between 1 July 2007 and 30 June 2008 were reviewed. Acute fractures of the upper limbs, lower limbs, pelvis, and cervical spine were included, but those of the skull, facial bones, and thorax were excluded, as were stress and chronic fractures. The incidence of sports-related fractures was 1.8/1000/year (82% involving men). The median age of patients was 25 (interquartile range, 19-35) years. Sports-related fractures accounted for 24.6% and 5.1% of all fractures in men and women, respectively. Men aged 15 to 19 years were 9 times more likely to have sports-related fractures than women of the same age. The sports-related fractures involved the upper limbs (52.4%), lower limbs (45.4%), and axial skeleton (2.2%). 12 of 49 sports (football, rugby, skiing, snowboarding, 3 cycling disciplines, horse riding, motocross, basketball, martial arts, and ice skating) accounted for 82.8% of all sports-related fractures. Upper limb fractures outnumbered lower limb fractures in all sports, except for horse riding and motocross that the proportions were similar. In South East Scotland, most sports related fractures involved the upper limbs.

  2. Routine functional assessment for hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tonny J; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Pre-fracture functional level has been shown to be a consistent predictor of rehabilitation outcomes in older hip fracture patients. We validated 4 overall pre-fracture functional level assessment instruments in patients aged 65 or more, used the prediction of outcome at 4...... months post-fracture, and assessed cutoff values for decision making in treatment and rehabilitation. Patients and methods - 165 consecutive patients with acute primary hip fracture were prospectively included in the study. Pre-fracture Barthel-20, Barthel-100, cumulated ambulation score, and new...... mobility score were scored immediately after admission. Outcome defined as mortality, residential status, and independent walking ability was assessed at 4 months. Results - 3 of the assessment instruments, namely Barthel-20, Barthel-100, and new mobility score, correlated with outcome at 4 months post-fracture...

  3. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  4. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  5. Hand fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of Hand Fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  6. Fractured porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre M; Mourzenko, Valeri V

    2013-01-01

    This monograph on fractures, fracture networks, and fractured porous media provides a systematic treatment of their geometrical and transport properties for students and professionals in geophysics, materials science, and Earth sciences.

  7. The impact of subsidies on the ecological sustainability and future profits from North Sea fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government.

  8. The implementation of variable costing in the management of profitability of sales in trade companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dyhdalewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the paper are twofold: first, to present selected approaches to the construction of an income statement based on variable costing, which evolved towards the preparation of a tool for multidimensional measurement and an analysis of profitability of sales; second, to discuss the possibility of using it in trade companies. The paper is composed of the following parts: 1 The first part contains a presentation of the general rules of construction of financial result accounts on the basis of variable costing, providing the basis of preparing multi task contribution income statements in various entities; 2 The second part is devoted to the general assumptions concerning the activity in trade companies, which should be observed in the creation of the information needed for the segment profitability reporting according to the rules of variable costing; 3 In the third part, one proposes a report on customer profitability and basic financial ratios, which are related to it, are defined. The financial ratios can be used to conduct an analysis of profitability of sales in a trade company. This approach uses the evaluation of profitability made by taking into account the size and structure of sales and it includes the costs related to customer service. 4 In the last parts, the conclusions are made on the basis of the discussion presented in the paper. The methodology of the contribution income statement on the basis of variable costing enables its implementation in various branches of business, including trading activity, due to universal rules used for its creation. However, constructing a profitability report requires individual assumptions, which take into consideration the specific character of a given trade company and its information needs.

  9. The Impact of Subsidies on the Ecological Sustainability and Future Profits from North Sea Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Methodology/Principal Findings Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. Conclusions/Significance The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government. PMID:21637848

  10. Early history of scapular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  11. Stress Fractures: Concepts and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Carolina A; Bilezikian, John P

    2017-02-01

    Stress fractures are repetitive use injuries in which recurrent strains lead to material fatigue and microarchitectural discontinuities. They account for up to 20% of athletic injuries, more often in women and in the setting of track-and-field events. In women, menstrual disturbances, low body mass index, low energy intake, and sometimes low bone mass, may be contributing factors. There are no standard protocols for evaluation or management of stress fractures. Available literature published in English was retrieved using the following terms: stress fractures; fractures; osteoporosis, athletes, premenopausal women, and athletic triad; through PubMed. Reviews, original reports, and case reports were all included. Despite lack of consistency among the publications, a phenotype emerges, namely of individuals whose bone mineral density is reduced along with low intake of dietary calcium and low circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Limited experience suggests that calcium and vitamin D supplementation might be helpful. Bisphosphonates or teriparatide may accelerate fracture healing in special circumstances. Most individuals who experience a stress fracture are young and healthy and do not appear to have an underlying metabolic bone disease. On the other hand, the presence of low bone mass and hormonal disturbances in some afflicted individuals might identify a cohort who needs endocrinological attention. Prospective, well-designed studies of stress fractures are needed to elucidate further underlying pathophysiological elements that predispose such individuals. Guidelines for prevention and treatment may follow from such well-controlled studies.

  12. Acetabular Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Chad; Lahham, Sari

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP) with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows), so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT) scan was ordered. Significant findings:...

  13. Galeazzi Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Reid Honda

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 19-year-old male presented to the ED with right forearm pain after being struck in the forearm by a baseball. The patient then threw the ball and felt a sharp “pop” in his arm. The patient complained of sharp pain, worse with movement. Upon examination, the patient was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: The X-ray showed an acute comminuted fracture of the distal diaphysis of the radius with disruption of the distal radioulnar joint, consisten...

  14. Simulation of complex fracture networks influenced by natural fractures in shale gas reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jinzhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When hydraulic fractures intersect with natural fractures, the geometry and complexity of a fracture network are determined by the initiation and propagation pattern which is affected by a number of factors. Based on the fracture mechanics, the criterion for initiation and propagation of a fracture was introduced to analyze the tendency of a propagating angle and factors affecting propagating pressure. On this basis, a mathematic model with a complex fracture network was established to investigate how the fracture network form changes with different parameters, including rock mechanics, in-situ stress distribution, fracture properties, and frac treatment parameters. The solving process of this model was accelerated by classifying the calculation nodes on the extending direction of the fracture by equal pressure gradients, and solving the geometrical parameters prior to the iteration fitting flow distribution. With the initiation and propagation criterion as the bases for the propagation of branch fractures, this method decreased the iteration times through eliminating the fitting of the fracture length in conventional 3D fracture simulation. The simulation results indicated that the formation with abundant natural fractures and smaller in-situ stress difference is sufficient conditions for fracture network development. If the pressure in the hydraulic fractures can be kept at a high level by temporary sealing or diversion, the branch fractures will propagate further with minor curvature radius, thus enlarging the reservoir stimulation area. The simulated shape of fracture network can be well matched with the field microseismic mapping in data point range and distribution density, validating the accuracy of this model.

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Non-Current Fixed Assets on Profitability and Asset Management Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyanaya, Alexandra V.; Izmailov, Airat M.; Nikulina, Ekaterina Y.; Shaposhnikov, Vladislav A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the problem, which stems from non-current fixed assets affecting profitability and asset management efficiency. Tangible assets, intangible assets and financial assets are all included in non-current fixed assets. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of estimates and valuation in…

  16. Recognition of Depreciation by Not-For-Profit Institutions. A NACUBO Mongraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Collins, Stephen J.

    Information on depreciation concepts, accounting procedures, and reporting formats in not-for-profit institutions is provided. Details are included on the requirements and implications of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Statement of Financial Accounting Standards no. 93 (FASB 93). Following highlights of FASB 93, an overview looks at…

  17. Relationship between Adjunct and Full-Time Faculty Teaching at a For-Profit University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom Kays, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the workplace relationships of adjunct and full-time faculty teaching at a for-profit university. The study was conducted at one campus of Segway University. Faculty in this study included men and women and represented different academic departments. All full-time faculty participants had experience teaching as…

  18. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    ...) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs...

  19. Periprosthetic Fractures Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Ki

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality. PMID:25750888

  20. Noncontact plating technique in an open fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhanioğlu, Ümit; Oğur, Hasan Ulaş; Çiçek, Hakan; Seyfettinoğlu, Fırat; Çiloğlu, Osman; Kapukaya, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Aim In comparison with closed fractures, open fractures have an increased risk of infection, there are soft tissue-related problems, and difficulties are experienced in union. The aim of this study was to evaluate and discuss the results of osteosynthesis applied with a noncontact plate in Gustilo–Anderson Type 2, 3a, and 3b fractures. Method The study included 23 patients applied with debridement + noncontact plate osteosynthesis + soft tissue procedures in a single session for the treatment of an open fracture. A follow-up card was created to evaluate the patients in respect of age, gender, fracture level, fracture etiology, open fracture type, preoperative and postoperative sedimentation and C-reactive protein values, antibiotics used and duration of use, time to union, and complications. Results In all 23 patients, full bone union was obtained at mean 22.5 weeks (range: 16–36 weeks). Complications developed in 9 patients. Implant failure occurred in 3 patients. In 5 patients, infection developed which required repeated debridements. Conclusion In open fractures, noncontact plating following debridement seems to be a good alternative treatment method to intramedullar nailing, especially in metaphyseal and metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures and in spiral oblique diafiz fractures. Noncontact plating may also be a good alternative to intramedullar nailing for open fracture treatment if the patients have additional pathologies such as contusion and thoracic injury. PMID:28652756

  1. The elastic properties of fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcel, C.; Le Goc, R.; Davy, P.

    2013-12-01

    The consequences of fracturing on rock mass strength still remain an issue for rock engineering practices, including excavation or repository design, support design, slope stability and caving in mines. The difficulty is twice and concerns both the description of the fracturing pattern, and the relationship between fracture characteristics and rock mass mechanical properties. This is generally assessed by empirical knowledge but no complete quantitative and theoretical relations are yet established. To our knowledge, the only theoretical work was to found a relationship between the elastic strength and the percolation parameter (i.e. a normalized sum of the cube of fracture radius) for 3D frictionless fracture networks. The relationship has been demonstrated for Poissonian (randomly distributed) low-density (i.e. where fractures are not almost intersecting) networks, with a narrow range of fracture radius. By means of finite-element models and Green's function methods, we extend the analysis to fracture networks with geologically realistic geometry: i.e. non-Poissonian, relatively high densities, and power-law length distributions. The elastic strength of the fractured rock mass is still found to decrease exponentially with the percolation parameter on average. But large deviations from the mean exist for heavy tailed fracture length distribution, i.e. when the probability of having fractures of the order of the system size is no more negligible. We discuss the way to ameliorate the prediction by taking into account configuration details that are not described by statistical parameters.

  2. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing weight- and YG-related penalties improved profitability. Opportunities may exist with existing and new technology to uniformly allocate cattle into feeding and marketing groups, decrease overfeeding, and increase carcass value and profitability.

  3. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  4. The influence of local bone quality on fracture pattern in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Ruben A; Jenny, Katharina; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Erhardt, Johannes B; Jost, Bernhard; Spross, Christian

    2017-12-26

    Bone mineral density and fracture morphology are widely discussed and relevant factors when considering the different treatment options for proximal humerus fractures. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of local bone quality on fracture patterns of the Neer classification as well as on fracture impaction angle in these injuries. All acute, isolated and non-pathological proximal humerus fractures admitted to our emergency department were included. The fractures were classified according to Neer and the humeral head impaction angle was measured. Local bone quality was assessed using the Deltoid Tuberosity Index (DTI). The distribution between DTI and fracture pattern was analysed. 191 proximal humerus fractures were included (61 men, mean age 59 years; 130 women, mean age 69.5). 77 fractures (40%) were classified as one-part, 72 (38%) were two-part, 24 (13%) were three- and four-part and 18 (9%) were fracture dislocations. 30 fractures (16%) were varus impacted, whereas 45 fractures (24%) were classified as valgus impacted. The mean DTI was 1.48. Valgus impaction significantly correlated with good bone quality (DTI ≥ 1.4; p = 0.047) whereas no such statistical significance was found for the Neer fracture types. We found that valgus impaction significantly depended on good bone quality. However, neither varus impaction nor any of the Neer fracture types correlated with bone quality. We conclude that the better bone quality of valgus impacted fractures may be a reason for their historically benign amenability to ORIF. On the other hand, good local bone quality does not prevent fracture comminution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Magaziner, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    receiving zoledronic acid were pyrexia, myalgia, and bone and musculoskeletal pain. No cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported, and no adverse effects on the healing of fractures were noted. The rates of renal and cardiovascular adverse events, including atrial fibrillation and stroke, were similar......BACKGROUND: Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were...... assigned to receive placebo. The infusions were first administered within 90 days after surgical repair of a hip fracture. All patients (mean age, 74.5 years) received supplemental vitamin D and calcium. The median follow-up was 1.9 years. The primary end point was a new clinical fracture. RESULTS...

  6. An investigation into the application of customer profitability analysis as a strategic decision-making tool in a hospitality environment

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, Breffni M

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the Applicability of Customer Profitability Analysis as a strategic decision-making technique in a hospitality environment. The study commenced with a review of literature in the fields of Yield Management, Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA) and Activity-Based Costing (ABC), with ABC being identified as an appropriate method of costing to use in CPA. Issues arising from the implementation of an Activity-Based CPA including the purpose ...

  7. Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was conducted at enterprise level in Cross River State with a sample of 80 saw millers to ascertain the effect of finance on their profitability. The result shows that amount borrowed business experience, ...

  8. A More Detailed Understanding Of Factors Associated With Hospital Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of the most profitable US hospitals, we examined the profitability of acute care hospitals in fiscal year 2013, measured as net income from patient care services per adjusted discharge. Based on Medicare Cost Reports and Final Rule Data, the median hospital lost $82 for each such discharge. Forty-five percent of hospitals were profitable, with 2.5 percent earning more than $2,475 per adjusted discharge. The ten most profitable hospitals, seven of which were nonprofit, each earned more than $163 million in total profits from patient care services. Hospitals with for-profit status, higher markups, system affiliation, or regional power, as well as those located in states with price regulation, tended to be more profitable than other hospitals. Hospitals that treated a higher proportion of Medicare patients, had higher expenditures per adjusted discharge, were located in counties with a high proportion of uninsured patients, or were located in states with a dominant insurer or greater health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration had lower profitability than hospitals that did not have these characteristics. These findings can inform policy reforms, while providing a baseline against which to measure the impact of any subsequent reforms. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  10. The relationship between size, growth and profitability of commercial banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, C. T.; De Haan, J.; Scholtens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic panel model for more than 15 000 banks from 148 countries from 1988 to 2010, we investigate the interaction between size, growth and profitability of banks. For our total sample, we cannot reject the hypotheses that the variability of bank profitability and the level and variability

  11. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  12. A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Välja, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Magnusson, C; Ladhe, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly

  13. Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Layers Production in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    agricultural sector are rational, thus, they would increase their supply if they are sure of making higher profit ceteris paribus (Emokaro et al., 2009). Higher profit ..... Energy and Crude Protein Requirements for. Chicks of Nigeria Local Fowl and Crossbreeds. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5:.271-274. Koutsoyiannis, A (2001). Theory of ...

  14. Profitability of Snail Production in Osun State,Nigeria | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs and returns analysis revealed that variable costs accounted for 96% of the production costs. Labour was the most costly single item in snail production in the area. The results further showed that snail farming was highly profitable, with the average farmer earning a net return of 40 naira per snail. There was a profit ...

  15. Determinant of Profit Efficiency among Small Scale Traditional Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the determinants of profit efficiency among traditional palm oil processing in Nigeria, using stochastic Cobb – Douglas profit frontier model. A Multi – Stage random sampling technique was used to select 240 traditional palm oil processors from which input – output data were collected.

  16. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; van Triest, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  17. How's Business? Status Report #6 on For Profit Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growth of for-profit child care and indications of a potential slowdown. Discusses the declining expansion of major chains and the accelerated growth of midsize and small chains. Lists the nations' largest for-profit child care and center management organizations. (RJC)

  18. Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The study determined the profitability of rice processing and marketing in Kano. State. The objective of the study was to assess the profitability levels of rice processing and marketing, evaluate the value added to the commodity at each stage in the study area and determine the most efficient services produce.

