Sample records for profilometer technique measurement

  1. Use of a NOM profilometer to measure large aspheric surfaces (United States)

    Pearson, John L.; Roberts, Gareth W.; Rees, Paul C. T.; Thompson, Samantha J.


    The use of autocollimator-based profilometers of the Nanometer Optical measuring Machine (NOM) design has been reported for the evaluation of X-ray optics for some time. We report a related development in the use of a non-contact NOM profilometer for the in situ measurement of base radius of curvature and conic constant for E-ELT primary mirror segments during fabrication. The instrument is unusual in NOM design in that it is deployable onto a CNC polishing machine in an industrial fabrication environment. Whilst the measurement of radius of curvature of spherical surfaces over a single scan has been reported previously, here we report on the use of this instrument to measure optical surfaces with an aspheric departure of 180 micrometers using a grid of multiple scans and bespoke surface fitting software. The repeatability of the measurement has been found to be approximately 1 mm in a measured radius of curvature of approximately 90 m. The absolute accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the calibration of the autocollimator and the in situ calibration of the instrument during operation.

  2. An optical profilometer for spatial characterization of three-dimensional surfaces (United States)

    Kelly, W. L., IV; Burcher, E. E.; Skolaut, M. W., Jr.


    The design concept and system operation of an optical profilometer are discussed, and a preliminary evaluation of a breadboard system is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the optical profilometer technique. Measurement results are presented for several test surfaces; and to illustrate a typical application, results are shown for a cleft palate cast used by dental surgeons. Finally, recommendations are made for future development of the optical profilometer technique for specific engineering or scientific applications.

  3. Contact Profilometer: Dektak 6M (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Profilometer 1This system is used to measure step hights by profilometry. Specifications / Capabilities:Up to 6" wafersStylus force 1-15mgTip...

  4. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing (United States)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy


    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  5. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z


    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  6. Profilometer for Bomb-Damage-Repaired Airfield Pavements and Measurement of Pavement Upheaval. Report 1. Technology Evaluation. (United States)


    25 10 Measurement of Vehicle Position ..................... 27...2 II Diagram of the APL ...................................... 28 12...errsom-vec4 ire, easi ly ido-nti f iabloh ), (ii.... ;t i:’ il, or upheavial, j rorrrn t. thum i s rnot. The ( l-h e a alI i s cans’- f i by i 1 1yr I...vehicles in motion over a surface are subject to pitching and rolling motions which will effectively tilt the accelerometer. In the tilted position , the

  7. Aperture alignment in autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers. (United States)

    Geckeler, R D; Artemiev, N A; Barber, S K; Just, A; Lacey, I; Kranz, O; Smith, B V; Yashchuk, V V


    During the last ten years, deflectometric profilometers have become indispensable tools for the precision form measurement of optical surfaces. They have proven to be especially suitable for characterizing beam-shaping optical surfaces for x-ray beamline applications at synchrotrons and free electron lasers. Deflectometric profilometers use surface slope (angle) to assess topography and utilize commercial autocollimators for the contactless slope measurement. To this purpose, the autocollimator beam is deflected by a movable optical square (or pentaprism) towards the surface where a co-moving aperture limits and defines the beam footprint. In this paper, we focus on the precise and reproducible alignment of the aperture relative to the autocollimator's optical axis. Its alignment needs to be maintained while it is scanned across the surface under test. The reproducibility of the autocollimator's measuring conditions during calibration and during its use in the profilometer is of crucial importance to providing precise and traceable angle metrology. In the first part of the paper, we present the aperture alignment procedure developed at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, for the use of their deflectometric profilometers. In the second part, we investigate the topic further by providing extensive ray tracing simulations and calibrations of a commercial autocollimator performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, for evaluating the effects of the positioning of the aperture on the autocollimator's angle response. The investigations which we performed are crucial for reaching fundamental metrological limits in deflectometric profilometry.

  8. Aperture alignment in autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geckeler, R. D., E-mail:; Just, A.; Kranz, O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Artemiev, N. A.; Barber, S. K.; Lacey, I.; Yashchuk, V. V. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Smith, B. V. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    During the last ten years, deflectometric profilometers have become indispensable tools for the precision form measurement of optical surfaces. They have proven to be especially suitable for characterizing beam-shaping optical surfaces for x-ray beamline applications at synchrotrons and free electron lasers. Deflectometric profilometers use surface slope (angle) to assess topography and utilize commercial autocollimators for the contactless slope measurement. To this purpose, the autocollimator beam is deflected by a movable optical square (or pentaprism) towards the surface where a co-moving aperture limits and defines the beam footprint. In this paper, we focus on the precise and reproducible alignment of the aperture relative to the autocollimator’s optical axis. Its alignment needs to be maintained while it is scanned across the surface under test. The reproducibility of the autocollimator’s measuring conditions during calibration and during its use in the profilometer is of crucial importance to providing precise and traceable angle metrology. In the first part of the paper, we present the aperture alignment procedure developed at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, for the use of their deflectometric profilometers. In the second part, we investigate the topic further by providing extensive ray tracing simulations and calibrations of a commercial autocollimator performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, for evaluating the effects of the positioning of the aperture on the autocollimator’s angle response. The investigations which we performed are crucial for reaching fundamental metrological limits in deflectometric profilometry.

  9. In situ stylus profilometer for a high frequency reciprocating tribometer (United States)

    Kamps, T. J.; Walker, J. C.; Plint, A. G.


    Measuring the friction and wear characteristics of a tribological contact is essential to gaining a detailed understanding of its performance and predicted life. Wear rate and friction coefficient measurements are obtained from instrumented benchtop tribometers designed to replicate specific tribological contacts. Due to the difficulty of measuring wear in situ, measurements are typically made before and after an experiment. The wear rate must be assumed to be linear for it to be used to predict product life, however this is assumption can hide changes occurring during an experiment which indicate wear transitions. This paper details the design and validation of an in situ stylus profilometer for a reciprocating sliding tribometer to provide an insight into the wear transitions occurring during dry sliding of 52100 bearing steel against graphitic flake cast iron. The profilometer’s performance was validated using ground roughness standards and the accuracy found to be approximately 110 nm. Incubation, run-in and steady state wear regimes were identified by the profilometer and corroborated with friction coefficient data, providing an enhanced understanding of the tribological contact behaviour.

  10. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  11. Comparative analysis of different measurement techniques for characterizing soil surface roughness in agricultural soils (United States)

    Martinez-Agirre, Alex; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Valle, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Giménez, Rafael


    Soil surface roughness can be defined as the variation in soil surface elevations, and as such, it is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes. In agricultural soils, roughness is mainly an anthropic factor determined by the type of tillage and management. Roughness is also a property with a high spatial variability, since the same type of tillage can result in surfaces with different roughness depending on the physical characteristics of the soil and atmospheric conditions. In order to quantify roughness and to parameterize its role in different processes, different measurement techniques have been used and several parameters have been proposed in the literature. The objective of this work is to evaluate different measurement techniques and assess their accuracy and suitability for quantifying surface roughness in agricultural soils. With this aim, a comparative analysis of three roughness measurement techniques has been carried out; (1) laser profilometer, (2) convergent photogrammetry and (3) terrestrial laser scanner. Roughness measurements were done in 3 experimental plots (5x5 meters) with different tillage treatments (representing different roughness conditions) obtained with typical agricultural tools. The laser profilometer registered vertically the distance from a reference bar down to the surface. It had a vertical accuracy of 1.25 mm, a sampling interval of 5 mm and a total length profile of 5 m. Eight profiles were taken per plot, four in parallel to tillage direction and four in perpendicular. Convergent photogrammetry consisted of 20-30 images taken per plot from a height of 5-10 m above ground (using an elevation platform), leading to point clouds of ~25 million points per plot. Terrestrial laser scanner measurements were taken from the four sides of each plot at a measurement height of ~1.75 m above ground. After orientating and corregistering the four scans, point clouds of ~60 million points were obtained per plot. The comparative

  12. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    principle to acoustic holography and beamforming. On the one hand, a new method called near- field acousto-optic holography (NAOH) has been proposed and makes it possible to predict properties of sound at planes different from the measuring one. In comparison with conventional near-field acoustic holography...

  13. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  14. Measurement techniques for liquid metals (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hernández, D.; Richter, T.; Otte, D.; Buchenau, D.; Krauter, N.; Wondrak, T.


    The measurement of flow properties of liquid metals, such as flow rate, flow structure and gas distribution, is a challenging task due to the opaqueness, the high temperatures (e. g. 1500 °C for liquid steel or liquid silicon) and the corrosiveness of those fluids. In this paper, a short review about the recent developments of measurement techniques in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance Liquid Metal Technologies (LIMTECH) is presented. It focuses on the development of contactless inductive measurement techniques exploiting the high electrical conductivity of those melts. These measurement techniques include the contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT), which is able to reconstruct the mean three-dimensional velocity structure in liquid melts, local Lorentz force velocimetry (local LFV), which enables the local assessment of flows close to the wall, and inductive methods for bubble detection, which are based on mutual inductance tomography (MIT). Additionally, a short overview of contactless inductive flow rate measurement techniques is given. Furthermore, an ultrasound technique called ultrasound transit-time technique (UTTT) will be presented which enables the measurement of position and size of bubbles in large vessels.

  15. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M


    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  16. Shack-Hartmann reflective micro profilometer (United States)

    Gong, Hai; Soloviev, Oleg; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb


    We present a quantitative phase imaging microscope based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor, that directly reconstructs the optical path difference (OPD) in reflective mode. Comparing with the holographic or interferometric methods, the SH technique needs no reference beam in the setup, which simplifies the system. With a preregistered reference, the OPD image can be reconstructed from a single shot. Also, the method has a rather relaxed requirement on the illumination coherence, thus a cheap light source such as a LED is feasible in the setup. In our previous research, we have successfully verified that a conventional transmissive microscope can be transformed into an optical path difference microscope by using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor under incoherent illumination. The key condition is that the numerical aperture of illumination should be smaller than the numerical aperture of imaging lens. This approach is also applicable to characterization of reflective and slightly scattering surfaces.

  17. Current techniques for measuring motion. (United States)

    Atha, J


    The sports scientist and the ergonomist, although sharing a common disciplinary background, pursue fundamentally different goals. The patterns of approach to the analysis of movement they adopt are, nevertheless, similar and a model of this approach is presented. Some potential sources of error associated with each stage of the process are identified. In measuring motion in sport, cinematography has played a dominant role. The method has obvious advantages; but analysing film is a slow, pedestrian task, and subject to human error. Where an investigator is experienced and understands his problem clearly he can often achieve his aims with a limited number of measurement variables. This may also mean he can adopt automatic and specific techniques of acquiring information. Such methods include alternative photographic techniques, but also involve the specialised transducers and automatic analysers that are now burgeoning in the field. Some of these techniques are discussed.

  18. Developments in luminescence measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Denby, Phil M.


    intended for use with the Riso TL/OSL reader. We have investigated the potential of new more powerful blue (455 nm) and green (530nm) LEDs, and of gated counting combined with pulsed stimulation light techniques using conventional LEDs. Measurement of time-resolved OSL has resulted in a method of real...

  19. Current body composition measurement techniques. (United States)

    Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna


    The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.

  20. Midinfrared Temperature Measurement Technique Developed (United States)

    Santosuosso, George R.


    Infrared thermography is the measuring of the temperature of an object by examining the spectral quantities of light emission. The microgravity combustion experiment Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speeds (SIBAL) calls for full-field temperature measurements of a thin sheet of cellulosic fuel as a flame front moves across the fuel, and infrared thermography is the only technique that can accomplish this task. The thermography is accomplished by imaging the fuel with a midinfrared camera that is sensitive in the 3.0- to 5.0-microns wavelength region in conjunction with a 3.7 - to 4.1-microns bandpass filter to eliminate unwanted infrared radiation from components other than the fuel.

  1. POSIVA groundwater flow measuring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy (Finland)


    Posiva Oy has carried out site characterisation for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland since 1987. To meet the demanding needs to measure the hydraulic parameters in bedrock Posiva launched development of new flowmeter techniques including measuring methods and equipment in co-operation with PRG-Tec Oy. The techniques have been tested and used in the ongoing site investigations in Finland, in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) at Aespoe in Sweden and in URL in Canada. The new methods are called difference flow and transverse flow methods. The difference flow method includes two modes, normal and detailed flow logging methods. In the normal mode the flow rate measurement is based on thermal pulse and thermal dilution methods, in the detailed logging mode only on thermal dilution method. The measuring ranges for flow rate with thermal pulse and dilution methods are 0.1-10 ml/min and 2-5000 ml/min, respectively. The difference flow method(normal mode) for small flows (0.1-10 ml/min) is based on measuring the pulse transit time and direction of a thermal pulse in the sensor. For high flows (2-5000 ml/min) the method is based on thermal dilution rate of a sensor. Direction is measured with monitoring thermistors. Inflow or outflow in the test interval is created due to natural or by pumping induced differences between heads in the borehole water and groundwater around the borehole. The single point resistance (and the temperature of borehole water) measurement is carried out simultaneously with the difference flow measurements, both in normal and detailed flow logging modes, while the tool is moving. The result is utilised for checking the exact depth of the tool. As the result a continuous log is obtained from which single fractures can be detected. The transverse flowmeter is able to measure the groundwater flow across a borehole. A special packer system guides the flow through the flow sensors. Four inflatable seals between conventional

  2. Measurement Techniques for Clock Jitter (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlesinger, Adam


    NASA is in the process of modernizing its communications infrastructure to accompany the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to replace the shuttle. With this effort comes the opportunity to infuse more advanced coded modulation techniques, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that offer greater coding gains than the current capability. However, in order to take full advantage of these codes, the ground segment receiver synchronization loops must be able to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than supported by equipment currently in use.

  3. Development of Critical Profilometers to Meet Current and Future NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Inspection Needs (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Nichols, Charles


    This project is part of a multi-center effort to develop and validate critical NDE techniques which can be implemented into current and future NASA spacecraft COPV manufacturing processes. After decades of COPV development, manufacturing variance is still high and has necessitated higher safety factors and additional mass to be flown on spacecraft (reducing overall performance). Additionally, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) indicated that nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was not adequately implemented during Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) COPV manufacturing and provisions were not made for on-going structural integrity and health checks during the various spacecraft programs. This project helps to provide additional data needed to help address these issues. This project seeks to develop and install internal and external laser profilometers at COPV manufacturing facilities to provide data needed to improve COPV quality and consistency. This project also investigates other scanning techniques that will enhance the system to more completely meet manufacturing needs, thus transforming the profilometer into what has been termed the "Universal Manufacturing COPV Scanner".


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Icasio-Hernández


    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to offer a comparative of measurement error for different computer vision techniques for 3D reconstruction and allow a metrological discrimination based on our evaluation results. The present work implements four 3D reconstruction techniques: passive stereoscopy, active stereoscopy, shape from contour and fringe profilometry to find the measurement error and its uncertainty using different gauges. We measured several dimensional and geometric known standards. We compared the results for the techniques, average errors, standard deviations, and uncertainties obtaining a guide to identify the tolerances that each technique can achieve and choose the best.

  5. Measurement Error with Different Computer Vision Techniques (United States)

    Icasio-Hernández, O.; Curiel-Razo, Y. I.; Almaraz-Cabral, C. C.; Rojas-Ramirez, S. R.; González-Barbosa, J. J.


    The goal of this work is to offer a comparative of measurement error for different computer vision techniques for 3D reconstruction and allow a metrological discrimination based on our evaluation results. The present work implements four 3D reconstruction techniques: passive stereoscopy, active stereoscopy, shape from contour and fringe profilometry to find the measurement error and its uncertainty using different gauges. We measured several dimensional and geometric known standards. We compared the results for the techniques, average errors, standard deviations, and uncertainties obtaining a guide to identify the tolerances that each technique can achieve and choose the best.

  6. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  7. The Passive Techniques of Television Audience Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu R Volfson


    Full Text Available The challenge associated with the adjustment and overlapping of different techniques becomes especially evident in media research. The article examines the passive techniques of mass media measurement exemplified by the study of television oriented to handle the problem of objectively verifiable data acquisition.

  8. Optical measurement techniques - A push for digitization (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod


    Over the years, optical measurement techniques have been the problem-solving backbone of many engineering applications such as nondestructive testing of materials, measurement of various material properties, structural analysis and experimental mechanics [1-3]. Probably the most important advantage associated with any optical measurement system over other systems is its non-contact type of measurement capability. Apart from their non-contact nature, the optical measurement systems are capable of providing full-field measurements at scales ranging from milli-meters to nano-meters.

  9. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Jennifer


    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  10. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiossi, F., E-mail: [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brylew, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Borghesani, A.F. [CNISM Unit and Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C.; Carugno, G. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Drozdowski, W. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Guarise, M. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  11. A review on creatinine measurement techniques. (United States)

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad


    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for quantifying percentage wood failure in block-shear specimens by a laser scanning profilometer (United States)

    C. T. Scott; R. Hernandez; C. Frihart; R. Gleisner; T. Tice


    A new method for quantifying percentage wood failure of an adhesively bonded block-shear specimen has been developed. This method incorporates a laser displacement gage with an automated two-axis positioning system that functions as a highly sensitive profilometer. The failed specimen is continuously scanned across its width to obtain a surface failure profile. The...

  13. Surface topography of machined fibre reinforced plastics obtained by stylus instruments and optical profilometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Else; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    In the manufacturing industry it is important to be able to specify and control the surface quality of the components produced. This is often done with stylus profilometers, by which standardized roughness parameters are found. In recent years instruments based on laser autofocusing have been int...

  14. Measurement techniques for radio frequency nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, T Mitch


    Connect basic theory with real-world applications with this practical, cross-disciplinary guide to radio frequency measurement of nanoscale devices and materials.• Learn the techniques needed for characterizing the performance of devices and their constituent building blocks, including semiconducting nanowires, graphene, and other two dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides• Gain practical insights into instrumentation, including on-wafer measurement platforms and scanning microwave microscopy• Discover how measurement techniques can be applied to solve real-world problems, in areas such as passive and active nanoelectronic devices, semiconductor dopant profiling, subsurface nanoscale tomography, nanoscale magnetic device engineering, and broadband, spatially localized measurements of biological materialsFeaturing numerous practical examples, and written in a concise yet rigorous style, this is the ideal resource for researchers, practicing engineers, and graduate students new to ...

  15. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulutsuz, A. G., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Besiktas, İstanbul (Turkey); Demircioglu, P., E-mail:; Bogrekci, I., E-mail: [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aytepe, 09010, Aydin (Turkey); Durakbasa, M. N., E-mail: [Department of Interchangeable Manufacturing and Industrial Metrology, Institute for Production Engineering and Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/3113 A-1040 Wien (Austria); Katiboglu, A. B., E-mail: [Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in

  16. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang


    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  17. Seminar on Detectors and measurements techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    A Nordic Seminar on detectors and radionuclide measurement techniques was held in Lund, Sweden, May 3-4, 2001. The objective was to highlight recent progress and problems for techniques to study environmental radioactivity. It covered the aspect of detector sample geometry's and methods for evaluation of gamma gamma pulse height distributions. Within the field of alpha-spectrometric techniques gridded ionisation chambers, semiconductor detectors and a general description for analysis of alpha-particle-spectra were presented. Recent development in mass spectrometric techniques, AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometry) for long-lived radionuclides was described. Principles for analysis of beta particle emitters, especially by liquid scintillation were presented. The seminar also covered radiochemistry such advantages and disadvantages between ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. The use of controlled laboratory conditions for discerning the dynamics of accumulation in organisms was demonstrated. Other techniques such as neutron activation were also shown to be useful analytical tool for certain long-lived radionuclides. The results of the intercalibration exercises within the Nordic countries showed the importance of such analytical quality control. (au)

  18. Metrology of vibration measurements by laser techniques (United States)

    von Martens, Hans-Jürgen


    Metrology as the art of careful measurement has been understood as uniform methodology for measurements in natural sciences, covering methods for the consistent assessment of experimental data and a corpus of rules regulating application in technology and in trade and industry. The knowledge, methods and tools available for precision measurements can be exploited for measurements at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology. A metrological approach to the preparation, execution and evaluation (including expression of uncertainty) of measurements of translational and rotational motion quantities using laser interferometer methods and techniques will be presented. The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and upgraded ISO standards are reviewed with respect to their suitability for ensuring traceable vibration measurements and calibrations in an extended frequency range of 0.4 Hz to higher than 100 kHz. Using adequate vibration exciters to generate sufficient displacement or velocity amplitudes, the upper frequency limits of the laser interferometer methods specified in ISO 16063-11 for frequencies <= 10 kHz can be expanded to 100 kHz and beyond. A comparison of different methods simultaneously used for vibration measurements at 100 kHz will be demonstrated. A statistical analysis of numerous experimental results proves the highest accuracy achievable currently in vibration measurements by specific laser methods, techniques and procedures (i.e. measurement uncertainty 0.05 % at frequencies <= 10 kHz, <= 1 % up to 100 kHz).

  19. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements. (United States)

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal


    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota.

  20. Develop Critical Profilometers to Meet Current and Future Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Interior Inspection Needs (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.


    The objective of this project is to develop laser profilometer technology that can efficiently inspect and map the inside of composite pressure vessels for flaws such as liner buckling, pitting, or other surface imperfections. The project will also provide profilometers that can directly support inspections of flight vessels during development and qualification programs and subsequently be implemented into manufacturing inspections to screen out vessels with "out of family" liner defects. An example interior scan of a carbon overwrapped bottle is shown in comparison to an external view of the same bottle (Fig. 1). The internal scan is primarily of the cylindrical portion, but extends about 0.15 in. into the end cap area.

  1. Quantitative proton MR techniques for measuring fat. (United States)

    Hu, H H; Kan, H E


    Accurate, precise and reliable techniques for the quantification of body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton MR methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short- and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article succinctly describes the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarizes the advantages and limitations of various techniques and offers a few illustrative examples. The article also highlights recent efforts in the MR of brown adipose tissue and concludes by briefly discussing some future research directions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Full-field wafer warpage measurement technique (United States)

    Hsieh, H. L.; Lee, J. Y.; Huang, Y. G.; Liang, A. J.; Sun, B. Y.


    An innovative moiré technique for full-field wafer warpage measurement is proposed in this study. The wafer warpage measurement technique is developed based on moiré method, Talbot effect, scanning profiling method, stroboscopic, instantaneous phase-shift method, as well as four-step phase shift method, high resolution, high stability and full-field measurement capabilities can be easily achieved. According to the proposed full-field optical configuration, a laser beam is expanded into a collimated beam with a 2-inch diameter and projected onto the wafer surface. The beam is reflected by the wafer surface and forms a moiré fringe image after passing two circular gratings, which is then focused and captured on a CCD camera for computation. The corresponding moiré fringes reflected from the wafer surface are obtained by overlapping the images of the measuring grating and the reference grating. The moiré fringes will shift when wafer warpage occurs. The phase of the moiré fringes will change proportionally to the degree of warpage in the wafer, which can be measured by detecting variations in the phase shift of the moiré fringes in each detection points on the surface of the entire wafer. The phase shift variations of each detection points can be calculated via the instantaneous phase-shift method and the four-step phase-shift method. By adding up the phase shift variations of each detection points along the radii of the circular gratings, the warpage value and surface topography of the wafer can be obtained. Experiments show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining test results similar to that of a commercial sensor, as well as performing accurate measurements under high speed rotation of 1500rpm. As compared to current warpage measurement methods such as the beam optical method, confocal microscopy, laser interferometry, shadow moiré method, and structured light method, this proposed technique has the advantage of full-field measurement, high

  3. Progress in automation, robotics and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata


    This book presents recent progresses in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It includes contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.    .

  4. Alternative techniques for beam halo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, CP; Burel, B; Lefèvre, T; Chapman, T; Pilon, MJ


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized, as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Measurements based on optical transition radiation (OTR) are a well-established technique for measurements of the transverse beam profile. However, in order to be suitable for halo measurements as well, the dynamic range of the final image acquisition system needs to be high, being able to cover at least five orders of magnitude in intensity changes. Here, the performance of a standard acquisition system as it is used in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is compared to a step-by-step measurement with a small movable photo multiplier tube and an innovative camera system based on charge injection de...

  5. Evaluation of Uranium-235 Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dibert, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Monolithic U-Mo fuel plates are rolled to final fuel element form from the original cast ingot, and thus any inhomogeneities in 235U distribution present in the cast ingot are maintained, and potentially exaggerated, in the final fuel foil. The tolerance for inhomogeneities in the 235U concentration in the final fuel element foil is very low. A near-real-time, nondestructive technique to evaluate the 235U distribution in the cast ingot is required in order to provide feedback to the casting process. Based on the technical analysis herein, gamma spectroscopy has been recommended to provide a near-real-time measure of the 235U distribution in U-Mo cast plates.

  6. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.


    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  7. EDITORIAL: Measurement techniques for multiphase flows Measurement techniques for multiphase flows (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi


    Research on multiphase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing and so on. Multiphase flows originally have nonlinear features because of multiphase systems. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The nonlinear interaction causes the multiphase flows to be very complicated. Therefore techniques for measuring multiphase flows are very useful in helping to understand the nonlinear phenomena. The state-of-the-art measurement techniques were presented and discussed at the sixth International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (ISMTMF2008) held in Okinawa, Japan, on 15-17 December 2008. This special feature of Measurement Science and Technology includes selected papers from ISMTMF2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China, Japan and many western Pacific countries have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for over 1000 years. Much technical and scientific information was exchanged at the symposium in Okinawa. The proceedings of ISMTMF2008 apart from these special featured papers were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 147 (2009). We would like to express special thanks to all the contributors to the symposium and this special feature. This special feature will be a milestone in measurement techniques for multiphase flows.

  8. a Technique for Biaxial Damping Measurement (United States)

    Hooker, R. J.; Foster, C. G.


    A description is given of a novel technique by means of which experimental studies may be made of the energy dissipation behaviour of materials subjected to biaxial (i.e., combined stress) loading. A specimen in the form a thin cylinder is subjected to simultaneous but separately controlled fluctuating fluid pressures internally, externally and axially. Pressure control is achieved by electro-hydraulic servo-systems and strain response is measured by miniature electrical resistance strain gauges. The apparatus is believed to be unique in its ability to apply biaxial with uniform stress distribution and uniform ratio of principal stresses over the full range -1 ≤ σ 2/σ 1≤ 1 with adequate control and accuracy and absence of means tress. Hysteresis loops in the two principal directions are recorded. The principles of the apparatus and the special features of its design are discussed. Experimental results are presented. The errors associated with operation of the apparatus correspond to loss factors of the order of 0·001-0·002 and hence the apparatus may be considered satisfactory for studies of materials of loss factor 0·01 and higher.

  9. Spectroscopic Measurement Techniques for Aerospace Flows (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Hurley, Samantha


    The conditions that characterize aerospace flows are so varied, that a single diagnostic technique is not sufficient for its measurement. Fluid dynamists use knowledge of similarity to help categorize and focus on different flow conditions. For example, the Reynolds number represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in a flow. When the velocity scales, length scales, and gas density are large and the magnitude of the molecular viscosity is low, the Reynolds number becomes large. This corresponds to large scale vehicles (e.g Airbus A380), fast moving objects (e.g. artillery projectiles), vehicles in dense fluids (e.g. submarine in water), or flows with low dynamic viscosity (e.g. skydiver in air). In each of these cases, the inertial forces dominate viscous forces, and unsteady turbulent fluctuations in the flow variables are observed. In contrast, flows with small length scales (e.g. dispersion of micro-particles in a solid rocket nozzle), slow moving objects (e.g. micro aerial vehicles), flows with low density gases (e.g. atmospheric re-entry), or fluids with a large magnitude of viscosity (e.g. engine coolant flow), all have low Reynolds numbers. In these cases, viscous forces become very important and often the flows can be steady and laminar. The Mach number, which is the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound in the medium, also helps to differentiate types of flows. At very low Mach numbers, acoustic waves travel much faster than the object, and the flow can be assumed to be incompressible (e.g. Cessna 172 aircraft). As the object speed approaches the speed of sound, the gas density can become variable (e.g. flow over wing of Learjet 85). When the object speed is higher than the speed of sound (Ma > 1), the presences of shock waves and other gas dynamic features can become important to the vehicle performance (e.g. SR-71 Blackbird). In the hypersonic flow regime (Ma > 5), large changes in temperature begin to affect flow properties, causing real

  10. An optical profilometer for the characterisation of parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, A.; Montecchi, M. [ENEA, Concentrating Solar Power Project, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Roma) (Italy)


    An optical profilometer has been developed based on the idea that the large panels that compose solar-power concentrators and a tolerance threshold for slope-errors to some milliradians, can allow the use of a geometric-optics framework and the investigation of ray-paths by means of a laser beam. The instrument scheme is discussed in detail together with the related problems and the solutions adopted. Data analysis also makes use of an innovative method, based on the iterative application of a criterion about the intersection between the tangents of adjacent points, which allows a realistic profile of the reflector-surface to be drawn. The methodology adopted allows us to call our instrument a profilometer rather than an instrument that gives only information about the tangent of the profile. The instrument accuracy on profile and arctangent deviations from the ideal parabola is 20 {mu}m and 15 {mu}rad, respectively. The results obtained for a reflecting panel are also reported. (author)

  11. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David


    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  12. Wheatstone bridge technique for magnetostriction measurements. (United States)

    Sullivan, M


    A basic Wheatstone bridge, with additional electronic instrumentation, has been used in the measurement of magnetostriction. This method allows a resolution of approximately 10% on measurements of magnetostrictions less than 0.75 parts per million.

  13. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique


    D. K. Kamat; Dhanashri Bagul; P.M. Patil


    Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner ...

  14. Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) for Anion Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso Vega, M.F.; Weng, L.P.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Donnan membrane technique (DMT) is developed and tested for determination of free anion concentrations. Time needed to reach the Donnan membrane equilibrium depends on type of ions and the background. The Donnan membrane equilibrium is reached in 1 day for Cl-, 1-2 days for NO3-, 1-4 days for SO42-

  15. Surface detail reproduction under simulated pulpal pressure: a 3-dimensional optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy evaluation. (United States)

    Acar, Ozlem; Erkut, Selim; Lakshmipathy, Manas


    It is not clear whether more hydrophilic impression materials are better able to copy and transfer dentin surface detail than less hydrophilic ones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of dentin surface detail by means of hydrophobic and hydrophilic elastomeric impression materials under simulated pulpal pressure and their ability to transfer surface detail onto casts produced from such impressions. The wettability of the impression materials (n=8) was determined by contact angle measurement with an evolution period of 135 seconds. Dentin moisture was provided by means of pulpal pressure simulation, and objective analyses were performed by measuring the average roughness value (Ra) with a 3-D optical profilometer (n=10). One specimen from each group was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Contact-angle values were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA, and detail reproduction was tested with 3-way ANOVA (α=.05). The Bonferroni correction was used to control Type I error for follow-up analyses. Contact angle measurements revealed significant differences depending on the impression material used and time of the measurement (P.013). The hydrophobic impression material showed similar detail reproduction ability in a dry field, but loss of detail (evaluated subjectively) and increased roughness values (evaluated objectively) were recorded in a moisturized field (P=.004). Polyurethane-based cast material successfully reproduced the surface texture (P≥.006), whereas Type IV gypsum material was unable to reproduce this texture to the same extent. The hydrophilic impression materials tested showed similar ability to reproduce detail under simulated pulpal pressure. Polyurethane-based cast material successfully reproduced the surface texture. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the theory of SODAR measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, I.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Bradley, S.


    of measuring both the wind speed distribution with height and the wind direction. At the same time the SODAR presents a number of serious drawbacks such asthe low number of measurements per time period, the dependence of the ability to measure on the atmospheric conditions and the difficulty of measuring...... at higher wind speeds due to either background noise or the neutral condition of the atmosphere. Withinthe WISE project (EU project number NNE5-2001-297), a number of work packages have been defined in order to deal with the SODAR. The present report is the result of the work package 1. Within this package...