  19. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  20. 45 CFR 74.81 - Prohibition against profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.81 Prohibition against profit. Except for awards under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small... to any recipient even if the recipient is a commercial organization. Profit is any amount in excess...

  1. Academic Libraries in For-Profit Schools of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jinnie Y.; Adams, Mignon; Hardesty, Larry

    2011-01-01

    For-profit schools constitute the fastest-growing sector of higher education institutions in the United States. Yet accompanying the phenomenal growth of these proprietary colleges and universities has been considerable controversy over the role that the profit motive should play in higher education. The literature of higher education contains…

  2. The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the subject, profit (ribh), in relation to both conventional and Islamic accounting standards, has almost totally been neglected. This paper, therefore, investigates the determination of profit in line with the Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS), conventional economics and Islamic economic ...

  3. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... (service charge) for the FEGLI Program contract. In accordance with the factors defined in FAR 15.404-4(d...

  4. Management Control Systems in Not for Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz Marquez, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about management control system. The first part contains the analysis of the subject, the factors, components and tools of management control. In the second part is about the difference of management control in profit and non-profit organizations.

  5. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial and commercial profits. 509.105...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.105 Industrial and commercial profits... contracting States shall not be taxable by the other contracting State upon its industrial and commercial...

  6. Risk attitudes and profits among small enterprises in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Willebrands, D.; Hartog, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of risk attitudes of firm owners on profits among micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Lagos, Nigeria. Higher risk perceptions are shown to have a significant positive effect on profits, whereas risk propensity has a negative or no effect. Education, age, being male,

  7. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  8. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of relationship marketing was born from this need for long-term interaction with customers. A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit organisations, such as non-profit sports clubs and recreation centres at local and school levels, to offset the decrease in income and ...

  9. Short Term Effect of Consolidation on Profitability of Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings here confirm the existing controversy on whether or not mergers or acquisitions lead to improved profitability. What is however clear is that barring any effect of the present global economic meltdown; it may take some time for the EPS of most of the banks to change significantly. Key Words: EPS Profitability ...

  10. Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics, Cost and return analysis, Herfindahl index, Gross ratio, Operating ratio, Expense structure ratio, Return per capital invested, Benefit cost ratio were used to analyze the data. The study showed that ... Analysis of the profit revealed that plantain marketing is a profitable business. The constraint militating ...

  11. Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog breeding business in Oyo state, Nigeria. ... Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable analyses were done to determine predictors of profitability in dog breeding business. The mean age of respondents was 32.1 ± 7.7 years. The median year of ...

  12. Acquisition of the Profit Concept by Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Anna Emilia

    1992-01-01

    Conceptions of 50 third graders (aged 8-9 years) in Italy about shopkeepers' profit were examined using the Piagetian clinical procedure, with an interview followed by a comparison task that checked comprehension. Teaching children about profit had a higher impact at posttest on children who could compare correctly. (SLD)

  13. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Danish Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system – procedures and tools – for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very transpa...

  14. Macroeconomy and Banks' Profitability in Nigeria | Chidozie | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also seeks to examine the significance of microeconomic variables (cost to income ratio, loan to deposit ratio; loan to total assets ratio and total assets) on banks' profitability. It analysed the impact of banking industry concentration on banks' profitability. The estimation technique follows a panel regression which studied a ...

  15. THE PROFIT TARGET IN A RESTAURATION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry represents one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary society, with an emphasised role in the process of globalization. Currently, the hospitality industry does not only face the challenges of the economic crisis but the changes in the market, the consumers behaviour and the technological trends, too. That is why, in this time, it is extremely important to apply the management accounting and the cost calculation in any entity in the hospitality industry in order to cope with the market challenges. The main services are performed through the hospitality industry: the accommodation and the restauration. These services satisfy the vital needs of the tourists, but this industry must meet other needs or requests such as the acknowledgement of the social status, the desire to know other cultures or traditions, to spend free time in a pleasant manner etc. Our intention and goal in the current article is to approach an image of the CVP analysis in the decision making process with an emphasis on the restauration in the hospitality industry. In order to cope with this critical time, the competition and to achieve the profits estimated, the managers in the hospitality industry can apply the CVP analysis, one of the simplest and most useful analytical instruments. The paper will tackle with the problem of the break even point in a restaurant, one of the main indicators of the CVP model and also the possibility of the decision making process orientation.

  16. Determinants of the Profitability in the Czech Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Palečková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the banking profitability determinants of the Czech commercial banks during the period 2004-2014. For estimation of banking profitability we used three common measures, namely the Return on Assets, Return on Equity and Net Interest Margin. We estimated twelve determinants of banking performance. The effect of the determinants of banking profitability is estimated using panel data analysis. The data set is consists of seventeen commercial banks in the Czech Republic. The results show that the profitability was positively influenced by the bank’s size, capitalization, credit risk, level of concentration, ownership structure and bank’s market share. Number of branches of the bank had the negative impact on ROA and ROE. on the other hand, the variables Gross Domestic Product, interest rate, liquidity risk, riskiness of bank’s portfolio and affiliation with financial conglomerate have not got the significant influence on profitability of the Czech commercial banks.

  17. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Profitability in a Volatile Crude Oil Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Lucky Anderson

    Volatile crude oil prices significantly affect the profitability of crude oil firms. The purpose of this single case study was to explore strategies some crude oil and gas business leaders used to remain profitable during periods of crude oil price volatility. The target population comprised 8 crude oil and gas business leaders located in Calgary, Canada, whose company remained profitable despite crude oil price volatility. The transformational leadership theory formed the conceptual framework for the study. Data were collected through the use of semistructured face-to-face interviews, company reports, and field notes. Data analysis involved a modified Van Kamm method, which included descriptive coding, a sequential review of the interview transcripts, and member checking. Based on methodological triangulation and thematic analysis, 5 themes emerged from the study, including communication and engagement; motivation and empowerment; measurement, monitoring, and control; self-awareness and humility; and efficiency and optimization. The implications for social change include the potential for crude oil and gas companies in Calgary, Canada to manage production costs, ensure earnings and profitability, and thus improve the socioeconomic well-being of Calgary indigenes through improved employment opportunities.

  18. The engagement and retention of non-profit employees in Belgium and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A lack of qualitative research exists that investigates work engagement and retention within Belgium and South Africa, particularly within the non-profit sector.Research purpose: The study aimed to gather in-depth qualitative data pertaining to the factors that promote work engagement and retention amongst non-profit employees working within these two countries.Motivation for the study: Because of scarce funding and resources, non-profit organisations are pressured to retain their talented employees, with high levels of turnover being a standard for low-paid, human-service positions. However, when individuals are engaged in their work, they display lower turnover intentions, suggesting the importance of work engagement in relation to retention.Research design, approach and method: Non-probability purposive and convenience sampling was used to organise in-depth interviews with 25 paid non-profit employees working on either a full-time or a part-time basis within Belgium and South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data produced.Main findings: Participants were found to be absorbed in, dedicated to and energised by their work, and revealed numerous aspects promoting their retention including working towards a purpose, finding fulfilment in their tasks and working in a caring environment.Practical/managerial implications: Non-profit organisations should develop positive work environments for their employees to sustain their levels of work engagement, as well as place significance on intrinsic rewards in order to retain employees.Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.

  19. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  20. High-performance hierarchical fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nicolas B.; Zhang, Weidong

    2002-07-01

    We describe in more detail a mask data preparation (MDP) flow previously proposed. The focus on this paper is a performance comparison of hierarchical fracturing techniques compared to standard fracturing. Our flow uses GDSII data as input, including a GDSII-based job deck description. The output is maximally compacted, trapezoidal mask writer (MW) formatted data. Our flow takes advantage of hierarchy explicit in the GDSII file(s). This allows optimal determination of 'cover cells', which are repeatable groups of patterns within the data. The use of cover cells allows a reduction of fracturing runtime. In one case, a 21 GB MEBES file was fractured in 30 hours using the standard technique and 53 minutes using the hierarchical cover cell technique.

  1. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  2. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  3. Characteristics of Alcohol-Related Facial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Excessive indulgence in alcohol is a key causative factor in facial fractures especially in settings of interpersonal violence (IPV) and motor vehicle accidents. This study aims to explore characteristics of alcohol-involved facial fractures in the state of Victoria, Australia, over a 10-year period. This retrospective study analyzed data from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset between 2004 and 2014; the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset is a standardized database reported by all Victorian hospitals for every admission. Admission details included patient age group and gender, fracture site (or sites), injury cause, and surgical management. During the study period, 4,293 patients were treated for alcohol-related facial fractures, 27% of whom were in the 20- to 29-year-old age group. The male-to-female ratio was 7:1. There was a rising trend over most of the study period. Of the patients, 36% had multiple facial bone fractures, followed by nasal and midface fractures (22% and 6%, respectively). IPV was the most frequent cause (38%), followed by falls and transport-related injuries (30% and 18%, respectively). Surgery was required in 16% of patients, and 62% were inpatients for 1 to 3 days. Concomitant fractures were frequently reported; 20% of patients had fractures of another site, 12% had skull fractures, and 4% had cervical spine fractures. There were statistically significant relationships between age group and gender, between gender and fracture site, and between fracture site and need for surgery (P < .05). This study reports a high incidence of alcohol-involved facial fractures in young men with IPV being a predominant cause. Such injuries often involve multiple facial bone fractures and severe concomitant trauma necessitating brief hospitalizations, but a high proportion of patients were treated nonsurgically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Amal; Liebergall, Meir; London, Eli; Mosheiff, Rami

    2002-09-01

    This article presents our experience with 24 patients who had distal tibial fractures and were treated by percutaneous plate fixation. Distribution of the fractures according to the AO/OTA classification was as follows: five patients suffered from a 43 A type fracture, six from a 43 B type fracture, and 13 from a 43 C type fractures. Four of the fractures were open. Exclusion criteria included 43 C3 fractures and Gustilo III open fractures. All fractures showed radiographic signs of union enough to enable full weightbearing within an average time of 12.3 weeks. All patients showed a good range of motion (average dorsiflexion 12 degrees and average plantiflexion 18 degrees). Two fractures united with mal-union: one with an 8 degrees valgus deformity and another with a 7 degrees varus deformity. Both cases, which had a metaphyseal component, were treated by means of a "soft" (flexible and manually adjustable) AO 3.5 mm reconstruction plate. Except for one case of superficial infection, no infections were detected in any of the patients. The biological percutaneous plate fixation of distal tibial fractures with no extensive intra-articular involvement is a good soft tissue preserving technique. It provides a rigid and anatomical fixation in most cases. We conclude that type B fractures with one intact column can be fixed with either "soft" or "rigid" plates, and type A and C fractures with a metaphyseal component should be fixed with "rigid" plates (AO 4.5 mm Dynamic Compression Plate). In these fractures the reduction should be performed cautiously due to the tendency of sagittal plane mal-reduction.

  5. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to tax on the basis of place of management, place of incorporation or similar criterion or... loss recognized by FC for country Z tax purposes, and pursuant to a group relief regime in country Z FC... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid...

  6. For-profit Hospitals: A comparative and longitudinal study of the for-profit hospital sector in four Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.T. Jeurissen (Patrick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany now argue that for-profit hospital ownership is on the rise because of the retrenchment of public entitlements and – often more importantly in health care – pro-market reforms in the delivery of these services1. Most theoretical notions assume that for-profit hospitals are more

  7. Examining Not-for-Profit Higher Education Faculty Attitudes and Knowledge toward For-Profit Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, for-profit higher education has been the fastest growing segment within higher education. Despite the growth, little research exists about for-profit higher education institutions. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was to examine the attitudes and knowledge of higher education faculty toward…

  8. Costs, commitment and locality: a comparison of for-profit and not-for-profit health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Following on the heels of the first national study demonstrating differences in the community benefits provided by not-for-profit and for-profit health maintenance organizations (HMOs) (Schlesinger, Mitchell, and Gray 2003), this study of the New York state market shows significant differences in premiums, administrative overhead and commitment to safety net coverage between nonprofit and for-profit health plans. This study shows that for-profit health plans do act differently than not-for-profit plans in terms of performance, efficiency, and contribution to safety net programs. Moreover, it suggests that not-for-profit health insurers operating in a predominantly for-profit market act in many ways like for-profits. The New York state insurance market provides an ideal study environment because one can compare a large number of policyholders and plans in both business models (for-profit and not-for-profit) that share an identical legislative and regulatory environment. New York has large populations being provided coverage under both models and no allowances had to be made for state-to-state political and/or legal differences. Specifically, this study shows that: The downstate insurance market is predominantly for-profit, while the upstate market is almost entirely not-for-profit. The recent conversion of Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield to a for-profit model moves the downstate market further into the for-profit column, while the upstate region remains not-for-profit. Insurers in the upstate not-for-profit market are more administratively efficient than insurers in the downstate region. Compared to the downstate region, insurers in upstate New York spent 1.5% less of their operating revenues on administrative expenses. The additional 1.5% of spending on administrative expenses downstate totals dollars 137,000,000. Upstate insurers spend significantly more of the revenues received on payments for medical care. Downstate insurers spent 80.4% of operating revenues on

  9. Cricket related maxillofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai

    2012-06-01

    Cricket is a popular sport in New Zealand, enjoyed both at social and competitive level. Although it is a non-contact sport and there is in place good facial protection, injury to the head and neck region is still frequently seen in the emergency department. Data were collected from departmental records between 1996 and 2006. Variables examined included incidence, demographics, site of fracture and treatment method. Of the 561 patients with sports-related maxillofacial fractures during the study period, 40 were cricket-related. Male to female ratio was 36:1. 45% of patients were in the 16-30 year age group. 55% of injuries were due to impact from cricket ball. 70% of injuries occurred at midface level, while 30% at the mandible. 38% of patients required surgery and hospitalization. Maxillofacial fracture from cricket playing is a frequent injury in patients presenting with sports-related injuries. Cricket players need to be educated on the safety measures in playing the sport, including facial protection devices.

  10. Profit (p-index: the degree to which authors profit from co-authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ahmad Aziz

    Full Text Available Current metrics for estimating a scientist's academic performance treat the author's publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual's own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the 'profit (p-index', which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award, and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80% and that researchers' relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods

  11. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Sarrazin Mary S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP, for-profit (FP and government owned hospitals. Methods We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Results Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals. The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P Conclusions For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of uncompensated care provided by NFP hospitals appear warranted.

  12. Geriatric trauma hip fractures: is there a difference in outcomes based on fracture patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangram, Alicia; Moeser, Phillip; Corneille, Michael G; Prokuski, Laura J; Zhou, Nicolas; Sohn, Jacqueline; Chaliki, Shalini; Oguntodu, Olakunle F; Dzandu, James K

    2014-01-01

    Annually in the US, there are over 300,000 hospital admissions due to hip fractures in geriatric patients. Consequently, there have been several large observational studies, which continue to provide new insights into differences in outcomes among hip fracture patients. However, few hip fracture studies have specifically examined the relationship between hip fracture patterns, sex, and short-term outcomes including hospital length of stay and discharge disposition in geriatric trauma patients. We performed a retrospective study of hip fractures in geriatric trauma patients. Hip fracture patterns were based on ICD -9 CM diagnostic codes for hip fractures (820.00-820.9). Patient variables were patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, hospital and ICU length of stay, co-morbidities, injury location, discharge disposition, and in-patient mortality. A total of 325 patient records met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 82.2 years, and the majority of the patients were white (94%) and female (70%). Hip fractures patterns were categorized as two fracture classes and three fracture types. We observed a difference in the proportion of males to females within each fracture class (Femoral neck fractures Z-score = -8.86, p fractures Z-score = -5.63, p fractures were fixed based on fracture pattern and patient characteristics. Hip fracture class or fracture type did not predict short-term outcomes such as in-hospital or ICU length of stay, death, or patient discharge disposition. The majority of patients (73%) were injured at home. However, 84% of the patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation, or long-term care while only 16% were discharged home. There was no evidence of significant association between fracture pattern, injury severity score, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dementia. Hip fracture patterns differ between geriatric male and female trauma patients. However, there was no

  13. Protein production: planet, profit, plus people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiking, Harry

    2014-07-01

    Food sustainability and food security are increasingly in the spotlight and increasingly intertwined. According to some projections we will need to nearly double food production in the next 4 decades. This article argues that protein production and consumption are pivotal to sustainability, because anthropogenic contributions to the nitrogen cycle are 100-200% compared with a contribution of 1-2% to the carbon cycle by mineral fuel combustion, with biodiversity as the main casualty. Because 1 kg animal protein requires ∼ 6 kg plant protein, its large-scale production by means of factory farming is a major driver of biodiversity loss, climate change, and freshwater depletion. Furthermore, intensive livestock production is associated with antibiotics resistance and increasing incidence of emerging diseases. Therefore, a "reversed" diet transition back to less animal protein could make a difference. Some European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands, have published integrated policy reports addressing food security, sustainability, and health combined. The food industry is focusing on food safety and increasingly on sustainability. An important issue is consumer communication, because consumer "framing" is radically different from that of governmental and industrial policy makers. There is no "one size fits all." A huge range of differences exists between countries and between distinct groups of consumers within countries; getting consumers to change their diets in a more sustainable direction is likely to require much more than gentle nudging. National governments and the United Nations should assume their responsibilities and initiate a global strategy integrating sustainability, food security, nutrition, and equity. To date, the profit pillar of sustainability has taken precedence over planet and people. It is time to redress the balance. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. High mortality and poor morbidity after hip fracture in patients with previous vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yong-Chan; Baek, Ji-Hoon; Ko, Young-Bong; Park, Sang-Min; Song, Sang-Heon

    2015-09-01

    Although vertebral fracture in patients is a predictor of subsequent hip fracture, no study has assessed the mortality and functional outcome in hip fracture patients with previous vertebral fracture. Between September 2009 and December 2012, we evaluated 246 patients over 50-years-of-age diagnosed with femoral neck or intertrochanteric fractures who underwent surgery. The patients were categorized into two groups and two subgroups. Group Ia comprised 150 patients with previous vertebral fracture at the time of hip fracture. Group Ib comprised 96 patients with no vertebral fracture. Group IIa consisted of 76 patients fracture. Group IIb comprised 69 patients fracture. The mortality rate and functional outcome of osteoporotic hip fracture patients with and without vertebral fractures were compared. The cumulative mortality rate at 6 and 12 months post-fracture was 19 and 23 % in Group Ia and 6 and 7 % in Group Ib, respectively. In subgroup analysis, the cumulative mortality rate at 6 and 12 months was 13 and 17 % in Group IIa and 3 and 4 % in Group IIb, respectively. Shut-in patients at the final follow-up included 51 of 103 (49.5 %) patients in Group Ia and 19 of 83 (22.9 %) patients in Group Ib. In subgroup analysis, the shut-in patients included 18 of 58 (31.0 %) patients in Group IIa and 10 of 62 (16.1 %) patients in Group IIb. Previous vertebral fracture was associated with a poor functional outcome and increased mortality in patients with hip fracture.

  15. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, George R; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included.

  16. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  17. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  18. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shane, Elizabeth; Burr, David; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    that distinguish AFFs from ordinary osteoporotic femoral diaphyseal fractures and to provide guidance on the importance of their transverse orientation. The requirement that fractures be noncomminuted was relaxed to include minimal comminution. The periosteal stress reaction at the fracture site was changed from....... Lower limb geometry and Asian ethnicity may contribute to the risk of AFFs. There is inconsistent evidence that teriparatide may advance healing of AFFs. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  19. High-energy fracture of the fabella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joseph Y.; Mulcahy, Hazel; Chew, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the fabella are rare, with only nine cases reported in the literature. However, they can cause severe posterolateral knee pain. Other complications include osteoarthritis and, very rarely, peroneal nerve compression. All the prior cases have been transverse fractures. Here we present a first case of a sagittally oriented fabella fracture initially diagnosed on radiographs and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography (CT) with three-dimensional volume renderings. Early recogn...

  20. Multiphase Flow in Geometrically Simple Fracture Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Basagaoglu; Paul Meakin; Sauro Succi; Timothy R. Ginn

    2006-03-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to Study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-filin flow oil smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  1. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increase...

  2. DETERMINANTS OF BANKS’ PROFITABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SPASESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial banks are important financial institutions in the financial system and the economy. As financial intermediaries, banks play a crucial role in the economic growth of the country through making available the funds for investors to borrow as well as financial deepening in the country. Therefore, the success of working in the banks creates possibilities for more efficient (cheaper crediting of economic entities which results in an increased potential for investing of the enterprises and encouraging the personal people’s spending. Namely, the banking system profitability is the most important instrument of the financing system that has positive influence on potential growth of each national economy. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants in bank profitability in R. Macedonia. For that reason, Return of Assets, Return of Equity and Net Interest Margin, are taken as indicators of the banks’ profitability. On the other hand, the determinants influencing profitability are grouped into two categories, i.e. internal and external. The bank internal determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability, are total loans, asset quality (non-performing loan to total loan ratio, capital adequacy and total deposit to total assets. In our study we use the gross domestic product and inflation rate as external determinants of bank profitability. The results indicate that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks

  3. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion...

  4. Analysis of radiographically confirmed blunt-mechanism facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinger, Gerhard S; Dorafshar, Amir H; Gilson, Marta M; Mithani, Suhail K; Kelamis, Joseph A; Christy, Michael R; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-01-01

    Facial fractures resulting from blunt-mechanism trauma, although common, have been infrequently evaluated in large studies that do not include confirmation of fractures based on author review of available patient radiographic studies. An 8-year review (1998-2006) of the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Registry was performed with institutional review board approval. Patients diagnosed with blunt-mechanism facial fractures were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes and their facial fractures confirmed by author review of computed tomographic scans. Individual fractures were classified and grouped according to the facial thirds. Intra- and interreader variability was calculated, and confirmed fracture patterns were compared to fracture patterns listed by ICD-9 codes. Concomitant injuries and demographic data were additionally evaluated. Four thousand three hundred ninety-eight patients with 8127 fractures were identified. Intra- and interreader variability was 2% and 7%, respectively. ICD-9 coding misdiagnosed 12.5% of all fractures. Eighty-two percent of patients sustained associated injuries, including basilar skull fractures (7.6%) and cervical spine fractures (6.6%). 1.1% had at least one fracture in each facial third (panfacial fracture pattern). Significant relationships were found between demographic parameters, concomitant injuries, specific fractures, and fracture patterns. Studies investigating facial fractures should report fracture patterns confirmed by author review of available radiographic imaging. Large retrospective data sets containing confirmed fractures and capable of addressing rare fracture patterns can be compiled with low inter- and intrauser variability, and are useful for generating mechanistic hypotheses suitable for evaluation in prospective series or by directed biomechanical studies.

  5. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    work uses GP-Automata, a technique which combines genetic programming and finite state machines, to represent adaptive agents. We use a genetic algorithm to evolve these adaptive agents (each with its own bidding strategy) for use in a double auction. The agent's strategies may be judged by the amount of profit they produce and are tested by computerized agents repeatedly buying and selling electricity in an auction simulator. In addition to the obvious profit-maximization strategies, one can also design strategies which exhibit other types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be used directly in on-line trading, or as realistic models of competitors in a trading simulator. In addition to developing double auction bidding strategies, we investigate and discuss methods of an energy trader's risk. This can be done using such financial vehicles as futures and options contracts or through the inclusion of risk while judging strategies used in the market simulations described above. We discuss the role of fuzzy logic in the competitive electric marketplace, including how it can be applied in developing bidding strategies. Since competition promises to drive the power system closer to its operating limits, improvements in measurement and system control will be important. We provide an example of using fuzzy logic to do automatic generation control and discuss extensions that would make it superior to traditional controllers. Since the GENCO's forte is primarily generating electricity, we examine unit commitment and discuss how to update it for the competitive environment. We discuss the role of unit commitment in developing bidding strategies, as well as, the role of bidding strategies in solving the unit commitment problem. Depending on the market structure adopted by a particular location, large amounts of bidding data may be available to regulators or market participants. Ideally, regulators could use this data to verify dig the market is efficient. Market

  6. Rigid internal fixation of infected mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pushkar; Van Heukelom, Emily; Cottrell, David A

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcomes of rigid internal fixation for the management of infected mandible fractures. A retrospective chart review of infected mandible fractures managed by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon at a level I trauma center during a 7-year period was accomplished by independent examiners. All patients were treated with incision and drainage, culture and sensitivity testing, extraction of nonsalvageable teeth, placement of maxillomandibular fixation when possible, fracture reduction with bone debridement and decortication, rigid internal fixation of the mandible by an extraoral approach, and antibiotic therapy. The medical and social history was contributory in most patients. The analysis was stratified by the differentiation of the fractures into 2 groups: those with soft tissue infections in the fracture region versus those with hard tissue-infected fractures (biopsy-proven osteomyelitis). A total of 44 patients were included in this study, with an average follow-up of 18.2 months from the date of surgery (range 3 to 48). The treatment protocol was successful in all 18 patients (100%) with soft tissue infected mandibular fractures and 24 (92%) of 26 patients with hard tissue-infected fractures. A protocol consisting of concomitant incision and drainage, mandibular debridement, fracture reduction, and stabilization with rigid internal fixation can be effectively used for single-stage management of infected mandible fractures.

  7. Fractures in the Elderly in a West African Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This prospective study included all patients aged 65 years and above with fractures of the extremities seen over a period of 18 months. Data collected included age, sex, trauma mechanism, bones fractured, fracture configuration, associated injuries, and vitamin and calcium supplements. This data was stored ...

  8. An unusual cause of an isolated scapula fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Megan; Attia, Magdy W

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews an isolated scapula fracture in a teenage athlete. Although rarely reported in professional athletes, scapula fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis of shoulder injuries. Proper imaging is key to effective diagnosis and management.

  9. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  10. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  11. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  12. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  13. Near Wellbore Hydraulic Fracture Propagation from Perforations in Tight Rocks: The Roles of Fracturing Fluid Viscosity and Injection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Fallahzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracture initiation and near wellbore propagation is governed by complex failure mechanisms, especially in cased perforated wellbores. Various parameters affect such mechanisms, including fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate. In this study, three different fracturing fluids with viscosities ranging from 20 to 600 Pa.s were used to investigate the effects of varying fracturing fluid viscosities and fluid injection rates on the fracturing mechanisms. Hydraulic fracturing tests were conducted in cased perforated boreholes made in tight 150 mm synthetic cubic samples. A true tri-axial stress cell was used to simulate real far field stress conditions. In addition, dimensional analyses were performed to correspond the results of lab experiments to field-scale operations. The results indicated that by increasing the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate, the fracturing energy increased, and consequently, higher fracturing pressures were observed. However, when the fracturing energy was transferred to a borehole at a faster rate, the fracture initiation angle also increased. This resulted in more curved fracture planes. Accordingly, a new parameter, called fracturing power, was introduced to relate fracture geometry to fluid viscosity and injection rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the presence of casing in the wellbore impacted the stress distribution around the casing in such a way that the fracture propagation deviated from the wellbore vicinity.

  14. Rare isolated trapezoid fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Rita M; Montilla, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Isolated fractures of the trapezoid are rare. Of all of the fractures of the carpus, the most common is the scaphoid, which represents 68.2% of all carpal fractures (Papp, Orthop Clin N Am 38:251-60, 2007). In contrast, trapezoid fractures represent 0.4% of all carpal injuries. Because it is an infrequently fractured carpal bone, there is a wide variety of treatment plans, including rest, immobilization, and surgery (Green and Pederson, Green's Operative Hand Surgery, Elsevier, Philadelphia, 759 pp, 2005). In this report, we describe a patient who presented with an isolated fracture of the trapezoid that was successfully treated with cast immobilization and had a full functional recovery.

  15. Permeability estimation using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and lateral logs in fractured tight sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability of fracture-matrix system is an important but difficult to estimate parameter in evaluation and production in fractured tight sandstone reservoirs. Because nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs cannot indicate fracture permeability, NMR can be used to obtain accurate matrix permeability in fractured tight sandstones. Considering lateral logs can be used to identify and evaluate fracture, thus the fracture permeability can be estimated using lateral logs. In the interval without fracture, the permeability of fracture-matrix system is equal to the matrix permeability; while in the only fracture permeable interval, it is equal to the fracture permeability. Considering the obtained matrix permeability from NMR logs may include the contribution of fracture porosity in fractured tight sandstones, the estimated matrix permeability and estimated fracture permeability have overlap. Thus the permeability of fracture-matrix system is not a simple summation of the estimated fracture permeability and the estimated matrix permeability. A new method is proposed to obtain consecutive permeability in fractured tight sandstones. In the method, we believe that the obtained fracture permeability from lateral logs contains the actual fracture permeability and the fracture porosity permeability, which is contributed from the fracture porosity in rock. After calculating fracture width by using the Faivre-Sibbit (F-S) model, the fracture porosity can be estimated. Based on the hydraulic flow unit (HFU) approach, the fracture porosity permeability can be calculated, and then the actual fracture permeability can be obtained. Thus the Permeability of fracture-matrix system is the summation of actual fracture permeability and the estimated matrix permeability. Compared with the simple summation in the field example, the method can be used to obtain more reliable permeability of fracture-matrix system.

  16. Competitiveness, Profitability, Input Demand and Output Supply of Maize Production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses international competitiveness, profitability, output supply and input demand of maize production using a farm survey data of 165 farmers from two major maize growing areas (i.e., Dinajpur and Lalmonirhat districts of northwestern Bangladesh. Results revealed that maize production is globally competitive and, therefore, can successfully substitute its import. Maize production is also profitable at the farm level (Benefit Cost Ratio = 1.21 with no adverse influence of farm size on yield and profitability. Maize farmers are also responsive to changes in market prices of inputs and outputs. A 1% increase in maize price will increase output supply by 0.4%. The most dominant driver of maize supply and other input demands is land. A 1% increase in available land will increase maize supply by a substantial 3.9%. In addition, landless laborers will benefit through an increase in hired labor demand when land area increases. Policy implications include investments in R&D, tenurial reform to consolidate land holding and smooth functioning of the hired labor market in order to increase maize production and profitability in Bangladesh.

  17. Construct the stable vendor managed inventory partnership through a profit-sharing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Yu, Z.; Dong, M.

    2015-01-01

    In real life, the vendor managed inventory (VMI) model is not always a stable supply chain partnership. This paper proposes a cooperative game based profit-sharing method to stabilize the VMI partnership. Specifically, in a B2C setting, we consider a VMI program including a manufacturer and multiple online retailers. The manufacturer provides the finished product at the equal wholesale price to multiple online retailers. The online retailers face the same customer demand information. We offer the model to compute the increased profits generated by information sharing for total possible VMI coalitions. Using the solution concept of Shapley value, the profit-sharing scheme is produced to fairly divide the total increased profits among the VMI members. We find that under a fair allocation scheme, the higher inventory cost of one VMI member increases the surplus of the other members. Furthermore, the manufacturer is glad to increase the size of VMI coalition, whereas, the retailers are delighted to limit the size of the alliance. Finally, the manufacturer can select the appropriate retailer to boost its surplus, which has no effect on the surplus of the other retailers. The numerical examples indicate that the grand coalition is stable under the proposed allocation scheme.

  18. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  19. Computational simulation of structural fracture in fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology was developed for the computational simulation of structural fracture in fiber composites. This methodology consists of step-by-step procedures for mixed mode fracture in generic components and of an integrated computer code, Composite Durability Structural Analysis (CODSTRAN). The generic types of composite structural fracture include single and combined mode fracture in beams, laminate free-edge delamination fracture, and laminate center flaw progressive fracture. Structural fracture is assessed in one or all of the following: (1) the displacements increase very rapidly; (2) the frequencies decrease very rapidly; (3) the buckling loads decrease very rapidly; or (4) the strain energy release rate increases very rapidly. These rapid changes are herein assumed to denote imminent structural fracture. Based on these rapid changes, parameters/guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause.

  20. Shoulder arthroplasty in complex acute and chronic proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Søjbjerg, J.O.; Sneppen, O.