  17. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kamat


    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev


    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  19. Techniques for measuring quality of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, F.; Kooij, R.E.; Vleeschauwer, D. de; Brunnström, K.


    Quality of Experience (QoE) relates to how users perceive the quality of an application. To capture such a subjective measure, either by subjective tests or via objective tools, is an art on its own. Given the importance of measuring users' satisfaction to service providers, research on QoE took

  20. Techniques for measuring quality of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, F.; Kooij, R.; De Vleeschauwer, D.; Brunnström, K.


    Quality of Experience (QoE) relates to how users perceive the quality of an application. To capture such a subjective measure, either by subjective tests or via objective tools, is an art on its own. Given the importance of measuring users’ satisfaction to service providers, research on QoE took

  1. A Simple Technique for High Resistance Measurement (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia; Landin, Ramon Ochoa


    A simple electronic system for the measurement of high values of resistance is shown. This system allows the measurement of resistance in the range of a few megohm up to 10[superscript 9] [omega]. We have used this system for the evaluation of CdS thin film resistance, but other practical uses in the basic physics laboratory are presented.…

  2. Waste Measurement Techniques For Lean Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Pieńkowski


    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to answer the problem of measuring waste in companies, which are implementing Lean Manufacturing concept. Lack of complex identification, quantification an visualization of waste significantly impedes Lean transformation efforts. This problem can be solved by a careful investigation of Muda, Muri and Mura, which represent the essence of waste in the Toyota Production System. Measuring them facilitates complete and permanent elimination of waste in processes. The paper introduces a suggestion of methodology, which should enable company to quantify and visualize waste at a shop floor level.

  3. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D


    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exerci...

  4. Techniques for measuring customers’ satisfaction in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lidia MELNIC


    Full Text Available The major concern of banks today is to recover and maintain customer trust. Customers need to feel that banks are considering their best interests. Customers are seeking for easy and personalized information. They want to better understand their financial situation and to control it. They want to know both the benefits, as well as the risks. Clients want to work with banks that are concerned about them and about their personal goals. However, only an attractive offer of banks is not the key to success today if is not supported by a superior service culture, that can make notable differentiation in the market. Many banks all over the world are systematically measuring how well they treat customers, identifying the factors shaping satisfaction, and changing operations and marketing as a result. Wise banks measure customer satisfaction regularly because it is one key to customer retention.

  5. Solar Radiation: Models and Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Pandey


    Full Text Available In order to grasp the significance of the work accomplished by the author, it is necessary to keep abreast of the present developments in this field. The research work reported in the paper is an attempt to get knowledge to assess the solar energy potential for practical and efficient utilization in India. Our work is centered on estimating realistic values of solar (global and diffuse radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces using measured meteorological data and geographical and geometrical parameters for India.

  6. Stability of modulation transfer function calibration of surface profilometers using binary pseudo-random gratings and arrays with nonideal groove shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik H.; Cambie, Rossana; Marchesini, Stefano; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitry L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    The major problem of measurement of a power spectral density (PSD) distribution of surface heights with surface profilometers arises due to the unknown Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the instruments, which tends to distort the PSD at higher spatial frequencies. The special mathematical properties of binary pseudo-random patterns make them an ideal basis for developing MTF calibration test surfaces. Two-dimensional binary pseudo-random arrays (BPRAs) have been fabricated and used for the MTF calibration of the MicroMap{trademark}-570 interferometric microscope with all available objectives. An investigation into the effects of fabrication imperfections on the quality of the MTF calibration and a procedure for accounting for such imperfections are presented.

  7. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao


    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  8. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques (United States)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin


    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed.

  9. Techniques for transparent lattice measurement and correction (United States)

    Cheng, Weixing; Li, Yongjun; Ha, Kiman


    A novel method has been successfully demonstrated at NSLS-II to characterize the lattice parameters with gated BPM turn-by-turn (TbT) capability. This method can be used at high current operation. Conventional lattice characterization and tuning are carried out at low current in dedicated machine studies which include beam-based measurement/correction of orbit, tune, dispersion, beta-beat, phase advance, coupling etc. At the NSLS-II storage ring, we observed lattice drifting during beam accumulation in user operation. Coupling and lifetime change while insertion device (ID) gaps are moved. With the new method, dynamical lattice correction is possible to achieve reliable and productive operations. A bunch-by-bunch feedback system excites a small fraction (∼1%) of bunches and gated BPMs are aligned to see those bunch motions. The gated TbT position data are used to characterize the lattice hence correction can be applied. As there are ∼1% of total charges disturbed for a short period of time (several ms), this method is transparent to general user operation. We demonstrated the effectiveness of these tools during high current user operation.

  10. Experimental techniques for mass measurement far from stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N


    The measurement of nuclear masses is a fundamental tool to probe nuclear structure ar from stability. A review of the techniques that have been most commonly employed to undertake such measurements is presented. (author)

  11. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C


    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  12. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.


    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  13. Equipment for measuring radiation. Part 3. Technique of measuring radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanowski, L.J.


    Difficulties are noted in measuring the effects of radiation because of the excessively low energy of the measured fields. In nature there are different magnetic-dynamic and magnetic-hydrodynamic generators which are sources of very low intensity which changes in time. The equipment of measurements is examined in the example of one of the generators, underground water current. The apparatus is described in detail for measuring the intensity of the electromagnetic SHF field. Under the underground water currents a change is observed in the intensity of the electromagnetic field. The possibilities are also examined of direct measurement of ultrasonic elastic fluctuations caused by the underground current, as well as the possibility of recording other physical fields (spontaneous polarization, soil temperature). A study was made of the effect of the underground water current on the occurrence of physical, chemical and biological processes: photochemical reactions, reactions of metal oxidation, Golomb effect (change in the rate of sedimentation of argillaceous particles in water under the influence of a biofield), change in air humidity and soil water content, change in intensity of the magnetic field, Hall effect, change in luminescence of certain organisms or the luminophore released by them. Basic plans are presented of certain measurement and recording devices.

  14. Un profilomètre laser pour la perception de l'espace par les non-voyantsA laser profilometer as a space perception system for blind people (United States)

    Farcy, René; Damaschini, Roland; Milchberg, Noemi; Sampaio, Eliana; Brenière, Yvon; Maton, Bernard


    We have exploited laser telemetry to extend the reach of the hand or of the cane while retaining a natural posture. A laser telemeter of similar dimensions as a TV remote control device is held in the hand. It is a class II device for ocular safety. The blind person perceives the direction in which the laser beam is pointing thanks to his internal conciousness of the position and of the movements of his members (proprioception). The distance to the first obstacle encountered by the laser beam is measured at a rate of about 25 measurements per second. The range of the telemeter (10 cm to 20 m) is divided into suitable intervals of distance. To each interval there corresponds a musical note sent to an earpiece. By an adequate bending of the wrist, one obtains sections of the surrounding space. The sequence of distances is immediately converted into a musical line at the rate of the scan. The natural proprioceptive perception of the movements, combined with the musical line furnishes the subject with a cerebral image of the profiles of the obstacles. Thefundamental information is constituted above all by the variation of the musical notes, so we prefer to call the set-up a profilometer. The extraction of profiles in various directions allows one to acquire three-dimensional spatial information out to 20 m. About 50 blind volunteers have experimented with the system for simple exercises, including the detection of a post and of a hole in the floor and orientation by a wall to find one's way. It turned out that the proprioception and the spatial perception of subjects often had to be improved by re-education. We are taking these factors into account for optimization of the learning techniques.

  15. Silt fences: An economical technique for measuring hillslope soil erosion (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown


    Measuring hillslope erosion has historically been a costly, time-consuming practice. An easy to install low-cost technique using silt fences (geotextile fabric) and tipping bucket rain gauges to measure onsite hillslope erosion was developed and tested. Equipment requirements, installation procedures, statistical design, and analysis methods for measuring hillslope...

  16. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.


    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  17. Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, K.P.; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Willemsen, G; Bussmann, Luuk


    Already in the 19th century, d’Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d’Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float
    travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated

  18. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  19. A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals


    Yongliang Geng; Chunao Zhu; Bo Zhang


    The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liqui...

  20. Noncontact temperature measurement. I - Interpolation based techniques. II - Least squares based techniques (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.


    Two types of techniques for noncontact temperature measurements are described. The one type, the interpolation-based techniques, is based on the ratio pyrometry techniques (two, three, and four color). It is shown that the ratio pyrometry methods are very sensitive to measurement noise and that the sensitivity increases quickly with the number of terms in the ratio. In these methods (under certain conditions) reference temperature can be used to make accurate predictions regarding the temperature elsewhere in the system. The other type of technique is based on measurements of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of a least square curve fitting technique. Using computer simulations, it is shown that the theory and the algorithms developed for this method can accurately predict both the temperature and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction.

  1. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irick, S.


    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.

  2. An ultrasonic technique for measuring stress in fasteners (United States)

    Stevens, K. J.; Day, P.; Byron, D.


    High temperature bolting alloys are extensively used in the thermal power generation industry as for example, reheat ESV and Governor valve studs. Remnant life assessment methodologies and plant maintenance procedures require the monitoring of the operational stress levels in these fasteners. Some conventional ultrasonic techniques require longitudinal wave measurements to be undertaken when the nut on the bolt is loosened and then re-tightened. Other techniques use a combination of shear waves and longitudinal waves. In this paper, the problems and pitfalls associated with various ultrasonic techniques for measuring stress in bolts, is discussed. An ultrasonic technique developed for measuring the stress in Durehete 1055 bolts is presented. Material from a textured rolled bar has been used as a test bed in the development work. The technique uses shear wave birefringence and compression waves at several frequencies to measure texture, fastener length and the average stress. The technique was developed by making ultrasonic measurements on bolts tensioned in universal testing machines and a hydraulic nut. The ultrasonic measurements of residual stress have been checked against strain gauge measurements. The Durehete bolts have a hollow cylinder geometry of restricted dimensions, which significantly alters compression and shear wave velocities from bulk values and introduces hoop stresses which can be measured by rotating the polarization of the shear wave probe. Modelling of the experimental results has been undertaken using theories for the elastic wave propagation through waveguides. The dispersion equations allow the velocity and length of the fastener to be measured ultrasonically in some situations where the length of the fastener can not be measured directly with a vernier caliper or micrometer and/or where it is undesirable to loosen nuts to take calibration readings of the shear and compression wave velocities.

  3. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain


    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  4. High impulse voltage and current measurement techniques fundamentals, measuring instruments, measuring methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Klaus


    Equipment to be installed in electric power-transmission and distribution systems must pass acceptance tests with standardized high-voltage or high-current test impulses which simulate the stress on the insulation caused by external lightning discharges and switching operations in the grid. High impulse voltages and currents are also used in many other fields of science and engineering for various applications. Therefore, precise impulse-measurement techniques are necessary, either to prevent an over- or understressing of the insulation or to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of the application. The book deals with: principal generator circuits for generating high-voltage and high-current impulses measuring systems and their calibration according to IEC 60060 and IEC 62475 methods of estimating uncertainties of measurement mathematical and experimental basis for characterizing the transfer behavior of spatially extended systems used for measuring fast transients. This book is intended for engineers and ...

  5. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI


    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  6. Volume Measurement in Solid Objects Using Artificial Vision Technique (United States)

    Cordova-Fraga, T.; Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Bernal, J.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.


    A simple system using artificial vision technique for measuring the volume of solid objects is described. The system is based on the acquisition of an image sequence of the object while it is rotating on an automated mechanism controlled by a PC. Volumes of different objects such as a sphere, a cylinder and also a carrot were measured. The proposed algorithm was developed in environment LabView 6.1. This technique can be very useful when it is applied to measure the human body for evaluating its body composition.

  7. Handbook of microwave component measurements with advanced VNA techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dunsmore, Joel P


    This book provides state-of-the-art coverage for making measurements on RF and Microwave Components, both active and passive. A perfect reference for R&D and Test Engineers, with topics ranging from the best practices for basic measurements, to an in-depth analysis of errors, correction methods, and uncertainty analysis, this book provides everything you need to understand microwave measurements. With primary focus on active and passive measurements using a Vector Network Analyzer, these techniques and analysis are equally applicable to measurements made with Spectrum Analyzers or Noise Figure

  8. Noncontact temperature measurement. II. Least squares based techniques (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.


    A technique for the noncontact measurement of temperatures is described. The technique is based on the measurement of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of least squares curve fitting techniques. The technique is shown to make no assumptions regarding the emissivity of the target except that it be possible to model it with an analytic function. A theory is developed to predict the errors in the estimation of temperatures based on both linear and nonlinear least-squares techniques. It is shown that the maximum error in the predicted temperature is related to the noise in the measured intensities in a quantifiable manner. It is shown using computer simulations that the theory and algorithms developed here can predict both the temperatures and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction with a very high accuracy. An instrument was developed to test this theory. This instrument, referred to as the MITTMA, was used to measure absolute temperatures of various sources from 900 °C to 2300 °C with an average accuracy of approximately 0.5%.

  9. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas


    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  10. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)


    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  11. The measurement of oxygen in vivo using EPR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Harold M. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Clarkson, Robert B. [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    The measurement of pO{sub 2} in vivo using EPR has some features which have already led to very useful applications and this approach is likely to have increasingly wide and effective use. It is based on the effect of oxygen on EPR spectra which provides a sensitive and accurate means to measure pO{sub 2} quantitatively. The development of oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic materials which are very stable, combined with instrumental developments, has been crucial to the in vivo applications of this technique. The physical basis and biological applications of in vivo EPR oximetry are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the use of EPR spectroscopy at 1 GHz using particulate paramagnetic materials for the repetitive and non-invasive measurement of pO{sub 2} in tissues. In vivo EPR has already produced some very useful results which have contributed significantly to solving important biological problems. The characteristics of EPR oximetry which appear to be especially useful are often complementary to existing techniques for measuring oxygen in tissues. These characteristics include the capability of making repeated measurements from the same site, high sensitivity to low levels of oxygen, and non-invasive options. The existing techniques are especially useful for studies in small animals, where the depth of measurements is not an overriding issue. In larger animals and potentially in human subjects, non-invasive techniques seem to be immediately applicable to study phenomena very near the surface (within 10 mm) while invasive techniques have some very promising uses. The clinical uses of EPR oximetry which seem especially promising and likely to be undertaken in the near future are long-term monitoring of the status and response to treatment of peripheral vascular disease and optimizing cancer therapy by enabling it to be modified on the basis of the pO{sub 2} measured in the tumour. (author)

  12. Measurement of moisture in materials. Fundamentals - measuring techniques - applications - standards; Materialfeuchtemessung. Grundlagen - Messverfahren - Applikationen - Normen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupfer, K.; Knoechel, R.; Menke, F.; Krus, M.; Koch, W.; Brokmann, T.; Stopp, H.; Kahle, M.; Bachmann, C.; Goeller, A.; Leschnik, W.; Hauenschild, C.; Herrmann, R.; Klein, A.; Neue, J.; Haeupl, P.; Eggers, R.; Sikora, J.; Fechner, H.; Boltze, T.; Hinz, T.; Vogt, O.


    The book deals with fundamentals of moisture measurement, the physical properties of water/solids mixtures, but also reference methods such as the drying closet method, microwave drying, infrared drying, and Karl-Fischer titration. Competent experts present current methods of conductimetry, capacitive measuring techniques, microwave measuring techniques, nuclear resonance measuring techniques, nuclear radiometry techniques, infrared measuring techniques, thermal conductivity measurement techniques and hygrometric techniques. Apart from the physical bases, the authors look at factors of interference, measuring systems, as well as applications. Microwave measuring techniques offer the advantages of non-destructive measurement, independence of salt content, and density compensation. (orig./MM) 260 figs., 19 tabs., 386 refs. [Deutsch] Das Buch behandelt Grundlagen der Feuchtemessung, physikalische Eigenschaften von Wasser-Feststoff-Gemischen, aber auch Referenzverfahren, wie Trockenschrankverfahren, Mikrowellentrocknung, Infrarottrocknung und Karl-Fischer-Titration. Von kompetenten Fachleuten werden die in der Praxis ueblichen Leitfaehigkeitsmessverfahren, kapazitiven Messverfahren, Mikrowellenmessverfahren, Kernresonanzverfahren, Kernstrahlungsverfahren, Infrarot-Messverfahren, Waermeleitfaehigkeitsmessverfahren und hydrometrischen Messverfahren vorgestellt. Es werden sowohl physikalische Grundlagen, Stoergroessen, Messsysteme, aber auch Applikationen behandelt. Mikrowellenmessverfahren bieten Vorteile einer zerstoerungsfreien Messung, der Unabhaengigkeit vom Salzgehalt und Moeglichkeiten der Dichtekompensation. (orig./MM)

  13. Image processing techniques in 3-D foot shape measurement system (United States)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Ping; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi


    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle was designed and 3-D foot-shape measurements without blind areas and the automatic extraction of foot-parameters were achieved. The paper is focused on the study of the system structure and principle and image processing techniques. The key techniques related to the image processing for 3-D foot shape measurement system include laser stripe extraction, laser stripe coordinate transformation from CCD cameras image coordinates system to laser plane coordinates system, laser stripe assembly of eight CCD cameras and eliminating of image noise and disturbance. 3-D foot shape measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  14. The projected pattern correlation technique for vibration measurements (United States)

    Konrath, R.; Klinge, F.; Schroeder, A.; Kompenhans, Juergen; Fuellekrug, U.


    The objective of this paper is the description of the Projected Pattern Correlation method for measuring surface velocities and to present results of a feasibility study. Similar to the Moire technique the local surface velocities of a large area are determined simultaneously, which replace a time consuming point wise scanning as it is necessary in e.g. Laser Doppler Vibrometry. Furthermore, the dynamics of non-periodic processes can be resolved temporally and spatially. In difference to the Moire or grid projection techniques the evaluation step is fast (real-time measurements are possible) more robust and provides a high spatial resolution. The measurement precision is assessed using a simple test arrangement. Vibration measurements are performed on a satellite model structure and a honeycomb sandwich plate.

  15. Updates on measurements and modeling techniques for expendable countermeasures (United States)

    Gignilliat, Robert; Tepfer, Kathleen; Wilson, Rebekah F.; Taczak, Thomas M.


    The potential threat of recently-advertised anti-ship missiles has instigated research at the United States (US) Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) into the improvement of measurement techniques for visual band countermeasures. The goal of measurements is the collection of radiometric imagery for use in the building and validation of digital models of expendable countermeasures. This paper will present an overview of measurement requirements unique to the visual band and differences between visual band and infrared (IR) band measurements. A review of the metrics used to characterize signatures in the visible band will be presented and contrasted to those commonly used in IR band measurements. For example, the visual band measurements require higher fidelity characterization of the background, including improved high-transmittance measurements and better characterization of solar conditions to correlate results more closely with changes in the environment. The range of relevant engagement angles has also been expanded to include higher altitude measurements of targets and countermeasures. In addition to the discussion of measurement techniques, a top-level qualitative summary of modeling approaches will be presented. No quantitative results or data will be presented.

  16. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  17. Advanced spherical near-field antenna measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    The DTU-ESA facility has since the 1980es provided highly accurate antenna radiation pattern measurements and gain calibration by use of the probe corrected spherical nearfield technique, both for ESA (the European Space Agency) and other customers and continues to do so. Recent years activities ...

  18. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.


    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  19. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques. (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P


    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  20. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. (ed.)


    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  1. Electropyroelectric technique for measurement of the thermal effusivity of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, R; Moreno, I; Araujo, C [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esquina Paseo de la Bufa s/n, C. P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Marin, E, E-mail: emarin63@yahoo.e, E-mail: emarinm@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, LegarIa 694, Colonia Irrigacion, C. P. 11500, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The photopyroelectric method has been recognized as a reliable and useful tool for the measurement of the thermal properties of condensed matter samples. Usually the photothermal signal is generated using intensity modulated light beams, whose amplitudes are difficult to maintain stable. In this paper we describe a variant of this technique that uses amplitude modulated electrical current as excitation source, via Joule heating of the metal contact on one side of the pyroelectric sensor. The possibilities of this method, called by us the electropyroelectric technique, for thermal effusivity measurements of liquid samples are shown using test samples of distilled water, ethanol and glycerine. The results obtained for this parameter agree well with the values reported in the literature. Our measurement uncertainties are about 3%, a fact that opens several possible applications.

  2. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi


    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  3. Application of stereo photogrammetric techniques for measuring African Elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J Hall-Martin


    Full Text Available Measurements of shoulder height and back length of African elephants were obtained by means of stereo photogrammetric techniques. A pair of Zeiss UMK 10/1318 cameras, mounted on a steel frame on the back of a vehicle, were used to photograph the elephants in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa. Several modifications of normal photogrammetry procedure applicable to the field situation (eg. control points and the computation of results (eg. relative orientation are briefly mentioned. Six elephants were immobilised after being photographed and the measurements obtained from them agreed within a range of 1 cm-10 cm with the photogrammetric measurements.

  4. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Revel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.

  5. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John


    This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the

  6. Techniques of microwave noise measurement on cooled transistors (United States)

    Valk, Eric C.

    Cooled low-noise microwave field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers are widely used in radio telescopes, satellite earth stations, and radar systems to minimize noise added to the signal by the receiver. In designing these amplifiers, the noise parameters of the FETs must be known. It is hard to obtain these parameters, especially at cryogenic temperatures. A load having an electronically controlled reflection coefficient (RC) and noise temperature was built and used to measure the noise parameters of a GaAs FET at 12 K at frequencies in the 1.2-1.6 GHz range. The electronic load simplified the measurement of noise parameters at cryogenic temperatures because its RC was adjusted from outside the cooling apparatus, and the RCs were repeatable. A number of novel techniques for measuring noise and for estimating the noise parameters of a noise measurement receiver and of the device under test were developed. Singular value decomposition was used to improve and analyze noise parameter estimation by least squares fitting. The measurement errors due to frequency errors and non-zero noise power measurement bandwidth were analyzed. A new notation was introduced to simplify the analysis of noisy linear circuits and was used to develop cascading and de-embedding equations for noisy linear two-ports, and was also used to develop some of the new measurement techniques.

  7. Glenohumeral internal rotation measurements differ depending on stabilization techniques. (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Reinold, Michael M; Macrina, Leonard C; Porterfield, Ron; Devine, Kathleen M; Suarez, Kim; Andrews, James R


    The loss of glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion in overhead athletes has been well documented in the literature. Several different methods of assessing this measurement have been described, making comparison between the results of studies difficult. Significant differences in the amount of internal rotation range of motion exist when using different methods of stabilization. Descriptive laboratory study. THREE TECHNIQUES WERE USED BILATERALLY IN RANDOM FASHION TO MEASURE GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATION RANGE OF MOTION: stabilization of the humeral head, stabilization of the scapula, and visual inspection without stabilization. An initial study on 20 asymptomatic participants was performed to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability for each measurement technique. Once complete, measurements were performed on 39 asymptomatic professional baseball players to determine if a difference existed in measurement techniques and if there was a significant side-to-side difference. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. While interrater reliability was fair between all 3 methods, scapular stabilization provided the best intrarater reliability. A statistically significant difference was observed between all 3 methods (P < .001). Internal rotation was significantly less in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder (P < .001). Differences in internal rotation range of motion measurements exist when using different methods. The scapula stabilization method displayed the highest intrarater reproducibility and should be considered when evaluating internal rotation passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. A standardized method of measuring internal rotation range of motion is required to accurately compare physical examinations of patients. The authors recommend the use of the scapula stabilization method to assess internal rotation range of motion by allowing normal glenohumeral arthrokinematics while stabilizing the

  8. Measurement technique of calcaneal varus from axial view radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thossart Harnroongroj


    Full Text Available Background: Medial displaced posterior calcaneal tubercle creates varus deformity of an intraarticular calcaneal fracture. The fracture involves posterior calcaneal facet and the calcaneal body so we developed a measurement technique representing the angle between posterior facet and long axis of calcaneus using lateral malleolus and longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle as references to obtain calcaneal varus angle. Materials and Methods: 52 axial view calcaneal radiographs of 26 volunteers were studied. Angles between posterior facet and long axis of calcaneus were measured using the measurements 1 and 2. Angle of measurement 1, as gold standard, was obtained from long axis and posterior facet of calcaneus whereas measurement 2 was obtained from a line, perpendicular to apex curve of lateral cortex of the lateral malleolus and a line parallel to the longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle. No more than 3° of difference in the angle of both measurements was accepted. Reliability of the measurement 2 was statistically tested. Results: Angles of measurement 1 and 2 were 90.04° ± 4.00° and 90.58° ± 3.78°. Mean of different degrees of both measurements was 0.54° ± 2.31° with 95% of confidence interval: 0.10°-1.88°. The statistical analysis of measurement 1 and 2 showed more than 0.75 of ICC and 0.826 of Pearson correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Technique of measurement 2 using lateral malleolus and longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle as references has strong reliability for representing the angle between long axis and posterior facet of calcaneus to achieve calcaneal varus angle.

  9. Measurement of epithermal neutrons by a coherent demodulation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, N; Takahashi, H; Kobayashi, H; Harasawa, S


    Epithermal neutrons have been measured using a neutron dosimeter via a coherent demodulation technique. This dosimeter consists of CsI(Tl)-photodiode scintillation detectors, four of which are coupled to neutron-gamma converting foils of various sizes. Neutron-gamma converting foils of In, Au and Co materials were used, each of which has a large capture cross section which peaks in the epithermal neutron energy region. The type of foil was selected according to the material properties that best correspond to the energy of the epithermal neutrons to be measured. In addition, the proposed technique was applied using Au-foils in order to measure the Cd ratio. The validity of the proposed technique was examined using an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be source placed in a testing stack of polyethylene blocks, and the results were compared with the theoretical values calculated by the Monte Carlo calculation. Finally, the dosimeter was applied for measuring epithermal neutrons and the Cd ratio in an experimental beam-tube o...

  10. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G. [Union Electric Company, Fulton, MO (United States); Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)


    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  12. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.


    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Assessment of Gear Damage Monitoring Techniques Using Vibration Measurements (United States)

    Wang, Wilson Q.; Ismail, Fathy; Farid Golnaraghi, M.


    Each gear damage monitoring technique has its merits and limitations. This paper experimentally investigates the sensitivity and robustness of the currently well-accepted techniques: phase and amplitude demodulation, beta kurtosis and wavelet transform. Four gear test cases were used: healthy gears, cracked, filed and chipped gears. The vibration signal was measured on the gearbox housing and processed, online, under three filtering conditions: general signal average, overall residual and dominant meshing frequency residual. Test results show that beta kurtosis is a very reliable time-domain diagnostic technique. Phase modulation is very sensitive to gear imperfections, but other information should be used to confirm its diagnostic results. Continuous wavelet transform provides a good visual inspection especially when residual signals are used. The diagnosis based only on dominant meshing frequency residual, however, should not be used independently for gear health condition monitoring, it may give false alarms.

  14. A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Geng


    Full Text Available The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liquid diffusion measurements in the conventional long capillary method can be eliminated. Time-dependent diffusion measurements at the same isothermal temperature were carried out in Al-Cu liquids. Compared with the previous results measured by in-situ X-ray radiography, the obtained liquid diffusion coefficient in this work is believed to be influenced by convective flow. The present work further supports the idea that to obtain accurate diffusion constants in liquid metals, the measurement conditions must be well controlled, and there should be no temperature gradients or other disturbances.

  15. Measurement techniques for UMTS signals radiated by radio base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, F.; Gianola, P


    In the most European countries radio coverage for the third radio mobile generation, i.e. the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), will soon be started. In the past few years, national laws specifying limits on exposure to electromagnetic fields have drawn much attention on electromagnetic test bed and measurement procedures for radio mobile equipment/systems. An overview is given of the UMTS system, showing the main characteristics of the radio access network UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). An analysis is also provided as to the measurement techniques and related instrumentation for the electric field intensity radiated by a UMTS radio station. (author)

  16. A simple and accurate relative alternative magnetic susceptibility measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawilski, B.M., E-mail: zawilski@grenoble.cnrs.f [Institut Neel-MCMF--CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Marcus, J.; Plaindoux, P. [Institut Neel-MCMF-CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    Investigation of relative AC magnetic susceptibility interests for many magnetic transition studies such as superconductor transition. A technique based on mutual or self inductive measure provides a fast and relatively easy (no contact) way to determinate the temperature of any transition affecting the magnetic susceptibility. The half Wheatstone inductive/resistive bridge is used instead of the usual RLC quarter bridge in order to balance the bore inductance of the coil. A comparison between quarter and half bridge measurements illustrates the accuracy of our device.

  17. Disjunct eddy covariance technique for trace gas flux measurements (United States)

    Rinne, H. J. I.; Guenther, A. B.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Luxembourg, S. L.

    A new approach for eddy covariance flux measurements is developed and applied for trace gas fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. In disjunct eddy covariance technique, quick samples with a relatively long time interval between them are taken instead of continuously sampling air. This subset of the time series together with vertical wind velocity data at corresponding sampling times can be correlated to give a flux. The disjunct eddy sampling gives more time to analyze the trace gas concentrations and thus makes eddy covariance measurements possible using slower sensors. In this study a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer with response time of about 1 second was used with a disjunct eddy sampler to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds from an alfalfa field. The measured day-time maximum methanol fluxes ranged from 1 mg m-2 h-1 from uncut alfalfa to 8 mg m-2 h-1 from freshly cut alfalfa. Night-time fluxes were around zero.

  18. New technique to measure emittance for beams with space charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Poorrezaei


    Full Text Available The characterization of the transverse phase space of beams is a fundamental requirement for particle accelerators. We present a novel approach for measurement of transverse emittance for beams with space charge, an important quality indicator of transverse phase space. The method utilizes a lens-drift-screen setup similar to that of a quadrupole scan emittance measurement. Measurements of radius and divergence that can be obtained from beam produced radiation, e.g. optical transition, are used to calculate the cross-correlation term and therefore the rms emittance. A linear space-charge model is used in the envelope equations; hence, the errors in the measurement relate to the nonuniformity of the beam distribution. The emittance obtained with our method shows small deviation from those obtained by WARP simulations for beams with high space charge, in contrast to other techniques.