    1991-01-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 42 shoulder arthroplasties were performed on comminuted acute or chronic proximal humeral fractures. Patients were categorized according to the post-fracture operative delay; there were 15 four-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 13 days (range: 7 to 21), and 27...... chronic fractures, including 11 four-part fractures, 9 three-part fractures, and 7 two-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 14 months (range: 4 to 72). Follow up was approximately 2 years in both groups (range: 1 to 5). All patients were evaluated according to a modified Neer score......-system and classified into four groups. Pain relief was satisfactory in the acute group, but was unpredictable in the chronic group. The results in the acute group were significantly superior (P less than .05). In the acute group, 3 (20%) patients had an excellent result and 6 patients (40%) had a good result, compared...

  1. Changing incidence and residual lifetime risk of common osteoporosis-related fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, J B; Schwarz, Peter; Lund, B

    1993-01-01

    Changes in incidence and lifetime risk of fractures are of major importance in the epidemiology of osteoporosis. We focused on hip fractures in women and men and on radial and humeral fractures in women. The study subjects comprised 4500 women and men 20 years old or more with fractures. In women...... 1735 fractures of the distal radius, 747 fractures of the proximal humerus, 878 cervical and 635 trochanteric hip fractures were included. In men 273 cervical and 232 trochanteric hip fractures were included. The fractures were registered during the period 1976 to 1984 and changes in age.......05) during the observation period, while no significant decrease was found in the incidence of trochanteric fractures. No significant changes in incidence were observed in women with radial or humeral fractures, or in men with hip fractures. A women 60 years old with a life expectancy of 81 years had...

  2. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  3. Anchorage strategies in geriatric hip fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobe Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an enormous humanitarian and socioeconomic need to improve the quality and effectiveness of care for patients with hip fracture. To reduce mechanical complications in the osteosynthesis of proximal femoral fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices, locked minimally invasive or cement augmentation strategies. However, despite numerous innovations and advances regarding implant design and surgical techniques, systemic and mechanical complication rates remain high. Treatment success depends on secure implant fixation in often-osteoporotic bone as well as on patient-specific factors (fracture stability, bone quality, comorbidity, and gender and surgeon-related factors (experience, correct reduction, and optimal screw placement in the head/neck fragment. For fracture fixation, the anchorage of the lag screw within the femoral head plays a crucial role depending on the implant’s design. Meta-analyses and randomized controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong trend towards arthroplasty treating geriatric femoral neck fractures. However, for young adults as well as older patients with less compromised bone quality, or in undisplaced fractures, head-preserving therapy is preferred as it is less invasive and associated with good functional results. This review summarizes the evidence for the internal fixation of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric femoral fractures in elderly patients. In addition, biomechanical considerations regarding implant anchorage in the femoral head including rotation, migration, and femoral neck shortening are made. Finally, cement augmentation strategies for hip fracture implants are evaluated critically.

  4. Profit Function Approximations and Duality Applications to Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gary D. Thompson; Mark Langworthy

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of profit functions indicate that flexible functional forms may be ranked nearly the same with respect to Allen-Uzawa partial substitution elasticities or price and fixed factor elasticities...

  5. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  6. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRIN) recommended fungicide use rate with profit maximization objective of Nigerian cocoa farmers. To achieve this research objective, a cross-sectional survey of cocoa farmers in four local government areas (LGAs) each in Osun and Ondo ...

  7. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  8. EXAMINATION OF IMPACT OF PHARMA R&D ON PROFITABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gergo Tomori;

    2014-01-01

    .... This latter requires the examination of the impact of research and development activity as the most important factor to the profitability of two selected regional market leader pharma companies...

  9. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  10. Determinants of Profitability of Insurance Firms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Kofi Boadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to find out the determinants of the profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. Secondary data on financial reports were collected from sixteen insurance firms in Ghana for the period 2005 to 2010.The study was quantitative in nature. It adopted the longitudinal time dimension, specifically, the panel method and ordinary least square regression. The study discovered that, apart from tangibility which has a negative relationship, there is a positive relationship between leverage, liquidity and profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. It was also concluded that, the profitability model adopted has been explained in respect to all the independent variables and that the degree of error is less than 20%. Finally, it is suggested that the explanatory variables used in this study should be regressed on Return on Equity to find their extent of relationship on profitability.

  11. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexiou, Constantinos; Sofoklis, Voyazas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) hypothesis...

  12. For-Profit Institutions and Student Veteran Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Fox Garrity, Bonnie K.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the lack of data about student veterans and reasons this lack of data raises particular concerns about for-profit institutions, which enroll a large percentage of student veterans.

  13. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  14. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  15. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy...

  16. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  17. Displaced articular calcaneus fractures: classification and fracture scores: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnroongroj, Thos; Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Angthong, Chayanin; Nanakorn, Pongtep; Sudjai, Narumol; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2012-03-01

    To review and group configurations of displaced articular calcaneal fracture advantaged for classification and radiographic fracture scores. Between 2002 and 2011, medical records and radiographs of patients who sustained acute displaced articular calcaneal fractures were reviewed. The calcanealfracture configurations were grouped as avulsion, bending, burst, or combination. Radiographic displaced articular calcaneal fracture score was designed to include Bohler and Gissane angles, degrees of posterior subtalar joint line parallel, degrees of varus, and burst. The calcaneal fracture score was modified as power of the fracture response to treatment (PFRT). Prevalence of the fracture types, pre- and post-reduction fracture scores including PFRT were studied and statistically analyzed. Sixty-four patients had 77 acute displaced articular calcaneal fractures. The classification consisted of type I avulsion, type II compression bending, type III compression burst, type IV avulsion burst, and type V bending burst. Type IV is the most common. The radiographic calcaneal fracture scores were 10 points. Pre-, post-reduction calcaneal fracture scores and PFRTof type I, II, III, IV, and V were 4.17 (0.41), 0 and 1 (0), 4.63 (2.13), 0.50 (0.93) and 0.84 (0.35), 6.94 (2.05), 3.18 (1.38) and 0.50 (0.27), 8.03 (1.12), 3.03 (2.42) and 0.62 (0.30), and 7.22 (2.11), 3.00 (2.50) and 0.59 (0.29) respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (p fracture scores contained 10 points and were used for determining complexity of the fractures. PFRT was used for evaluating efficacy of fracture treatment.

  18. Long-bone fractures in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frotzler, A; Cheikh-Sarraf, B; Pourtehrani, M; Krebs, J; Lippuner, K

    2015-09-01

    Retrospective data analysis. To document fracture characteristics, management and related complications in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Rehabilitation centre for SCI individuals. Patients' records were reviewed. Patients with traumatic SCI and extremity fractures that had occurred after SCI were included. Patient characteristics, fractured bone, fracture localisation, severity and management (operative/conservative), and fracture-related complications were extracted. A total of 156 long-bone fractures in 107 SCI patients (34 women and 73 men) were identified. The majority of patients were paraplegics (77.6%) and classified as American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A (86.0%). Only the lower extremities were affected, whereby the femur (60.9% of all fractures) was fractured more frequently than the lower leg (39.1%). A total of 70 patients (65.4%) had one fracture, whereas 37 patients (34.6%) had two or more fractures. Simple or extraarticular fractures were most common (75.0%). Overall, 130 (83.3%) fractures were managed operatively. Approximately half of the femur fractures (48.2%) were treated with locking compression plates. In the lower leg, fractures were mainly managed with external fixation (48.8%). Conservative fracture management was applied in 16.7% of the cases and consisted of braces or a well-padded soft cast. Fracture-associated complications were present in 13.5% of the cases but did not differ significantly between operative (13.1%) and conservative (15.4%) fracture management. SCI was associated with simple or extraarticular fractures of the distal femur and the lower leg. Fractures were mainly managed operatively with a low complication rate.

  19. Functional treatment for fractures to the base of the 5th metatarsal - influence of fracture location and fracture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Prall, Wolf Christian; Kramer, Michael; Braunstein, Mareen; Böcker, Wolfgang; Polzer, Hans

    2017-12-16

    Fractures to the base of the fifth metatarsal are common, but their treatment remains controversial. Especially for Lawrence and Botte (L&B) type II fractures, there is conflicting evidence and consequently no consensus. Further, many authors consider displacement, articular involvement, and number of fragments an indication for surgery, although evidence is missing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of functional treatment for all L&B type I and II fractures. Of special interest were the influence of (1) the fracture location (L&B type I vs. II) and (2) the fracture characteristics (displacement, intra-articular involvement, communition) on the subjective outcome. Retrospective registry study with a prospective follow-up. Patients with an acute, isolated, epi-metaphyseal fracture to the fifth metatarsal bone (L&B type I and II) treated by full weightbearing with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included. Fracture location (L&B type I and II) and characteristics (displacement 2 mm, intra-articular involvement, and number of fragments) were assessed. Outcome parameters were return to work, return to sports, VAS-FA, and SF-12. The influence of the fracture (1) location and (2) -characteristics on these parameters was tested. Thirty-nine patients (40 ± 15 years, 56% female) were enrolled with a mean follow-up of 22 ± 10 months. L&B type I fractures occurred in 59%, type II in 41%. Thirty-one percent of all fractures were dislocated, 74% intra-articular, and 41% multi-fragmentary. Patients returned to work after 17 ± 12 days, to sports after 53 ± 22 days. The VAS-FA score at the final follow-up was 96 ± 4, SF-12 PCS score 57 ± 5 and MCS score 51 ± 8. No complications were reported, no patient required surgery. None of the assessed outcome parameters differed significantly between (1) the different fracture locations (L&B type I vs. II) or (2) the different fracture characteristics (displacement, intra

  20. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of

  1. IMPROVING HUMAN RESOURCES REPORTING IN NON FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Todea1; Delia Corina Mihaltan2

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to expose the present reality concerning the information offered byaccounting regarding the human resources in a non for profit organization and to propose ways ofimproving it. To this end we display the typical aspects of human resources which are connected tothe specificities of the non for profit organizations and their impact on accounting. We emphasizethe deficiencies of human resources reporting and submit means of improving it.

  2. What Do We Know About Variance in Accounting Profitability?

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the variance of accounting profitability among a broad cross-section of forms in the American economy from 1981 to 1994. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on accounting profitability among operating businesses across sectors. The findings indicate that industry and corporate-parent effects are important and related to one another. As expected, business-specific effects, which a...

  3. Non-profit organization as a category of political science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish the concept of “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” (NPO. The article outlines the main features of the NPO. A lot of attention is paid to the typology of these organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of NPO activities.

  4. sustainable development and profitability in the Finnish restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulenga, Mpafya

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability in the food industry is often concerned with the provision of organic products and recycling. The emphasis on organically produced supplies though viewed as an environmentally sustainable means of food production to meet the ends of the green revolution should not obscure consideration of profitability in the business. Making profit is a business goal, while environmental sustainability is an ethical issue whose practice is subject to the balancing act of being pr...

  5. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... which implies a destruction of capital that will counteract the falling rate of profit. This will require sustained political intervention....

  6. Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    The decades-old debate over pharmaceutical industry prices, profits, and innovation has again intensified. A number of events coalesced to refocus public interest on pharmaceuticals. Contributing to public concern were Bureau of Labor Statistics price index increases for pharmaceuticals far outpacing those for the products of other industries. Another prominent characteristic of the pharmaceutical industry has been its extraordinarily high reported profitability. This article examines the phe...

  7. Persistence of Profitability in Family-Owned Food Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Boland; Pendell, Dustin L.

    2005-01-01

    We examine firm profitability in the food economy and determine the source of variance of firm profitability in family-owned and non-family-owned food processing firms. The results indicate firm effects dominate in explaining the variance in the business-segment performance in the food economy. More specifically, we find family-owned firms compared to non-family-owned firms have a higher percentage of total variance in the business-segment performance explained by yearly effects, industry eff...

  8. Determinants of bank profitability: evidence from CreditCoop

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Raluca DIACONU; Oanea, Dumitru-Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Co-operative banks were not analyzed in great detail in the literature compared to credit unions or even commercial banks. Through this paper we want to identify the main determinants of CreditCoop profitability, determinants: internal determinants (result of bank management) and external determinants (macroeconomic and industry variables). We found that the loan to assets ratio and equity to assets ratio have the highest and significant impact over the CreditCoop profitability. Moreover, we ...

  9. Improving Gross Profit Margin in a quick service restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to try help implementing the corporate strategy in a quick service restaurant environment by offering practical examples. The objective is to improve the profitability of the case company by the management of the sales team. Questions to be answered are how the gross margin can be developed and what results can be gained. Some of the key concepts of this thesis are gross margin and sales management, restaurant profitability and implementing corporate strategy int...

  10. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  11. Towards more profitable and sustainable milk and beef production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Pauliina

    2017-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining national self-sufficiency in milk and meat play important roles in ensuring future food security. Currently, Finland is self-sufficient in milk. However, beef production, which is strongly related to dairy production, has fallen below consumption mainly because of a decreased number of dairy cows and low profitability. Even though the efficiency and productivity in dairy herds have increased substantially during the last decades, the profitability of milk, and especi...

  12. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Richard J.; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  13. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  14. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  15. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results - More lower extremity fractures occurred in boys (62%, n = 341). Of 548 fractured long bones in the lower extremity, 25% involved the femur and 75% the lower leg. The older the patients, the more combined fractures of the tibia and fibula were sustained (adolescents: 50%, 61 of 123). Salter-Harris (SH) fracture patterns represented 66% of single epiphyseal fractures (83 of 126). Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Complete oblique spiral fractures accounted for 57% of diaphyseal fractures (120 of 211). Of all fractures, 7% (40 of 548) were classified in the category "other", including 29 fractures that were identified as toddler's fractures. 5 combined lower leg fractures were reported in the proximal metaphysis, 40 in the diaphysis, 26 in the distal metaphysis, and 8 in the distal epiphysis. Interpretation - The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler's fractures in the PCCF should be considered.

  16. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

    2013-04-01

    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  17. Pediatric Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; Dua, Karan; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2017-02-15

    Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits in the United States for fractures. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture. An unmineralized physis is biomechanically weaker compared with the surrounding ligamentous structures and mature bone, which make fractures about the physis likely. A thorough physical examination is necessary to assess the digital cascade for signs of rotational deformity and/or coronal malalignment. Plain radiographs of the hand and digits are sufficient to confirm a diagnosis of a phalangeal fracture. The management of phalangeal fractures is based on the initial severity of the injury and depends on the success of closed reduction techniques. Nondisplaced phalanx fractures are managed with splint immobilization. Stable, reduced phalanx fractures are immobilized but require close monitoring to ensure maintenance of fracture reduction. Unstable, displaced phalanx fractures require surgical management, preferably via closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.

  18. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  19. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  20. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  1. Analysis on the risk factors of second fracture in osteoporosis-related fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wen-Dong; Wang, Pei; Ma, Xin-Long; Ge, Rui-Ping; Zhou, Xian-Hu

    2011-04-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of refracture in patients suffering from osteoporosis-related fractures as well as effective interventions. From January 2006 to January 2008, both out-patients and in-patients in our hospital who were over 50 years old and suffered from osteoporosis-related fractures were selected for this research. They were divided into fracture group and refracture group. The refracture rate was followed up for 2 years, during which 11 patients developed refracture, thus were included in the refracture group. Therefore, 273 patients, 225 first-fracture cases, aged (67.7+/-8.5) years, and 48 refracture cases, aged (72.7+/-9.5) years, were included in this study. General data including age and sex, fracture types, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores tested by dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA), Charlson index, time-frame between two fractures as well as mobility skill assessment were collected and analyzed by single-factor and multivariate statistical methods. Females accounted for 70.2% of the fracture group and 77.1% of the refracture group. The most common refracture type was vertebral fracture for the first time and femoral neck fracture for the second time during the follow-up. The second fracture happened 3.7 years after the first one on average. The refracture rate was 2.12% within one year, and 4.66% within two years. Risk factors for a second fracture in osteoporotic fracture patients included age (larger than 75 years, HR equal to 1.23, 95%CI 1.18-1.29; larger than 85 years, HR equal to 1.68, 95% CI 1.60-1.76), female sex (HR equal to 1.36, 95%CI 1.32-1.40), prior vertebral fractures (HR equal to 1.62, 95%CI 1.01-2.07), prior hip fractures (HR equal to 1.27, 95%CI 0.89-2.42), BMD T-score less than -3.5 (HR equal to 1.38, 95%CI 1.17-1.72) and weakened motor skills (HR equal to 1.27, 95%CI 1.09-1.40). The risks of second fracture among patients with initial brittle fracture are substantial. There

  2. Mandibular fracture and complications associated with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular fracture sometimes is associated with complications which influence its prognosis. Aspects of the complications of mandibular fracture investigated are those emanating from the methods of treatment employed in its management. Such methods of treatment include conservative, closed reduction with ...