  19. Measurements of diversity gain and radiation efficiency of the eleven antenna by using different measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jian; Pivnenko, Sergey; Laitinen, Tommi


    This paper presents measurement results of diversity gain and radiation efficiency by using three different measurement techniques: reverberation chamber, spherical near-field anechoic chamber, and multi-probe anechoic chamber. The results are measured over a large 2–8 GHz bandwidth which...

  20. Principles of Blood Pressure Measurement - Current Techniques, Office vs Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurement. (United States)

    Vischer, Annina S; Burkard, Thilo


    Blood pressure measurement has a long history and a crucial role in clinical medicine. Manual measurement using a mercury sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope remains the Gold Standard. However, this technique is technically demanding and commonly leads to faulty values. Automatic devices have helped to improve and simplify the technical aspects, but a standardised procedure of obtaining comparable measurements remains problematic and may therefore limit their validity in clinical practice. This underlines the importance of less error-prone measurement methods such as ambulatory or home blood pressure measurements and automated office blood pressure measurements. These techniques may help to uncover patients with otherwise unrecognised or overestimated arterial hypertension. Additionally these techniques may yield a better prognostic value.

  1. Spherical near-field antenna measurements — The most accurate antenna measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav


    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique combines several advantages and generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. This paper/presentation discusses these advantages, briefly reviews the early history and present...... status, and addresses future challenges for spherical near-field antenna measurements; in particular, from the viewpoint of the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility....

  2. Flow mediated endothelium function: advantages of an automatic measuring technique (United States)

    Maio, Yamila; Casciaro, Mariano E.; José Urcola y, Maria; Craiem, Damian


    The objective of this work is to show the advantages of a non invasive automated method for measuring flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the forearm. This dilation takes place in answer to a shear tension generated by the increase of blood flow, sensed by the endothelium, after the liberation of an occlusion sustained in the time. The method consists of three stages: the continuous acquisition of images of the brachial artery using ultrasound techniques, the pulse to pulse measurement of the vessel's diameter by means of a border detection algorithm, and the later analysis of the results. By means of this technique one cannot only obtain the maximum dilation percentage (FMD%), but a continuous diameter curve that allows to evaluate other relevant aspects such as dilation speed, dilation sustain in time and general maneuver performance. The simplicity of this method, robustness of the technique and accessibility of the required elements makes it a viable alternative of great clinical value for diagnosis in the early detection of numerous cardiovascular pathologies.

  3. Discrete filtering techniques applied to sequential GPS range measurements (United States)

    Vangraas, Frank


    The basic navigation solution is described for position and velocity based on range and delta range (Doppler) measurements from NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites. The application of discrete filtering techniques is examined to reduce the white noise distortions on the sequential range measurements. A second order (position and velocity states) Kalman filter is implemented to obtain smoothed estimates of range by filtering the dynamics of the signal from each satellite separately. Test results using a simulated GPS receiver show a steady-state noise reduction, the input noise variance divided by the output noise variance, of a factor of four. Recommendations for further noise reduction based on higher order Kalman filters or additional delta range measurements are included.

  4. Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H.-C. Wang


    Full Text Available Cell traction forces (CTFs are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research.

  5. A novel technique for highly accurate gas exchange measurements (United States)

    Kalkenings, R. K.; Jähne, B. J.


    The Heidelberg Aeolotron is a circular wind-wave facility for investigating air-sea gas exchange. In this contribution a novel technique for measuring highly accurate transfer velocities k of mass transfer will be presented. Traditionally, in mass balance techniques the constant of decay for gas concentrations over time is measured. The major drawback of this concept is the long time constant. At low wind speeds and a water height greater than 1 m the period of observation has to be several days. In a gas-tight facility such as the Aeolotron, the transfer velocity k can be computed from the concentration in the water body and the change of concentration in the gas space. Owing to this fact, transfer velocities are gained while greatly reducing the measuring times to less than one hour. The transfer velocity k of a tracer can be parameterized as k=1/β \\cdot u_* \\cdot Sc^n, with the Schmidt Number Sc, shear velocity u_* and the dimensionless transfer resistance β. The Schmidt Number exponent n can be derived from simultaneous measurements of different tracers. Since these tracers are of different Schmidt number, the shear velocity is not needed. To allow for Schmidt numbers spanning a hole decade, in our experiments He, H_2, N_2O and F12 are used. The relative accuracy of measuring the transfer velocity was improved to less than 2%. In 9 consecutive experiments conducted at a wind speed of 6.2 m/s, the deviation of the Schmidt number exponent was found to be just under 0.02. This high accuracy will allow precisely determining the transition of the Schmidt number exponent from n=2/3 to n=0.5 from a flat to wavy water surface. In order to quantify gas exchange not only the wind speed is important. Surfactants have a pronounced effect on the wave field and lead to a drastic reduction in the transfer velocity. In the Aeolotron measurements were conducted with a variety of measuring devices, ranging from an imaging slope gauge (ISG) to thermal techniques with IR

  6. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon


    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  7. Powerful New Technique to Measure Asteroids' Sizes and Shapes (United States)


    A team of French and Italian astronomers have devised a new method for measuring the size and shape of asteroids that are too small or too far away for traditional techniques, increasing the number of asteroids that can be measured by a factor of several hundred. This method takes advantage of the unique capabilities of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). ESO PR Photo 04a/09 Asteroid Barbara (artist's impression) "Knowledge of the sizes and shapes of asteroids is crucial to understanding how, in the early days of our Solar System, dust and pebbles collected together to form larger bodies and how collisions and re-accumulation have since modified them," says Marco Delbo from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, who led the study. Direct imaging with adaptive optics on the largest ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile (see ESO 21/05 and 18/07), and space telescopes, or radar measurements (ESO 11/07) are the currently favoured methods of asteroid measurement. However, direct imaging, even with adaptive optics, is generally limited to the one hundred largest asteroids of the main belt, while radar measurements are mostly constrained to observations of near-Earth asteroids that experience close encounters with our planet. Delbo and his colleagues have devised a new method that uses interferometry to resolve asteroids as small as about 15 km in diameter located in the main asteroid belt, 200 million kilometres away. This is equivalent to being able to measure the size of a tennis ball a distance of a thousand kilometres. This technique will not only increase the number of objects that can be measured dramatically, but, more importantly, bring small asteroids that are physically very different from the well studied larger ones into reach. The interferometric technique combines the light from two or more telescopes. Astronomers proved their method using ESO's VLTI, combining the light of two of the VLT's 8.2-metre

  8. Protocol of measurement techniques - Project colored solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.


    This illustrated annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on multi-layer, thin-film interference coatings for solar collector glazing. The correct combinations of refractive indices and film thickness are discussed. The authors state that corresponding multi-layered thin film stacks will have to be realised experimentally in a controlled and reproducible way. New thin film materials are to be tailored to exhibit optimised optical and ageing properties. The development of these coatings is to be based on various measurement techniques, such as spectro-photometry, measurements of total power throughput by means of a solar simulator, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The paper provides many examples of typical data and explains which film properties can be inferred from each method and thus describes both the function and purpose of the different measurement techniques.

  9. High resolution redox potential measurements: techniques, interpretation and value (United States)

    Vorenhout, Michel; van der Geest, Harm G.


    The ongoing improvement of techniques for the in situ measurement of redox potentials has led to a large number of studies on redox variability in various environments. These studies originate from a wide array of scientific disciplines, amongst which ecology (sediment biogeochemistry), environmental chemistry (degradation studies) and archaeology (in situ preservation). To gain insight in the potential applications, this paper presents three examples of studies in which a newly developed measurement technique was used in soils and where spatial and temporal variation plays an important role. The first one is a microcosm study on the effects of biota on the dynamics of redox conditions in the toplayer of aquatic sediments, showing that the presence of microbiota has a direct influence on biogeochemical parameters. The second is the study of the redox potential in the world heritage site of Bryggen (Bergen, NO) that is under threat of oxidation. The oxidation, caused by a lowered groundwater table, causes soil degradation and unstable conditions for the monumental buildings of the Medieval site. The third study shows variability in a sandy flood plain in Bangladesh, where redox processes dictate the environmental behaviour of Arsenic. This toxic metal is present in many wells used for drinking water, but shows very local variation in dissolution dynamics. In these three studies, continuous measurements of (changes in) redox conditions revealed a strong variability in these systems and consequences for the interpretation of single point measurements or low frequency sampling campaigns are discussed. In these and many other cases, the continuous measurement of the redox potential in soil media will aid in the understanding of the system under study.

  10. Measuring nanolayer profiles of various materials by evanescent light technique. (United States)

    Mirchin, Nina; Apter, Boris; Lapsker, Igor; Fogel, V; Gorodetsky, Uri; Popescu, Simona A; Peled, Aaron; Popescu-Pelin, Gianina; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Duta, Liviu; Popescu, Andrei; Mihailescu, Ion N


    The evanescent light photon extraction efficiency of insulator, semiconductor and conductor amorphous nanolayers deposited on glass waveguides was evaluated from Differential Evanescent Light Intensity measurements. The Differential Evanescent Light Intensity technique uses the evanescent field scattered by the deposited nanolayer, enabling nanometer thickness profiling due to the high inherent dark background contrast. The results show that the effective evanescent photon penetration depth increases from metal to semiconductor and then to insulating layers, establishing thus the effective photon-material interaction length for the various materials classes.

  11. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata


    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  12. Tritium measurement technique using ``in-bed`` calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.


    One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium ``heels`` from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and ``in-bed`` tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus_minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.

  13. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: Generation of flow and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, S; Sen, A


    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a $\\Pi-$shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device with micron size kaolin/Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) particles embedded in a background of Argon plasma created by a direct current (DC) glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super Particle Identification (sPIT) code, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) analysis and the excitation of Dust Acoustic Waves (DAWs). The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral dr...

  14. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kye-Si, E-mail:; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Hyun-Seok [Department of Electrical and Robot Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)


    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  15. Determination of Probe Volume Dimensions in Coherent Measurement Techniques (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Weikl, Markus C.; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred


    When investigating combustion phenomena with pump-probe techniques, the spatial resolution is given by the overlapping region of the laser beams and thus defines the probe volume size. The size of this probe volume becomes important when the length scales of interest are on the same order or smaller. In this work, we present a new approach to measure the probe volume in three dimensions (3-D), which can be used to determine the probe volume length, diameter, and shape. The optical arrangement and data evaluation are demonstrated for a dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) setup which is used for combustion diagnostics. This new approach offers a simple, quick alternative with more capabilities than formerly used probe volume measurement methods.

  16. Pattern recognition techniques and the measurement of solar magnetic fields (United States)

    Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Rees, David E.; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Lites, Bruce W.


    Measuring vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere using the profiles of the Stokes parameters of polarized spectral lines split by the Zeeman effect is known as Stokes Inversion. This inverse problem is usually solved by least-squares fitting of the Stokes profiles. However least-squares inversion is too slow for the new generation of solar instruments (THEMIS, SOLIS, Solar-B, ...) which will produce an ever-growing flood of spectral data. The solar community urgently requires a new approach capable of handling this information explosion, preferably in real-time. We have successfully applied pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to tackle this problem. For example, we have developed PCA-inversion, a database search technique based on Principal Component Analysis of the Stokes profiles. Search is fast because it is carried out in low dimensional PCA feature space, rather than the high dimensional space of the spectral signals. Such a data compression approach has been widely used for search and retrieval in many areas of data mining. PCA-inversion is the basis of a new inversion code called FATIMA (Fast Analysis Technique for the Inversion of Magnetic Atmospheres). Tests on data from HAO's Advanced Stokes Polarimeter show that FATIMA isover two orders of magnitude faster than least squares inversion. Initial tests on an alternative code (DIANNE - Direct Inversion based on Artificial Neural NEtworks) show great promise of achieving real-time performance. In this paper we present the latest achievements of FATIMA and DIANNE, two powerful examples of how pattern recognition techniques can revolutionize data analysis in astronomy.

  17. Atmospheric flow measurements using the PIV and HWA techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bassi Marinho Pires


    Full Text Available Alcântara Space Center (ASC is the Brazilian gate to the space where rockets of different sizes are launched. At ASC there is a relative topographical variation, coastal cliff, which modifies the atmospheric boundary layer characteristics and can cause interference for operations of rockets. In the present work, a simplified model (mock-up was studied in a wind tunnel. A scale factor of 1:1000 was used and the atmospheric flow was measured using the hot wire anemometer (HWA and particle image velocimetry (PIV techniques. Using of HWA it was possible to calculate values of average wind speed and fluctuations in a set of points of the section of tests that representing the region of the ASC. Through these measures, other meteorological parameters that represent the atmospheric flow, such as the friction velocity (u*, the roughness length (z0 from the logarithmic profile and the alpha exponent (ɑ of the power law were calculated. With the use of the PIV´s technique, the streamlines and the vorticity fields were obtained and it was noticed that the vorticity generated downwind of the coastal cliff has a strong turbulence (vorticities around 2000 sˉ¹. A rectangular building (simulating the mobile integration tower was inserted at the mock-up and the downwind turbulence was similar to the one generated by the coastal cliff.

  18. A Balloon Sounding Technique for Measuring SO2 Plumes (United States)

    Morris, Gary A.; Komhyr, Walter D.; Hirokawa, Jun; Lefer, Barry; Krotkov, Nicholay; Ngan, Fong


    This paper reports on the development of a new technique for inexpensive measurements of SO2 profiles using a modified dual-ozonesonde instrument payload. The presence of SO2 interferes with the standard electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurement, resulting in -1 molecule of O3 reported for each molecule of SO2 present (provided [O3] > [SO2]). In laboratory tests, an SO2 filter made with Cr03 placed on the inlet side of the sonde removes nearly 100% of the SO2 present for concentrations up to 60 ppbv and remained effective after exposure to 2.8 X 10(exp 16) molecules of SO2 [equivalent to a column approximately 150 DU (1 DU = 2.69 X 10(exp 20) molecules m(exp -2))]. Flying two ECC instruments on the same payload with one filtered and the other unfiltered yields SO2 profiles, inferred by subtraction. Laboratory tests and field experience suggest an SO2 detection limit of approximately 3 pbb with profiles valid from the surface to the ozonopause [i.e., approximately (8-10 km)]. Two example profiles demonstrate the success of this technique for both volcanic and industrial plumes.

  19. Electron Microprobe Analysis Techniques for Accurate Measurements of Apatite (United States)

    Goldoff, B. A.; Webster, J. D.; Harlov, D. E.


    Apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F, Cl, OH)] is a ubiquitous accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The mineral contains halogens and hydroxyl ions, which can provide important constraints on fugacities of volatile components in fluids and other phases in igneous and metamorphic environments in which apatite has equilibrated. Accurate measurements of these components in apatite are therefore necessary. Analyzing apatite by electron microprobe (EMPA), which is a commonly used geochemical analytical technique, has often been found to be problematic and previous studies have identified sources of error. For example, Stormer et al. (1993) demonstrated that the orientation of an apatite grain relative to the incident electron beam could significantly affect the concentration results. In this study, a variety of alternative EMPA operating conditions for apatite analysis were investigated: a range of electron beam settings, count times, crystal grain orientations, and calibration standards were tested. Twenty synthetic anhydrous apatite samples that span the fluorapatite-chlorapatite solid solution series, and whose halogen concentrations were determined by wet chemistry, were analyzed. Accurate measurements of these samples were obtained with many EMPA techniques. One effective method includes setting a static electron beam to 10-15nA, 15kV, and 10 microns in diameter. Additionally, the apatite sample is oriented with the crystal’s c-axis parallel to the slide surface and the count times are moderate. Importantly, the F and Cl EMPA concentrations are in extremely good agreement with the wet-chemical data. We also present EMPA operating conditions and techniques that are problematic and should be avoided. J.C. Stormer, Jr. et al., Am. Mineral. 78 (1993) 641-648.

  20. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on cross-correlation filtering techniques (United States)

    Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Bunget, Gheorghe; Kramer, Patrick; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya


    Cyclic loading of mechanical components promotes the formation of dislocation dipoles in metals, which can serve as precursors to crack nucleation and ultimately lead to failure. In the laboratory setting, an acoustic nonlinearity parameter has been assessed as an effective indicator for characterizing the progression of fatigue damage precursors. However, the need to use monochromatic waves of medium-to-high acoustic energy has presented a constraint, making it problematic for use in field applications. This paper presents a potential approach for field measurement of acoustic nonlinearity by using general purpose ultrasonic pulser-receivers. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements during fatigue testing were analyzed by the using contact and immersion pulse-through method. A novel cross-correlation filtering technique was developed to extract the fundamental and higher harmonic waves from the signals. As in the case of the classic harmonic generation, the nonlinearity parameters of the second and third harmonics indicate a strong correlation with fatigue cycles. Consideration was given to potential nonlinearities in the measurement system, and tests have confirmed that measured second harmonic signals exhibit a linear dependence on the input signal strength, further affirming the conclusion that this parameter relates to damage precursor formation from cyclic loading.

  1. Absolute interferometric distance measurement using a FM-demodulation technique (United States)

    Fischer, Edgar; Dalhoff, Ernst; Heim, Silke; Hofbauer, Ulrich; Tiziani, Hans J.


    We propose an interferometric method for measuring absolute distances larger than the wavelength. A laser diode is used as a light source. The principle of operation is based on multiple-wavelength interferometry that uses a modulated light source. This method uses the fact that the wavelength of light emitted by the laser diode can be varied by means of the injection current. The modulation of the injection current in combination with the optical heterodyne technique causes a high-frequency phase-modulated detector signal. The phase deviation of the signal is a measure of the optical path difference in the interferometer. By FM demodulation of the detector output with a phase-locked loop demodulator, the optical path difference can be determined directly without the classical ambiguity problem of interferometry. The measuring range in the experiments was limited to 50 mm by the maximum travel range of the used specimen translation stage. Because of the inherent light sensitivity of the method described, the rangefinder can be used for three-dimensional profile measurements on a wide variety of objects, even on diffuse scattering surfaces.

  2. Tooth color measurement using Chroma Meter: techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. (United States)

    Li, Yiming


    Tooth whitening has become a popular and routine dental procedure, and its efficacy and safety have been well documented. However, the measurement of tooth color, particularly in the evaluation of the efficacy of a system intended to enhance tooth whiteness, remains a challenge. One of the instruments used for assessing tooth color in clinical whitening studies is the Minolta Chroma Meter CR-321 (Minolta Corporation USA, Ramsey, NJ, USA). This article describes the instrument and discusses various measuring procedures and the Chroma Meter's advantages, limitations, and disadvantages. The available information indicates that, although Minolta Chroma Meter CR-321 provides quantitative and objective measurements of tooth color, it can be tedious to use with a custom alignment device. The Chroma Meter data are inconsistent with the commonly used visual instruments such as Vitapan Classical Shade Guide (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany), although in many cases the general trends are similar. It is also questionable whether the small area measured adequately represents the color of the whole tooth. A more critical challenge is the lack of methods for interpreting the Chroma Meter data regarding tooth color change in studies evaluating the efficacy of whitening systems. Consequently, at present the Chroma Meter data alone do not appear to be adequate for determining tooth color change in whitening research, although the quantitative measurements may be useful as supplemental or supportive data. Research is needed to develop and improve the instrument and technique for quantitative measurement of tooth color and interpretation of the data for evaluating tooth color change. This paper will help readers to understand the advantages and limitations of the Minolta Chroma Meter used for evaluating the efficacy of tooth-whitening systems so that proper judgment can be made in the interpretation of the results of clinical studies.

  3. AGARD flight test techniques series. Volume 9: Aircraft exterior noise measurement and analysis techniques (United States)

    Heller, H.


    Testing and analysis techniques to measure aircraft noise primarily for purposes of noise certification as specified by the 'International Civil Aviation Organization', ICAO are described. The relevant aircraft noise certification standards and recommended practices are presented in detail for subsonic jet aircraft, for heavy and light propeller-driven aircraft, and for helicopters. The practical execution of conducting noise certification tests is treated in depth. The characteristics and requirements of the acoustic and non-acoustic instrumentation for data acquisition and data processing are discussed, as are the procedures to determine the special noise measures - effective perceived noise level (EPNL) and maximum overall A-weighted noise level (L sub pA,max) - that are required for the noise certification of different types of aircraft. The AGARDograph also contains an extensive, although selective, discussion of test and analysis techniques for more detailed aircraft noise studies by means of either flight experiments or full-scale and model-scale wind tunnel experiments. Appendices provide supplementary information.

  4. A technique to measure wavenumber mismatch between quadratically interacting modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj, M.R. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Davila, J.B. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Miksad, R.W. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Powers, E.J. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Nonlinear energy cascade by means of three-wave resonant interactions is a characteristic feature of transitioning and turbulent flows. Resonant wavenumber mismatch between these interacting modes can arise from the dispersive characteristics of the interacting waves and from spectral broadening due to random effects. In this paper, a general technique is presented to estimate the average level of instantaneous wavenumber mismatch, left angle {Delta}k right angle = left angle k{sub m}-k{sub i}-k{sub j} right angle , between components whose frequencies obey the resonant selection condition, f{sub m}-f{sub i}-f{sub j}=0. Cross-correlation of the auto-bispectrum is used to quantify the level of mismatch. The concept of bispectrum coupling coherency is introduced to determine the confidence level in the wavenumber mismatch estimates. These techniques are then applied to measure wavenumber mismatch in the transitioning field of a plane wake. The results show that the average of the instantaneous mismatch between the actual interacting modes left angle k{sub m}-k{sub i}-k{sub j} right angle is in general not equal to the mismatch between the average wavenumbers of each interacting mode left angle k{sub m} right angle - left angle k{sub i} right angle - left angle k{sub j} right angle . (orig.)

  5. Alignment measurements uncertainties for large assemblies using probabilistic analysis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090816; Almond, Heather

    Big science and ambitious industrial projects continually push forward with technical requirements beyond the grasp of conventional engineering techniques. Example of those are ultra-high precision requirements in the field of celestial telescopes, particle accelerators and aerospace industry. Such extreme requirements are limited largely by the capability of the metrology used, namely, it’s uncertainty in relation to the alignment tolerance required. The current work was initiated as part of Maria Curie European research project held at CERN, Geneva aiming to answer those challenges as related to future accelerators requiring alignment of 2 m large assemblies to tolerances in the 10 µm range. The thesis has found several gaps in current knowledge limiting such capability. Among those was the lack of application of state of the art uncertainty propagation methods in alignment measurements metrology. Another major limiting factor found was the lack of uncertainty statements in the thermal errors compensatio...

  6. Snow Properties Considered From a Multiscale Perspective: new Measurement Techniques (United States)

    Schneebeli, M.; Marshall, H.; Johnson, J. B.


    Physical properties of a snowpack important for geophysical and engineering applications, including: hydrology, mobility, avalanches, electromagnetic and thermal processes, usually vary over many scales. The spatial resolution of the measurement technique is very relevant when the physical property of interest at large scales is determined by the spatial average of its small-scale values (i.e., the geometric mean). Examples include the depth-averaged thermal conductivity of a snow cover, where the geometric mean is required. Typical vertical scales are a few millimeters for snow microstructure, around 0.1 m for distinct stratigraphic features (layers), and rarely exceed a few m in depth for the full snow cover. Horizontally, the typical scale within a layer is mostly determined by the depositional history, topography, and vegetation, and can range from 0.01 m (infiltration channels) to small-scale disturbances by wind (0.1 m) to hundreds of meters (surface hoar, crusts, sastrugi). New methods have been developed and deployed to transition between the different scales. X-ray micro-tomography and 3D-reconstruction from planar sections can physically describe microscale features. Micropenetrometry transitions from the microscale to the meter scale describing both physical and mechanical properties. Near-infrared photography provides a measure of snow grain specific surface area, an optically equivalent grain size at the snowpit-scale and a highly resolved stratigraphy. FMCW radar can produce estimates of snow depth, stratigraphy, and snow water equivalent with a 0.01 m vertical and 0.1 m horizontal resolution. These radar estimates can be acquired rapidly, allowing profiles of more than 1000 m to be made in a day, providing information at a wide range of length scales. These advanced techniques could be very useful for improved calibration and validation of snow cover models, remote-sensing algorithms, and avalanche forecasts.

  7. UCMS - A new signal parameter measurement system using digital signal processing techniques. [User Constraint Measurement System (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Su, Y. T.


    The User Constraint Measurement System (UCMS) is a hardware/software package developed by NASA Goddard to measure the signal parameter constraints of the user transponder in the TDRSS environment by means of an all-digital signal sampling technique. An account is presently given of the features of UCMS design and of its performance capabilities and applications; attention is given to such important aspects of the system as RF interface parameter definitions, hardware minimization, the emphasis on offline software signal processing, and end-to-end link performance. Applications to the measurement of other signal parameters are also discussed.

  8. Tissue dispersion measurement techniques using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Photiou, Christos; Pitris, Costas


    Dispersion, a result of wavelength-dependent index of refraction variations, causes pulse-width broadening with detrimental effects in many pulsed-laser applications. It is also considered to be one of the major causes of resolution degradation in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). However, dispersion is material dependent and, in tissue, Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) could be used, for example, to detect changes associated with early cancer and result in more accurate disease diagnosis. In this summary we compare different techniques for estimating the GVD from OCT images, in order to evaluate their accuracy and applicability in highly scattering samples such as muscle and adipose tissue. The methods investigated included estimation of the GVD from (i) the point spread function (PSF) degradation, (ii) the shift (walk-off) between images taken at different center wavelengths and (iii) the second derivative of the spectral phase. The measurements were degraded by the presence of strong Mie scattering and speckle noise with the most robust being the PSF degradation and the least robust the phase derivative method. If the GVD is to be used to provide sensitive diagnostic information from highly scattering human tissues, it would be preferable to use the resolution degradation as an estimator of GVD.

  9. A technique for continuous measurement of body movement from video. (United States)

    Hilliard, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner


    The movements that we make with our body vary continuously along multiple dimensions. However, many of the tools and techniques presently used for coding and analyzing hand gestures and other body movements yield categorical outcome variables. Focusing on categorical variables as the primary quantitative outcomes may mislead researchers or distort conclusions. Moreover, categorical systems may fail to capture the richness present in movement. Variations in body movement may be informative in multiple dimensions. For example, a single hand gesture has a unique size, height of production, trajectory, speed, and handshape. Slight variations in any of these features may alter how both the speaker and the listener are affected by gesture. In this paper, we describe a new method for measuring and visualizing the physical trajectory of movement using video. This method is generally accessible, requiring only video data and freely available computer software. This method allows researchers to examine features of hand gestures, body movement, and other motion, including size, height, curvature, and speed. We offer a detailed account of how to implement this approach, and we also offer some guidelines for situations where this approach may be fruitful in revealing how the body expresses information. Finally, we provide data from a small study on how speakers alter their hand gestures in response to different characteristics of a stimulus to demonstrate the utility of analyzing continuous dimensions of motion. By creating shared methods, we hope to facilitate communication between researchers from varying methodological traditions.

  10. Microwave/RESIS technique for measurement of heavy ion properties (United States)

    Lundeen, Stephen; Keele, Julie; Woods, Shannon; Smith, Chris; Fehrenbach, Charles


    The subtle but distinctive patterns of binding energies of high-L Rydberg electrons bound to heavy positive ions reveal the ion properties, such as polarizabilities and permanent moments, that control the long-range interactions between ion and the Rydberg electron. A specialized experimental technique, Resonant Excitation Stark Ionization Spectroscopy (RESIS), facilitates study of these fine structure patterns in a wide variety of Rydberg systems. The simplest RESIS measurements use a Doppler-tuned CO2 laser to selectively detect individual high-L Rydberg states in a fast Rydberg beam by resonant excitation to a much higher level, followed by Stark ionization and collection of the resulting ion. Much more precise studies use the selective RESIS excitation to detect direct microwave transitions between Rydberg levels of the same n. Recent microwave/RESIS studies of this type have determined many properties of the ions Th^4+[1], Th^3+[2], and Ni^+[3]. Details of this method will be described, with particular attention to studies of multiply-charged Rydberg ions.[4pt] [1] Chris S. Smith et. al., DAMOP 2012[0pt] [2] Julie A. Keele, et. al., DAMOP 2012[0pt] [3] Shannon L. Woods, et. al. DAMOP 2012

  11. A 3D Optical Surface Profilometer Using a Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal-Based Dynamic Fringe Pattern Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Joo


    Full Text Available We propose a liquid crystal (LC-based 3D optical surface profilometer that can utilize multiple fringe patterns to extract an enhanced 3D surface depth profile. To avoid the optical phase ambiguity and enhance the 3D depth extraction, 16 interference patterns were generated by the LC-based dynamic fringe pattern generator (DFPG using four-step phase shifting and four-step spatial frequency varying schemes. The DFPG had one common slit with an electrically controllable birefringence (ECB LC mode and four switching slits with a twisted nematic LC mode. The spatial frequency of the projected fringe pattern could be controlled by selecting one of the switching slits. In addition, moving fringe patterns were obtainable by applying voltages to the ECB LC layer, which varied the phase difference between the common and the selected switching slits. Notably, the DFPG switching time required to project 16 fringe patterns was minimized by utilizing the dual-frequency modulation of the driving waveform to switch the LC layers. We calculated the phase modulation of the DFPG and reconstructed the depth profile of 3D objects using a discrete Fourier transform method and geometric optical parameters.

  12. A new bridge technique for neutron tomography and diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burca, G., E-mail: [Materials Engineering, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); James, J.A. [Materials Engineering, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Kockelmann, W. [ISIS Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, M.E. [Materials Engineering, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Zhang, S.Y. [ISIS Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Hovind, J. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232, Villigen (Switzerland); Langh, R. van [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Faculty 3mE, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, P.O. Box 74888, 1070 DN Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    An attractive feature of neutron techniques is the ability to identify hidden materials and structures inside engineering components and objects of art and archaeology. Bearing this in mind we are investigating a new technique, 'Tomography Driven Diffraction' (TDD), that exploits tomography data to guide diffraction experiments on samples with complex structures and shapes. The technique can be used utilising combinations of individual tomography and diffraction instruments, such as NEUTRA (PSI, CH) and ENGIN-X (ISIS, UK), but is also suitable for new combined imaging and diffraction instruments such as the JEEP synchrotron engineering instrument (DIAMOND, UK) and the proposed IMAT neutron imaging and diffraction instrument (ISIS, UK).

  13. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique (United States)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.


    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  14. Application of Defocusing Technique to Bubble Depth Measurement


    Mugikura, Yuki


    The thesis presents a defocusing technique to extract bubble depth information. Typically, when a bubble is out of focus in an image, the bubble is ignored by applying a filter or thresholding. However, it is known that a bubble image becomes blurred as the bubble moves away from the focal plane. Then, this technique is applied to determine the bubble distance along the optical path based on the blurriness or intensity gradient information of the bubble. Using the image processing algorithm, ...

  15. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens


    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  16. Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We seldom realized that without this form of metal work, many structures would cease to be in existence. A skilled journeymen welder joins metal in such a way that it is not able to be parted unless it is cut. Welding is an absolutely essential technique used in various industries like automotive industry, construction industry ...

  17. Comparing the reliability of a trigonometric technique to goniometry and inclinometry in measuring ankle dorsiflexion. (United States)

    Sidaway, Ben; Euloth, Tracey; Caron, Heather; Piskura, Matthew; Clancy, Jessica; Aide, Alyson


    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of three previously used techniques for the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion ROM, open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, and inclinometry, to a novel trigonometric technique. Twenty-one physiotherapy students used four techniques (open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, inclinometry, and trigonometry) to assess dorsiflexion range of motion in 24 healthy volunteers. All student raters underwent training to establish competence in the four techniques. Raters then measured dorsiflexion with a randomly assigned measuring technique four times over two sessions, one week apart. Data were analyzed using a technique by session analysis of variance, technique measurement variability being the primary index of reliability. Comparisons were also made between the measurements derived from the four techniques and those obtained from a computerized video analysis system. Analysis of the rater measurement variability around the technique means revealed significant differences between techniques with the least variation being found in the trigonometric technique. Significant differences were also found between the technique means but no differences between sessions were evident. The trigonometric technique produced mean ROMs closest in value to those derived from computer analysis. Application of the trigonometric technique resulted in the least variability in measurement across raters and consequently should be considered for use when changes in dorsiflexion ROM need to be reliably assessed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Refractive index measurements of films with biaxial symmetry. 2. Determination of film thickness and refractive indices using polarized transmission spectra in the transparent wavelength range. (United States)

    Diao, Jie; Hess, Dennis W


    A technique is formulated to determine both thickness and refractive indices of free-standing films with biaxial symmetry from polarized transmission spectra. The films must be transparent and show little dispersion in refractive indices in the wavelength range where the transmission spectra are collected. Methods are proposed to correct the errors caused by imperfect polarization of incident radiation and thickness variation across the sampling area. Anisotropic refractive indices and thickness of poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylenediamine) films which exhibit uniaxial optical anisotropy are determined from polarized transmission spectra. The refractive index and thickness values compare well to those obtained from waveguide prism coupler and profilometer measurements.

  19. Nitrogen oxide measurements at rural sites in Switzerland: Bias of conventional measurement techniques (United States)

    Steinbacher, M.; Zellweger, C.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Bugmann, S.; Buchmann, B.; OrdóñEz, C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Hueglin, C.


    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere are often measured using instruments equipped with molybdenum converters. NO2 is catalytically converted to NO on a heated molybdenum surface and subsequently measured by chemiluminescence after reaction with ozone. The drawback of this technique is that other oxidized nitrogen compounds such as peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitric acid are also partly converted to NO. Thus such NO2 measurements are really surrogate NO2 measurements because the resultant values systematically overestimate the true value because of interferences of these compounds, especially when sampling photochemically aged air masses. However, molybdenum converters are widely used, and a dense network of surrogate NO2 measurements exists. As an alternative with far less interference, photolytic converters using ultraviolet light are nowadays applicable also for long-term measurements. This work presents long-term collocated NO2 measurements using molybdenum and photolytic converters at two rural sites in Switzerland. On a relative scale, the molybdenum converter instruments overestimate the NO2 concentrations most during spring/summer because of prevalent photochemistry. On a monthly basis, only 70-83% of the "surrogate" NO2 can be attributed to "real" NO2 at the non-elevated site and even less (43-76%) at the elevated one. The observed interferences have to be taken into account for monitoring and regulatory issues and to be considered when using these data for ground-truthing of satellite data or for validation of chemical transport models. Alternatively, an increased availability of artifact-free data would also be beneficial for these issues.

  20. Characterization of small antennas for hearing aids by several measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Zhang, Jiaying; Khatun, Afroza


    Characteristics of electrically small loop antennas were measured by different techniques and the results were compared in-between. The techniques employed were: a single-probe spherical near-field technique, a multi-probe spherical near-field technique, a reverberation chamber, and a Wheeler cap...

  1. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laviron, C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Manso, M. E.; Sanchez, J.


    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance,

  2. Thermal diffusivity measurement of solid materials by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique (United States)

    Bennis, G. L.; Vyas, R.; Gupta, R.; Ang, S.; Brown, W. D.


    A simple, noncontact technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity of solids is experimentally demonstrated. The technique is based on the photothermal displacement effect. Excellent agreement between the quasistatic theory of photothermal displacement and the experiment has been obtained. The technique has been demonstrated by measuring the thermal diffusivities of GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells.

  3. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Park


    Full Text Available Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the combinational use of a laser pointer and a vision-based displacement measurement system, the measurement accuracy was significantly increased. The accuracy and applicability were investigated through laboratory tests. From the laboratory tests, it has been found that the developed system can be applicable to bridge support with very small rotational angle. The effectiveness of the developed system was verified through field tests on real bridges. From the full-scale implementation on two PSC girder bridges, it is observed that the proposed system can measure the rotational angle with a high accuracy and reliability.

  4. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Volumetric measurement of autogenous strain is frequently performed by placing the fresh cement paste in a rubber membrane submerged in water. The volume change of the cement paste is measured by the amount of water displaced by the submerged sample. Volumetric and linear measurements of autogenous...... of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... on the same cement pastes....

  5. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Volumetric measurement of autogenous strain is frequently performed by placing the fresh cement paste in a rubber membrane submerged in water. The volume change of the cement paste is measured by the amount of water displaced by the submerged sample. Volumetric and linear measurements of autogenous...... of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... on the same cement pastes....

  6. A Soft Technique for Measuring Friction Force Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan HUANG


    Full Text Available There are two approaches to measure a friction force: force sensor, software estimation algorithm. This paper will focus on software approach to measure friction. The proposed approach uses a neural network (NN to approximate the friction force in a mechanical system. Since the friction force considered is a speed-dependent function, a learning algorithm is adopted to update the NN weights so as to follow unknown friction behaviors. The advantage of the proposed friction estimation method is that it is based on the built NN model, and it does not require the force sensor measurement. Simulation test is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques (United States)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.


    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  8. An MSc Course Module: Wind Turbine Measurement Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen


    The 2-year MSc in Wind power engineering at the Technical University of Denmark comprises modules from core engineering teaching and from other modules specifically designed to the MSc. This Note outlines the content of such a specific module on the subject of wind turbine measurement. The lectures......, practical exercises and work related to measurements from an operating 500 kW turbine are described....

  9. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurement Technique Development for Turbomachinery Application (United States)


    maximum 200 words ) Pressure- sensitive paint measurement on a transonic compressor rotor required the prior development of phase-locked cumulative...reported. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pressure- Sensitive Paint, Phase-Locked Imaging , Transonic Rotor Measurements, CFD Analysis 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 98 16... image was saved in a .TIFF picture format in the hard drive memory of the PC under directory C:/4MIP/ IMAGES /. The turbine was then shut down and

  10. Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.


    A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

  11. A technique to measure eyelid pressure using piezoresistive sensors. (United States)

    Shaw, Alyra J; Davis, Brett A; Collins, Michael J; Carney, Leo G


    In this paper, novel procedures were developed using a thin (0.17 mm) tactile piezoresistive pressure sensor mounted on a rigid contact lens to measure upper eyelid pressure. A hydrostatic calibration system was constructed, and the influence of conditioning (prestressing), drift (continued increasing response with a static load), and temperature variations on the response of the sensor were examined. To optimally position the sensor-contact lens combination under the upper eyelid margin, an in vivo measurement apparatus was constructed. Calibration gave a linear relationship between raw sensor output and actual pressure units for loads between 1 and 10 mmHg ( R(2) = 0.96 ). Conditioning the sensor prior to use regulated the measurement response, and sensor output stabilized about 10 s after loading. While sensor output drifts slightly over several hours, it was not significant beyond the measurement time of 1 min used for eyelid pressure. The error associated with calibrating at room temperature but measuring at ocular surface temperature led to a very small overestimation of pressure. Eyelid pressure readings were observed when the upper eyelid was placed on the sensor, and removed during a recording. When the eyelid pressure was increased by pulling the lids tighter against the eye, the readings from the sensor significantly increased.

  12. Comparison of transepithelial resistance measurement techniques: Chopsticks vs. Endohm. (United States)

    Sheller, Rebecca A; Cuevas, Maria E; Todd, Maria C


    TER measurements across confluent cellular monolayers provide a useful indication of TJ strength between epithelial and endothelial cells in culture. Having a reliable and accurate method of measuring cell-to-cell adhesion is critical to studies in pathophysiology and cancer metastasis. However, the use of different technical approaches to measure TER has reportedly yielded inconsistent measurements within the same cell lines. In the current study, we compared the peak TER values for the MDCK (canine kidney) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) epithelial cell lines using two common approaches (Chopstick and Endohm) and two types of polymer inserts (PC and PET). Both cell lines demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the peak TERs obtained using the two different approaches. Further, the MDCK (but not the MCF-7) cells demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the peak TERs when using the same approach but different inserts. Our study indicates the importance of using a single approach when seeking to measure and compare the TER values of cultured cell lines.

  13. A Review of Techniques to Measure Protein Sorption to Soft Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Hall, Brad; Forrest, James A; Jones, Lyndon


    To compare and critically evaluate a variety of techniques to measure the quantity and biological activity of protein sorption to contact lenses over short time periods. A literature review was undertaken investigating the major techniques to measure protein sorption to soft contact lens materials, with specific reference to measuring protein directly on lenses using in situ, ex situ, protein structural, and biological activity techniques. The use of in situ techniques to measure protein quantity provides excellent sensitivity, but many are not directly applicable to contact lenses. Many ex situ techniques struggle to measure all sorbed proteins, and these measurements can have significant signal interference from the lens materials themselves. Techniques measuring the secondary and tertiary structures of sorbed proteins have exhibited only limited success. There are a wide variety of techniques to measure both the amount of protein and the biological activity of protein sorbed to soft contact lens materials. To measure the mass of protein sorbed to soft contact lenses (not just thin films) over short time periods, the method of choice should be I radiolabeling. This technique is sensitive enough to measure small amounts of deposited protein, provided steps are taken to limit and measure any interaction of the iodine tracer with the materials. To measure the protein activity over short time periods, the method of choice should be to measure the biological function of sorbed proteins. This may require new methods or adaptations of existing ones.

  14. Method of pectus excavatum measurement based on structured light technique (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert; Witkowski, Marcin; Kocoń, Hanna; Bolewicki, Pawel; Górecki, Andrzej


    We present an automatic method for assessment of pectus excavatum severity based on an optical 3-D markerless shape measurement. A four-directional measurement system based on a structured light projection method is built to capture the shape of the body surface of the patients. The system setup is described and typical measurement parameters are given. The automated data analysis path is explained. Their main steps are: normalization of trunk model orientation, cutting the model into slices, analysis of each slice shape, selecting the proper slice for the assessment of pectus excavatum of the patient, and calculating its shape parameter. We develop a new shape parameter (I3ds) that shows high correlation with the computed tomography (CT) Haller index widely used for assessment of pectus excavatum. Clinical results and the evaluation of developed indexes are presented.

  15. Comparison of various techniques for measuring natural ventilation in rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept of Physics); Sithamparanadarajah, R.; Thompson, J.M. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Fremlin, J.H. (Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (UK))


    Various tracer gases were released into a room and the rate of decrease of their concentrations was used as a measure of the natural ventilation rate. Three different measurement instruments were used: an automated gas chromatograph, a gas sensor (for combustible gas), and a Geiger-Muller counter. The results of all three were in agreement. Complete mixing of all the tracers with the air inside the room required a period of at least 20 min. The organohalogenated gases were found to affect the results of the gas sensor because of their strong adsorption on its detector surface. Despite stratification, of both tracer gas concentration and air temperature, there was no significant effect on measurement of natural ventilation rate.

  16. Remarks on a technique of measuring CP phase {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Oh, S. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science; He, X.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    We present a method to measure the CKM phase {alpha} and the tree and penguin (strong and electroweak) amplitudes in B{yields} {pi} {pi} decays, based on isospin consideration and the weak assumption that all tree amplitudes have a common strong phase and all penguin amplitudes have a different common phase. The method needs only the time-independent measurements of the relevant decay rates in B{yields} {pi} {pi}. We also propose a method to experimentally examine the validity of the assumption that all penguin amplitudes have the same strong phases, and to extract detailed information about the hadronic matrix elements. (authors). 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems (United States)

    Shortis, Mark


    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  18. Impedance technique for measuring dielectrophoretic collection of microbiological particles

    CERN Document Server

    Allsopp, D W E; Brown, A P; Betts, W B


    Measurement of the impedance change resulting from the collection of microbiological particles at coplanar electrodes is shown to be an effective and potentially quantitative method of detecting dielectrophoresis. Strong correlations between the frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic collection characteristics measured by impedance change and those observed using an established counting method based on image analysis have been obtained for Escherichia coli. In addition it is shown that the new electrical method can be used to sense dielectrophoretic collection of 19 nm diameter latex beads, particles too small to be resolved by conventional optical detection systems. (author)

  19. Gas hydrate phase equilibria measurement techniques and phase rule considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Juan G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Bruusgaard, Hallvard [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Servio, Phillip, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)


    Highlights: > Inconsistencies found in hydrate literature. > Clarification to the number of variables needed to satisfy and justify equilibrium data. > Application of phase rule to mixed hydrate systems. > Thermodynamically consistent format to present data. - Abstract: A brief review of the Gibbs phase rule for non-reacting systems and its correct application to clathrate hydrates is presented. Clarification is provided for a common mistake found in hydrate phase-equilibria literature, whereby initial compositions are used as intensive variables to satisfy the Gibbs phase rule instead of the equilibrium values. The system of (methane + carbon dioxide + water) under (hydrate + liquid + vapor) equilibrium is used as a case study to illustrate key points and suggestions to improve experimental techniques are proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zare Mehrjerdi


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A technique that helps management to reduce costs and improve quality is ‘lean supply chain management’, which focuses on the elimination of all wastes in every stage of the supply chain and is derived from ‘agile production’. This research aims to assess and rank the suppliers in an auto industry, based upon the concept of ‘production leanness’. The focus of this research is on the suppliers of a company called Touse-Omron Naein. We have examined the literature about leanness, and classified its criteria into ten dimensions and 76 factors. A questionnaire was used to collect the data, and the suppliers were ranked using the principal component analysis (PCA technique.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lenige voorsieningsbestuur (“lean supply chain management” is ’n tegniek wat bestuur in staat stel om koste te verminder en gehalte te verbeter. Dit fokus op die vermindering van vermorsing op elke stadium van die voorsieningsketting en word afgelei van ratse vervaardiging (“agile production”. Hierdie navorsing poog om leweransiers in ’n motorbedryf te beoordeel aan die hand van die konsep van vervaardigingslenigheid (“production leanness”. Die navorsing fokus op leweransiers van ’n maatskappy genaamd Touse-Omron Naein. ’n Literatuurstudie aangaande lenigheid het gelei tot die klassifikasie van kriteria in tien dimensies en 76 faktore. ’n Vraelys is gebruik om die data te versamel en die leweransiers is in rangvolgorde geplaas aan die hand van die PCA-tegniek.

  1. A simple technique for a.c. conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A.c. conductivity; complex impedance spectroscopy; bulk resistance; grain boundaries. 1. Introduction. A.c. conductivity is one of the studies done on solids in order to characterize the bulk resistance of the crystalline sample. Measurement of a.c. .... If Zs is purely resistive, there will be change in the amplitude. But if Zs is ...

  2. A numerical technique to design blast noise mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der


    Large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, create a high-energy blast wave. It has a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. Mitigation measures need to be close to the

  3. Metallic diffusion measured by a modified Knudsen technique (United States)

    Fray, D. J.


    Diffusion coefficient of a metal in high temperature system is determined. From the measurement of the weight loss from a Knudsen cell, the vapor pressure of the escaping species can be calculated. If the only way this species can enter the Knudsen cell is by diffusion through a foil, the weight loss is diffusion flux.

  4. Cerebral blood oxygenation measurements in neonates with optoacoustic technique (United States)

    Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.


    Cerebral hypoxia is a major contributor to neonatal/infant mortality and morbidity including severe neurological complications such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, motor impairment, and epilepsy. Currently, no technology is capable of accurate monitoring of neonatal cerebral oxygenation. We proposed to use optoacoustics for this application by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and laser diode optoacoustic systems for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation in the reflection mode through open anterior or posterior fontanelles and in the transmission mode through the skull in the occipital area. In this paper we present results of initial tests of the laser diode system for neonatal cerebral oxygenation measurements. First, the system was tested in phantoms simulating neonatal SSS. Then, using the data obtained in the phantoms, we optimized the system's hardware and software and tested it in neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The laser diode system was capable of detecting SSS signals in the reflection mode through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as in the transmission mode through the skull with high signal-to-noise ratio. Using the signals measured at different wavelengths and algorithms developed for oxygenation measurements, the laser diode system provided real-time, continuous oxygenation monitoring with high precision at all these locations.

  5. Temperature Measurement Technique Using Phosphorescence of Porphyrin Dyes (United States)

    Kura, Kentaro; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji


    LIF have been developed to measure the temperature, pH and the oxygen concentration in the fluid. However, the frequent excitation of the fluorescent dye causes the quenching effect. In addition, two color LIF should be applied in order to cancel the effect of non-uniform light intensity of excitation. The phosphor emitting the phosphorescence for a few milliseconds by an excitation was measured at the high time resolution, while the phosphorescence lifetime is the function of the temperature. As the phosphorescence dyes, PtTFPP and PdTFPP were tested. Those mixed with Coumarin30 were also demonstrated. These dyes were excited by a CW laser with the wavelength of 405nm. As the result, it was clarified to be able to measure the temperature using these dyes and this laser. Present study is the result of ``High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal'' entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

  6. Comparison of current tonometry techniques in measurement of intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Kouchaki


    Conclusion: Although the mean difference of measured IOP by NCT, DCT, and ORA with GAT was less than 2 mmHg, the limit of agreement was relatively large. CCT and CRF were important influencing factors in the four types of tonometers.

  7. Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have...

  8. Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.


    Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…

  9. Extrapolation Technique Pitfalls in Asymmetry Measurements at Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Colletti, Katrina; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S


    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is more than adequate for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining its value.

  10. Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.


    The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information.

  11. Laboratory Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurement Techniques (United States)

    Massoli, P.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Ravishankara, A.; Lovejoy, E.


    Aerosol particles influence the global radiative balance with their optical properties, i.e., the ability of scattering and/or absorbing the incoming solar radiation (aerosol direct effect). Because this ability depends on aerosol characteristics such as composition, size distribution and mixing state, it is critical to link aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties to emissions for better assessing the regional and global impact of different aerosol types. During 2006, NOAA ERSL/CSD performed a series of laboratory based comparison studies to address the performance, uncertainties, and biases of both existing and newly developed instruments to measure aerosol optical properties. These investigations included measurements of extinction using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRD-AES),scattering by a TSI nephelometer, and absorption by a Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) and a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). In this work we compare the optical properties derived for several aerosol types and mixtures by using various combinations of CRD-AES, nephelometer, and PSAP measurements. Our results indicate that such properties significantly depend on composition and mixing state of aerosols. We complete the study with top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing estimates and we compare the newly obtained values with what has been reported in past calculations.

  12. A radiosonde thermal sensor technique for measurement of atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Bufton, J. L.


    A new system was developed to measure vertical profiles of microthermal turbulence in the free atmosphere. It combines thermal sensor technology with radiosonde balloon systems. The resultant data set from each thermosonde flight is a profile of the strength and distribution of microthermal fluctuations which act as tracers for turbulence. The optical strength of this turbulence is computed and used to predict optical and laser beam propagation statistics. A description of the flight payload, examples of turbulence profiles, and comparison with simultaneous stellar observations are included.

  13. Technique for Performing Dielectric Property Measurements at Microwave Frequencies (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)


    A method, system, apparatus, and computer readable medium has been provided with the ability to obtain a complex permittivity dielectric or a complex permeability micron of a sample in a cavity. One or more complex-valued resonance frequencies f(sub m) of the cavity, wherein each f(sub m) is a measurement, are obtained. Maxwell's equations are solved exactly for dielectric, and/or micron, using the f(sub m) as known quantities, thereby obtaining the dielectric and/or micron of the sample.

  14. Assessment of Kidney Volume Measurement Techniques for Ultrasound Images


    Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan Mahmud; Eko Supriyanto


    This study intends to assess and compare the accuracy of different methods for estimating the kidney volume of ultrasound images consist of volume measurement from length-based, area-based and surface-based. For length-based method, the ellipsoid formula was used and for surface-based method, the volume can be automatically obtained from 3D ultrasound system after some manual contouring. For area-based method, sets of ultrasound images with different number of slices were used. After manual c...

  15. Infrared Optical Property Measurement Techniques. Definition and Preliminary Design (United States)


    Temperatura (ms) Test I 1000 7.2 Nitrogen/Argon 1 j 1500 4.6 Nitrogen/Argon | 2000 3.5 Helium/Argon | 2500 2.9 Helium/Argon 3000 2.5...O^. Zr02 at Elevated Temperatures, AFRPL-TR-77-14, The Aerospace Corporation , El Segundo, CA, April 1977. 2. Piuchino, A.B... Corporation , Bethpage, New York, May 1981. 8. Calia, V.S., Konopka, W. , Reed, R.A., and Omon, R.A., "Shock Tube Measurements of IR

  16. Measurement of sewage COD and BOD using fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Seung; Lee, Yong Sik [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan [NoveraOptics, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Traditionally the biodegradable component of wastewater is measured by a series of wet chemical methods, of which the most important is considered to be the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) TEST. The BOD test is inadequate for effective and efficient process control because of the time required to complete the test (5 days) and the difficulty in achieving consistently accurate measurements. Other chemical tests such as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), despite being more rapid the the Bod test, do not distinguish between 'biodegradable' and 'non-biodegradable' organic matter. We designed fluorescence instrument that was excited by UV-lamp. The biodegradable chromophoric constant species are considered to be the major contributors to the overall fluorescence within 300-600 nm (using 244 nm excitation). The total intensity of this band has been found to have a good linear correlation (r=0.99) with the COD and BOD parameters. CCD and PMT are used as the fluorescence detectors and the experimental results of correlation were compared.

  17. Measuring the Degree of Sensitization (DOS) Using an Electrochemical Technique (United States)

    Abuzriba, Mokhtar B.; Musa, Salem M.

    Sensitization can be simply defined as the susceptibility of an alloy, specifically austenitic stainless steel, to corrosion at grain boundaries. A detailed study on types 304 stainless steel has been carried out to correlate the degree of sensitization measured by electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR) with the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. In this study four different heat treatments were given to alloys, i.e., solution annealed (SA) at 1020 °C for 1 h, then quenched in water; also then heat-treated in air at 620 °C for 15, 30, and 60 min. The electrolyte for the EPR tests was 1.0 N H2SO4 solution containing 0.01 M KSCN. Potentiodynamic curves from passive to active regions in deaerated solution at room temperature were obtained at a scan rate of 1.67 mV/s (6 V/h), after the passivation at 200 mV versus (SCE) for 2 min then the polarization was conducted. The criterion used to distinguish between sensitized and non-sensitized specimens is the activation charge Pa, the peak current density, Ph, in the active state, and Flade potential Ef at which the active curve breaks upward. The results indicated that the longer the sensitization time the higher the activation charge (Pa), and the higher the peak current density in the active state (Ph). The results indicated that, the EPR is more sensitive than the chemical method for measuring the degree of sensitization.

  18. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report.

  19. Measuring impact revisited - an update on infrastructure, methods and techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Impact is generally defined as any change or outcome resulting from an activity. In case of scientific research publications are the quantifiable outcome of the research process. The presentation will therefore focus on electronic publication impact as a limited but rather well defined sub-field of research impact. Publication impact can be measured by author or reader generated indicators. Author generated indicators would be citations. Reader generated indicators would be usage. Usage data can be collected through webserver or linkresolver logs. It has to be normalized in order to be shared and analyzed meaningfully. There are some initiatives to provide a suitable infrastructure including publisher data (COUNTER/SUSHI) and data collected through open access repositories. Citation as well as usage data can be analyzed quantitatively or structurally. These analyses can be combined or complemented to create new metrics to add to the ISI impact factor (IF). View Frank Scholze's biography

  20. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac


    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  1. Advanced measurements and techniques in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.J.; Rickel, D.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lacerda, A.H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kim, Y. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). High magnetic fields present a unique environment for studying the electronic structure of materials. Two classes of materials were chosen for experiments at the national high Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos: highly correlated electron systems and semiconductors. Magnetotransport and thermodynamic experiments were performed on the renormalized ground states of highly correlated electron systems (such as heavy fermion materials and Kondo insulators) in the presence of magnetic fields that are large enough to disrupt the many-body correlations. A variety of optical measurements in high magnetic fields were performed on semiconductor heterostructures including GaAs/AlGaAs single heterojunctions (HEMT structure), coupled double quantum wells (CDQW), asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (ACDQW), multiple quantum wells and a CdTe single crystal thin film.

  2. Exchange Flow Rate Measurement Technique in Density Different Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Fumizawa


    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven exchange flows of helium-air through inclined a narrow tube was investigated. Exchange flows may occur following the opening of a window for ventilation, as well as when a pipe ruptures in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The experiment in this paper was carried out in a test chamber filled with helium and the flow was visualized using the smoke wire method. A high-speed camera recorded the flow behavior. The image of the flow was transferred to digital data, and the slow flow velocity, i.e. micro flow rate was measured by PIV software. Numerical simulation was carried out by the code of moving particle method with Lagrange method.

  3. Measuring impact revisited an update on infrastructure, methods and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert


    Impact is generally defined as any change or outcome resulting from an activity. In case of scientific research publications are the quantifiable outcome of the research process. The presentation will therefore focus on electronic publication impact as a limited but rather well defined sub-field of research impact. Publication impact can be measured by author or reader generated indicators. Author generated indicators would be citations. Reader generated indicators would be usage. Usage data can be collected through webserver or linkresolver logs. It has to be normalized in order to be shared and analyzed meaningfully. There are some initiatives to provide a suitable infrastructure including publisher data (COUNTER/SUSHI) and data collected through open access repositories. Citation as well as usage data can be analyzed quantitatively or structurally. These analyses can be combined or complemented to create new metrics to add to the ISI impact factor (IF).

  4. Quantification of surgical technique using an inertial measurement unit. (United States)

    Watson, Robert Anthony


    Quantifying the algorithmic information content of hand motion patterns during a surgical task enables the comparison of different groups, novice and expert. Previously, we have shown that the information content/complexity of hand motion patterns during the surgical skill/subtask of knot tying reduces with increased expertise (J Surg Educ 2012;69:306-310). We therefore hypothesized that the information content/complexity of motion patterns would also reduce with expertise during a more complex surgical task of a bench model venous anastomosis. A custom inertial measurement unit was used to record 6-degrees of freedom hand motion from the right hand during a low-fidelity bench model venous anastomosis. Data were obtained from 2 groups as follows: novice (surgical residents, postgraduate year 1 and 2) and expert (attending surgeons). Each data set from the surgical task was processed into a symbolic time series from which the algorithmic entropy measure Lempel-Ziv complexity was calculated. A Student t test was used to test whether the 2 groups were sampled from the same population when using this metric, applying a P value of 0.05 to reject the null hypothesis. The expert surgeons had more complex patterns of motion compared with novice surgeons during this surgical task. This was statistically significant using the Lempel-Ziv complexity metric (P = 0.01). The hypothesis that increased surgical experience would reduce the complexity of hand motion patterns was not found to be true during this surgical task, and the opposite was found to be true. An alternative hypothesis that would combine the previous finding of a reduction in complexity of a subtask with this study's finding of increasing complexity of the whole task with increasing surgical expertise could be due to a hierarchy of pattern structure: experts use simpler subtask motifs in more complex and denser patterns.

  5. Measurement uncertainty on subsurface defects detection using active infrared thermographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Kim [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jae [Center for Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Active infrared thermography methods have been known to possess good fault detection capabilities for the detection of defects in materials compared to the conventional passive thermal infrared imaging techniques. However, the reliability of the technique has been under scrutiny. This paper proposes the lock-in thermography technique for the detection and estimation of artificial subsurface defect size and depth with uncertainty measurement.

  6. Measurement and Simulation Techniques For Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Febriansyah


    Full Text Available Applications of microcantilevers as biosensors have been explored by many researchers for the applications in medicine, biological, chemistry, and environmental monitoring. This research discusses a design of measurement method and simuations for piezoresistive microcantilever as a biosensor, which consist of designing Wheatstone bridge circuit as object detector, simulation of resonance frequency shift based on Euler Bernoulli Beam equation, and microcantilever vibration simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5. The piezoresistive microcantilever used here is Seiko Instrument Technology (Japan product with length of 110 ?m, width of 50 ?m, and thickness of 1 ?m. Microcantilever mass is 12.815 ng, including the mass receptor. The sample object in this research is bacteria EColi. One bacteria mass is assumed to 0.3 pg. Simulation results show that the mass of one bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03053 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,90 kHz. Moreover, four bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03054 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,68 kHz. These datas indicate that the increasing of the bacteria mass increases the deflection value and reduces the value of resonance frequency.

  7. Angular momentum and energy spread measurements by backscattering technique

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Grigory

    A main interest in the design of a high-intensity particle beam accelerator as the EURISOL driver is the control of the particle losses in the vacuum chamber. These losses, even concerning an extremely low fraction of the beam (10-4-10-7), can be sufficient to considerably complicate the maintenance of such an accelerator. Within this framework and in order to contribute to accelerator projects dedicated to rare isotope physics, the CEA is undertaking a research program on the theoretical and experimental study of the physical processes involved in halo formation around a high intensity beam in a particle accelerator. This research program is performed in collaboration with several French and international laboratories.This note details the principle and the design of an innovative emittance measurement unit which aims to be “weakly” interceptive. “Weakly” means that the beam can continue to propagate in the pipe with similar properties compared to the case when the diagnostic is not inserted. It is p...

  8. A review on measurement techniques of apparent thermal conductivity of nanofluids (United States)

    Tsz Loong, Tang; Salleh, Hamidon


    Thermal conductivity of nanofluids has been extensively studied for a number of years because it is a very first evaluation of the heat transfer performance of nanofluids. However, not the single theoretical model predicts thermal conductivity of nanofluids accurately. Hence, different measurement techniques have been used to measure thermal conductivity of nanofluids. This paper focuses on different measurement techniques of thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The working principle, limitation and advantages of different measurement techniques have been discussed. The measurement techniques discussed in this paper included transient hot wire, transient plane source, 3-omega technique, steady-state parallel method, thermal comparator and laser flash method. Eventually, some suggestions have been made for improving the reliability of the measurement of thermal conductivity.

  9. The Kety-Schmidt Technique for Quantitative Perfusion and Oxygen Metabolism Measurements in the MR Environment (United States)

    Lee, John J.; Powers, William J.; Faulkner, Chad B.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Derdeyn, Colin P.