  3. Treatment of stress fractures: the fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, William Glenn; Hergan, David J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the fundamentals of stress fracture management. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors, that may play a role in the development of stress fractures, are discussed and incorporated as possible treatment options. Different treatment modalities including ultrasound and electromagnetic fields are addressed, with an emphasis on literature support.

  4. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  5. Survival times of patients with a first hip fracture with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Angthong, Wirana; Harnroongroj, Thos; Naito, Masatoshi; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2013-01-01

    Survival rates are poorer after a second hip fracture than after a first hip fracture. Previous survival studies have included in-hospital mortality. Excluding in-hospital deaths from the analysis allows survival times to be evaluated in community-based patients. There is still a lack of data regarding the effects of subsequent fractures on survival times after hospital discharge following an initial hip fracture. This study compared the survival times of community-dwelling patients with hip fracture who had or did not have a subsequent major long-bone fracture. Hazard ratios and risk factors for subsequent fractures and mortality rates with and without subsequent fractures were calculated. Of 844 patients with hip fracture from 2000 through 2008, 71 had a subsequent major long-bone fracture and 773 did not. Patients who died of other causes, such as perioperative complications, during hospitalization were excluded. Such exclusion allowed us to determine the effect of subsequent fracture on the survival of community-dwelling individuals after hospital discharge or after the time of the fracture if they did not need hospitalization. Demographic data, causes of death, and mortality rates were recorded. Differences in mortality rates between the patient groups and hazard ratios were calculated. Mortality rates during the first year and from 1 to 5 years after the most recent fracture were 5.6% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients with subsequent fractures, and 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients without subsequent fractures. These rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Cox regression analysis and calculation of hazard ratios did not show significant differences between patients with subsequent fractures and those without. On univariate and multivariate analyses, age fracture. This study found that survival times did not differ significantly between patients with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures after hip fracture. Therefore, all

  6. Costs, Commitment and Locality: A Comparison of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Health Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) (Schlesinger, Mitchell, and Gray 2003), this study of the New York state market shows significant differences in premiums, administrative overhead and commitment to safety net coverage between nonprofit and for-profit health plans...

  7. Too Fit To Fracture: exercise recommendations for individuals with osteoporosis or osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, L M; Papaioannou, A; Macintyre, N J; Ashe, M C; Heinonen, A; Shipp, K; Wark, J; McGill, S; Keller, H; Jain, R; Laprade, J; Cheung, A M

    2014-03-01

    A consensus process was conducted to develop exercise recommendations for individuals with osteoporosis or vertebral fractures. A multicomponent exercise program that includes balance and resistance training is recommended. The aim was to develop consensus on exercise recommendations for older adults: (1) with osteoporosis and (2) with osteoporotic vertebral fracture(s). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method was used to evaluate the quality of evidence and develop recommendations. Outcomes important for decision making were nominated by an expert panel and patient advocates. They included falls, fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), and adverse events for individuals with osteoporosis/vertebral fractures, and pain, quality of life, and function for those with vertebral fracture. Meta-analyses evaluating the effects of exercise on the outcomes were reviewed. Observational studies or clinical trials were reviewed when meta-analyses were not available. Quality ratings were generated, and informed the recommendations. The outcome for which evidence is strongest is falls. Point estimates of the effects of exercise on falls, fractures, and BMD vary according to exercise type. There is not enough evidence to quantify the risks of exercise in those with osteoporosis or vertebral fracture. Few trials of exercise exist in those with vertebral fracture. The exercise recommendations for exercise in individuals with osteoporosis or osteoporotic vertebral fracture are conditional. The panel strongly recommends a multicomponent exercise program including resistance and balance training for individuals with osteoporosis or osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The panel recommends that older adults with osteoporosis or vertebral fracture do not engage in aerobic training to the exclusion of resistance or balance training. The consensus of our international panel is that exercise is recommended for older adults with osteoporosis or vertebral

  8. Economic value of female fertility and its relationship with profit in Spanish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Alenda, R

    2004-09-01

    A data file of 225,085 inseminations and 120,713 lactations from 63,160 Holstein cows was analyzed to obtain female fertility economic value according to number of inseminations per service period (INS). Fertility cost (FCOST) was included in a bioeconomic model, taking into account number of doses of semen, hormonal treatments, fertility culling cost, and delayed milk and calf sales. A profit equation was elaborated to estimate fertility cost and profit according to INS. Fertility in Spanish dairy cattle has worsened >10% over the last 14 yr. Days open have increased by about 15 d, and INS has increased from 1.7 to 2.0. A quadratic relationship was found between FCOST and INS. Similar profitability was estimated for cows who needed one or 2 INS, but when >3 INS were needed, profit decreased by >205 (US dollars)/yr per cow. Cows that needed more INS had higher milk yield per lactation, but also had a higher culling risk and lower productive life and lifetime production, therefore, lower profit. Calving interval (CI) and INS economic values were, respectively, -4.90 and -67.32 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per one unit of change. The economic values of productive traits were 4.04, 1.02, and 1.19 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per one unit of change for kg protein, kg fat, and days in milk, respectively. A mature body weight economic value of -0.67 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per kg was estimated. The relative importance of fertility traits with respect to protein was 64% for CI and 24% for INS, although the CI economic value is highly influenced by phenotypic standard deviation considered.

  9. Do Robotic Surgical Systems Improve Profit Margins? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of California Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Shen, Chan; Hu, Jim C

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and hospital profit margins. This study used hospital annual utilization data, annual financial data, and discharge data for year 2011 from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We first performed bivariate analysis to compare mean profit margin by hospital and market characteristics and to examine whether these characteristics differed between hospitals that had one or more robotic surgical systems in 2011 and those that did not. We applied the t test and the F test to compare mean profit margin between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. We then conducted multilevel logistic regression to determine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and having a positive profit margin after controlling for other hospital and market characteristics and accounting for possible correlation among hospitals located within the same market. The study sample included 167 California hospitals with valid financial information. Hospitals with robotic surgical systems tended to report more favorable profit margins. However, multilevel logistic regression showed that this relationship (an association, not causality) became only marginally significant (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2; P = 0.053) after controlling for other hospital characteristics, such as ownership type, teaching status, bed size, and surgical volumes, and market characteristics, such as total number of robotic surgical systems owned by other hospitals in the same market area. As robotic surgical systems become widely disseminated, hospital decision makers should carefully evaluate the financial and clinical implications before making a capital investment in this technology. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A discrete fracture model for two-phase flow in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Dennis; Helmig, Rainer; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger

    2017-12-01

    A discrete fracture model on the basis of a cell-centered finite volume scheme with multi-point flux approximation (MPFA) is presented. The fractures are included in a d-dimensional computational domain as (d - 1)-dimensional entities living on the element facets, which requires the grid to have the element facets aligned with the fracture geometries. However, the approach overcomes the problem of small cells inside the fractures when compared to equi-dimensional models. The system of equations considered is solved on both the matrix and the fracture domain, where on the prior the fractures are treated as interior boundaries and on the latter the exchange term between fracture and matrix appears as an additional source/sink. This exchange term is represented by the matrix-fracture fluxes, computed as functions of the unknowns in both domains by applying adequate modifications to the MPFA scheme. The method is applicable to both low-permeable as well as highly conductive fractures. The quality of the results obtained by the discrete fracture model is studied by comparison to an equi-dimensional discretization on a simple geometry for both single- and two-phase flow. For the case of two-phase flow in a highly conductive fracture, good agreement in the solution and in the matrix-fracture transfer fluxes could be observed, while for a low-permeable fracture the discrepancies were more pronounced. The method is then applied two-phase flow through a realistic fracture network in two and three dimensions.

  11. Noncontact plating technique in an open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhanioğlu Ü

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ümit Tuhanioğlu, Hasan Ulaş Oğur, Hakan Çiçek, Fırat Seyfettinoğlu, Osman Çiloğlu, Ahmet Kapukaya Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey Aim: In comparison with closed fractures, open fractures have an increased risk of infection, there are soft tissue-related problems, and difficulties are experienced in union. The aim of this study was to evaluate and discuss the results of osteosynthesis applied with a noncontact plate in Gustilo–Anderson Type 2, 3a, and 3b fractures.Method: The study included 23 patients applied with debridement + noncontact plate osteosynthesis + soft tissue procedures in a single session for the treatment of an open fracture. A follow-up card was created to evaluate the patients in respect of age, gender, fracture level, fracture etiology, open fracture type, preoperative and postoperative sedimentation and C-reactive protein values, antibiotics used and duration of use, time to union, and complications.Results: In all 23 patients, full bone union was obtained at mean 22.5 weeks (range: 16–36 weeks. Complications developed in 9 patients. Implant failure occurred in 3 patients. In 5 patients, infection developed which required repeated debridements.Conclusion: In open fractures, noncontact plating following debridement seems to be a good alternative treatment method to intramedullar nailing, especially in metaphyseal and metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures and in spiral oblique diafiz fractures. Noncontact plating may also be a good alternative to intramedullar nailing for open fracture treatment if the patients have additional pathologies such as contusion and thoracic injury. Keywords: plating, open fracture, infection

  12. Dusts, scale, slags, sludges... Not wastes, but sources of profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koros, Peter J.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the steel industry has focused on the need for and the many benefits of recycling steel that is discarded either in its own or in its customers’ manufacturing processes, as well as in recovery and reuse of steel scrap that arises after the product has served its intended purpose. In fact, modern steelmaking relies on the use of recycled iron units for at least half of its production. The other side of the story is the fate of the non-steel by-products (e.g., oxide dusts, sludges, scales, slags, spent refractories and the contained “low grade” energy units that are generated as natural adjuncts to iron and steelmaking processes). These valuable by-products often are classified as “wastes” and are discarded to landfills, at significant cost, although in reality they offer significant potential for cost savings or profit if reintroduced into the industrial arena via well planned programs. Examples of such instances will be presented, including energy credit issues, in the hope of pointing the way for future expansion of benefits from these opportunities. Preparing for a challenge and honor such as the Howe Memorial Lecture, one has to stand in awe of the accomplishments of the predecessor we honor in this forum. He worked in the early days of our industry without the benefits of the many technological improvements he and his successors brought to play as the years went by. John Stubbles, in his Howe Memorial Lecture in 1997,[1] presented a masterful and entertaining biography of Howe and his very active and prolific life. Perhaps the most telling quotation he attributed to Howe is very pertinent to the topic we will address presently: “Metallurgy lives by profit, not logic,” to which I would like to add a comment that bears on the topic of this lecture from the 1991 Howe lecturer, my friend and mentor Bill Dennis, “Where there is muck, there is money.” There are numerous examples of “one hand washes the other” in this business; that

  13. Politics or profits? Gazprom, the Kremlin, and Russian energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinn, Eric S.

    This paper adds to the ongoing discussion of Gazprom's role in Russia by placing the debate around Gazprom within the broader contexts of both the increasing prevalence of national oil companies in the world and the changing natural gas landscape. It assesses how the interplay between politics and profits has affected the way Gazprom can adapt to a rapidly changing world natural gas environment and how both the Kremlin and Gazprom are adjusting---or failing to adjust---their strategies accordingly. It concludes that Gazprom and the Kremlin are both adjusting to changes in the world natural gas environment, but they are doing so in their own ways, but given the affects the actions of one has on the other, the pace of adaptation is slower than what we might see with an entirely independent firm. The paper begins with a discussion of the tradeoffs inherent in Gazprom's relationship with the Kremlin. It identifies various factors at work politically that prevent Gazprom from profiting in the domestic economy. Primary among these factors are entrenched rent-seeking interests and philosophies about natural resources, as well as geopolitical interests. The paper identifies the 2006 and 2009 gas disputes with Ukraine as evidence of Kremlin interference in Gazprom's commercial activities and concrete examples of the boundaries between these two entities as well as the seeming blurring of these boundaries. The paper then moves into a discussion of increased volatility and risk in Gazprom's primary export market, Europe. The systemic context of a discussion of Gazprom today must include factors such as increased supply options for Europe that make natural gas a more fungible commodity than in the past and new legislation aimed at promoting energy independence via the development of a competitive natural gas market. This new context threatens Gazprom's ability to mitigate price risk in its export market, which in turn makes providing for the domestic market through gas rents

  14. A compendium of fracture flow models, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diodato, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    The report is designed to be used as a decision-making aid for individuals who need to simulate fluid flow in fractured porous media. Fracture flow codes of varying capability in the public and private domain were identified in a survey of government, academia, and industry. The selection and use of an appropriate code requires conceptualization of the geology, physics, and chemistry (for transport) of the fracture flow problem to be solved. Conceptual models that have been invoked to describe fluid flow in fractured porous media include explicit discrete fracture, dual continuum (porosity and/or permeability), discrete fracture network, multiple interacting continua, multipermeability/multiporosity, and single equivalent continuum. The explicit discrete-fracture model is a ``near-field`` representation, the single equivalent continuum model is a ``far-field`` representation, and the dual-continuum model is intermediate to those end members. Of these, the dual-continuum model is the most widely employed. The concept of multiple interacting continua has been applied in a limited number of examples. Multipermeability/multiporosity provides a unified conceptual model. The ability to accurately describe fracture flow phenomena will continue to improve as a result of advances in fracture flow research and computing technology. This improvement will result in enhanced capability to protect the public environment, safety, and health.

  15. Permeability of displaced fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  16. Talar neck and body fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelt, Stefan; Zwipp, Hans

    2009-02-01

    Fractures of the talar neck and body are rare and serious injuries. The vast majority are either intra-articular or lead indirectly to an intra-articular incongruity through a dislocation at the talar neck. Because of the high energy needed to produce talar fractures, they are frequently seen in multiply injured and polytraumatised patients. Open fractures and fracture-dislocations are treated as emergencies. Preoperative planning of definite internal fixation requires CT scanning. To obtain a complete intra-operative overview allowing for anatomical reconstruction of the articular surfaces and the axial deviation bilateral approaches are usually necessary. Internal fixation is achieved with screws or mini-plates supplemented by temporary K-wire transfixation in cases of marked additional ligamentous instability. The clinical outcome after talar neck and body fractures is determined by the severity of the injury and the quality of reduction and internal fixation. The timing of definite internal fixation does not appear to affect the final result. The rates of avascular necrosis (AVN) correlate with the degree of initial dislocation. Only total AVN with collapse of the talar body leads to inferior results with the need for further surgery whilst prolonged immobilisation or offloading of the affected foot is not indicated for partial AVN. Talar malunions and non-unions after inadequate treatment of displaced fractures are debiliating conditions that should be treated by surgical correction. Treatment options include corrective osteotomy by recreating the former fracture with secondary fixation, free or vascularised bone grafting and salvage by realignment and fusion of the affected joint(s).

  17. A Spatial Clustering Approach for Stochastic Fracture Network Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifollahi, S.; Dowd, P. A.; Xu, C.; Fadakar, A. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Fracture network modelling plays an important role in many application areas in which the behaviour of a rock mass is of interest. These areas include mining, civil, petroleum, water and environmental engineering and geothermal systems modelling. The aim is to model the fractured rock to assess fluid flow or the stability of rock blocks. One important step in fracture network modelling is to estimate the number of fractures and the properties of individual fractures such as their size and orientation. Due to the lack of data and the complexity of the problem, there are significant uncertainties associated with fracture network modelling in practice. Our primary interest is the modelling of fracture networks in geothermal systems and, in this paper, we propose a general stochastic approach to fracture network modelling for this application. We focus on using the seismic point cloud detected during the fracture stimulation of a hot dry rock reservoir to create an enhanced geothermal system; these seismic points are the conditioning data in the modelling process. The seismic points can be used to estimate the geographical extent of the reservoir, the amount of fracturing and the detailed geometries of fractures within the reservoir. The objective is to determine a fracture model from the conditioning data by minimizing the sum of the distances of the points from the fitted fracture model. Fractures are represented as line segments connecting two points in two-dimensional applications or as ellipses in three-dimensional (3D) cases. The novelty of our model is twofold: (1) it comprises a comprehensive fracture modification scheme based on simulated annealing and (2) it introduces new spatial approaches, a goodness-of-fit measure for the fitted fracture model, a measure for fracture similarity and a clustering technique for proposing a locally optimal solution for fracture parameters. We use a simulated dataset to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach

  18. Correcting for nonlinear effects in fracture toughness testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, H.; Eftis, J.