    The Kety-Schmidt technique provides quantitative measurement of whole brain cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF is measured as the area between the arterial and venous washout curves of a diffusible tracer. Oxygen extraction and metabolism may be calculated from arterial and venous samples. In this report we present a method for performing these measurements in an MR environment. This technique could be useful for validation of MR methods of hemodynamic and metabolic measurements in humans. PMID:22997166

  10. Simple measurement technique for the coupling coefficient of integrated optical directional couplers. (United States)

    Kishioka, K; Yip, G L


    A simple technique for measuring the coupling coefficient and the power transfer efficiency of the optical directional coupler is presented. This technique consists of measuring Fraunhofer diffraction patterns emerging from the output prism coupler that is placed on the parallel waveguides. The measured values for the K(+)-diffused glass waveguide couplers that are fabricated at different diffusion times are demonstrated. A measurement error of <4% for the coupling coefficient is estimated for the 4-6 mm range of the coupling length.

  11. Large Signal Excitation Measurement Techniques for Random Telegraph Signal Noise in MOSFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.


    This paper introduces large signal excitation measurement techniques to analyze random telegraph signal (RTS) noise originating from oxide-traps in MOSFETs. The paper concentrates on the trap-occupancy, which relates directly to the generated noise. The proposed measurement technique makes

  12. Large Signal Excitation Measurement Techniques for Random Telegraph Signal Noise in MOSFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Kolhatkar, J.S.; van der Wel, A.P.; Salm, Cora; Klumperink, Eric A.M.


    This paper introduces large signal excitation measurement techniques to analyze Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise originating from oxide-traps in MOSFETs. The paper concentrates on the trap-occupancy, which relates directly to the generated noise. The proposed measurement technique makes

  13. Simple counting technique for measuring mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM


    Full Text Available A simple counting technique to measure mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides is described. The method is based on elements of two liquid scintillation techniques that are widely used to measure single-radionuclide solutions, namely...

  14. Measuring free metal ion concentrations in multicomponent solutions using Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Among speciation techniques that are able to measure free metal ion concentrations, the Donnan membrane technique (DMT) has the advantage that it can measure many different free metal ion concentrations simultaneously in a multicomponent sample. Even though the DMT has been applied to several

  15. The RF charge pump technique for measuring the interface state density on leaky dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Hendrikus; Vries, Henk; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work the RF charge pump technique is presented. It is shown that this technique can rovide charge pump data of devices that have a leakage current too high for classical charge pump measurements. The methodology of accurately performing RF charge pump measurements is discussed and

  16. Feasibility of automated dropsize distributions from holographic data using digital image processing techniques. [particle diameter measurement technique (United States)

    Feinstein, S. P.; Girard, M. A.


    An automated technique for measuring particle diameters and their spatial coordinates from holographic reconstructions is being developed. Preliminary tests on actual cold-flow holograms of impinging jets indicate that a suitable discriminant algorithm consists of a Fourier-Gaussian noise filter and a contour thresholding technique. This process identifies circular as well as noncircular objects. The desired objects (in this case, circular or possibly ellipsoidal) are then selected automatically from the above set and stored with their parametric representations. From this data, dropsize distributions as a function of spatial coordinates can be generated and combustion effects due to hardware and/or physical variables studied.

  17. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.


    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  18. Measuring the corrosion rate of steel in concrete – effect of measurement technique, polarisation time and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that different corrosion rates are obtained when different commercially available corrosion rate instruments are used. The different electrochemical techniques and the measurement parameters used, i.e. polarisation current and time...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long...... rate for actively corroding steel. For both techniques guidelines for polarisation times and currents are given for (on-site) non-destructive corrosion rate measurements on reinforcement steel in concrete....

  19. Surface roughness and enamel loss with two microabrasion techniques. (United States)

    Meireles, Sonia Saeger; Andre, Darvi de Almeida; Leida, Ferdinan Luis; Bocangel, Jorge Saldivar; Demarco, Flavio Fernando


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the surface roughness and enamel loss produced by two microabrasion techniques. Bovine teeth were selected and an area was delimited for microabrasion techniques. Surface roughness was determined before and after treatment using a digital profilometer. Specimens were randomized to one of two acid treatments (n = 10): 18% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pumice or 37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and pumice. Acid treatments were applied using a wooden spatula for 5 seconds for a total of ten applications. Then, specimens were sectioned through the center of the demineralization area to obtain 80 microm thick slices. The wear produced by the microabrasion techniques was evaluated using stereomicroscopy (40 x). The greatest depth (microm) and the total surface area (microm(2)) of demineralization were measured using the Image Tool software (University of Texas Health Science, San Antonio, TX, USA). In addition, three specimens of each group were subjected to SEM analysis at different magnifications. The mean surface roughness was statistically lower for HCl than for H3PO4 (p Microabrasion using H3PO4 produced greater surface roughness but less demineralization than the microabrasion technique using HCl. Both microabrasion techniques effectively remove the superficial enamel layer. However, the technique using H3PO4 was less aggressive, safer, and easier to perform.

  20. Analysis and correction of ground reflection effects in measured narrowband sound spectra using cepstral techniques (United States)

    Miles, J. H.; Stevens, G. H.; Leininger, G. G.


    Ground reflections generate undesirable effects on acoustic measurements such as those conducted outdoors for jet noise research, aircraft certification, and motor vehicle regulation. Cepstral techniques developed in speech processing are adapted to identify echo delay time and to correct for ground reflection effects. A sample result is presented using an actual narrowband sound pressure level spectrum. The technique can readily be adapted to existing fast Fourier transform type spectrum measurement instrumentation to provide field measurements/of echo time delays.

  1. ACCENT-BIAFLUX workshop 2005, trace gas and aerosol flux measurement and techniques. Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Soerensen, L.L. (eds.)


    The woorkshop trace gas and aerosol flux measurement techniques in the second meeting within the Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange of Pollutions (BIAFLUX) group in the EU-network project Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). The goal of the workshop is to obtain an overview of techniques for measurements of gas and aerosol fluxes and to gather the knowledge of uncertainties in flux measurements and calculations. The workshop is funded by ACCENT. The abstract book presents abstracts of 21 oral presentations and 26 poster presentations. (LN)

  2. Agreement and reliability of femoral varus measurements: a comparison of four techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    with the diaphysis positioned horizontally and inclined at both 12.5° and 25° to the horizontal. Radiographs were blinded, randomised and read twice by one observer using ImageJ. Using coordinate data, varus angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method......, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation on varus measurement was assessed using a mixed model ANOVA. Two of the reported techniques varied significantly (P......Three different techniques have been described for measuring femoral varus radiographically in the dog, but how the measurements from these techniques compare is unknown. Further, measurement reliability has only been assessed for one technique. Seven grossly normal right femora were radiographed...

  3. A comparison of concentration measurement techniques for the estimation of the apparent mass diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Pereira


    Full Text Available In this article we compare two different techniques to measure the concentration of saline solutions for the identification of the apparent mass diffusion coefficient in soils saturated with distilled water. They are the radiation measurement technique and the electrical conductivity measurement technique. These techniques are compared in terms of measured quantities, sensitivity coefficients with respect to unknown parameters and the determinant of the information matrix. The apparent mass diffusion coefficient is estimated by utilizing simulated measurements containing random errors. The Levenberg-Marquardt method of minimization of the least-squares norm is used as the parameter estimation procedure. The effects of the volume of saline solution injected into the column devised for the experiments on the accuracy of the estimated parameters are also addressed in this article.

  4. Investigation of laser Doppler anemometry in developing a velocity-based measurement technique (United States)

    Jung, Ki Won


    Acoustic properties, such as the characteristic impedance and the complex propagation constant, of porous materials have been traditionally characterized based on pressure-based measurement techniques using microphones. Although the microphone techniques have evolved since their introduction, the most general form of the microphone technique employs two microphones in characterizing the acoustic field for one continuous medium. The shortcomings of determining the acoustic field based on only two microphones can be overcome by using numerous microphones. However, the use of a number of microphones requires a careful and intricate calibration procedure. This dissertation uses laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) to establish a new measurement technique which can resolve issues that microphone techniques have: First, it is based on a single sensor, thus the calibration is unnecessary when only overall ratio of the acoustic field is required for the characterization of a system. This includes the measurements of the characteristic impedance and the complex propagation constant of a system. Second, it can handle multiple positional measurements without calibrating the signal at each position. Third, it can measure three dimensional components of velocity even in a system with a complex geometry. Fourth, it has a flexible adaptability which is not restricted to a certain type of apparatus only if the apparatus is transparent. LDA is known to possess several disadvantages, such as the requirement of a transparent apparatus, high cost, and necessity of seeding particles. The technique based on LDA combined with a curvefitting algorithm is validated through measurements on three systems. First, the complex propagation constant of the air is measured in a rigidly terminated cylindrical pipe which has very low dissipation. Second, the radiation impedance of an open-ended pipe is measured. These two parameters can be characterized by the ratio of acoustic field measured at multiple

  5. A novel technique for measuring 3D deformation of adhesively bonded single lap joint (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Ma, LuJun; Xia, Yong


    An easy-to-implement yet practical single-camera microscopic stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique is proposed for surface three-dimensional (3D) deformation measurement of singe lap joint (SLJ) samples subjected to mechanical loads. The basic principles, optical configurations and implementation procedures of the proposed technique are described in detail. Compared with existing single-camera 2D-DIC technique, which has been regularly used for in-plane deformation measurement of a SLJ specimen, the proposed technique offers the special merit of simultaneously determining all the three displacement components by simply adding two additional optical elements to existing single-camera 2D-DIC systems. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by measuring the 3D deformation of a SLJ specimen subjected to quasi-static tensile loads.

  6. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.


    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  7. Advanced analytical techniques for the measurement of nanomaterials in complex samples: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Herrera-Rivera, Z.; Bouwmeester, H.; Weigel, S.; Marvin, H.J.P.


    To solve the various analytical challenges related to the measurement of nanomaterials in complex matrices new advanced analytical techniques must be developed. In this study an interlaboratory exercise was organised to compare the capabilities and limitations of newly developed techniques with

  8. Iterative probe correction technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    An iterative probe correction technique is presented to correct for the errors caused by the application of the traditional first-order probe correction for nonideal first-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements. The technique may be applied, with certain restrictions, for more...... general probes as well....

  9. Note : Interference technique for minimally invasive, subnanometer, microsecond measurements of displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dujovne, I.; Kerssemakers, J.; Capello, G.; Dekker, C.


    We present a novel high-resolution technique for single-molecule experiments, viz., differential traveling wave tracking. This is an interference-based scattering technique where we use gold nanoparticles for high scattering intensities and incorporate differential measurements along one in-plane

  10. Development of remaining wall thickness measurement system for boiler wall tube using gamma scattering technique (United States)

    Durongsak, K.; Yenjai, C.; Rassame, S.


    In this study, the General Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) simulation of the measuring system for the remaining thickness of the wall tube using gamma scattering technique is performed to investigate the applicability of this technique and to find the optimum geometrical setup for the experimental setup. The numerical results show that the optimal geometry condition to provide the highest ratio between the gamma flux changes per thickness variation, namely, the measurement sensitivity, is the alignment of the source incidence angle of 30 degree and detector scattering angle of 30 degrees. Sequentially, the preliminary experiment of thickness measurement system for the tube using the gamma scattering technique is conducted based on the selected geometrical test setup by the simulation. It is found that the experimental results have generally a good agreement with the calculated results. Conclusively, it is suggested that the gamma scattering technique has a potential method to measure the remaining wall thickness in the boiler wall tube.

  11. A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers (United States)


    direct heating of the wire for a. , 0.1 (Bonnet & Alziary de Roquefort 1980), and it appears to be reliable technique for setting the frequency...54: 1513-1524. Bonnet, J. P. and Alziary de Roquefort , T. (1980), Determination and optimization of frequency response of constant temperature hot

  12. Combined laser calorimetry and photothermal technique for absorption measurement of optical coatings. (United States)

    Li, Bincheng; Blaschke, Holger; Ristau, Detlev


    To the best of our knowledge, a combined sensitive technique employing both laser calorimetry and a surface thermal lens scheme for measuring absorption values of optical coatings is presented for the first time. Laser calorimetric and pulsed surface thermal lens signals are simultaneously obtained with a highly reflecting UV coating sample irradiated at 193 nm. The advantages and potential applications of the combined technique and the experimental factors limiting the measurement sensitivity are discussed.

  13. A versatile optical profilometer based on conoscopic holography sensors for acquisition of specular and diffusive surfaces in artworks (United States)

    Gaburro, Nicola; Marchioro, Giacomo; Daffara, Claudia


    Surface metrology of artworks requires the design of suitable devices for in-situ non-destructive measurement together with reliable procedures for an effective analysis of such non-engineered variegate objects. To advance the state-of-the-art it has been implemented a versatile optical micro-profilometry taking advantage of the adapt- ability of conoscopic holography sensors, able to operate with irregular shapes and composite materials (diffusive, specular, and polychrome) of artworks. The scanning technique is used to obtain wide field and high spatially resolved areal profilometry. The prototype has a modular scheme based on a set of conoscopic sensors, extending the typical design based on a scanning stage and a single probe with a limited bandwidth, thus allowing the collection of heights data from surface with different scales and materials with variegate optical response. The system was optimized by characterizing the quality of the measurement with the probes triggered in continuous scanning modality. The results obtained on examples of cultural heritage objects (2D paintings, 3D height-relief) and materials (pictorial, metallic) demonstrate the versatility of the implemented device.

  14. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results. (United States)

    Mühlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe


    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  15. Cost-effective ERT technique for oil-in-water measurement for offshore hydrocyclone installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durdevic, Petar; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian


    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...

  16. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian


    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...

  17. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor (United States)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P.


    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  18. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Avda. de la Universitat, s/n, 46100-Burjassot (Spain); Cardoso, S. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); Ferreira, R. [INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal); Freitas, P. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal)


    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  19. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques; Medicion de fracciones de vacio por tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  20. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)


    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  1. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Johan


    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  2. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans. (United States)

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D


    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  3. Correlation techniques for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in measurements with stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, V R; Reddy, T G; Reddy, P Y; Reddy, K R


    An AC modulation technique is described to convert stochastic signal variations into an amplitude variation and its retrieval through Fourier analysis. It is shown that this AC detection of signals of stochastic processes when processed through auto- and cross-correlation techniques improve the signal-to-noise ratio; the correlation techniques serve a similar purpose of frequency and phase filtering as that of phase-sensitive detection. A few model calculations applied to nuclear spectroscopy measurements such as Angular Correlations, Mossbauer spectroscopy and Pulse Height Analysis reveal considerable improvement in the sensitivity of signal detection. Experimental implementation of the technique is presented in terms of amplitude variations of harmonics representing the derivatives of normal spectra. Improved detection sensitivity to spectral variations is shown to be significant. These correlation techniques are general and can be made applicable to all the fields of particle counting where measurements ar...

  4. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.


    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  5. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.


    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  6. Assessment of the state of the geometrical surface texture of seal rings by various measuring methods (United States)

    Adamczak, S.; Kundera, C.; Swiderski, J.


    The present paper concerns the metrological measurements of the geometric structure of the faces of seal rings made of silicon carbide and carbon-graphite. Three different instruments, i.e. the stylus profilometer, the optical profilometer, and the atomic force microscope, were used to measure the geometric structure of surfaces. In the comparative analysis, an identical area of the ring surface which was mapped by three measuring instruments with different sampling densities resulting from their metrological characteristics was assumed. The measurements made show that for the silicon carbide ring, the surface texture measurements on an atomic force microscope and optical instruments more accurately represent the actual topography than the measurement determined by the stylus profilometer.

  7. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)


    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  8. Comparing emissions from a cattle pen as measured by two micrometeorological techniques. (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Denmead, Owen T; Chen, Deli


    Accurate measurement of ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from livestock pens is challenging. Two micrometeorological techniques, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion techniques were used to measure NH 3 emissions from an isolated cattle pen (20 × 20 m) in Victoria, Australia. The bLS technique is simple and insensitive to the presence of animals, but typically gives discontinuous measurements due to the need for target wind directions and wind conditions above accepted thresholds. In contrast, the IHF technique as implemented here gives near-continuous measurements with no restriction on wind directions. However, IHF needs more complex field measurements, and there are ambiguities when applied to an animal pen due to the presence of animals. Over the 29 days of our experiment, we collected 124 coincidental bLS and IHF emission measurements from the pen (30-min each). We found no statistical difference in the bLS and IHF calculations when the IHF turbulent flux correction factor (TF cor ) was set to 15%. Our results confirm that the IHF and bLS techniques, using independent sensors and having very different equipment layouts, gives nearly equivalent results. This suggests the choice of the two methods in future experiments can focus on their different strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The measurement of digital systolic blood pressure by strain gauge technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Bell, G; Lassen, N A


    The systolic blood pressure on the finger, toe, and ankle has been measured by a strain gauge technique in 10 normal subjects aged 17-31 years and 14 normal subjects aged 43-57 years. The standard deviation in repeated measurements lies between 2 and 6 mm Hg. The finger pressure in the younger gr...

  10. Measuring Three-Dimensional Thorax Motion Via Biplane Radiographic Imaging: Technique and Preliminary Results. (United States)

    Baumer, Timothy G; Giles, Joshua W; Drake, Anne; Zauel, Roger; Bey, Michael J


    Measures of scapulothoracic motion are dependent on accurate imaging of the scapula and thorax. Advanced radiographic techniques can provide accurate measures of scapular motion, but the limited 3D imaging volume of these techniques often precludes measurement of thorax motion. To overcome this, a thorax coordinate system was defined based on the position of rib pairs and then compared to a conventional sternum/spine-based thorax coordinate system. Alignment of the rib-based coordinate system was dependent on the rib pairs used, with the rib3:rib4 pairing aligned to within 4.4 ± 2.1 deg of the conventional thorax coordinate system.

  11. [Nondestructive applanation technique to measure the elasticity moduli and creep properties of ocular cornea in vivo]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyong; Liu, Dong; Tang, Zhen; Liao, Rongfeng; Ma, Jianguo


    Due to lack of the practical technique to measure the biomechanical properties of the ocular cornea in vivo, clinical ophthalmologists have some difficulties in understanding the deformation mechanism of the cornea under the action of physiological intraocular pressures. Using Young's theory analysis of the corneal deformation during applanation tonometry, the relation between the elasticity moduli of the cornea and the applanated corneal area and the measured and true intraocular pressures can be obtained. A new applanation technique has been developed for measuring the biomechanical properties of the ocular cornea tissue in vivo, which can simultaneously acquire the data of the applanation area and displacement of the corneal deformation as well as the exerted applanation force on the cornea. Experimental results on a rabbit's eyeball demonstrated that the present technique could be used to measure the elasticity moduli and creep properties of the ocular cornea nondestructively in vivo.

  12. A cable-free impedance and gain measurement technique for electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav


    are represented in terms of spherical wave expansions (SWEs), and the propagation is accounted for by a transmission formula. In this paper the measurement results by the proposed technique will be presented for several AUTs, including a standard gain horn antenna, a monopole antenna, and an electrically small......Impedance and gain measurements for electrically small antennas represent a great challenge due to influences of the feeding cable. The leaking current along the cable and scattering effects are two main issues caused by the feed line. In this paper, a novel cable-free antenna impedance and gain...... measurement technique for electrically small antennas is proposed. The antenna properties are extracted by measuring the signal scattered by the antenna under test (AUT), when it is loaded with three known loads. The technique is based on a rigorous electromagnetic model where the probe and AUT...

  13. Comparison of commercial analytical techniques for measuring chlorine dioxide in urban desalinated drinking water. (United States)

    Ammar, T A; Abid, K Y; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z


    Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated within the industry. This research endeavored to objectively compare the performance of commercially available analytical techniques used for chlorine dioxide measurements (namely, chronoamperometry, DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), Lissamine Green B (LGB WET) and amperometric titration), to determine the superior technique. The commonly available commercial analytical techniques were evaluated over a wide range of chlorine dioxide concentrations. In reference to pre-defined criteria, the superior analytical technique was determined. To discern the effectiveness of such superior technique, various factors, such as sample temperature, high ionic strength, and other interferences that might influence the performance were examined. Among the four techniques, chronoamperometry technique indicates a significant level of accuracy and precision. Furthermore, the various influencing factors studied did not diminish the technique's performance where it was fairly adequate in all matrices. This study is a step towards proper disinfection monitoring and it confidently assists engineers with chlorine dioxide disinfection system planning and management.

  14. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Anna Katinka [Institut fuer Umweltphysik (IUP), Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Griffith, David; Naylor, Travis [Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Harvey, Mike; Smith, Murray [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand)


    Agricultural systems can be sources or sinks of atmospheric trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO{sub 2}, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing techniques. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques (Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG)) with FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms. The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign. The flux of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} was measured by Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  15. Evaluation of Quantitative Measurement Techniques for Head Tremor With Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. (United States)

    Chockalingam, Arun; Boggs, Hans; Prusik, Julia; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Feustel, Paul; Belasen, Abigail; Youn, Youngwon; Fama, Chris; Haller, Jessica; Pilitsis, Julie


    Ventralis intermedius thalamic deep brain stimulation (VIM DBS) has shown to be safe and effective for medically refractory essential tremor (ET). We evaluate the use of quantitative tremor measurement methods for head tremor in ET using a "smart" hat and a smartphone application. We enrolled 13 ET patients who previously underwent VIM DBS. Head and arm tremor was measured ON and OFF stimulation using the clinical gold standard Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS). Results were then compared to two quantitative measurement techniques: Lift Pulse (smartphone application) and modified Nizet (adapted laser point measurement from Nizet et al.). Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare tremor severity and improvement on stimulation using TRS and quantitative methods to measure tremor. Lift Pulse tremor severity measurement significantly correlated with TRS for head (ρ = 0.53, p measurement significantly correlated with TRS for head (ρ = 0.83, p measurement significantly correlated with TRS for arm tremor (ρ = 0.56, p measurement significantly correlated with TRS for head tremor (ρ = 0.53, p measure head and arm tremor severity. We also show the utility of a "smart" hat to measure head tremor. Modified Nizet technique is more effective for measuring head tremor, while Lift Pulse is an effective measure of tremor severity, especially arm tremor improvement. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. A travelling photothermal technique employing pyroelectric detection to measure thermal diffusivity of films and coatings (United States)

    Philip, J.; Manjusha, M. V.; Soumya, H.


    A travelling thermal wave technique employing optical excitation and pyroelectric detection of thermal waves propagating along a material film/coating on a substrate is described. The method enables direct measurement of thermal diffusivity. The technique involves measurement of the phase lag undergone by an optically excited thermal wave as it propagates along the coating. The set up has been automated for convenient and fast data acquisition and analysis. The technique has been adapted to measurement of thermal diffusivity of a commercial paint sample coated on glass and copper substrates. It is found that thermal diffusivity of the coating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the substrate. Dependence of thermal diffusivity on coating thickness shows exponential increase, with value reaching a constant at a characteristic high thickness. Measurements have been carried out on a few other samples with wide variations in thermal diffusivity, and the results compared with available reports or results obtained following other techniques. Analyses of the results show that the technique allows measurement of thermal diffusivity of coatings and films with uncertainties better than ±2.5%.

  17. X-ray transmission/scattering technique for thickness-independent density measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, E.J.


    A nondestructive technique, using penetrating x radiation, has been developed to measure the density uniformity of low-Z, compressible materials that is independent of material thickness. Thickness independence is achieved by simultaneously monitoring the transmitted and scattered x rays. Results on samples of pressed carbon materials have demonstrated that there is the expected linear relationship between measured quantities and material density, independent of material thickness, and that this is a viable means of measuring density uniformity.

  18. Sources of Radon and its Measurement Techniques in Underground Uranium Mines – An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patitapaban Sahu


    Originality/value: The study portrays the important sources of radon and its measurement techniques in underground uranium mines based on an extensive literature review. The methods of measurement of radon exhalation from the ore body and backfill tailings in underground uranium mines, used by the authors of this paper, comparatively give more accurate results than previously used methods. Furthermore, the methods are more effective in terms of portability, cost and time for measuring the average radon exhalation across a large.

  19. Computer Aided Measurement Laser (CAML): technique to quantify post-mastectomy lymphoedema (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Felici, Antonella; Ljoka, Concetta; Di Cori, Sandro; Rosato, Nicola; Foti, Calogero


    Lymphoedema can be a side effect of cancer treatment. Eventhough several methods for assessing lymphoedema are used in clinical practice, an objective quantification of lymphoedema has been problematic. The aim of the study was to determine the objectivity, reliability and repeatability of the computer aided measurement laser (CAML) technique. CAML technique is based on computer aided design (CAD) methods and requires an infrared laser scanner. Measurements are scanned and the information describing size and shape of the limb allows to design the model by using the CAD software. The objectivity and repeatability was established in the beginning using a phantom. Consequently a group of subjects presenting post-breast cancer lymphoedema was evaluated using as a control the contralateral limb. Results confirmed that in clinical settings CAML technique is easy to perform, rapid and provides meaningful data for assessing lymphoedema. Future research will include a comparison of upper limb CAML technique between healthy subjects and patients with known lymphoedema.

  20. Measurement of spray characteristics using the background-oriented schlieren technique (United States)

    Lee, Junyong; Kim, Namho; Min, Kyoungdoug


    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique has not yet been used in the visualization of fuel spray in automotive research despite its great promise. To investigate the potential of this technique, the density distribution of a cross section of the spray was obtained by applying a filtered back projection (FBP) to the BOS results. Using the density distribution, the penetration lengths of the liquid and vapor phases of the fuel were measured and compared with the results of Mie scattering and shadowgraph images. The results show that the BOS technique is applicable for measuring the liquid and vapor penetration lengths simultaneously. Furthermore, the analysis of the back-projected density distribution revealed that the BOS technique is capable of visualizing the difference in the transient change in the density distribution due to changes in the injection pressure and the fuel volatility.

  1. Dynamic footprint measurement collection technique and intrarater reliability: ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography. (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S


    Identifying the variability of footprint measurement collection techniques and the reliability of footprint measurements would assist with appropriate clinical foot posture appraisal. We sought to identify relationships between these measures in a healthy population. On 30 healthy participants, midgait dynamic footprint measurements were collected using an ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography. The footprints were then digitized, and the following footprint indices were calculated with photo digital planimetry software: footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index. Differences between techniques were identified with repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc test of Scheffe. In addition, to assess practical similarities between the different methods, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. To assess intrarater reliability, footprint indices were calculated twice on 10 randomly selected ink mat footprint measurements, and the ICC was calculated. Dynamic footprint measurements collected with an ink mat significantly differed from those collected with paper pedography (ICC, 0.85-0.96) and electronic pedography (ICC, 0.29-0.79), regardless of the practical similarities noted with ICC values (P = .00). Intrarater reliability for dynamic ink mat footprint measurements was high for the footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index (ICC, 0.74-0.99). Footprint measurements collected with various techniques demonstrate differences. Interchangeable use of exact values without adjustment is not advised. Intrarater reliability of a single method (ink mat) was found to be high.

  2. T1 mapping for myocardial extracellular volume measurement by CMR: bolus only versus primed infusion technique. (United States)

    White, Steven K; Sado, Daniel M; Fontana, Marianna; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Maestrini, Viviana; Flett, Andrew S; Piechnik, Stefan K; Robson, Matthew D; Hausenloy, Derek J; Sheikh, Amir M; Hawkins, Philip N; Moon, James C


    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the contrast "bolus only" T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for measuring myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV). Myocardial ECV can be measured with T1 mapping before and after contrast agent if the contrast agent distribution between blood/myocardium is at equilibrium. Equilibrium distribution can be achieved with a primed contrast infusion (equilibrium contrast-CMR [EQ-CMR]) or might be approximated by the dynamic equilibration achieved by delayed post-bolus measurement. This bolus only approach is highly attractive, but currently limited data support its use. We compared the bolus only technique with 2 independent standards: collagen volume fraction (CVF) from myocardial biopsy in aortic stenosis (AS); and the infusion technique in 5 representative conditions. One hundred forty-seven subjects were studied: healthy volunteers (n = 50); hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 25); severe AS (n = 22); amyloid (n = 20); and chronic myocardial infarction (n = 30). Bolus only (at 15 min) and infusion ECV measurements were performed and compared. In 18 subjects with severe AS the results were compared with histological CVF. The ECV by both techniques correlated with histological CVF (n = 18, r² = 0.69, p infarction), Bland-Altman analysis indicates the bolus only technique has a consistent and increasing offset, giving a higher value for ECVs above 0.4 (mean difference ± limit of agreement for ECV 0.4 = 0.040 ± 0.075, p T1 mapping-derived ECV measurement is sufficient for ECV measurement across a range of cardiac diseases, and this approach is histologically validated in AS. However, when ECV is >0.4, the bolus only technique consistently measures ECV higher compared with infusion. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement techniques for local and global fluid dynamic quantities in two and three phase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Toseland, B.A.


    Available measurement techniques for evaluation of global and local phase holdups, instantaneous and average phase velocities and for the determination of bubble sizes in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying methods that can be employed on large scale, thick wall, high pressure and high temperature reactors used in the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas and its derivatives.

  4. Non Invasive Blood Glucose Measurement using NIR technique based on occlusion spectroscopy


    Prof..Mrs.A.A.Shinde; Dr.R.K.Prasad


    Diabetes is considered to be one of the major health care epidemics of modern era. The determination of blood glucose concentration using the self monitoring blood glucose devices involves the chemical analysis of blood samples taken by pricking the finger or extracting blood from forearm. The pain, discomfort and inconvenience in the current invasive method has led to the feasibility study of noninvasive measurement techniques. In this paper, an optical method using NIR technique based on oc...

  5. Comparison of ocular biometry measurements by applanation and immersion A-scan techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupe S. Ademola-Popoola


    Conclusion: There was a significant difference in ocular biometry measurement with the contact and immersion ultrasound techniques. The immersion technique had better repeatability, thus it is ideal in a training hospital setting in a typical in sub-Saharan Africa who have limited resources to employ a dedicated person to do biometry; and where the different operators of A-scan machines have different levels of experience and expertise.

  6. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle. (United States)

    Hughes, S; Lau, J


    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  7. A 3D optical deformation measurement system supported by knowledge-based and learning techniques (United States)

    Reiterer, Alexander; Lehmann, Martin; Miljanovic, Milos; Ali, Haider; Paar, Gerhard; Egly, Uwe; Eiter, Thomas; Kahmen, Heribert


    High accuracy 3D representation and monitoring of objects is receiving increasing interest both in science and industrial applications. Up to now tasks like monitoring of building displacements or deformations were solved by means of artificial targets on the objects of interest, although mature optical 3D measurement and laser scanning techniques are available. Such systems can perform their measurements even without targeting. This paper presents a new optical 3D measurement system, based on the fusion between a geodetic image sensor and a laser scanner. The main goal of its development was the automation of the whole measurement process, including the tasks of point identification and measurement, deformation analysis, and interpretation. This was only possible by means of new methods and techniques originally developed in the area of Artificial Intelligence; both point detection and deformation analysis are supported by decision systems that use such techniques. The resulting complex multi-sensor system is able to measure and analyse the deformation of objects, as shown in experiments. In this article we focus on specific key components and novel techniques that have been developed, and briefly report on the current stage of the whole system.

  8. The effect of series resistance on threshold voltage measurement techniques for fully depleted SOI MOSFETs (United States)

    Wainwright, S. P.; Hall, S.; Flandre, D.


    Accurate measurement of the threshold voltage of fully depleted SOI MOSFETs is limited by the high values of series resistance that occur due to the thin film nature of the material. This work examines the effect of series resistance on three techniques, one of which was extended here for the first time for use with SOI MOSFETs. The new technique is particularly useful because it allows the extraction of the threshold voltage parameter corresponding to the most widely used SOI MOSFET model. The effect that series resistance has on the measured threshold voltage is discussed alongside the validity of extending bulk MOSFET measurement techniques for use with SOI MOSFETs. The new method is shown to be more accurate than the existing linear method for extracting the SOISPICE definition of threshold voltage.

  9. Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank experiment using the source-jerk technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, G.D.; Hansen, G.E.; Martin, E.R.; Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.; Schlesser, J.A.; Krawczyk, T.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Smolen, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))


    Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank using the source-jerk technique are presented. This technique determines subcriticality by analyzing the transient response produced by the sudden removal of an extraneous neutron source (i.e., a source jerk). We have found that the technique can provide an accurate means of measuring k in configurations that are close to critical (i.e., 0.90 < k < 1.0). As the system becomes more subcritical (i.e., k < 0.90), spatial effects introduce significant biases depending on the source and detector positions. A comparison between the measurements and Monte Carlo code calculations is also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail:; Eckert, K., E-mail:; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.


    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  11. Molecular-Based Optical Measurement Techniques for Transition and Turbulence in High-Speed Flow (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.


    High-speed laminar-to-turbulent transition and turbulence affect the control of flight vehicles, the heat transfer rate to a flight vehicle's surface, the material selected to protect such vehicles from high heating loads, the ultimate weight of a flight vehicle due to the presence of thermal protection systems, the efficiency of fuel-air mixing processes in high-speed combustion applications, etc. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the transition process will lead to the development of predictive capabilities that can identify transition location and its impact on parameters like surface heating. Currently, there is no general theory that can completely describe the transition-to-turbulence process. However, transition research has led to the identification of the predominant pathways by which this process occurs. For a truly physics-based model of transition to be developed, the individual stages in the paths leading to the onset of fully turbulent flow must be well understood. This requires that each pathway be computationally modeled and experimentally characterized and validated. This may also lead to the discovery of new physical pathways. This document is intended to describe molecular based measurement techniques that have been developed, addressing the needs of the high-speed transition-to-turbulence and high-speed turbulence research fields. In particular, we focus on techniques that have either been used to study high speed transition and turbulence or techniques that show promise for studying these flows. This review is not exhaustive. In addition to the probe-based techniques described in the previous paragraph, several other classes of measurement techniques that are, or could be, used to study high speed transition and turbulence are excluded from this manuscript. For example, surface measurement techniques such as pressure and temperature paint, phosphor thermography, skin friction measurements and

  12. On the harmonic technique to measure electron temperature with high time resolution (United States)

    Boedo, J. A.; Gray, D.; Conn, R. W.; Luong, P.; Schaffer, M.; Ivanov, R. S.; Chernilevsky, A. V.; Van Oost, G.


    A detailed study of the harmonic technique, which exploits the generation of harmonics resulting from excitation of the nonlinearity of the single Langmuir probe characteristic, is presented. The technique is used to measure electron temperature and its fluctuations in tokamak plasmas and the technical issues relevant to extending the technique to high bandwidth (200 kHz) are discussed. The technique has been implemented in a fast reciprocating probe in the TEXTOR tokamak, gaining the ability to study denser and hotter plasmas than previously possible. A corrected analytical expression is derived for the harmonic currents. Measurement of the probe current by inductive pickup is introduced to improve electrical isolation and bandwidth. The temperature profiles in the boundary plasma of TEXTOR have been measured with high spatial (˜2 mm) and temporal (200 kHz) resolution and compared to those obtained with a double probe. The exact expansion of the probe characteristic in terms of Bessel functions is compared to a computationally efficient power series. Various aspects of the interpretation of the measurement are discussed such as the influence of plasma potential and density fluctuations. The technique is well suited to study fast phenomena such as transient plasma discharges or turbulence and turbulent transport in plasmas.

  13. Comparative interpretations of renormalization inversion technique for reconstructing unknown emissions from measured atmospheric concentrations (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rani, Raj; Turbelin, Grégory


    The study highlights a theoretical comparison and various interpretations of a recent inversion technique, called renormalization, developed for the reconstruction of unknown tracer emissions from their measured concentrations. The comparative interpretations are presented in relation to the other inversion techniques based on principle of regularization, Bayesian, minimum norm, maximum entropy on mean, and model resolution optimization. It is shown that the renormalization technique can be interpreted in a similar manner to other techniques, with a practical choice of a priori information and error statistics, while eliminating the need of additional constraints. The study shows that the proposed weight matrix and weighted Gram matrix offer a suitable deterministic choice to the background error and measurement covariance matrices, respectively, in the absence of statistical knowledge about background and measurement errors. The technique is advantageous since it (i) utilizes weights representing a priori information apparent to the monitoring network, (ii) avoids dependence on background source estimates, (iii) improves on alternative choices for the error statistics, (iv) overcomes the colocalization problem in a natural manner, and (v) provides an optimally resolved source reconstruction. A comparative illustration of source retrieval is made by using the real measurements from a continuous point release conducted in Fusion Field Trials, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.

  14. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron


    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  15. Inter-tester reliability of non-invasive technique for measurement of innominate motion. (United States)

    Adhia, Divya Bharatkumar; Bussey, Melanie D; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Jayakaran, Prasath; Aldabe, Daniela; Milosavljevic, Stephan


    Although the complex anatomical orientation and position of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) has rendered their 3D kinematic evaluation difficult, recent techniques of palpation-digitization of pelvic landmarks using electromagnetic tracking device have been able to accurately and non-invasively quantify the subtle SIJ kinematics. While this technique demonstrates radiographic validity and high test-retest reliability, it is yet to be assessed with regards to inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability. A single-group repeated measure design using 4 testers was conducted to evaluate the inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability of palpation-digitization technique for innominate vector length measurements using the Polhemus electromagnetic tracking device. Fourteen young, healthy adults between the ages of 18-40 years participated in the study. The innominate vector length was calculated from 3D co-ordinates of palpated and digitized pelvic landmarks in two test positions of hip. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how palpation-digitization errors for pelvic landmarks impacts on innominate angle calculation. Reliability indexes of Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (≥0.97) and Standard error of measurement (SEM) (≤2.02 mm) demonstrated very high inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability and accuracy of palpation-digitization technique for innominate vector length measurements, irrespective of the two test positions. A higher consistency of measurements was obtained within-testers as compared to between testers, and sensitivity analysis demonstrated a negligible influence of palpation-digitization errors on the innominate angle measurements. The results support clinical and research utility of this technique for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of SIJ motion for this population. Further research on the use of this palpation-digitization technique in symptomatic population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement techniques and measurement opportunities on the spot; Messverfahren und -moeglichkeiten Vorort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llosa Isenrich, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Hydraulische Maschinen und Anlagen


    Verification of guarantees mostly calls for measurements on the spot. The paper deals with the guarantees that apply to small hydroelectric power stations. Already when planning a plant it should be decided what guarantees are to be demanded and how they can be verified. Specifically, measurements to verify guaranteed performance and efficiency on the spot are dealt with. Details are not given. Rather, the report wants to give an overview of methods and aspects to be taken heed of. For in-depth information, the reader is referred to the corresponding standards and guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ueberpruefung von Garantien ist meistens die Durchfuehrung von Messungen vorort notwendig. Es werden die Garantien behandelt, die bei Kleinwasserkraftanlagen in Frage kommen. Bereits bei der Planung der Anlage sollte entschieden werden, welche Garantien gefordert werden sollen und wie sie ueberprueft werden koennen. Es wird speziell auf die messtechnische Ueberpruefung der Leistungs- und Wirkungsgradgarantien vorort eingegangen. Dabei werden keine Details behandelt. Es wird eher versucht ein Ueberblick ueber die Methoden und die Aspekte, die besonders beachtet werden muessen, zu vermitteln. Fuer eine Vertiefung wird auf die entsprechenden Normen und Richtlinien verwiesen. (orig.)

  17. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Santosh Chopra


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was −0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus.

  18. Simultaneous Global Pressure and Temperature Measurement Technique for Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.


    High-temperature luminescent coatings are being developed and applied for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping in conventional-type hypersonic wind tunnels, providing global pressure as well as Global aeroheating measurements. Together, with advanced model fabrication and analysis methods, these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles. The current status in development of simultaneous pressure- and temperature-sensitive coatings and measurement techniques for hypersonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center is described. and initial results from a feasibility study in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel are presented.

  19. Note: Interference technique for minimally invasive, subnanometer, microsecond measurements of displacements. (United States)

    Dujovne, Irene; Kerssemakers, Jacob; Cappello, G; Dekker, Cees


    We present a novel high-resolution technique for single-molecule experiments, viz., differential traveling wave tracking. This is an interference-based scattering technique where we use gold nanoparticles for high scattering intensities and incorporate differential measurements along one in-plane direction to subtract mechanical noise and drift of the system. In addition, out-of-plane distances are measured via scattered light intensity in a total internal reflectance illumination field. In plane, we demonstrate a rms noise level of only 0.10 nm at 10 kHz and less than 0.5 nm at 600 kHz.

  20. New experimental validation of the pulse height weighting technique for capture cross-section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Bacri, C.O.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Beer, H.; Benlliure, J.; Berthier, B.; Berthomieux, E.; Boffi, S.; Borcea, C.; Boscolo-Marchi, E.; Bustreo, N.; Calvino, P.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carlson, P.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Coceva, C.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortina, D.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dababneh, S.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Lourenco, L.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Furman, W.I.; Giomataris, Y.; Goncalves, I.F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Janeva, N.; Jericha, E.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Kelic, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Kitis, G.; Koehler, P.E.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Lacoste, V.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M.I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Markov, S.; Marrone, S.; Martinez-Val, J.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Minguez, E.; Molina-Coballes, A.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papaevangelou, T.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Parra, A.; Perlado, J.M.; Perrot, L.; Peskov, V.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Policarpo, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.M.; Radici, M.; Raman, S.; Rapp, W.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rejmund, F.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Savvidis, E.; Soares, J.C.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L. E-mail:; Tapia, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.M.N.; Terlizzi, R.; Terrani, M.; Tsangas, N.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin-Fernandez, D.; Vincente-Vincente, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; Zanini, L


    The accuracy of the pulse height weighting technique for the determination of neutron capture cross-sections is investigated. The technique is applied to measurements performed with C{sub 6}D{sub 6} liquid scintillation detectors of two different types using capture samples of various dimensions. The data for well-known (n,{gamma}) resonances are analyzed using weighting functions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental set-up. Several causes of systematic deviation are identified and their effect is quantified. In all the cases measured the reaction yield agrees with the standard value within 2%.

  1. The influence on finite measurement accuracy on the SWE-to-PWE antenna diagnostics technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel


    data acquired during a spherical near-field measurement. From the PWE the aperture field can subsequently be calculated. While the fundamental properties of the SWE-to-PWE transformation have been reported in previous articles, we concentrate here on the influence of non-ideal measurements aspects......A new antenna diagnostics technique based on the transformation of the spherical wave expansion (SWE) into the plane wave expansion (PWE) is proposed. The new technique allows the recovery of the plane wave spectrum in the visible region, and in principle also in part of the invisible region, from...

  2. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions (United States)


    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM...Performance Report 1 January 2013 – 1 January 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine...regulations. Evidently, it is imperative that accurate and reliable aircraft turbine engine measurement techniques are developed for total (volatile

  3. Advancing IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Chen, S.; Obland, M. D.


    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) decadal survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, time shifted PN, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN. Different PN code techniques are presented that are appropriate for different types of lidar hardware, including our current ASCENDS IM-CW concept space hardware. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties without sidelobes while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space.

  4. Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drion Iefke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 μmol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization; area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 μmol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading

  5. Lithium dilution cardiac output measurement in the critically ill patient: determination of precision of the technique. (United States)

    Cecconi, M; Dawson, D; Grounds, R M; Rhodes, A


    Lithium dilution cardiac output by LiDCOplus (LiDCO, Cambridge, UK) is a validated methodology for measuring cardiac output. It is used to calibrate a pulse pressure analysis algorithm (PulseCO) for the continuous measurement of subsequent changes in this variable. The variability of measurements, or precision, within patients of lithium dilution cardiac output has not previously been described. Thirty-five hemodynamically stable patients in intensive care, with no significant variability in heart rate, mean arterial pressure or central venous pressure, were recruited. Fifty-three determinations of cardiac output were made, each using four lithium dilution measurement curves performed consecutively within a maximum period of 10 min. The coefficient of variation of the measurements was determined and used to derive the least significant change in cardiac output that this technique could reliably detect. For a single measurement, the coefficient of variation was 8%. This equates to the technique being able to detect a change (least significant change) between two measurements of 24%. Averaging two lithium dilution measurements improved the coefficient of variation to 6% with a least significant change of 17%. Using the average of three curves reduced the coefficient of variation to 5% with a least significant change of 14%. To achieve a good precision with this technique, three lithium dilution measurements should be averaged. This will allow changes in cardiac output of more than 14% to be reliably detected. The understanding of the precision of this technique allows the user to know when a real change has happened to their patient.

  6. Comparative Calibration of Corrosion Measurements Using K-Nearest Neighbour Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Yaman


    Full Text Available Every measuring equipment or inspection tool is known to have its own accuracy, which may affect the reliability of its measurements. This includes oil and gas pipeline corrosion defects measurements. The inspection tolerance occurred in the measurements should be treated carefully for each equipment to prevent misinterpretation of the data which could lead to incorrect assessment. This paper presents a comparison between two K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN interpolation techniques used to calibrate corrosion measurements collected by Magnetic Flux Leakage Intelligent Pig (MFL-IP with the readings of Ultrasonic Testing (UT scan device. The comparison has relied on the position of the interpolators, the weight sequence, and the error in the final enhanced metrics compared to the original measurements. Both techniques have the potential to calibrate and enhance IP measurements, with relative advantage for one technique in reducing over fitting problem. This enhancement will be used to improve the integrity assessment report that depends on the disturbed corrosion metrics of oil and gas pipelines, to decide whether the pipeline is fit for service or needs certain maintenance.

  7. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging. (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B


    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture (United States)

    Li, Xumeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Wei, Hailin; Zhu, Xinguang; Peng, Yulin; Li, Ming; Li, Tao; Huang, Huang


    This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional–structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM) for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D) digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i) simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii) computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii) a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv) computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface), and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional–structural plant models of rice and for the optimization of rice

  9. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture. (United States)

    Li, Xumeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Wei, Hailin; Zhu, Xinguang; Peng, Yulin; Li, Ming; Li, Tao; Huang, Huang


    This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM) for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D) digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i) simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii) computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii) a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv) computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface), and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the optimization of rice

  10. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements. (United States)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F


    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  11. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail:; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F


    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  12. Group index dispersion of holey fibres measured by a white-light spectral interferometric technique (United States)

    Hlubina, P.; Ciprian, D.; Chlebus, R.


    We present a new white-light interferometric technique to measure the group index of holey fibres over a wide wavelength range. The technique utilizes an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fibre under test of known length placed in one of the interferometer arms and the other arm with adjustable path length. In a first step, the differential group index of the fibre is measured over a wide wavelength range. In a second step, the fibre is replaced by the reference sample of known thickness and group dispersion to determine precisely the group index of the fibre at one specific wavelength. The group index as a function of wavelength is measured for two different holey fibres, one made of pure silica glass and the other made of SK222 glass. For both fibres, the wavelength dependence of the group index of the outer cladding and modes supported by the fibre is measured.

  13. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alec Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  14. Research of measuring instrument with freeform surface (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jingchi; Ni, Ying; Qu, Jia; Chen, Hao


    In this paper, the principle, method and model of the instrument for measuring aspheric and freeform surface are described. This new type of profilometer which possesses differential measurement and polar-coordinate measurement functions is built on an ultra-precision air bearing stage. When using differential measurement, the radius of the best fit sphere of the tested aspheric surface is selected as reference to define the theoretical difference between the best fit sphere and the tested aspheric surface. After comparing the measurement results with the theoretical calculated results, we will obtain the surface error of the measured aspherical surface. With this method, the dynamic measurement range can be greatly reduced, which improves the measurement precision consequently. This surface profilometer can also be used to measure the surface of progressive addition lens (PAL). As an example, measurement of the freeform lens is given in this paper. The advantages of this device are easy for operation and highly précised.

  15. Prospective Comparative Analysis of 4 Different Intraocular Pressure Measurement Techniques and Their Effects on Pressure Readings. (United States)

    Berk, Thomas A; Yang, Patrick T; Chan, Clara C


    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using the Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) without fluorescein, with fluorescein strips, with fluorescein droplets, and IOP measurement with Tono-Pen Avia (TPA). This was a prospective comparative clinical analysis. It was performed in clinical practice. The study population consisted of 40 volunteer patients, 1 eye per patient. All patients who were 18 years and older having routine ophthalmological examination were eligible to participate. Active corneal abrasions and/or ulcers, previous glaucoma surgery, or prostheses interfering with GAT measurement were excluded. GAT IOP was measured first without fluorescein, then with fluorescein strip, then with fluorescein droplet, and finally with the TPA device. The main outcome measure was central corneal IOP. Mean±SD IOP measurements for GAT without fluorescein, with fluorescein strip, with fluorescein droplet, and for TPA groups were 12.65±3.01, 14.70±2.82, 15.78±2.64, and 16.33±3.08 mm Hg, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance corrected with the Greenhouse-Geisser estimate ([Latin Small Letter Open E]=0.732) showed that measuring technique had a significant effect on IOP measurements (F2.20,85.59=34.66, Pmeasurement ranging from 5.89 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus droplet compared with 11.83 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus TPA comparison. IOP measurement technique significantly impacted the values obtained. The ophthalmologist should ensure consistent measurement technique to minimize variability when following patients.

  16. High Resolution Measurements In U-Channel Technique And Implications For Sedimentological Purposes (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namık; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Biltekin, Demet; Akcer, Sena; Meydan Gokdere, Feray; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Bulkan, Ozlem; Arslan, Tugce; Albut, Gulum; Yalamaz, Burak; Yakupoglu, Nurettin; Sabuncu, Asen; Fillikci, Betul; Yıldız, Guliz


    Mechanical features in-stu drilling for sediment cores and vacuum forces that affect while obtaining the sediments to the core tube are formed concave shaped deformations. Even in the half sections, concave deformation form still appears. During MCSL measurements, Laminae which forms concave shaped deformation, show interference thus, values indicate overall results for several laminae instead of single lamina. These interferenced data is not appropriate for paleoceanography studies which require extend accuracy and high frequency data set to describe geochemical and climatological effects in high resolution. U-Channel technique provides accurate location and isolated values for each lamina. In EMCOL Laboratories, U-channel provide well saturated and air-free environment for samples and, by using these technique U-channels are prepared with modificated MCSL for data acquisition. Even below millimeter scale sampling rate provides the separation of each lamina and, physical properties of every each lamina. Cover of u-channel is made by homogenous plastic in shape of rectangular prism geometry. Thus, during measurement, MSCL sensors may harm the sediment; however u-channel covers the sediment from this unwanted deformation from MSCL itself. U-channel technique can present micro scale angular changes in the laminae. Measurements that have been taken from U-channel are compared with the traditional half core measurements. Interestingly, accuracy of the positions for each lamina is much more detailed and, the resolution is progressively higher. Results from P Wave and Gamma ray density provide removed interference effects on each lamina. In this technique, it is high recommended that U-channel widens the resolution of core logging and generates more cleansed measurements in MCSL. For P- Wave Used Synthetic seismograms that modelled by MSCL data set which created from U-channel technique dictates each anomalies related with climatological and geological changes. Keywords

  17. Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques. (United States)

    Schäfer, K; Heland, J; Lister, D H; Wilson, C W; Howes, R J; Falk, R S; Lindermeir, E; Birk, M; Wagner, G; Haschberger, P; Bernard, M; Legras, O; Wiesen, P; Kurtenbach, R; Brockmann, K J; Kriesche, V; Hilton, M; Bishop, G; Clarke, R; Workman, J; Caola, M; Geatches, R; Burrows, R; Black, J D; Hervé, P; Vally, J


    Nonintrusive systems for the measurement on test rigs of aeroengine exhaust emissions required for engine certification (CO, NO(x), total unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke), together with CO(2) and temperature have been developed. These results have been compared with current certified intrusive measurements on an engine test. A spectroscopic database and data-analysis software has been developed to enable Fourier-transform Infrared measurement of concentrations of molecular species. CO(2), CO, and NO data showed agreement with intrusive techniques of approximately ?30%. A narrow-band spectroscopic device was used to measure CO(2) (with deviations of less than ?10% from the intrusive measurement), whereas laser-induced incandescence was used to measure particles. Future improvements to allow for the commercial use of the nonintrusive systems have been identified and the methods are applicable to any measurement of combustion emissions.

  18. Advancement of an Interferometric Flow Velocity Measurement Technique by Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Leithold, Christoph; Czarske, Jürgen


    Flow measurements often take place under difficult conditions. Optical flow measurement techniques are affected by variations of the refractive index, caused e.g., by temperature, concentration, or pressure gradients. This will give rise to an increased measurement uncertainty or cause the measurement to fail. To overcome these limitations, we propose the employment of adaptive optics. In this contribution we present interferometric flow velocity measurements through a fluctuating air-water interface by the use of adaptive optics. Using the adaptive optics, the rate of valid measurement signals can be improved from 28% to 83%. The results are promising to enable measurements in difficult environments affected by refractive index variations which were not accessible so far.

  19. Fiber Strain Measurement for Wide Region Quasidistributed Sensing by Optical Correlation Sensor with Region Separation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjian Xu


    Full Text Available The useful application of optical pulse correlation sensor for wide region quasidistributed fiber strain measurement is investigated. Using region separation techniques of wavelength multiplexing with FBGs and time multiplexing with intensity partial reflectors, the sensor measures the correlations between reference pulses and monitoring pulses from several cascadable selected sensing regions. This novel sensing system can select the regions and obtain the distributed strain information in any desired sensing region.

  20. Measurement Techniques for Thermal Conductivity and Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Bulk and Thin Film Materials


    Zhao, Dongliang; Qian, Xin; Gu, Xiaokun; Jajja, Saad Ayub; Yang, Ronggui


    Thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance play crucial roles in the design of engineering systems where temperature and thermal stress are of concerns. To date, a variety of measurement techniques are available for both bulk and thin film solid-state materials with a broad temperature range. For thermal characterization of bulk material, the steady-state absolute method, laser flash diffusivity method, and transient plane source method are most used. For thin film measurement, ...

  1. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache


    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  2. Dam geology and basic treatment(2). Adit substitution technique and measures against landslide involved in excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kin' ichi (Kinki Geological Center, Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan (JP))


    This paper discusses the adit substitution technique which is a method for special treatment of dams and measures against landslide involved in excavation. The adit substitution technique consists of excavating an adit in the natural ground, excavating another adit which is in contact with the first adit and is at a level higher than the first adit, placing concrete from the upper adit to the lower adit to fill first adit completely with concrete, excavating a third adit, filling the second adit with concrete similarly, and proceeding with this process to construct a water barrier within the natural ground until the water barrier reaches the required height. The paper explains examples of this technique used on four dams. It also explains examples of measures against excavation-induced landslide adopted on three dams. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A technique for measuring oxygen saturation in biological tissues based on diffuse optical spectroscopy (United States)

    Kleshnin, Mikhail; Orlova, Anna; Kirillin, Mikhail; Golubiatnikov, German; Turchin, Ilya


    A new approach to optical measuring blood oxygen saturation was developed and implemented. This technique is based on an original three-stage algorithm for reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (hemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the probing radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed technique on a biological phantom have shown the high reconstruction accuracy and the possibility of correct calculation of hemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noise and calibration errors. The obtained results of animal studies have agreed with the previously published results of other research groups and demonstrated the possibility to apply the developed technique to monitor oxygen saturation in tumor tissue.

  4. Description and Evaluation of a Measurement Technique for Assessment of Performing Gender. (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker


    The influence of masculinity and femininity on behaviors and outcomes has been extensively studied in social science research using various measurement strategies. In the present paper, we describe and evaluate a measurement technique that uses existing survey items to capture the extent to which an individual behaves similarly to their same-gender peers. We use data from the first four waves of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents (age 12-18) in the United States who were re-interviewed at ages 13-19, 18-26, and 24-32. We estimate split-half reliability and provide evidence that supports the validity of this measurement technique. We demonstrate that the resulting measure does not perform as a trait measure and is associated with involvement in violent fights, a pattern consistent with theory and empirical findings. This measurement technique represents a novel approach for gender researchers with the potential for expanding our current knowledge base.

  5. New interferometric technique to measure the length (thickness) of opaque objects using a commercial interferometer (United States)

    Suratkar, Amit R.; Davies, Angela D.; Farahi, Faramarz


    Wavelength scanning interferometry offers many advantages over traditional phase shifting interferometry, most significantly the elimination of mechanical movement of the part/s for phase modulation by implementing a tunable light source. Further, Fourier analysis on the interference time history enables this technique to accurately measure distances, treating the distance between two optical surfaces as an interferometric cavity. We propose to use a newly acquired wavelength scanning Fizeau interferometer from Zygo Corporation, the MST (Multiple Surface Transform) to explore the limits of absolute thickness metrology to measure an opaque cavity, such as a gauge block. While transparent cavities can be measured with ease in a Fizeau setup, opaque cavities need additional optics. A two mirror Sagnac configuration in conjunction with the interferometer from Zygo Corporation is used to measure the length (thickness) of a 1 inch gauge block. Current gauge block measurements rely on comparison methods to determine the fractional length with respect to a reference or master gauge block or use techniques which require the absolute length of the gauge block to be previously known. By using wavelength scanning interferometry, the absolute length of the gauge block can be determined directly within limits of the repeatability of the instrument. While other techniques implement a point by point approach for measurement or use interpolation methods, we simply use a large aperture to provide the thickness variation over the sample. Experimental results of a 1 inch gauge block along with an uncertainty estimate are discussed.

  6. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.


    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  7. A novel technique for measuring the reflection coefficient of sound absorbing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, H.E.; van der Eerden, F.J.M.; van Honschoten, J.W.


    A new method to measure the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbing material in an impedance tube is presented. The method makes use of a novel particle velocity sensor, the microflown, and a microphone. The so-called p·u method is compared to three other methods of which the two microphone technique

  8. Odd-order probe correction technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    In this paper, an odd-order probe for spherical near-field antenna measurements is defined. A probe correction technique for odd-order probes is then formulated and tested by computer simulations. The probe correction for odd-order probes is important, since a wide range of realistic antennas...

  9. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic technique for measuring optical properties of food (United States)

    Quantification of optical properties is important to understand light interaction with biological materials, and to develop effective optical sensing techniques for property characterization and quality measurement of food products. This chapter reviews spatially-resolved method, with the focus on f...

  10. Cavity ring-down technique for measurement of reflectivity of high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A simple, accurate and reliable method for measuring the reflectivity of laser- grade mirrors (R > 99.5%) based on cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has been success- fully demonstrated in our laboratory using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A fast photomultiplier tube with an oscilloscope was used to detect and analyse ...

  11. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun


    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  12. Phishtest: Measuring the Impact of Email Headers on the Predictive Accuracy of Machine Learning Techniques (United States)

    Tout, Hicham


    The majority of documented phishing attacks have been carried by email, yet few studies have measured the impact of email headers on the predictive accuracy of machine learning techniques in detecting email phishing attacks. Research has shown that the inclusion of a limited subset of email headers as features in training machine learning…

  13. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon

  14. A Comparison of Galaxy Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Measurements Using Manual and Automated Techniques (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian; Treuthardt, Patrick


    Disk galaxy evolution is dominated by secular processes in the nearby universe. Revealing the morphological characteristics and underlying dynamics of these galaxies is key to understanding their evolution. The arm structure of disk galaxies can generally be described with logarithmic spirals, thereby giving measurements of pitch angle. These measurements are valuable for probing the dynamics and less apparent characteristics of these galaxies (i.e. supermassive black hole mass). Pitch angle measurements are powerful because they can be derived from a single, uncalibrated, broadband image with sufficient contrast, as opposed to more intensive observations. Accurate determination of these measurements can be challenging, however, since pitch angle can vary with radius.There are currently several semi-automated and manual techniques used to determine pitch angle. These are, or will be, used in at least two Zooniverse citizen science projects. The goal of this work is to determine if different, specific techniques return similar pitch angles for the same set of galaxies. We compare the results from a machine vision technique using SPARCFIRE, a non-Euclidean based hand selection of pitch angle, and two methods using 2D Fourier decomposition (i.e. selecting stable regions from the results of direct application to broadband images and application to traced versions of the observed spiral pattern). Each technique is applied to our sample of galaxies and the resulting pitch angles are compared to generated logarithmic spirals to evaluate the match quality.

  15. Monitoring fugitive methane and natural gas emissions, validation of measurement techniques. (United States)

    Robinson, Rod; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Gardiner, Tom; Helmore, Jon; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy


    The detection and quantification of fugitive and diffuse methane emissions has become an increasing priority in recent years. As the requirements for routine measurement to support industry initiatives increase there is a growing requirement to assess and validate the performance of fugitive emission measurement technologies. For reported emissions traceability and comparability of measurements is important. This talk will present recent work addressing these needs. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a laser based remote sensing technology, able to map the concentration of gases in the atmosphere and determine emission fluxes for fugitive emissions. A description of the technique and its application for determining fugitive emissions of methane from oil and gas operations and waste management sites will be given. As DIAL has gained acceptance as a powerful tool for the measurement and quantification of fugitive emissions, and given the rich data it produces, it is being increasingly used to assess and validate other measurement approaches. In addition, to support the validation of technologies, we have developed a portable controlled release facility able to simulate the emissions from area sources. This has been used to assess and validate techniques which are used to monitor emissions. The development and capabilities of the controlled release facility will be described. This talk will report on recent studies using DIAL and the controlled release facility to validate fugitive emission measurement techniques. This includes side by side comparisons of two DIAL systems, the application of both the DIAL technique and the controlled release facility in a major study carried out in 2015 by South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in which a number of optical techniques were assessed and the development of a prototype method validation approach for techniques used to measure methane emissions from shale gas sites. In conclusion the talk will provide an

  16. International workshop on measuring techniques for liquid metal flows (MTLM). Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S. [eds.