    1972-01-01

    Expressions for fracture toughness, which include nonlinear effects due to crack front plastic yield and possible small crack extension prior to fracture instability, are obtained for several test specimen configurations. Inclusion of such effects is based on a simple compliance type determination of the total energy rate at onset of fast fracture.

  19. What motivates librarians working in not for profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Gradišar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The area called motivation in not-for-profit organizations - including public enterprises - has been rather neglected. Most often the opinion prevails that apart from fixed salaries and system of promotion, there are no other ways of motiva ting staff. The aim of this article is to point out that this is not the čase, and that successful and efficient work of the staff which is necessary for the attainment of the goals of the organization, does not depend only on money. Motivating factors can be assessed by means of simple questionnaires.The articlebriefly defines the siginficance of public enterprises, their management and operation, areas which are mainly defined and controlled from outside.Motivation, factors affecting it, Maslow's theory of motivation and Herzberg's bifactorial theory are described. The fourth chapter brings some more on human resources in libraries and on the inquiry carried out on the basis of Herzberg's bifactorial theory; some directions on how we can use ali the different factors at our disposal are added as well.

  20. Accountability and Governance Reporting by Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan Nurfarahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many non-profit organizations (NPOs are facing funding cuts and reduction in voluntary donations during the current economic environment. In ensuring the sustainability of these organizations, the Malaysian government is currently promoting collaborative efforts between the government, social organisations and the private sector in providing social services. The potential advantages of such collaborations include, the risks of providing social services are shared between the government, social organizations and the private sector, build positive perceptions of government as enabler for social organizations, capitalise on social organizations’ collective skills, enthusiasm and innovation in providing social services. However, the current reporting requirement for NPOs in Malaysia may give rise to information asymmetry that can hinder such efforts. Hence, this study aims to examine the current reporting practices of NPOs in Malaysia. Based on content analysis of annual reports of 205 NPOs registered with Registry of Societies for the financial year 2011, this study finds that the overall information reported by the NPOs is relatively weak. NPOs also disclosed relatively high non-financial information as compared to the financial information. Hence, there is a need for more comprehensive reporting guidelines for the NPOs that can facilitate the decision-making needs of the relevant stakeholders.

  1. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  2. A new algorithm for hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Holck, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Treatment of hip fracture patients is controversial. We implemented a new operative and supervision algorithm (the Hvidovre algorithm) for surgical treatment of all hip fractures, primarily based on own previously published results. Methods 2,000 consecutive patients over 50...... years of age who were admitted and operated on because of a hip fracture were prospectively included. 1,000 of these patients were included after implementation of the algorithm. Demographic parameters, hospital treatment, and reoperations within the first postoperative year were assessed from patient...... 192 of 1,000 to 105 of 1,000 (p fractures and a decline of 13% to 7% for extracapsular fractures. The proportion of bed-days caused...

  3. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslin, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods: Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were evaluated. The data were collected retrospectively from patient files and other available databases. The data collected included date of fracture, age, gender, type of fracture, and ...

  4. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... factors: (1) Tax position benefits. (2) Granting of financing through advance payments. (3) Other...: quality of services or products, meeting performance schedules, efficiency in cost control (including need...

  5. Infant skull fracture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent protection ... a severe impact or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by ...

  6. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Growth Plate Fractures Page ( 1 ) The bones of children and adults share many of the same risks for ... also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of cartilage ...

  7. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  8. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  9. Rib fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000539.htm Rib fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or ...

  10. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000554.htm Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  11. Hip fracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis - hip ... You may receive general anesthesia for this surgery. This means you ... spinal anesthesia . With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  12. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  13. Everted skull fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V

    2011-11-01

    Skull bone fractures are common in trauma. They are usually linear undisplaced or depressed; however, a distinct possibility of elevated fracture remains. We describe an entity of everted fracture skull in which the fracture segment is totally everted. The nature of trauma, management, and complications of this unique case are discussed. A 21-year-old woman involved in a railway accident presented to us with a primary dressing on her wound. Investigations revealed an everted fracture skull. She underwent surgery with good results. We would like to add everted fracture skull to the nomenclature describing skull fractures in addition to elevated compound fracture skull as a new entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The quasi-market for adult residential care in the UK: Do for-profit, not-for-profit or public sector residential care and nursing homes provide better quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breeding and management of dairy cows to increase profit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm profit and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-eq.) for dairy cows in Northern Ireland, and also in the whole of the UK. An average cow was modelled for each population of animals, using average values from milk recording records. Previous work developed a dynamic model, to include nutrient partitioning to allow investigation of GHG abatement options over an ...

  16. What Do We Know About Base Erosion and Profit Shifting? A Review of the Empirical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2014-01-01

    The issue of tax-motivated income shifting within multinational firms has attracted increasing global attention in recent years. It is of central importance to many current policy debates, including those related to recent initiatives by the OECD on base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) and to proposals for US tax reform in a territorial direction. This paper provides a survey of the empirical literature on tax-motivated income-shifting within multinational firms. Its emphasis is on clarify...

  17. Impact Of The Customer Relationship Management Practices On The Profitability Of Uae Banks. A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Agnihotri, Dr Mahesh; Bhavani, Dr.M. Ganga

    2015-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a business strategy where by banks builds strong relationships with existing and prospective customers with the goal of increasing organizational profitability. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Practices provide a competitive edge to any organization including the Banking Sector, this research is an attempt to study the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Practices in UAE Banks with certain objectives i.e to examine the existing Customer Rela...

  18. Acetabular Fractures in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Gary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, including those of the pelvis and acetabulum, continues to rise. Treatment of the elder patients with an acetabular fracture is much more controversial than the treatment of younger patients with similar injuries, where prevention of posttraumatic arthritis and total hip replacement remains optimal to limit need for revision arthroplasty. Arthroplasty for fractures of the proximal femur is commonplace in an older population and is a mainstay of treatment to promote early mobilization and weight-bearing. However, even with acute total hip arthroplasty for a geriatric acetabular fracture, most surgeons do not permit immediate weight-bearing postoperatively. Therefore, controversy regarding optimal treatment of these challenging fractures persists. Four treatment options have emerged: nonoperative treatment with early mobilization, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF, limited open reduction and percutaneous screw fixation, and acute total hip arthroplasty. The exact indications and benefits of each treatment remain unknown. This article serves as a review of these four treatments and the data existing to support them.

  19. Fracturing alliance allows massive diatomite oil reserves to be economically produced at Lost Hills, California: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klins, M.A.; Stewart, D.W.; Pferdehirt, D.J.; Stewart, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    As North American oilfield operations mature, there is a perceptible loosening of the autocratic ties between oil companies and contractors. They are being replaced by alliances or partnerships designed to minimize cost while improving profitability of the companies involved. Many papers have been written concerning alliance theory, but little documentation exists detailing actual performance. This paper evaluates a mature alliance, its implementation, structure and results. In Lost Hills, California, the diatomite formation requires hydraulic fracturing to allow oil recovery at profitable production rates. Because hydraulic fracturing is approximately two-thirds of the total well cost, it is imperative that fracturing investments be optimized to allow field development to proceed at optimum levels. Therefore, in 1990, a fracturing alliance (the first of its kind) was initiated between Chevron and Schlumberger Dowell. Over 1 billion lbm of sand has been successfully placed during approximately 2,000 fracture stimulation jobs. Through this prototype fracturing alliance, many major accomplishments are being achieved. The most notable are the hydraulic fracturing costs that have been reduced by 40% while improving the profitability of both companies. This paper illustrates the benefits of an alliance and justifies the change in management style from a low-bid operating strategy to a win-win customer/supplier attitude.

  20. Stress Fractures of the Pelvis and Legs in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Steve B.; Deren, Matthew E.; Matson, Andrew; Fadale, Paul D.; Monchik, Keith O.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes, often difficult to diagnose. A stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of bone caused by repeated applications of stress over time. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed articles published from 1974 to January 2012. Results: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may predict the risk of stress fractures in athletes, including bone health, training, nutrition, and biomechanical factors. Based on their location, stress fractures may be categorized as low- or high-risk, depending on the likelihood of the injury developing into a complete fracture. Treatment for these injuries varies substantially and must account for the risk level of the fractured bone, the stage of fracture development, and the needs of the patient. High-risk fractures include the anterior tibia, lateral femoral neck, patella, medial malleolus, and femoral head. Low-risk fractures include the posteromedial tibia, fibula, medial femoral shaft, and pelvis. Magnetic resonance is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis. Conclusions: These injuries can lead to substantial lost time from participation. Treatment will vary by fracture location, but most stress fractures will heal with rest and modified weightbearing. Some may require more aggressive intervention, such as prolonged nonweightbearing movement or surgery. Contributing factors should also be addressed prior to return to sports. PMID:24427386

  1. Clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Takaaki; Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar styloid fractures are often associated with distal radius fractures. However, controversy exists regarding whether to treat ulnar styloid fractures. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures after distal radius fractures were treated with the volar locking plate system. We used prospectively collected data of distal radius fractures. 111 patients were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control study design was used. We selected patients who underwent fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (case group). Three control patients for each patient of the case group were matched on the basis of age, sex, and fracture type of distal radius fractures from among patients who did not undergo fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (control group). The case group included 16 patients (7 men, 9 women; mean age: 52.6 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 3; base, 11; and proximal, 2). The control group included 48 patients (15 men, 33 women; mean age: 61.1 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 10; base, 31; and proximal, 7). For radiographic examination, the volar tilt angle, radial inclination angle, and ulnar variance length were measured, and the union of ulnar styloid fractures was judged. For clinical examination, the range of motions, grip strength, Hand20 score, and Numeric Rating Scale score were evaluated. There was little correction loss for each radiological parameter of fracture reduction, and these parameters were not significantly different between the groups. The bone-healing rate of ulnar styloid fractures was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group, but the clinical results were not significantly different. We revealed that there was no need to fix ulnar styloid fractures when distal radius fractures were treated via open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate system. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  2. A novel classification of frontal bone fractures: The prognostic significance of vertical fracture trajectory and skull base extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravi K; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gassner, Jennifer; Hartman, Michael J; Leverson, Glen; King, Timothy W; Bentz, Michael L; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-05-01

    The broad spectrum of frontal bone fractures, including those with orbital and skull base extension, is poorly understood. We propose a novel classification scheme for frontal bone fractures. Maxillofacial CT scans of trauma patients were reviewed over a five year period, and frontal bone fractures were classified: Type 1: Frontal sinus fracture without vertical extension. Type 2: Vertical fracture through the orbit without frontal sinus involvement. Type 3: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus without orbit involvement. Type 4: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and ipsilateral orbit. Type 5: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and contralateral or bilateral orbits. We also identified the depth of skull base extension, and performed a chart review to identify associated complications. 149 frontal bone fractures, including 51 non-vertical frontal sinus (Type 1, 34.2%) and 98 vertical (Types 2-5, 65.8%) fractures were identified. Vertical fractures penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa significantly more often than non-vertical fractures (62.2 v. 15.7%, p = 0.0001) and had a significantly higher mortality rate (18.4 v. 0%, p fractures with frontal sinus and orbital extension, and fractures that penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa had the strongest association with intracranial injuries, optic neuropathy, disability, and death (p bone fractures carry a worse prognosis than frontal bone fractures without a vertical pattern. In addition, vertical fractures with extension into the frontal sinus and orbit, or with extension into the middle or posterior cranial fossa have the highest complication rate and mortality. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. XFEM modeling of hydraulic fracture in porous rocks with natural fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, ZhanLi; Zeng, QingLei; Gao, Yue; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2017-08-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) in porous rocks is a complex multi-physics coupling process which involves fluid flow, diffusion and solid deformation. In this paper, the extended finite element method (XFEM) coupling with Biot theory is developed to study the HF in permeable rocks with natural fractures (NFs). In the recent XFEM based computational HF models, the fluid flow in fractures and interstitials of the porous media are mostly solved separately, which brings difficulties in dealing with complex fracture morphology. In our new model the fluid flow is solved in a unified framework by considering the fractures as a kind of special porous media and introducing Poiseuille-type flow inside them instead of Darcy-type flow. The most advantage is that it is very convenient to deal with fluid flow inside the complex fracture network, which is important in shale gas extraction. The weak formulation for the new coupled model is derived based on virtual work principle, which includes the XFEM formulation for multiple fractures and fractures intersection in porous media and finite element formulation for the unified fluid flow. Then the plane strain Kristianovic-Geertsma-de Klerk (KGD) model and the fluid flow inside the fracture network are simulated to validate the accuracy and applicability of this method. The numerical results show that large injection rate, low rock permeability and isotropic in-situ stresses tend to lead to a more uniform and productive fracture network.

  4. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bone. Causes Injuries are the most common causes of foot and ankle sprains and fractures. Many fractures and sprains occur during ... or stumbling on uneven ground is another common cause of foot and ankle sprains and fractures. Symptoms Pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty ...

  5. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C.; Nuti, R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  6. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations.

  7. Geriatric Patients With Fractures Below the Hip are Medically Similar to Geriatric Patients With Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J; Uppal, Harmeeth S; Copeland, Marilyn E; Crist, Brett D; Volgas, David A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a cohort of geriatric patients with operatively managed isolated fractures below the hip to a cohort of geriatric patients with operatively managed isolated hip fractures. All patients greater than 59 years of age admitted to our institution for surgical care of an isolated lower extremity fracture during a 3-year period were included. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: BTH (fracture below the subtrochanteric region of the femur) and HIP (proximal femoral fracture at subtrochanteric region or proximal). We identified 141 patients included in cohort BTH and 205 patients included in cohort HIP. HIP patients were older (P patients and of peripheral neuropathy (P = .014) in BTH patients. HIP patients were more likely to be under active antiosteoporotic medication management and were more likely to be receiving pharmacological anticoagulation at the time of admission. HIP patients and BTH patients were similar with regard to necessity of assistance with ambulation preinjury, but HIP patients were less likely to reside independently at home than were BTH patients (P patients were also less likely to be discharged directly home from the hospital (P Geriatric patients with fractures below the hip are medically similar to geriatric patients with hip fracture. Medical comanagement protocols have been extensively published that improve care of geriatric patients with hip fracture; consideration should be given to similar protocol-driven medical comanagement programs for geriatric patients with fractures below the hip.

  8. Profit and loss account in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an economic unit, useful for a wide range of users in making economic decisions, particular attention should be paid to the profit and loss account, which is the main instrument for reflecting the financial performance, because on the one hand it provides the information necessary for their evaluation, and on the other hand the information essential for determining the risk of cash flows. Even if each component of the financial statements provides different pieces of information, they should be correlated because they reflect different aspects of the same transactions or events, and in this article we will address the general aspects of profit and loss account from the perspective of profit and loss account models. In this regard, after a brief theoretical approach of the profit and loss account, we will indicate the advantages of two models of profit and loss account but without forgetting their limitations. Thus, we will provide the income statement structure on two stages of normalization: internationally and nationally.

  9. The importance of internal controls in profit centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Pupovac Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profit centers are relatively independent organization units within a company that realize revenues and expenditures whose numerical difference expresses the results they achieved. There are guided by basic mission and objectives of company, and profit centers managers are assigned to harmonize the business, motivate the employees, make decisions and implement actions that lead to increase of profitability and efficiency on the level of the whole company. In order to monitor the company development, financial statements are put together on the level of the profit center, and, on their basis, managers make decisions about further steps of company's growth and development. Since financial statements play significant role in company's further business operations, it is necessary to form and implement internal control system that can confirm reliability of profit centers financial statements with a great certainty. Internal control examines compliance with current policies and procedures, detects errors and abuses, and checks the accuracy and completeness of accounting records. The purpose of internal controls is to increase company's business efficiency, basing the decision making on timely and accurate information.