    The international workshop on 'Measuring techniques in liquid metal flows' (MTLM workshop) was organised in frame of the Dresden 'Innovationskolleg Magnetofluiddynamik'. The subject of the MTLM workshop was limited to methods to determine physical flow quantities such as velocity, pressure, void fraction, inclusion properties, crystallisation fronts etc. The present proceedings contain abstracts and viewgraphs of the oral presentations. During the last decades numerical simulations have become an important tool in industry and research to study the structure of flows and the properties of heat and mass transfer. However, in case of liquid metal flows there exists a significant problem to validate the codes with experimental data due to the lack of available measuring techniques. Due to the material properties (opaque, hot, chemical aggressive) the measurement of flow quantities is much more delicate in liquid metals compared to ordinary water flows. The generalisation of results obtained by means of water models to real liquid metal flows has often to be considered as difficult due to the problems to meet the actual values of n0n-dimensional flow parameters (Re, Pr, Gr, Ha, etc.). Moreover, a strong need has to be noted to make measuring techniques available tomonitor and to control flow processes in real industrial facilities. The objectives of the MTLM workshop were to: Review of existing information on a available techniques and experiences about the use in liquid metal flows, initiate a discussion between developers and potential users with respect to the actual need of information about the flow structure as well as the capabilities of existing and developing measuring techniques. Explore opportunities for co-operative R and D projects to expedite new developments and results, to share expertise and resources. (orig.)

  17. Acoustic Measurements in Opera Houses: Comparison Between Different Techniques and Equipment (United States)



    In room acoustics, many objective parameters to quantify subjective impressions have been introduced. These quantities can be measured by using a wide variety of powerful tools and equipment. The results can be influenced by the measurement techniques and instruments used. Furthermore, the results also depend on the measurement positions and on the condition of the hall (full, empty, etc.). The aim of this work is to define a tightly standardized measurement procedure for the collection of a complete objective description of an opera house's acoustics. In this paper some of the results obtained by the authors after measurements made in three different halls are presented. Comparisons were made both between different hardware and software tools (real-time analyzer, DAT, PC-board, source, microphones, post-processing software) and between different measurement methods (interrupted stationary noise, true-impulse, pseudo-random white noise with impulse-response doconvolution, sine sweep) as well as between different positions in the halls, with and without the presence of musicians and audience. The results have shown that the differences obtained when using different measurement techniques and equipment are not of significant importance. The only effective differences were found regarding the recording techniques, as the monaural measurements give appreciably different results from the average of left and right channel of binaural measurements. Slightly different results were alsofound between true impulsive sources (pistol shots, balloons) and omni-directional (dodecahedral) loudspeakers. Attention must be paid to the signal-to-noise ratio, as this can influence the correct calculation of some acoustical parameters. Some differences, not as great as expected, were found in the results with and without the musicians in the orchestra shell and with and without the audience in the hall. This is probably due to the high sound absorption that is typical in Italian opera

  18. Development of neutron measurement techniques in reactor diagnostics and determination of water content and water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdic, Senada


    The present thesis deals with three comparatively different topics in neutron physics research. These topics are as follows: construction and experimental investigation of a new detector, capable of measuring the neutron current, and investigation of the possibility to use it for the localisation of a neutron source in a simple experimental arrangement; execution of neutron transmission measurements based on a stationary neutron generator, and the study of their suitability for determining the volume porosity of geological samples; study of the possibility for improving the accuracy of water flow measurements based on the pulsed neutron activation technique. The first subject of this thesis concerns the measurement of the neutron current by a newly constructed detector. The motivation for this work stems from a recent suggestion that the performance of core monitoring methods could be enhanced if, in addition to the scalar neutron flux, also the neutron current was measured. To this end, a current detector was based on a scintillator mounted on a fibre and a Cd layer on one side of the detector. The measurements of the 2-D neutron current were performed in an experimental system by using this detector. The efficiency of the detector in reactor diagnostics was illustrated by demonstrating that the position of a neutron source can be determined by measuring the scalar neutron flux and the neutron current in one spatial point. The results of measurement and calculation show both the suitability of the detector construction for the measurement of the neutron current vector and the use of the current in diagnostics and monitoring. The second subject of this thesis concerns fast neutron transmission measurements, based on a stationary neutron generator, for determining the volume porosity of a sample in a model experiment. Such a technique could be used in field measurements with obvious advantages in comparison with thermal neutron transmission techniques, which can

  19. A multi-slice sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals (United States)

    Zhong, Langxiang; Hu, Jinliang; Geng, Yongliang; Zhu, Chunao; Zhang, Bo


    The long capillary and shear-cell techniques are traditionally used for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Inspired by the idea of the shear-cell method, we have built a multi-slice sliding cell device for inter-diffusion measurements in liquid metals. The device is designed based on a linear sliding movement rather than a rotational shearing as used in the traditional shear-cell method. Compared with the normal shear-cell method, the present device is a more compact setup thus easier to handle. Also, it is expected to be easier to monitor with X-rays or neutrons if used in in situ experiments. A series of benchmark time-dependent diffusion experiments in Al-Cu melts carried out with the present technique reveal that accurate diffusion constants can be achieved only after a sufficient time. For short annealing times, the initial shearing process causing convective flow dominates the measurement and leads to an increase of the measured diffusion coefficient by a factor three. The diffusion data obtained for Al-Cu liquids are consistent with the most accurate data measured by the in situ X-ray radiography method under well controlled conditions of no temperature gradient or other perturbation. High accuracy and easy handling as well as superior adaptability make the present technique suitable for diffusion studies in liquid metals.

  20. Three-dimensional surface measurement based on the projected defocused pattern technique using imaging fiber optics (United States)

    Parra Escamilla, Geliztle A.; Kobayashi, Fumio; Otani, Yukitoshi


    We present a three-dimensional surface measurement system using imaging fiber endoscope and the measurement is based on the focus technique in uniaxial configuration. The surface height variation of the sample is retrieved by taking into account the contrast modulation change obtained from a projected fringe pattern on the sample. The technique takes into account the defocus change of the fringe pattern due to the height variation of the sample and by a Gaussian fitting process the height reconstruction can be retrieved. A baseline signal procedure was implemented to remove back reflection light coming from the two fiber-surfaces (inlet and outlet) and also a Fourier transform filter was used to remove the pixelated appearance of the images. The depth range of the system is 1.1 mm and a lateral range of 2 mm by 2 mm. The novelties of the implementation are that the system uses the same imaging fiber as illumination and measurement and offers the advantage of the transportability to the measurement to a confined space having potential application on medical or industrial endoscopes systems. We demonstrate the technique by showing the surface profile of a measured object.

  1. Coupled-Inductor-Based DC Current Measurement Technique for Transformerless Grid-Tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Mattavelli, Paolo; Yang, Dongsheng


    , such as the dc current component injection into the grid. This component should be effectively mitigated in order to avoid some impacts, such as the saturation of the transformers in the distribution network. On the other hand, limiting this component up to few milliamperes is a challenging issue due....... Moreover, none of them measures the dc component directly, but predicts its value using different approaches. Hence, this letter proposes a new technique to measure this dc current component with high accuracy using a coupled inductor combined with a small-range Hall effect current sensor in order...... to achieve the lowest possible cost with the highest possible accuracy. The proposed technique is introduced, analyzed, and tested experimentally to verify its principle of operation. Also experimental measurement of the dc current component using a 5-kVA transformerless grid-tied voltage-source inverter...

  2. Edge technique - Theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Weng, Chi Y.


    The paper describes the theory of the edge technique, a powerful method for the detection and measurement of small frequency shifts. It can be employed with a lidar to obtain range-resolved measurements of wind with high accuracy and high vertical resolution. The technique can be applied to measure wind with a lidar by using either the aerosol or molecular backscattered signal. Simulations for a ground-based lidar at 1.06 micron using reasonable instrumental parameters show an accuracy of the vector components of the wind which is better than 0.5 m/s from the ground to an altitude of 20 km for a 100-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average.

  3. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H


    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue....... CONCLUSIONS: The microdialysis technique allowed measurements of histamine release from mast cells in intact lung ex vivo. The method may prove useful since a number of experiments can be performed in a few hours in intact lung tissue without any dispersion or enzymatic treatment....

  4. Development of nonintrusive, scatter-independent techniques for measurement of liquid density inside dense sprays (United States)

    Hartfield, Roy


    A nonintrusive optical technique for measuring the liquid density in sprays used to simulate LOX injector flows is under development. This manuscript is a report on work toward that development which is currently in progress. The technique is a scatter-independent, absorption-based approach which depends on the numerical inversion of a collection of absorption profiles. For the case in which visible radiation passes through liquid-gas interfaces so numerous in sprays, substantial reductions and alterations in the signal result from scattering even in the absence of absorption. To avoid these problems, X-Rays will be used as the absorbed radiation. The experimental process is simulated by integrating the absorption spectrum for a known distribution, adding instrument noise to this 'measurement', creating a projection from the 'measurement', filtering the projection, inverting the projection, and comparing the results with the original prescribed distribution.

  5. Technique for velocity vector field dynamics measurement on the basis of smoke visualization of flow (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Dushin, N. S.; Saushin, I. I.


    The main difference between Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV) technique and traditional PIV is that the smoke with continuous intensity in the image is seeded into the flow instead of separate particles. Owing to better smoke reflectivity, relatively primitive equipment is enough to measure the dynamics of velocity vector fields with the frequency of 25 kHz and higher. The image processing algorithm is adapted to high tracer concentration and relatively large displacement of smoke patches between two consecutive frames. The results of SIV testing are presented, including the estimations of the most measurement noise sensitive characteristics of turbulence calculated from spatial derivatives of fluctuations of small-scale turbulence. The measurement results have been shown to agree well with the data obtained by other methods. Application of SIV technique opens new possibilities in the research of flow pattern and turbulence in unsteady and fast processes.

  6. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.


    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  7. Intracranial Volume Measurement: A Systematic Review and Comparison of Different Techniques. (United States)

    Breakey, William; Knoops, Paul G M; Borghi, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Dunaway, David J; Schievano, Silvia; Jeelani, Owase N U


    The ability to calculate intracranial volume (ICV) from 3-dimensional imaging is a useful tool in a craniofacial team's armamentarium. Intracranial volume uses range from decision making to assessment. Various methods to calculate ICV exist including fully manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic techniques and they are used with varying frequency in craniofacial centres globally.This study aimed to systematically analyze and compare ICV calculations across the 3 methods and provide information to allow the reader to utilize these processes in practice.Twenty-six computed tomography scans from Apert patients were used to compare ICV measurements calculated using the following techniques: fully manual segmentation with OsiriX (taken as the gold standard); semiautomatic segmentation using Simpleware ScanIP; and fully automatic segmentation using FSL neuroimaging software. In addition, to assess the effect that a reducing CT scan slice number had on ICV measurement, 13 scans were remeasured using half, quarter, and an eighth of the slices of the full scan.The manual and semiautomatic techniques had intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.997, and 0.993 respectively. Intracranial volume measurements using the semi- and fully automatic techniques showed high linear correlation with manual techniques (R = 0.993 and R = 0.995). The coefficients of determination for full scan versus half, quarter, and eighth scan were R = 0.98, 0.96, and 0.94 respectively.Similar ICV results can be obtained using manual, semiautomatic, or automatic techniques with decreasing amount of time required to perform each method. Command line code for the fully automatic method is provided.

  8. A comparison of emissive probe techniques for electric potential measurements in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Hershkowitz, N. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Raitses, Y.; Kaganovich, I.; Fisch, N. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)


    The major emissive probe techniques are compared to better understand the floating potential of an electron emitting surface in a plasma. An overview of the separation point technique, floating point technique, and inflection point in the limit of zero emission technique is given, addressing how each method works as well as the theoretical basis and limitations of each. It is shown that while the floating point method is the most popular, it is expected to yield a value {approx}1.5T{sub e}/e below the plasma potential due to a virtual cathode forming around the probe. The theoretical predictions were checked with experiments performed in a 2 kW annular Hall thruster plasma (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}and T{sub e} {approx} 10-50 eV). The authors find that the floating point method gives a value around 2T{sub e}/e below the inflection point method, which is shown to be a more accurate emissive probe technique than other techniques used in this work for measurements of the plasma potential.

  9. Measurements with fluorescent probes in primary neural cultures; improved multiwell techniques. (United States)

    Ring, Avi; Tanso, Rita


    Fluorescence imaging techniques are valuable tools for the pharmacological characterization of CNS drugs. Dissected cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) are an important model system in the study of mechanisms of excitotoxicity, glutamate receptors and transporters. Widely applied techniques use fluorescent probes loaded in neural cells cultured on glass supports. CGN, however, require at least 7 days for differentiation and over time cells tend to cluster and loose adherence to the glass substrate. This problem is accentuated in small wells (e.g. 96-well plates). CGN were grown on large coverslips (60 x 24 mm) and measurements made with a designed mountable multiwell in 48 regions on 4 coverslips at a time. The UV ratiometric probe fura-2 was used to measure glutamatergic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) responses induced by NMDA. The IC(50) of NMDA receptor antagonists was determined from inhibition curves with 6 doses and 8 parallels per experiment. The method was validated by comparing with published data for the dose response to NMDA and glycine and IC(50) values for ion-channel block by Mg(2+) and MK-801. Resolution is enhanced with the new technique since it allows measurement of multiple doses on cells from the same batch. It has advantages to cuvette techniques because cells have intact dendritic tree and synaptic function and it is a convenient method to obtain reliable dose-response curves for NMDA channel modulators on differentiated neural cells.

  10. Advancement of an Infra-Red Technique for Whole-Field Concentration Measurements in Fluidized Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Medrano


    Full Text Available For a better understanding and description of the mass transport phenomena in dense multiphase gas-solids systems such as fluidized bed reactors, detailed and quantitative experimental data on the concentration profiles is required, which demands advanced non-invasive concentration monitoring techniques with a high spatial and temporal resolution. A novel technique based on the selective detection of a gas component in a gas mixture using infra-red properties has been further developed. The first stage development was carried out using a very small sapphire reactor and CO2 as tracer gas. Although the measuring principle was demonstrated, the real application was hindered by the small reactor dimensions related to the high costs and difficult handling of large sapphire plates. In this study, a new system has been developed, that allows working at much larger scales and yet with higher resolution. In the new system, propane is used as tracer gas and quartz as reactor material. In this study, a thorough optimization and calibration of the technique is presented which is subsequently applied for whole-field measurements with high temporal resolution. The developed technique allows the use of a relatively inexpensive configuration for the measurement of detailed concentration fields and can be applied to a large variety of important chemical engineering topics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Studies of groundwater consist in data acquisition, their processing and interpretation. In areas of interest hydrogeological is assumed that there is a network of wells drilled. This network provides a first in the hydrogeological information. Electromagnetic (EM mapping through the use of such areas, using data obtained from existing network of wells drilled, calibration and confirmation. Measurements using the EM can highlight the existence of several layers with different characteristics: clay, limestone, sand, etc. Studies of groundwater interpretation are used for developing a regional hydrogeologic model. The application of electromagnetic techniques for measuring soil resistivity or conductivity has been known for a long time. Conductivity is preferable in inductive techniques, as instrumentation readings are generally directly proportional to conductivity and inversely proportional to resistivity. The operating principle of this method is: a Tx coil transmitter, supplied with alternating current at an audio frequency, is placed on the ground. An Rx coil receiver is located at a short distance, s, away from the Tx coil. The magnetic field varies in time and the Tx coil induces very small currents in the ground. These currents generate a secondary magnetic field, Hs, which is sensed by the Rx receiver coil, together, with primary magnetic field Hp. The ratio of the secondary field, Hs, to the primary magnetic field, Hp, (Hs/Hp is directly proportional to terrain conductivity. Measuring this ratio, it is possible to construct a device which measures the terrain conductivity by contactless, direct-reading electromagnetic technique (linear meter. This technique for measuring conductivity by electromagnetic induction, using Very Low Frequency (VLF, is a non-intrusive, non-destructive sampling method. The measurements can be done quickly and are not expensive. The Electromagnetic induction technology was originally developed for the mining

  12. Harrahill's technique: a simple screening test for intra-abdominal pressure measurement. (United States)

    Otto, J; Binnebösel, M; Junge, K; Jansen, M; Dembinski, R; Schumpelick, V; Schachtrupp, A


    Repair of giant incisional hernias may lead to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and, sometimes, to abdominal compartment syndrome. Measurement of IAP using Kron's technique (Kron et al. in Ann Surg 199:28-30, 1984) is currently accepted as the gold standard, whereas Harrahill has described a simple measurement setup using urinary drainage manometry (Harrahill in J Emerg Nurs 24:465-466, 1998). The aim of this clinical trail was to evaluate the correlation, reproducibility and effectiveness of this device. A prospective cohort study was performed in 43 patients undergoing elective standard abdominal intervention with laparotomy. These patients remain under surveillance in the intensive care unit and require a urinary catheter because of the operation. We performed comparative measurements of IAP using both Korn's (IVM) and Harrahill's (UDM) technique. Evaluating the correlation between the IVM and UDM techniques, we measured median IAPs of 9.8 +/- 4.1 mmHg (2.9-19.9 mmHg) and 10.0 +/- 4.1 mmHg (min-max: 1.5-19.9 mmHg), respectively. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was r = 0.97. The average of difference between UDM and IVM was -0.2 +/- 0.9 mmHg with limits of agreement of -1.7 to 2.0 mmHg. Evaluating the reproducibility of Harrahill's technique, we found median IAPs of 10.4 +/- 2.1 mmHg (min-max: 2.9-19.1 mmHg) and 10.4 +/- 2.7 mmHg (3.7-19.9 mmHg), respectively, in 43 comparative measurements (Pearson's coefficient of correlation, r = 0.97. The average difference between both measurements was -0.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg with limits of agreement of -2.3 to 2.2 mmHg. We were able to demonstrate good correlation and high reproducibility of IAP measurement using Harrahill's technique compared to the gold standard Korn method. We consider this technique as a suitable method for quick and simple screening test for intra-abdominal hypertension, especially after repair of giant incisional hernias.

  13. Use of superheated liquid dispersion technique for measuring alpha-emitting actinides in environmental samples (United States)

    Wang, C. K.; Lim, W.; Pan, L. K.


    This paper presents a novel fast screening technique of measuring concentrations of alpha-emitting actinides in environmental samples. This novel technique is called superheated liquid dispersion (SLD), which involves dispersing fine superheated liquid (e.g. Freon-12) droplets into a mixture of glycerin and the actinide-containing chemical extractant. The interactions between alpha particles and superheated liquid droplets trigger bubbles. Therefore, one may relate the number of bubbles to the actinide concentration in the sample. The results obtained from the computer simulation and the experiment support the above claim.

  14. New autocorrelation technique for the IR FEL optical pulse width measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, K.A.; Becker, C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others


    We have developed a new technique for the autocorrelation measurement of optical pulse width at the Vanderbilt University FEL center. This method is based on nonlinear absorption and transmission characteristics of semiconductors such as Ge, Te and InAs suitable for the wavelength range from 2 to over 6 microns. This approach, aside being simple and low cost, removes the phase matching condition that is generally required for the standard frequency doubling technique and covers a greater wavelength range per nonlinear material. In this paper we will describe the apparatus, explain the principal mechanism involved and compare data which have been acquired with both frequency doubling and two-photon absorption.

  15. Variation in the rapid shallow breathing index associated with common measurement techniques and conditions. (United States)

    Patel, Kapil N; Ganatra, Kalpesh D; Bates, Jason H T; Young, Michael P


    The rapid-shallow-breathing index (RSBI) is widely used to evaluate mechanically ventilated patients for weaning and extubation, but it is determined in different clinical centers in a variety of ways, under conditions that are not always comparable. We hypothesized that the value of RSBI may be significantly influenced by common variations in measurement conditions and technique. Sixty patients eligible for a weaning evaluation after >or=72 hours of mechanical ventilation were studied over 15 months in a medical intensive care unit. RSBI was measured while the patients were on 2 different levels of ventilator support: 5 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus T-piece. RSBI was also calculated in 2 different ways: using the values of minute ventilation and respiratory rate provided by the digital output of the ventilator, versus values obtained manually with a Wright spirometer. Finally, RSBI was measured at 2 different times of the day. RSBI was significantly less when measured on 5 cm H2O CPAP, compared to T-piece: the medians and interquartile ranges were 71 (52-88) breaths/min/L versus 90 (59-137) breaths/min/L, respectively (Pventilator-derived versus manual measures of the breathing pattern. RSBI was also not significantly different in the morning versus evening measurements. RSBI can be significantly affected by the level of ventilator support, but is relatively unaffected by both the technique used to determine the breathing pattern and the time of day at which it is measured.

  16. High-throughput direct measurement of magnetocaloric effect based on lock-in thermography technique (United States)

    Hirayama, Yusuke; Iguchi, Ryo; Miao, Xue-Fei; Hono, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Ken-ichi


    We demonstrate a high-throughput direct measurement method for the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) technique. This method enables systematic measurements of the magnetic-field and operation-frequency dependences of the temperature change induced by the MCE. This is accomplished in a shorter time compared to conventional adiabatic temperature measurement methods. The direct measurement based on LIT is free from any possible miscalculations and errors arising from indirect measurements using thermodynamic relations. Importantly, the LIT technique makes simultaneous MCE measurements of multiple materials possible without increasing the measurement time, realizing high-throughput investigations of the MCE. By applying this method to Gd, we obtain the MCE-induced temperature change of 1.84 ± 0.11 K under a modulation field of 1.0 T and modulation frequency of 0.5 Hz at a temperature of 300.5 ± 0.5 K, offering evidence that the LIT method gives quantitative results.

  17. Precision of lumbar intervertebral measurements: does a computer-assisted technique improve reliability? (United States)

    Pearson, Adam M; Spratt, Kevin F; Genuario, James; McGough, William; Kosman, Katherine; Lurie, Jon; Sengupta, Dilip K


    Comparison of intra- and interobserver reliability of digitized manual and computer-assisted intervertebral motion measurements and classification of "instability." To determine if computer-assisted measurement of lumbar intervertebral motion on flexion-extension radiographs improves reliability compared with digitized manual measurements. Many studies have questioned the reliability of manual intervertebral measurements, although few have compared the reliability of computer-assisted and manual measurements on lumbar flexion-extension radiographs. Intervertebral rotation, anterior-posterior (AP) translation, and change in anterior and posterior disc height were measured with a digitized manual technique by three physicians and by three other observers using computer-assisted quantitative motion analysis (QMA) software. Each observer measured 30 sets of digital flexion-extension radiographs (L1-S1) twice. Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and interobserver reliabilities were computed. The stability of each level was also classified (instability defined as >4 mm AP translation or 10° rotation), and the intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the two methods were compared using adjusted percent agreement (APA). Intraobserver reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were substantially higher for the QMA technique THAN the digitized manual technique across all measurements: rotation 0.997 versus 0.870, AP translation 0.959 versus 0.557, change in anterior disc height 0.962 versus 0.770, and change in posterior disc height 0.951 versus 0.283. The same pattern was observed for interobserver reliability (rotation 0.962 vs. 0.693, AP translation 0.862 vs. 0.151, change in anterior disc height 0.862 vs. 0.373, and change in posterior disc height 0.730 vs. 0.300). The QMA technique was also more reliable for the classification of "instability." Intraobserver APAs ranged from 87 to 97% for QMA versus 60% to 73% for digitized manual

  18. A First/Third-Order Probe Correction Technique for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Three Probe Orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A probe correction technique is described for spherical near-field antenna measurements based on sampling the near field for three probe orientations in each measurement direction. The technique applies to odd-order probes whose radiated field contains (significant) power only in the first (µ=±1......) and thirdorder (µ=±3) azimuthal spherical modes. The technique is ideally suited as an optional probe correction technique for high-accuracy measurements in existing measurement systems that employ a rectangular or square waveguide probe and the traditional first-order probe correction technique....

  19. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.


    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  20. Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise (United States)

    Henry, Brad; Zhao, Mingjun; Shang, Yu; Uhl, Timothy; Thomas, D. Travis; Xenos, Eleftherios S.; Saha, Sibu P.; Yu, Guoqiang


    Occlusion calibrations and gating techniques have been recently applied by our laboratory for continuous and absolute diffuse optical measurements of forearm muscle hemodynamics during handgrip exercises. The translation of these techniques from the forearm to the lower limb is the goal of this study as various diseases preferentially affect muscles in the lower extremity. This study adapted a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system with a gating algorithm to continuously quantify hemodynamic responses of medial gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercises in 10 healthy subjects. The outcomes from optical measurement include oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, blood oxygen saturation, and relative changes in blood flow (rBF) and oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). We calibrated rBF and rV˙O2 profiles with absolute baseline values of BF and V˙O2 obtained by venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Results from this investigation were comparable to values from similar studies. Additionally, significant correlation was observed between resting local muscle BF measured by the optical technique and whole limb BF measured concurrently by a strain gauge venous plethysmography. The extensive hemodynamic and metabolic profiles during exercise will allow for future comparison studies to investigate the diagnostic value of hybrid technologies in muscles affected by disease.

  1. Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath C. Siriwardane


    Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.

  2. Dual measurement self-sensing technique of NiTi actuators for use in robust control (United States)

    Gurley, Austin; Lambert, Tyler Ross; Beale, David; Broughton, Royall


    Using a shape memory alloy actuator as both an actuator and a sensor provides huge benefits in cost reduction and miniaturization of robotic devices. Despite much effort, reliable and robust self-sensing (using the actuator as a position sensor) had not been achieved for general temperature, loading, hysteresis path, and fatigue conditions. Prior research has sought to model the intricacies of the electrical resistivity changes within the NiTi material. However, for the models to be solvable, nearly every previous technique only models the actuator within very specific boundary conditions. Here, we measure both the voltage across the entire NiTi wire and of a fixed-length segment of it; these dual measurements allow direct calculation of the actuator length without a material model. We review previous self-sensing literature, illustrate the mechanism design that makes the new technique possible, and use the dual measurement technique to determine the length of a single straight wire actuator under controlled conditions. This robust measurement can be used for feedback control in unknown ambient and loading conditions.

  3. Improved technique for the characterization of micro-ring resonator using low coherence measurement. (United States)

    Liu, Wei Kang; Chen, Chun Yen; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Yung Jui


    Low-coherence interferometric measurement has been used to investigate optical waveguide devices with high accuracy. By utilizing an incoherent light source, one can generate separate interferogram features for each optical path. The distance between adjacent features of a ring resonator is related to ring length. With small ring radius, the interferogram spectrum exhibits severe cross-interference between adjacent features that hinders one to analyze the optical path individually. We propose a novel technique to overcome the light-source bandwidth limitation by signal-processing technique, which allows one to characterize small radius micro-ring resonator. This technique has been applied to both numerical simulations and experimental data with significant improvement of the extracted ring parameters. The improvements allow one to better understand the wavelength dependency properties of small radius micro-ring resonators.

  4. Measurement of nonlinear index by a relay-imaged top-hat Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, T.; Kurnit, N.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physics Div.; Sheik-Bahae, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy


    Measurements of the nonlinear index of a number of optical materials of interest for the National Ignition Facility have been performed at 1,064 nm and 355 nm by a modified version of the ``top-hat`` technique and the results compared with the more standard gaussian-beam Z-scan technique. The top-hat technique has the advantages of higher sensitivity and smaller uncertainties introduced by beam-quality considerations. The authors have made what they feel to be an additional improvement by placing the defining aperture for the top hat at the front focal plane of the lens that focuses the beam into the sample and then reimaging the input aperture with a second lens onto a ccd camera. Reimaging eliminates diffraction fringes and provides a stationary image even for a wedged sample; recording the entire image permits minimization of spurious effects such as varying interference fringes.

  5. An optical pump-probe technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids. (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron; Chiesa, Matteo; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Gang


    We present a pump-probe optical technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids. The technique uses a reflective geometry which does not depend on the optical properties of the liquid and requires as little as a single droplet to produce a result. An analytical solution is given for bidirectional heat flow in layered media, including the effects of radial heat flow from coaxial Gaussian laser spots, thermal interface resistances, and the accumulation of multiple laser pulses. In addition, several experimental improvements over previous pump-probe configurations are described, resulting in an improved signal to noise ratio and smaller errors at long stage delay times. The technique is applied to a range of liquids and solids. Results are in good agreement with literature values.

  6. Wind Turbine Rotor Simulation via CFD Based Actuator Disc Technique Compared to Detailed Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Mahmoodi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized Actuator Disc (AD is used to model the wind turbine rotor of the MEXICO experiment, a collaborative European wind turbine project. The AD model as a combination of CFD technique and User Defined Functions codes (UDF, so-called UDF/AD model is used to simulate loads and performance of the rotor in three different wind speed tests. Distributed force on the blade, thrust and power production of the rotor as important designing parameters of wind turbine rotors are focused to model. A developed Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory as a code based numerical technique as well as a full rotor simulation both from the literature are included into the results to compare and discuss. The output of all techniques is compared to detailed measurements for validation, which led us to final conclusions.

  7. A Bayesian technique for conditioning radar precipitation estimates to rain-gauge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Todini


    Full Text Available The paper introduces a new technique based upon the use of block-Kriging and of Kalman filtering to combine, optimally in a Bayesian sense, areal precipitation fields estimated from meteorological radar to point measurements of precipitation such as are provided by a network of rain-gauges. The theoretical development is followed by a numerical example, in which an error field with a large bias and a noise to signal ratio of 30% is added to a known random field, to demonstrate the potentiality of the proposed algorithm. The results analysed on a sample of 1000 realisations, show that the final estimates are totally unbiased and the noise variance reduced substantially. Moreover, a case study on the upper Reno river in Italy demonstrates the improvements in rainfall spatial distribution obtainable by means of the proposed radar conditioning technique. Keywords: Rainfall, meteorological radar, Bayesian technique, block-Kriging, Kalman filtering

  8. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques. (United States)

    Engesæter, Ingvild Øvstebø; Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Lehmann, Trude Gundersen; Sera, Francesco; Fevang, Jonas; Pedersen, Douglas; Morcuende, José; Lie, Stein Atle; Engesæter, Lars Birger; Rosendahl, Karen


    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Tönnis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good.

  9. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engesaeter, Ingvild Oevsteboe [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Rosendahl, Karen [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Lehmann, Trude Gundersen; Fevang, Jonas; Engesaeter, Lars Birger [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Sera, Francesco [University College London Institute of Child Health, Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Pedersen, Douglas; Morcuende, Jose [University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States); Lie, Stein Atle [Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway)


    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Toennis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good. (orig.)

  10. Impedance measurement techniques for one-port and two-port networks. (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lo, Yi-Yang; Chen, You Siang


    A microphone array impedance matrix measurement technique is presented for linear and passive acoustic two-port networks. Two impedance tubes fitted with three non-uniformly spaced microphones are required in the measurement. The non-uniform spacing is intended to avoid ill-posedness problems in calculating two plane-wave components traveling in opposite directions. Based on the one-port measurement, acoustic two-port networks modeled with the source and the load connected are examined. Three experimental procedures, the two-load measurement method (TLMM), the reciprocal-constrained method (RCM), and the reciprocity-symmetry-constrained method (RSCM), are developed to measure the acoustic impedance matrix. Experiments are conducted for several acoustic two-port systems to verify the proposed techniques. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the three experimental procedures when applied to symmetrical and reciprocal systems. For asymmetrical systems, the TLMM and RCM are preferred over the RSCM for measuring the impedance matrix. On top of that, the non-uniform array in conjunction with TLMM is extended to a general electroacoustic two-port system, which can be regarded as a unique contribution of the present work.