  10. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  11. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  12. Capital structure and profitability. A case of JSE Listed Companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Mashavave

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find out the relationship between capital structure and profitability focusing on firms listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange in South Africa. Past research on this topic excluded the Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed firms. The research results will be useful to the business people in South Africa because it will be more in line with the South African economic status and thus relevant. From the graphs and tables of the companies analyzed, it appears there is no relationship between the capital structure and profitability. The fluctuations in the debt/equity ratio and profitability ratio are so severe to such an extent that no meaningful conclusion regarding the relationship between capital structure and profitability can be made. The outcomes are haphazard there is no uniformity and consistence on the outcomes. Other hindrances to the relationship between capital structure and profitability were also discovered and these were attributed to the environmental factors of the company such as economic, political, and social and all other external forces that companies under study were exposed to.

  13. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  14. Profitability and occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Mark, Christopher; Pana-Cryan, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Coal plays a crucial role in the U.S. economy yet underground coal mining continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the country. In addition, there are large variations in both profitability and the incidence of occupational injuries across mines. The objective of this study was to examine the association between profitability and the incidence rate of occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines between 1992 and 2008. We used mine-specific data on annual hours worked, geographic location, and the number of occupational injuries suffered annually from the employment and accident/injury databases of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and mine-specific data on annual revenue from coal sales, mine age, workforce union status, and mining method from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A total of 5669 mine-year observations (number of mines×number of years) were included in our analysis. We used a negative binomial random effects model that was appropriate for analyzing panel (combined time-series and cross-sectional) injury data that were non-negative and discrete. The dependent variable, occupational injury, was measured in three different and non-mutually exclusive ways: all reported fatal and nonfatal injuries, reported nonfatal injuries with lost workdays, and the 'most serious' (i.e. sum of fatal and serious nonfatal) injuries reported. The total number of hours worked in each mine and year examined was used as an exposure variable. Profitability, the main explanatory variable, was approximated by revenue per hour worked. Our model included mine age, workforce union status, mining method, and geographic location as additional control variables. After controlling for other variables, a 10% increase in real total revenue per hour worked was associated with 0.9%, 1.1%, and 1.6% decrease, respectively, in the incidence rates of all reported injuries, reported injuries with lost workdays, and the most serious injuries reported

  15. Profitability and occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Mark, Christopher; Pana-Cryan, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background Coal plays a crucial role in the U.S. economy yet underground coal mining continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the country. In addition, there are large variations in both profitability and the incidence of occupational injuries across mines. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between profitability and the incidence rate of occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines between 1992 and 2008. Data and method We used mine-specific data on annual hours worked, geographic location, and the number of occupational injuries suffered annually from the employment and accident/injury databases of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and mine-specific data on annual revenue from coal sales, mine age, workforce union status, and mining method from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A total of 5669 mine-year observations (number of mines × number of years) were included in our analysis. We used a negative binomial random effects model that was appropriate for analyzing panel (combined time-series and cross-sectional) injury data that were non-negative and discrete. The dependent variable, occupational injury, was measured in three different and non-mutually exclusive ways: all reported fatal and nonfatal injuries, reported nonfatal injuries with lost workdays, and the ‘most serious’ (i.e. sum of fatal and serious nonfatal) injuries reported. The total number of hours worked in each mine and year examined was used as an exposure variable. Profitability, the main explanatory variable, was approximated by revenue per hour worked. Our model included mine age, workforce union status, mining method, and geographic location as additional control variables. Results After controlling for other variables, a 10% increase in real total revenue per hour worked was associated with 0.9%, 1.1%, and 1.6% decrease, respectively, in the incidence rates of all reported injuries, reported injuries with lost

  16. Biological plating of comminuted fractures of femur and tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javdan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of comminuted fractures in long bones has continued to be a problem in orthopedic surgery. Recently, fixation without exploration of the fracture site, known as "biologic fixation”, has been introduced. This study was performed to assess the results and complications of this method for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the tibia and femur.
    METHODS: The study included 41 patients with comminuted fractures of the tibia and femur treated with biologic plating from 2003 to 2006 (25 femur fractures and 16 tibial fractures. After biological fixation joint motion was started but weight bearing was avoided until radiographic evidence of union was shown.
    RESULTS: The mean time of union in the tibial fractures was 19 ± 2 weeks and 17 ± 2 weeks for the femur fractures. All patients had fracture union without any infection, non-union or implant failure. In one patient with a femur fracture there was a 10° internal rotation deformity. Two of the femoral fractures had shortening of 1 cm, and one patient had shortening of about 2 cm. Compared to similar studies, all results were statistically significant (P<0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: The biologic plating method is a safe, simple and effective method of fixation for comminuted fractures of long bones. It has a high rate of union with minimal complications.
    KEY WORDS: Biological fixation, plate, comminuted fracture.

  17. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  18. Evaluation of Fibular Fracture Type vs Location of Tibial Fixation of Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy; Israel, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Comminuted fibular fractures can occur with pilon fractures as a result of valgus stress. Transverse fibular fractures can occur with varus deformation. No definitive guide for determining the proper location of tibial fixation exists. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal plate location for fixation of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular fracture. One hundred two patients with 103 pilon fractures were identified who were definitively treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013. Pilon fractures were classified using the AO/OTA classification and included 43-A through 43-C fractures. Inclusion criteria were age of at least 18 years, associated fibular fracture, and definitive tibial plating. Patients were grouped based on the fibular component fracture type (comminuted vs transverse), and the location of plate fixation (medial vs lateral) was noted. Radiographic outcomes were assessed for mechanical failures. Forty fractures were a result of varus force as evidenced by transverse fracture of the fibula and 63 were due to valgus force with a comminuted fibula. For the transverse fibula group, 14.3% mechanical complications were noted for medially placed plate vs 80% for lateral plating ( P = .006). For the comminuted fibular group, 36.4% of medially placed plates demonstrated mechanical complications vs 16.7% for laterally based plates ( P = .156). Time to weight bearing as tolerated was also noted to be significant between groups plated medially and laterally for the comminuted group ( P = .013). Correctly assessing the fibular component for pilon fractures provides valuable information regarding deforming forces. To limit mechanical complications, tibial plates should be applied in such a way as to resist the original deforming forces. Level of Evidence Level III, comparative study.

  19. Proximal third humeral shaft fractures -- a fracture entity not fully characterized by conventional AO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedtfeld, H W; Biber, R

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective study was made to evaluate the fracture patterns at the proximal humeral shaft for which the long version of a standard proximal humeral nail (PHNLV) has been used. The indication has been decided by the individual surgeons. Over a five year period 72 consecutive PHNLV cases of an acute fracture were identified and were included in the study. Mean patient age was 68.9 years. Gender ratio was m/f=22/50. 86.1% of the patients fractured their humerus by a fall, the rest by a high velocity accident. We analysed patient comorbidity, ASA score, osteoporosis, social status before accident, additional injuries affecting local soft tissues or other anatomic regions. We analysed the expansion of the fractures, dividing the humerus into five zones. Fracture morphology was categorized according to the standard AO/ASIF classification (if applicable). Comorbidities were found in 76.4% of the patients. Almost all patients (93.1%) had been living independently at home before the accident. 47.2% of patients had osteoporosis in their medical history. Five patients (6.9%) had a primary palsy of the radial nerve. Six fractures chosen for PHNLV fixation were clearly restricted to the humeral head. The remaining 66 fractures were located in the humeral shaft (AO region 12). There were 5 segmental fractures. Of the remaining 67 fractures affecting the proximal third of the humeral shaft 49.3 percent extended into the humeral head. 98 percent of these fractures displayed spiral morphology. Proximal humeral shaft fractures are amazingly similar to subtrochanteric and distal tibial shaft fractures: Spiral fracture types with different grades of comminution are absolutely dominant; a great proportion of the fractures extend into the humeral head with growing tendency of displacement if located closer to the humeral head. Diverging traction of deltoid and pectoralis muscle causes typical displacement if the fracture line runs in between their attachments substantiating the

  20. Multifocal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, A; Pascarella, R; Bettuzzi, C; Amendola, L; Politano, R; Fantasia, R; Del Torto, M

    2014-02-01

    Multifocal humeral fractures are extremely rare. These may affect the neck and the shaft, the shaft alone, or the diaphysis and the distal humerus. There is no classification of these fractures in the literature. From 2004 to 2010, 717 patients with humeral fracture were treated surgically at our department. Thirty-five patients presented with an associated fracture of the proximal and diaphyseal humerus: synthesis was performed with plate and screws in 34 patients, and the remaining patient had an open fracture that was treated with an external fixator. Mean follow-up was 3 years and 3 months. A classification is proposed in which type A fractures are those affecting the proximal and the humeral shaft, type B the diaphysis alone, and type C the diaphysis in association with the distal humerus. Type A fractures are then divided into three subgroups: A-I, undisplaced fracture of the proximal humerus and displaced shaft fracture; A-II: displaced fracture of the proximal and humeral shaft; and A-III: multifragmentary fracture affecting the proximal humerus and extending to the diaphysis. Multifocal humeral fractures are very rare and little described in the literature, both for classification and treatment. The AO classification describes bifocal fracture of the humeral diaphysis, type B and C. The classification suggested in this article mainly concerns fractures involving the proximal and humeral shaft. A simple classification of multifocal fractures is suggested to help the surgeon choose the most suitable type of synthesis for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fracture formation post impact on Enceladus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kathleen; Roberts, James

    2017-10-01

    Saturn’s small icy moon Enceladus was observed by the Cassini mission to have jets of ice and vapor emanating from its southern polar terrain (SPT), creating a plume. The fact that the activity is only observed in one region has not been well explained. Hypotheses include a regional sea beneath the SPT or a global ocean that is thicker beneath the SPT, which feeds a group of fractures observed there called the tiger stripes. As Enceladus orbits Saturn, stresses acting on the moon may open and close the fractures enabling interior volatiles to escape and form the plume. Here we investigate how these fractures could have formed and the activity begun. We propose that an impact could have either punctured through or caused substantial melt and fracturing in an ice shell connecting to a liquid layer below. Our goal is to determine whether a formation of fractures resembling the tiger stripes could emerge post-impact.Previous work by Roberts and Stickle (LPSC 2017, #1955) modeled an impact into an ice shell over an ocean and calculated penetration depth and melt temperatures and volumes through the shell thickness. Fracturing would occur during and after the impact, the crater would collapse, water would begin to refreeze and subsequent fluid exchange would occur. Working forward from a point after impact and as the ice shell begins refreezing, we performed finite element modeling to simulate the probable formation of fractures based on the resulting stress regime. Here we explore fracture formation for shells ranging from 1 km to 5 km thick (consistent with gravity and libration studies), to explore formation as the shell cools and thickens through time. We emplaced several fractures, penetrating either entirely or partially across the base to surface. Fracture interactions, tidal stress forcing with orbital true anomalies and ocean water pressurization are considered free parameters in the model. We present results for a number of parameter value combinations and

  2. The Profit Distribution of Supply Chain under E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of e-commerce, its influence on supply chain and supply chain management is becoming increasingly significant too. In this paper, the literature on the supply chain profit is reviewed first, and then a two-level and four-party supply chain which consists of a supplier, an e-commerce platform, third-party logistics, and demander is taken into consideration. The profit function of supply chain under e-commerce is formulated by taking the price of product and the maximum supply amount under certain investment as decision-making variables and taking the expected value of random variables of price as the setting sales quantity. Finally, the existence of maximum profit in the supply chain is proved in the model, and the coordination of supply chain under e-commerce environment can be achieved by setting coordination parameters when the relevant cost parameters of supply chain members satisfy certain conditions.

  3. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.

  4. Konsep Perjanjian Profit and Loss Sharing dalam Ekonomi islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agreements of Profit and Loss Sharing is an agreement based on the confidence (trust investment, in another sense that financiers or Shahibul Mall will deliver the funds to the fund manager or mudharib after investors feel confident that the managers of these funds both skill and moral can be trusted to manage the capital provided by the expertise and capital will not manipulate it. With this fact it is necessary to examine the concept of profit and loss sharing agreement, with the hope to find a concept that is based on the teachings of Islam. In this paper presents about the concept of Profit and Loss Sharing in the view of Islamic economics is based on the Qur'an and Hadith.

  5. The benefits of customer profitability analysis in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Georgiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the benefits of customer profitability analysis implementation according to the specifics of the hotel product and the state of the management accounting in hotels. On this basis is substantiated the necessity management accounting and information systems in the hotels to be anteriorly adapted and developed in relevance with the objectives and methodological tools of customer profitability analysis, while keeping their function in collecting information for operational revenues and costs by responsibility centers. A model for customer profitability analysis based on ABC method is proposed in this connection, providing an example to clarify its methodological aspects and benefits. The latter consist in providing information for the purposes of taking a variety of management decisions regarding costs, product mix, pricing, performance measurement and implementation of various marketing initiatives.

  6. Applicability of Investment and Profitability Effects in Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether investment and profitability are priced and if they partially explain the variations of stock returns in the Brazilian stock market, according to the Fama and French’s (2015 five-factor model. By using time series and cross-section regression, we found that book-to-market, momentum and liquidity are associated with stock returns whereas investment and profitability were not significant. We also found that there is no investment premium in Brazil. Therefore, motivated by the importance of B/M, momentum and liquidity to the Brazilian stock market, as well as by the poor performance of profitability and investment, we document that Keene and Peterson’s (2007 five-factor model is superior to all other models, especially the five-factor model by Fama and French (2015.

  7. Stress fractures in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T

    2012-04-01

    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  8. For fun and profit a history of the free and open source software revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In the 1980s, there was a revolution with far-reaching consequences -- a revolution to restore software freedom. In the early 1980s, after decades of making source code available with programs, most programmers ceased sharing code freely. A band of revolutionaries, self-described "hackers," challenged this new norm by building operating systems with source code that could be freely shared. In For Fun and Profit, Christopher Tozzi offers an account of the free and open source software (FOSS) revolution, from its origins as an obscure, marginal effort by a small group of programmers to the widespread commercial use of open source software today. Tozzi explains FOSS's historical trajectory, shaped by eccentric personalities -- including Richard Stallman and Linus Torvalds -- and driven both by ideology and pragmatism, by fun and profit. Tozzi examines hacker culture and its influence on the Unix operating system, the reaction to Unix's commercialization, and the history of early Linux development. He describes ...

  9. PERCEPTION OF CAPITAL, PROFIT AND DIVIDENDS AFFECT THE STOCK PURCHASE INTENTION IN INDONESIA PUBLIC COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Muda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence perception of Capital Gains and Dividends on Stock Purchase Intention in Indonesian companies. Variables used in this research are the capital, profit and dividends (independent variables and Stock Purchase Intention (dependent variable and to show their relationship, it was used multiple linear regression. This research included Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and there were taken into account a number of 38 societies Data of this research are secondary data, obtained from the financial statements of the investigated companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that simultaneous independent variables have a significant influence on the capital structure, while partially effect on the Capital Shares Purchase Intentions. It was also shown that Profit and Dividends do not affect the Stock Purchase Intention.

  10. Pore network extraction for fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; van Dijke, M. I. J.; Geiger, S.; Ma, J.; Couples, G. D.; Li, X.

    2017-09-01

    Although flow through fractured rocks involves many different length-scales, it is crucial for the prediction of continuum-scale single- and multi-phase flow functions to understand, at the pore-scale, the interaction between the rock matrix and fractures. Here we present a pore-network extraction method in which the pore diameters and fracture apertures are of similar size. The method involves a shrinking algorithm to extract a hybrid skeleton of medial axes and surfaces, and it includes a workflow to convert the medial surfaces of fractures into dense networks of virtual medial axes, allowing generation of an integrated pore-network for the entire pore space. Appropriate single- and two-phase flow properties are assigned to network elements representing the fractures. We validate the method via comparisons between pore network flow simulations and an analytical solution, direct flow simulations and experimental observations. The network calculations are several orders of magnitude faster than the direct simulations.

  11. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-02-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  12. Stress Modulation of Fracture Fixation Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Michael J; Collinge, Cory A; Gardner, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Stress modulation is the concept of manipulating bridge plate variables to provide a flexible fixation construct that allows callus formation through uneventful secondary bone healing. Obtaining absolute stability through the anatomic reduction of all fracture fragments comes at the expense of fracture biology, whereas intramedullary nailing, which is more advantageous for diaphyseal fractures of the lower extremity, is technically demanding and often may not be possible when stabilizing many metaphyseal fractures. Overly stiff plating constructs are associated with asymmetric callus formation, early implant failure, and fracture nonunion. Numerous surgeon-controlled variables can be manipulated to increase flexibility without sacrificing strength, including using longer plates with well-spaced screws, choosing titanium or stainless steel implants, and using locking or nonlocking screws. Axially dynamic emerging concepts, such as far cortical locking and near cortical overdrilling, provide further treatment options when bridge plating techniques are used.

  13. Profit opportunities for the chemical process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Papers given at a seminar designed to assist industry in the utilization of NASA-developed technology are presented. The topics include the following: the Technology Utilization program, NASA patent policy changes, transfer of Hysttl resin technology, nonflammable cellulosic materials development, nonflammable paper technology, circuit board laminates and construction, polymide resins and other polymers, and intumescent coatings.

  14. 48 CFR 49.202 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inventory; (4) Amount and source of capital and extent of risk assumed; (5) Inventive and developmental...) Character and difficulty of subcontracting, including selection, placement, and management of subcontracts... terminated portion of a construction contract, the contracting officer shall— (1) Comply with paragraphs (a...

  15. Effect of Mental Accounting on Corporate Profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This paper focuses on the impact of mental accounting on the performance of corporate organizations, using selected corporate entities in Owerri metropolis. The core objective of the study centres on the extent to which the components of mental accounting (including transaction utility, categorization ...

  16. 40 CFR 35.937-7 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... negotiations shall be the exercise of sound business judgment and good administrative practice including the... performance and not merely the application of a predetermined percentage factor. For the purpose of... possess talents and skills necessary to the accomplishment of project objectives, and to stimulate...

  17. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2017-12-28

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economical margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was

  18. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  19. [Fractures of the patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M; Windolf, J; Flohé, S

    2010-05-01

    Fractures of the patella account for approximately 0.5% to 1.5% of all skeletal injuries. The diagnosis is made by means of the mechanism of injury, physical and radiological findings. The kind of treatment of patella fractures depends on the type of fracture, the size of the fragments, the integrity of the extensor mechanism and the congruity of the articular surface. Independent of the kind of treatment an early rehabilitation is recommended. Modified tension band wiring is the most commonly used surgical treatment for patella fractures and can be used for almost every type of fracture. Due the superior stability in biomechanical studies two parallel cannulated lag screws combined with a tension band wiring are the treatment of choice for horizontally displaced two-part fractures. In comminuted fractures a partial or total patellectomy may be necessary. However, since the loss of quadriceps muscle power and the poor outcome total patellectomy should be considered as a salvage procedure.

  20. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  1. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  2. Recognizing and reporting vertebral fractures: reducing the risk of future osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, Brian C; Brown, Jacques P; Khan, Aliya; Leslie, William D; Levesque, Jacques; Lyons, David J; Siminoski, Kerry; Tarulli, Giuseppe; Josse, Robert G; Hodsman, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    reported. Vertebral fractures should be assessed from lateral spinal or chest radiographs according to the semiquantitative method of Genant and colleagues. Grade II and Grade III fractures as classified by this method should be given the greatest emphasis. Semiquantitative fracture recognition should include the recognition of changes such as loss of vertebral end-plate parallelism, cortical interruptions, and quantitative changes in the anterior, midbody, and posterior heights of vertebral bodies. When spine radiographs are performed to assess the presence of vertebral fractures, anteroposterior examinations may assist in the initial evaluation. The standard follow-up need only consist of single lateral views of the thoracic and lumbar spine that include T4 to L4 vertebrae. The radiographic technique described in this paper, or a technique of comparable efficacy, should be used. Dual X-ray absorptiometry examinations that include lateral spinal morphological assessments (vertebral fracture assessment) may contribute to fracture recognition. Educational material about the clinical importance of vertebral fracture recognition as a potential indicator of future osteoporotic fracture risk with its associated morbidity and mortality should be directed to all physicians. Recommendations were based on consensus opinion.

  3. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  5. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the ...

  6. Fluctuations of company yearly profits versus scaled revenue: Fat tail distribution of Levy type

    OpenAIRE

    H. E. Roman; Siliprandi, R. A.; Dose, C.; Riccardi, C.; Porto,M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze annual revenues and earnings data for the 500 largest-revenue U.S. companies during the period 1954-2007. We find that mean year profits are proportional to mean year revenues, exception made for few anomalous years, from which we postulate a linear relation between company expected mean profit and revenue. Mean annual revenues are used to scale both company profits and revenues. Annual profit fluctuations are obtained as difference between actual annual profit and its expected mea...

  7. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability. PMID:28634428

  8. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Harrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability.

  9. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability.

  10. Sleeve fracture of the adult patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linjun; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Lizhi; Xu, Rong; Guo, Yingkun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The patellar fractures are common in adults, but rare in children. As a particular type of patellar fracture, however, sleeve fractures are almost always limited to children in the under 16's group. Patient concerns: Herein, we report a rare case of a 19-year-old healthy adult female who presented sleeve fracture at the superior pole of the left patella. The clinical and radiological features are found including joint effusion, anterior tilt of the patella and a shell of bone lying proximally to the patella. Diagnoses: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination have been performed to further confirm the diagnosis of sleeve fracture, rupture of the quadriceps tendon and the cartilaginous injury. Interventions: Under general anaesthesia, she underwent open surgical procedures for reconstituting anatomically the fracture and repairing the rupture of the quadriceps tendon. Outcomes: Six months after the operation, she could fully use her left knee without any pain and disability. Lessons: Sleeve fractures of the patellar in adults are extremely rare, and our case is of interest for the first time occurring in healthy female adults. Our case report and literature review was aim to describe the clinic and imaging characteristics of superior pole sleeve fractures in adults, and highlight that physicians must be aware of this entity in adults so as to reduce misdiagnosis due to unfamiliarity. PMID:28796028

  11. Graphic solution to fracture treatment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.

    1973-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has the greatest immediate potential for increasing oil and gas resources. Fracturing has particular applications in the massive, very low permeability gas sands that exist in several major geologic basins in the Continental U.S. Gas reservoirs in these basins are characterized by interspersed sand and shale zones. It will be necessary to conduct engineered fracturing jobs so that a major portion of the net pay is contracted by vertical fractures that extend 1,000 ft or more in 2 directions out from the well. This will require selectively fracturing the multiple pay zones in the wells with one-half million or more gallons of fluid divided in several stages. The designs presented are primarily for thick, deep, low permeability reservoirs where relatively long vertical fractures would be induced. For this reason, the design criteria includes large treatment volumes, high injection rates, and relatively low fluid loss characteristics. Graphs show the relation between fracture length and treatment volume for the various selected treatment parameters. Other graphs show the effect of fluid loss coefficients and injection rates for fractures which grow in a more or less circular manner.

  12. Mid-facial Fractures: A 5-year Retrospective Review in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All cases of mid-facial fractures diagnosed and treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching ... of patients included age, sex, aetiology of fracture, anatomic site of fracture, associated maxillofacial fracture, types of treatment and postoperative complications.

  13. Function impairment and pain after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Stegenga, B.; de Bont, L.G.; Bos, R.R.

    Background: To determine the prognosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle after closed treatment. Methods: Patients (n = 144) with a fracture of the mandibular condyle, all treated closed, were included in the study. Fracture types and position of the fracture parts were determined on

  14. Prevalence and Cost of Subsequent Fractures Among U.S. Patients with an Incident Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jessica; Sajjan, Shiva; Lewiecki, E Michael; Harris, Steven T; Marvos, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence and cost of subsequent fractures among patients with an incident fracture are not well defined. To assess the prevalence of, and costs associated with, subsequent fractures in the year after an incident fracture. This was a retrospective claims database analysis using data from Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (commercial group). Patients included in the study had a claim for a qualifying fracture occurring between January 2008 and December 2013 (index fracture), were continuously enrolled in the health plan for ≥ 1 year before and after the index fracture, and were aged ≥ 65 years in the Medicare group or ≥ 50 years in the commercial group at the time of the index fracture. Subsequent fractures were identified by ICD-9-CM codes and were defined as the second fracture occurring ≥ 3 to ≤ 12 months after the index fracture (≥ 6 to ≤ 12 months for fractures at the same site as the index fracture). Rates of subsequent fractures were calculated as the number of patients who had a subsequent fracture divided by the total sample size. After propensity matching of demographic and clinical variables, we determined the total medical and pharmacy costs accrued within 1 year of the index fracture by patients with and without a subsequent fracture. Health care costs were compared between patients with and without a subsequent fracture using McNemar's test. A total of 45,603 patients were included in the Medicare group, and 54,145 patients were included in the commercial group. In the Medicare group, 7,604 (16.7%) patients experienced a subsequent fracture. The proportion of patients with a subsequent fracture was highest among patients with multiple index fractures (26.2%, n = 905), followed by those with hip (25.5%, n = 1,280) and vertebral (20.2%, n = 1,908) index fractures. In the commercial group, 6,256 (11.6%) patients experienced a subsequent fracture. The proportion

  15. Odontoid Fracture: Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Peña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 84-year-old male presented with left-sided posterior head, neck, and back pain after a ground level fall. Exam was notable for left parietal scalp laceration and midline cervical spine tenderness with no obvious deformities. He was neurovascularly intact, and placed in an Aspen Collar with strict spine precautions. Significant findings: Computed Tomography (CT of the cervical spine showed a stable, acute, non-displaced fracture of the odontoid process extending into the body of C2, consistent with a Type III Odontoid Fracture. He was evaluated by orthopedic spine service who recommended conservative, non-operative management. Discussion: The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae, with C1 and C2 commonly referred to as the Atlas and Axis, respectively. Unique to C2 is a bony prominence, the Odontoid Process (Dens. Hyperextension or hyperflexion injuries can induce significant stress causing fractures. Odontoid fractures comprise approximately 10% of vertebral fractures, and there are three types with varying stability.1 Type 1 is the rarest and is a fracture involving the superior segment of the Dens. It is considered a stable fracture. Type 2 is the most common and is a fracture involving the base of the odontoid process, below the transverse component of the cruciform ligament. This fracture is unstable and requires operative stabilization. 2 Type 3 odontoid fractures are classified by a fracture of the Odontoid process, as well as the lateral masses of the C2. Determining the stability of a Type III Odontoid fracture requires radiographic evaluation. Strict cervical spine precautions must be adhered to until adequate imaging and surgical consultation is obtained. CT of the of cervical spine fractures poses several advantages to plain film radiography due to the ability to view the anatomy in three planes. 3 However, if there is concern for ligamentous injury, MRI is the preferred modality.3

  16. Profitability and optimization of data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussa, M. [Sonatrach, Alger (Algeria). Petroleum Engineering and Development

    2008-07-01

    Information systems and technologies for the oil and gas industry were discussed with particular reference to the use of data analysis in dynamic planning processes. This paper outlined the risks and challenges associated with reorganizing data systems and the costs associated with equipment and software purchases. Issues related to Intranet encryption and electronic commerce systems were also reviewed along with the impact of the Internet on the oil and gas industry. New methods for using real time data systems for updating well data were outlined together with recent developments in Intranet and Extranet technologies and services. Other topics of discussion included new software applications for network optimization and nodal analyses; industry-specific software developed for well testing and reservoir engineering; and simulation and management production software. Data management solutions for storing, retrieving and analyzing data streams were presented. It was concluded that successful organizations must develop accurate data systems in order to ensure continuing success. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Bone material strength index as measured by impact microindentation is low in patients with fractures irrespective of fracture site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgo, F; Hamdy, N A T; Papapoulos, S E; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the relationship between bone material strength index (BMSi) and fragility fractures, including vertebral fractures. Our data showed that BMSi is low in all fracture patients with low bone mass, independently of whether patients sustained a vertebral or a non-vertebral fracture. Impact microindentation (IMI) is a new technique for the measurement of tissue level properties of cortical bone in vivo. Previous studies showed an association between BMSi and non-vertebral fractures, but an association with vertebral fractures is still being debated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between BMSi and different types of fragility fractures, including vertebral fractures. In this cross-sectional study, we measured BMSi in patients of both sexes with different types of fragility fractures and low bone mass with the IMI method using the Osteoprobe®. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed and graded on lateral spine radiographs. A total of 132 patients were included in the study, of whom 101 patients (65 women) had sustained a low energy fracture and 31 (mean age 57.7 ± 9.9 years) had no history or radiological evidence for a fracture. Of the fracture patients, 53 (mean age 62.8 ± 8.3 years) had only non-vertebral fractures (VF-/Fx+), 34 (mean age 62.8 ± 9.9 years) had vertebral and non-vertebral fractures (VF+/Fx+), and 14 (mean age 64.7 ± 9.3 years) had only vertebral fractures (VF+/Fx-). BMSi values, adjusted for age and BMD, were similar for all three groups of fracture patients (78.9 ± 0.7, 78.3 ± 0.9, and 78.4 ± 1.4, respectively; p = 0.866). BMSi values were not associated with number or severity of vertebral fractures. Our data demonstrate that BMSi is low in fracture patients with low bone mass, irrespective of whether they sustained a vertebral fracture or a non-vertebral fracture.

  18. Pediatric Hip Fractures in California: Results from a Community-Based Hip Fracture Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Heather A; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Hunt, Jessica J; Grimsrud, Christopher D; Weiss, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Hip fracture registries offer an opportunity to identify and to monitor patients with rare conditions and outcomes, including hip fractures in pediatric patients. To report patient demographics and surgical outcomes of pediatric patients treated surgically for hip fractures in a large integrated health care system. Pediatric patients (fracture) with hip fractures were identified between 2009 and 2012 using our health care system's hip fracture registry. Patient characteristics, type of fracture, surgical treatment, and short-term complications. Among 39 patients identified, 31 (79.5%) were male, and the median age was 15 years old (interquartile range: 11-17 years). Most patients were Hispanic (n = 17, 43.6%) or white (n = 14, 35.9%). There were 8 patients (20.5%) with 15 comorbidities. Delbet Type IV (intertrochanteric) fractures were the most common fracture type (n = 22, 56.4%), and fixation method was equally distributed between intramedullary, screw and sideplate, and screws (n = 12, 30.8% for each). Most surgeries were performed by medium-volume surgeons (n = 22, 56.4%) at medium- and high-volume hospitals (n = 37, 94.9%). Three 90-day readmissions (7.7%), 1 infection (2.6%), 1 malunion (2.6%), and 1 revision (2.6%) were observed in this cohort during the study period. In our series using registry data, hip fractures younger than age 21 years were more common in boys and Hispanic patients. Intertrochanteric fractures (Delbet Type IV) were the most frequently observed type in our community-based hip fracture registry. Short-term complications were infrequent.

  19. Pattern of distal radius fracture in malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, A M; Noor Fadzilah, R; Rukmanikanthan, S; Saw, A

    2012-10-01

    The distal radius is the most common fracture site in children, but local information on the fracture pattern, mechanism of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the fracture is lacking. We interviewed 126 children and their family members who were under follow up for this fracture in a single institution over a period of 2 years. Radiological images were reviewed to ensure that only those with fracture in the distal one third of the forearm were included. The overall incidence of this fracture increased with age, and male dominance was noted starting from schooling age. Most fractures occurred at home (38.8%), and 52.3% of all fractures were due to low energy falls. Sports injuries were mainly due to playing football, and road accidents due to riding bicycles. There were 49 (38.8%) children with incomplete fractures, and 19 (15.0%) with physeal plate fractures. Male dominance for distal radius fracture occurred at a comparatively younger age in our population. Preventive measures should focus on home environment since this is the most common place for fracture to occur. Special attention should be paid to boys after the school going age.

  20. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.