  11. Gage cookbook: Tools and techniques to measure stresses and motions on explosive experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Technology Dept.


    Tools and techniques developed to measure stresses and motions on underground nuclear and high explosive tests in the tuff geologies at the Nevada Test Site are described in this document. The thrust of the measurements was to understand containment phenomenology. The authors concentrate on the fluid-coupled ytterbium gage; it was fielded to measure dynamic stress in the 0.2 to 20 kilobar range and the subsequent, low amplitude residual stress. Also described are accelerometer packages; their traces were integrated to obtain particle motion. Various cable survival techniques were investigated with field measurements for they wished to extend the measurements to late-time. Field measurements were also made to address the gage inclusion problem. Work to date suggests that the problem is a minimum when the stress level is above the yield strength of the host rock and grout. Below the yield level stress amplitudes in the grouted hole can range from 60 to 200% of the stress in the host rock.

  12. Continuous urethral pressure measurements; measurement techniques; pressure variations; clinical interpretations; and clinical relevance. A Systematic Literature Analysis. (United States)

    Kummeling, Maxime T M; Rosier, Peter F W M; Elzevier, Henk W; Groenendijk, Pieter M


    The clinical relevance of urethral pressure variations (UPV) in the pathophysiology of over active bladder syndrome (OAB) has remained controversial to date. Some studies report an association with OAB and/or detrusor over activity (DO). Recently the International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society recommended new clinical research to be performed on this subject. We provide a systematic review of the literature to specify this recommendation. Literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Central, Cinahl, Academic Science Premier, Science Direct, and Wiley Online using a sensitive search string combination. All authors independently reviewed and scored full text papers and consensus about methodological quality was obtained according to Oxford Level of Evidence (LoE). Four hundred eighty seven abstracts were screened, 25 papers met all predefined inclusion selection criteria. Incidence figures of UPV varied between 2% and 95%. Studies are of poor methodological quality with Oxford LoE scores of 3B and 4. Measurement methods and techniques show a large variety. The above mentioned association of DO/OAB with UPV is however frequently reported. There exists a phenomenon of UPV, apart from DO, which may be a separate entity within OAB syndrome. Large variation in measurement techniques and patient populations hinders fundamental research as well as clinical progress. Clinical relevance of UPV and consequences for treatment therefore are yet to be established. Future prospective research with well-defined patient population and standardised urodynamic measurement techniques is needed. Results of standardized and objective evaluations should be compared to clinical signs and symptoms by validated questionnaires. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:51-56, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed-phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low-ice-water-content environments typically found in midlatitude cirrus and the environments with much higher ice water content often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i a Nevzorov hot-wire probe, (ii the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI (only for cirrus measurements. We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g m−3 was the method of total water content minus water vapour. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrisation of the Nevzorov baseline drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m−3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of 2 for the CVI (qi > 0.008 g m−3 and the method of total water content minus water vapour (qi > 0.02 g m−3. Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a priori assumptions on the mass–dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and

  14. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.


    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Measurement of volume of macaw palm fruit using traditional and the digital Moiré techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson G. Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The macaw palm crop has been studied because of its bioenergy potential due to the high oil yield, which is linked to fruit maturity stage. Digital images have been adopted as a contactless way to obtain information about fruit surface area and volume, acting as a sensor for quality control and the classification of fruits, based on physical aspects during the maturation stage. The aim of this study was to estimate the volume of macaw palm fruits from digital models obtained by the Moiré technique using only one camera, associated with digital image-processing tools to unwarp the images, allowing the comparison with conventional methods. The volumes obtained by the Moiré technique were compared with those obtained by water displacement method (WDM and millet-seed displacement method (SDM. The results show that the volumes measured by the Moiré technique exhibited a mean error of 13.54% compared with the SDM, and 11.09% when compared to WDM, which indicates that the digital Moiré technique is a robust, low-cost tool to measure the volume of macaw palm fruits.

  16. Capabilities of optical SIV technique in measurements of flow velocity vector field dynamics (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Dushin, N. S.; Saushin, I. I.


    The main difference between Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV) technique and the conventional PIV is that higher concentration of tracer particles typical of smoke visualization techniques is used in SIV. Not separate particles but smoke structures with continuous pixel intensity are visible in the recorded images. Owing to better smoke reflectivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution is obtained in the case when relatively simple equipment (camera and laser) is used. It is simple enough to perform SIV measurements of velocity vector field dynamics at the frequency exceeding 15000 Hz, which offers new opportunities in unsteady flow examination. The paper describes fundamentals of SIV technique and gives some new results obtained using this method for the measurements that require high spatial and temporal resolution. The latter include frequency spectra of turbulent velocity fluctuations, turbulence dissipation profiles in the boundary layer and higher-order moments of velocity fluctuations. It has been shown that SIV technique considerably extends the potential of experimental studies of turbulence and flow structure in high-speed processes.

  17. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumeng Li

    Full Text Available This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface, and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the

  18. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity (United States)

    Smith, J. L.


    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  19. Autofluorescence of ocular tissues: an update of measurement techniques for research and diagnosis (United States)

    Docchio, Franco; Rovati, Luigi


    Ophthalmic diagnosis through measurements of ocular tissues autofluorescence has recently reached its first clinical maturity. This technique is intrinsically non-invasive and, thanks to the availability of a new family of measuring instruments, is becoming reliable even if performed in a few seconds and is of no burden to the patient. Diagnostic methods based on ocular tissue autofluorescence could become important tools in the prevention of a number of diseases which may lead to blindness, and therefore have a great social impact. The present paper is intended to give, from one side, an update of the rationale concerning fluorophores in the eye and their absorption and fluorescence properties; from the other, it offers an overview of ophthalmic fluorescence techniques aimed at the detection, quantitation and discrimination of ocular autofluorescing substances, highlighting their usefulness as a diagnostic aid in the early detection and prevention of ocular diseases.

  20. Techniques for detection and measurement of the information related to spontaneous combustion zone in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Y.; Xu, B. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)


    To effectively control coal spontaneous combustion (sponcom) in coal mines, a key component is to accurately locate the zone of the sponcom with a radon-based technique, and the equally important component is the detection and measurement of the information related to the zones which can be used to develop the optimum design of controlling the sponcom. This paper presents the study and application of the integrated techniques of both locating the sponcom zone and detecting and measuring the information related to the zone. This approach is innovative and provides the mine operators with a better way to management sponcom. It has been successfully applied in detecting a fire in Xinglong Mine in Shandong province and another in No. 38 mine in Jincheng city, China. The system consists of an intelligent borehole temperature meter combined with a moving tube gas sampling and monitor which collect data used to control fire fighting. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Protein Structure: Alignment using Mean Field Techniques and Measurement of Isolated Individual Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbecler, Richard


    Techniques originally developed in High Energy Physics have been applied to selected problems in genetics with promising results. First, this talk will briefly review the importance of protein structure from a physics point of view. Then Mean Field Techniques used in detector track fitting algorithms will be applied to the comparison of protein structures. The practical importance of such comparisons will be discussed. Second, the possibility of measuring the charge structure of ''single'' isolated molecules using the proposed SLAC Free Electron Laser will be outlined. This involves the development of an algorithm that determines the orientation of each of the many targeted identical molecules, constructs the 3-D transform from the many 2-D patterns, and finally performs an inverse fourier transform when only the magnitude of the transform is known, since the phase is not measurable.

  2. [Methodology and Implementation of Forced Oscillation Technique for Respiratory Mechanics Measurement]. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Ni, Lu; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Deyu; Wang, Weidong


    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method for respiratory mechanics measurement. For the FOT, external signals (e.g. forced oscillations around 4-40 Hz) are used to drive the respiratory system, and the mechanical characteristic of the respiratory system can be determined with the linear system identification theory. Thus, respiratory mechanical properties and components at different frequency and location of the airway can be explored by specifically developed forcing waveforms. In this paper, the theory, methodology and clinical application of the FOT is reviewed, including measure ment theory, driving signals, models of respiratory system, algorithm for impedance identification, and requirement on apparatus. Finally, the future development of this technique is also discussed.

  3. An accurate automated technique for quasi-optics measurement of the microwave diagnostics for fusion plasma (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Liu, Ahdi; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Xi; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan


    A new integrated technique for fast and accurate measurement of the quasi-optics, especially for the microwave/millimeter wave diagnostic systems of fusion plasma, has been developed. Using the LabVIEW-based comprehensive scanning system, we can realize not only automatic but also fast and accurate measurement, which will help to eliminate the effects of temperature drift and standing wave/multi-reflection. With the Matlab-based asymmetric two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method, all the desired parameters of the microwave beam can be obtained. This technique can be used in the design and testing of microwave diagnostic systems such as reflectometers and the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic systems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

  4. Variable Speed Drive Characterization: Review of Measurement Techniques and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Fiorucci


    Full Text Available The significant advances in power electronics have permitted the implementation of sophisticated methods for control of electric motors. Each innovative electrical apparatus for industrial and automotive application must be correctly and exhaustively tested, both during the developing process and finally for the compliance test. The development of a new electrical system should be associated with a parallel design of an ad hoc measurement system, whose performance should be defined according to the features of the system under test. In recent years, the increasing interest for sensorless electric motor drives involved the development and implementation of a wide set of control techniques. This paper reviews the state and the trends of measurement techniques and instruments applied for the experimental characterization of variable speed drives.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.


    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...... the first week of May when the trees were leafing and the soil moisture content was at its highest. If chamber techniques are used to estimate ecosystem level N2O emissions from forest soils, placement of the chambers should be considered carefully to cover the spatial variability in the soil N2O emissions....... Mean N2O fluxes over the five week measurement period were 5.6 +/- 1.1, 10 +/- 1 and 16 +/- 11 mu g N m(-2) h(-1) from EC, automatic chamber and manual chambers, respectively. High temporal variability characterized the EC fluxes in the trunk-space. To reduce this variability, resulting mostly from...

  6. Ferromagnetic Resonance Measurement Using a Novel Short Circuited Coaxial Probe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kaur


    Full Text Available A versatile technique to characterize the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR of ferrite samples using a short circuited coaxial probe is presented. The technique has sensitivity comparable to that of well-established methods besides its non-contact nature, broadband and local. Detailed theoretical approach and simulation studies (Proof of Concept using HFSS are presented. Microwave measurements on different single crystal and polycrystalline samples (Yttrium Iron Garnet (Y3Fe5O12 YIG and Nickel Ferrite (NiFe2O4 NFO have been performed. We measured the FMR response of these samples as a function of frequency and the data showed the expected variation for both in plane and out of plane magnetic fields.

  7. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie


    Velocity measurement technology can be traced back to the pitot tube velocity measurement method in the 18th century and today's velocity measurement technology use the acoustic and radar technology, with the Doppler principle developed technology advances, in order to develop the measurement method is more suitable for the measurement of velocity, the purpose is to get a more accurate measurement data and with the surface velocity theory, the maximum velocity theory and the indicator theory to obtain the mean velocity. As the main research direction of this article is to review the literature of the velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods, and to explore the applicability of the measurement method of the velocity measurement instruments, and then to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different mean velocity profiles analysis method. Adequate review of the references of this study will be able to provide a reference for follow-up study of the velocity measurement. Review velocity measurement literature that different velocity measurement is required to follow the different flow conditions measured be upgraded its accuracy, because each flow rate measurement method has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional velocity instrument can be used at low flow and RiverRAD microwave radar or imaging technology measurement method may be applied in high flow. In the tidal river can use the ADCP to quickly measure river vertical velocity distribution. In addition, urban rivers may be used the CW radar to set up on the bridge, and wide rivers can be used RiverRAD microwave radar to measure the velocities. Review the relevant literature also found that using Ultrasonic Doppler Current Profiler with the Chiu's theory to the velocity of observing automation work can save manpower and resources to improve measurement accuracy, reduce the risk of measurement, but the great variability of river characteristics in Taiwan and a lot of drifting floating

  8. SU-F-I-45: An Automated Technique to Measure Image Contrast in Clinical CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J; Abadi, E; Meng, B; Samei, E [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)


    Purpose: To develop and validate an automated technique for measuring image contrast in chest computed tomography (CT) exams. Methods: An automated computer algorithm was developed to measure the distribution of Hounsfield units (HUs) inside four major organs: the lungs, liver, aorta, and bones. These organs were first segmented or identified using computer vision and image processing techniques. Regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically placed inside the lungs, liver, and aorta and histograms of the HUs inside the ROIs were constructed. The mean and standard deviation of each histogram were computed for each CT dataset. Comparison of the mean and standard deviation of the HUs in the different organs provides different contrast values. The ROI for the bones is simply the segmentation mask of the bones. Since the histogram for bones does not follow a Gaussian distribution, the 25th and 75th percentile were computed instead of the mean. The sensitivity and accuracy of the algorithm was investigated by comparing the automated measurements with manual measurements. Fifteen contrast enhanced and fifteen non-contrast enhanced chest CT clinical datasets were examined in the validation procedure. Results: The algorithm successfully measured the histograms of the four organs in both contrast and non-contrast enhanced chest CT exams. The automated measurements were in agreement with manual measurements. The algorithm has sufficient sensitivity as indicated by the near unity slope of the automated versus manual measurement plots. Furthermore, the algorithm has sufficient accuracy as indicated by the high coefficient of determination, R2, values ranging from 0.879 to 0.998. Conclusion: Patient-specific image contrast can be measured from clinical datasets. The algorithm can be run on both contrast enhanced and non-enhanced clinical datasets. The method can be applied to automatically assess the contrast characteristics of clinical chest CT images and quantify dependencies

  9. Root resistance to cavitation is accurately measured using a centrifuge technique. (United States)

    Pratt, R B; MacKinnon, E D; Venturas, M D; Crous, C J; Jacobsen, A L


    Plants transport water under negative pressure and this makes their xylem vulnerable to cavitation. Among plant organs, root xylem is often highly vulnerable to cavitation due to water stress. The use of centrifuge methods to study organs, such as roots, that have long vessels are hypothesized to produce erroneous estimates of cavitation resistance due to the presence of open vessels through measured samples. The assumption that roots have long vessels may be premature since data for root vessel length are sparse; moreover, recent studies have not supported the existence of a long-vessel artifact for stems when a standard centrifuge technique was used. We examined resistance to cavitation estimated using a standard centrifuge technique and compared these values with native embolism measurements for roots of seven woody species grown in a common garden. For one species we also measured vulnerability using single-vessel air injection. We found excellent agreement between root native embolism and the levels of embolism measured using a centrifuge technique, and with air-seeding estimates from single-vessel injection. Estimates of cavitation resistance measured from centrifuge curves were biologically meaningful and were correlated with field minimum water potentials, vessel diameter (VD), maximum xylem-specific conductivity (Ksmax) and vessel length. Roots did not have unusually long vessels compared with stems; moreover, root vessel length was not correlated to VD or to the vessel length of stems. These results suggest that root cavitation resistance can be accurately and efficiently measured using a standard centrifuge method and that roots are highly vulnerable to cavitation. The role of root cavitation resistance in determining drought tolerance of woody species deserves further study, particularly in the context of climate change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Experimental Aspects of In-Plane Displacement Measurement Using a Moire Fringe Technique. (United States)


    AD-A174 048 EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF IN-PLANE DISPLACEMENT 1 / 1’ MEASUREMENT USING A NOIRE F.. (U) AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH I LABS MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA...solution poured rapidly over their central area. However, this technique resulted in streaking of the film coating. This problem was minimized by varying...defined when flash lighting was employed. The magnification of the image and rotational misalignment of the film mount, were adjusted with the aid of a

  11. Stimulus and correlation matching measurement technique in computer based characterization testing


    Dorman, A M


    Constructive theory of characterization test is considered. The theory is applicable to a nano devices characterization: current-voltage, Auger current dependence. Generally small response of device under test on an applied stimulus is masked by an unknown deterministic background and a random noise. Characterization test in this signal corruption scenario should be based on correlation measurement technique of device response on applied optimal stimulus with optimal reference signal. Co-synt...

  12. Evaluation of superficial dosimetry between treatment planning system and measurement for several breast cancer treatment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi; Das, Indra J.; Bartlett, Gregory K.; Zhang Hualin; Thompson, Elizabeth; Zook, Jennifer E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)


    Purpose: Dosimetric accuracy in radiation treatment of breast cancer is critical for the evaluation of cosmetic outcomes and survival. It is often considered that treatment planning systems (TPS) may not be able to provide accurate dosimetry in the buildup region. This was investigated in various treatment techniques such as tangential wedges, field-in-field (FF), electronic compensator (eComp), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Under Institutional Review Board (IRB) exemption, radiotherapy treatment plans of 111 cases were retrospectively analyzed. The distance between skin surface and 95% isodose line was measured. For measurements, Gafchromic EBT2 films were used on a humanoid unsliced phantom. Multiple layers of variable thickness of superflab bolus were placed on the breast phantom and CT scanned for planning. Treatment plans were generated using four techniques with two different grid sizes (1 Multiplication-Sign 1 and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 2.5 mm{sup 2}) to provide optimum dose distribution. Films were placed at different depths and exposed with the selected techniques. A calibration curve for dose versus pixel values was also generated on the same day as the phantom measurement was conducted. The DICOM RT image, dose, and plan data were imported to the in-house software. On axial plane of CT slices, curves were drawn at the position where EBT2 films were placed, and the dose profiles on the lines were acquired. The calculated and measured dose profiles were separated by check points which were marked on the films before irradiation. The segments of calculated profiles were stretched to match their resolutions to that of film dosimetry. Results: On review of treatment plans, the distance between skin and 95% prescribed dose was up to 8 mm for plans of 27 patients. The film measurement revealed that the medial region of phantom surface received a mere 45%-50% of prescribed dose. For wedges, FF, and eComp techniques, region around the

  13. Elastic modulus measurements of LDEF glasses and glass-ceramics using a speckle technique (United States)

    Wiedlocher, D. E.; Kinser, D. L.


    Elastic moduli of five glass types and the glass-ceramic Zerodur, exposed to a near-earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), were compared to that of unexposed samples. A double exposure speckle photography technique utilizing 633 nm laser light was used in the production of the speckle pattern. Subsequent illumination of a double exposed negative using the same wavelength radiation produces Young's fringes from which the in-plane displacements are measured. Stresses imposed by compressive loading produced measurable strains in the glasses and glass-ceramic.

  14. Differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for non-invasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip. (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung


    A differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique is proposed for obtaining non-invasive (NI) measurements of the glucose concentration on the human fingertip. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of tissue phantom samples containing de-ionized water (DI), glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0~500 mg/dL and 2% lipofundin. The results show that the extracted optical rotation angle increases linearly with an increasing glucose concentration, while the depolarization index decreases. The practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index properties of the human fingertips of healthy volunteers.

  15. A technique for measuring velocity and attenuation of ultrasound in liquid foams. (United States)

    Pierre, J; Elias, F; Leroy, V


    We describe an experimental setup specifically designed for measuring the ultrasonic transmission through liquid foams, over a broad range of frequencies (60-600kHz). The question of determining the ultrasonic properties of the foam (density, phase velocity and attenuation) from the transmission measurements is addressed. An inversion method is proposed, tested on synthetic data, and applied to a liquid foam at different times during the coarsening. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation are found to be very sensitive to the foam bubble sizes, suggesting that a spectroscopy technique could be developed for liquid foams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unstable multipulsing can be invisible to some ultrashort pulse measurement techniques (United States)

    Rhodes, Michelle; Guang, Zhe; Trebino, Rick


    Multiple pulsing is a feature of most mode-locked ultrafast laser systems at very high pump powers, and slight variations in the pump power around certain regimes can cause sinusoidally-varying or even chaotic separations among pulses. The impact of this type of unstable multipulsing on modern pulse measurement methods has not been studied. We have performed calculations and simulations and find that allowing only the relative phase of a satellite pulse to vary causes the satellite to wash out of the SPIDER measurement completely. Although techniques like FROG and autocorrelation cannot accurately determine the precise properties of satellite pulses, they do succeed in seeing them.

  17. A New Technique for Deep in situ Measurements of the Soil Water Retention Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Gragnano, Carmine Gerardo; Govoni, Laura


    In situ measurements of soil suction and water content in deep soil layers still represent an experimental challenge. Mostly developed within agriculture related disciplines, field techniques for the identification of soil retention behaviour have been so far employed in the geotechnical context...... instruments to characterise deep soil layers. Multi-depth installations have been successfully carried out using two different sensors to measure the soil suction and water content up to 7m from the soil surface. Preliminary laboratory investigations were also shown to provide a reasonable benchmark...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A portable and low cost measuring system for amperometric chemical sensors using the three-electrodetechnique was developed. This technique allows chemical sensors to work with currents higher than tenmicroamperes. The system was based on a potentiostat operation, completed with an I-V converter andsignal conditioning circuits. The instrument was evaluated comparing calibration curves of hydrogen peroxide,proving several amperometric chemical sensors and biosensors, to those obtained from a very expensivecommercial equipment. Good linearity and sensibility as well as low noise measurements were obtained.Moreover, because the reduced size and low cost, the instrument allows to be used directly in fieldapplications.

  19. A Noncontact Measurement Technique for the Density and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid and Liquid Materials (United States)

    Chung, Sang K.; Thiessen, David B.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    A noncontact measurement technique for the density and the thermal expansion refractory materials in their molten as well as solid phases is presented. This technique is based on the video image processing of a levitated sample. Experiments were performed using the high-temperature electrostatic levitator (HTESL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which 2-3 mm diameter samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in a vacuum. Due to the axisymmetric nature of the molten samples when levitated in the HTESL, a rather simple digital image analysis can be employed to accurately measure the volumetric change as a function of temperature. Density and the thermal expansion coefficient measurements were made on a pure nickel sample to test the accuracy of the technique in the temperature range of 1045-1565 C. The result for the liquid phase density can be expressed by p = 8.848 + (6.730 x 10(exp -4)) x T (degC) g/cu cm within 0.8% accuracy, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficient can be expressed by Beta=(9.419 x 10(exp -5)) - (7.165 x 10(exp -9) x T (degC)/K within 0.2% accuracy.

  20. High-speed digital color fringe projection technique for three-dimensional facial measurements (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Li-Jen; Wang, Chung-Yi


    Digital fringe projection techniques have been widely studied in industrial applications because of the advantages of high accuracy, fast acquisition and non-contact operation. In this study, a single-shot high-speed digital color fringe projection technique is proposed to measure three-dimensional (3-D) facial features. The light source used in the measurement system is structured light with color fringe patterns. A projector with digital light processing is used as light source to project color structured light onto face. The distorted fringe pattern image is captured by the 3-CCD color camera and encoded into red, green and blue channels. The phase-shifting algorithm and quality guided path unwrapping algorithm are used to calculate absolute phase map. The detecting angle of the color camera is adjusted by using a motorized stage. Finally, a complete 3-D facial feature is obtained by our technique. We have successfully achieved simultaneous 3-D phase acquisition, reconstruction and exhibition at a speed of 0.5 s. The experimental results may provide a novel, high accuracy and real-time 3-D shape measurement for facial recognition system.

  1. A method to enhance the measurement accuracy of Raman shift based on high precision calibration technique (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli


    Raman spectrometers are usually calibrated periodically to ensure their measurement accuracy of Raman shift. A combination of a piece of monocrystalline silicon chip and a low pressure discharge lamp is proposed as a candidate for the reference standard of Raman shift. A high precision calibration technique is developed to accurately determine the standard value of the silicon's Raman shift around 520cm-1. The technique is described and illustrated by measuring a piece of silicon chip against three atomic spectral lines of a neon lamp. A commercial Raman spectrometer is employed and its error characteristics of Raman shift are investigated. Error sources are evaluated based on theoretical analysis and experiments, including the sample factor, the instrumental factor, the laser factor and random factors. Experimental results show that the expanded uncertainty of the silicon's Raman shift around 520cm-1 can acheive 0.3 cm-1 (k=2), which is more accurate than most of currently used reference materials. The results are validated by comparison measurement between three Raman spectrometers. It is proved that the technique can remarkably enhance the accuracy of Raman shift, making it possible to use the silicon and the lamp to calibrate Raman spectrometers.

  2. Dynamic measurement of the height and volume of migrating cells by a novel fluorescence microscopy technique. (United States)

    Bottier, Céline; Gabella, Chiara; Vianay, Benoît; Buscemi, Lara; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B


    We propose a new technique to measure the volume of adherent migrating cells. The method is based on a negative staining where a fluorescent, non-cell-permeant dye is added to the extracellular medium. The specimen is observed with a conventional fluorescence microscope in a chamber of uniform height. Given that the fluorescence signal depends on the thickness of the emitting layer, the objects excluding the fluorescent dye (i.e., cells) appear dark, and the decrease of the fluorescent signal with respect to the background is expected to give information about the height and the volume of the object. Using a glass microfabricated pattern with steps of defined heights, we show that the drop in fluorescence intensity is indeed proportional to the height of the step and obtain calibration curves relating fluorescence intensity to height. The technique, termed the fluorescence displacement method, is further validated by comparing our measurements with the ones obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We apply our method to measure the real-time volume dynamics of migrating fish epidermal keratocytes subjected to osmotic stress. The fluorescence displacement technique allows fast and precise monitoring of cell height and volume, thus providing a valuable tool for characterizing the three-dimensional behaviour of migrating cells.

  3. Metabolic rate control during extravehicular activity simulations and measurement techniques during actual EVAS (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.


    A description of the methods used to control and measure metabolic rate during ground simulations is given. Work levels attained at the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory are presented. The techniques and data acquired during ground simulations are described and compared with inflight procedures. Data from both the Skylab and Apollo Program were utilized and emphasis is given to the methodology, both in simulation and during flight. The basic techniques of work rate assessment are described. They include oxygen consumption, which was useful for averages over long time periods, heart rate correlations based on laboratory calibrations, and liquid cooling garment temperature changes. The relative accuracy of these methods as well as the methods of real-time monitoring at the Mission Control Center are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the metabolic measurement techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the problem of utilizing oxygen decrement for short time periods and heart rate at low work levels. A summary is given of the effectiveness of work rate control and measurements; and current plans for future EVA monitoring are discussed.

  4. Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: Experimental technique and error analysis (United States)

    Tuck, David M.; Bierck, Barnes R.; Jaffé, Peter R.


    Multiphase flow in porous media is an important research topic. In situ, nondestructive experimental methods for studying multiphase flow are important for improving our understanding and the theory. Rapid changes in fluid saturation, characteristic of immiscible displacement, are difficult to measure accurately using gamma rays due to practical restrictions on source strength. Our objective is to describe a synchrotron radiation technique for rapid, nondestructive saturation measurements of multiple fluids in porous media, and to present a precision and accuracy analysis of the technique. Synchrotron radiation provides a high intensity, inherently collimated photon beam of tunable energy which can yield accurate measurements of fluid saturation in just one second. Measurements were obtained with precision of ±0.01 or better for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a 2.5 cm thick glass-bead porous medium using a counting time of 1 s. The normal distribution was shown to provide acceptable confidence limits for PCE saturation changes. Sources of error include heat load on the monochromator, periodic movement of the source beam, and errors in stepping-motor positioning system. Hypodermic needles pushed into the medium to inject PCE changed porosity in a region approximately ±1 mm of the injection point. Improved mass balance between the known and measured PCE injection volumes was obtained when appropriate corrections were applied to calibration values near the injection point.

  5. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy, NY (United States)


    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  6. Photothermal self-phase-modulation technique for absorption measurements on high-reflective coatings. (United States)

    Steinlechner, Jessica; Jensen, Lars; Krüger, Christoph; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman


    We propose and demonstrate a new measurement technique for the optical absorption of high-reflection coatings. Our technique is based on photothermal self-phase modulation and exploits the deformation of cavity Airy peaks that occurs due to coating absorption of intracavity light. The mirror whose coating is under investigation needs to be the input mirror of a high-finesse cavity. Our example measurements were performed on a high-reflection SiO2-Ta2O5 coating in a three-mirror ring-cavity setup at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The optical absorption of the coating was determined to be α=(23.9±2.0)·10(-6) per coating. Our result is in excellent agreement with an independently performed laser calorimetry measurement that gave a value of α=(24.4±3.2)·10(-6) per coating. Since the self-phase modulation in our coating-absorption measurement affects mainly the propagation through the cavity input mirror, our measurement result is practically uninfluenced by the optical absorption of the other cavity mirrors.

  7. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald


    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  8. A Technique for Measuring Microparticles in Polar Ice Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Sakurai


    Full Text Available We describe in detail our method of measuring the chemical forms of microparticles in polar ice samples through micro-Raman spectroscopy. The method is intended for solid ice samples, an important point because melting the ice can result in dissociation, contamination, and chemical reactions prior to or during a measurement. We demonstrate the technique of measuring the chemical forms of these microparticles and show that the reference spectra of those salts expected to be common in polar ice are unambiguously detected. From our measurements, Raman intensity of sulfate salts is relatively higher than insoluble dust due to the specific Raman scattering cross-section of chemical forms of microparticles in ice.

  9. Novel interrogation technique for Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors based on single wavelength time delay measurements (United States)

    Pisco, M.; Ricciardi, A.; Campopiano, S.; Caucheteur, C.; Mégret, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.


    A novel interrogation scheme for Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings (TFBGs) sensors is here proposed based on single wavelength time delay measurements. To this aim, the group delay of a weakly tilted TFBG has been characterized by direct time domain measurement. The experimental characterization shows the capability of TFBGs to enable superluminal and subluminal propagation of an optical pulse in optical fibers. The sharp group delay features of the TFBGs are exploited for refractometric applications to detect the SRI variations by single wavelength time delay measurements. The obtained preliminary results demonstrate the possibility to detect SRI changes by means of single wavelength time delay measurements with a sensitivity enhanced in the range 1.33-1.40 with respect to previously reported interrogation techniques.

  10. New Technique for Luminosity Measurement Using 3D Pixel Modules in the ATLAS IBL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Peilian; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Insertable b-Layer ( IBL ) is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system. It consists of planar pixel modules in the central region and 3D modules at two extremities. We use the cluster length distributions in 3D sensor modules of the IBL to determine the number of primary charged particles per event and suppress backgrounds. This Pixel Cluster Counting ( PCC ) algorithm provides a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. An accurate luminosity measurement is a key component for precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider and one of the largest uncertainties on the luminosity determination in ATLAS arises from the long-term stability of the measurement technique. The comparison of the PCC algorithm with other existing algorithms provides key insights in assessing and reducing such uncertainty.

  11. Cost-effective ERT technique for oil-in-water measurement for offshore hydrocyclone installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durdevic, Petar; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian


    resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms......The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... for creating 2-D images and the feasibility of estimating OiW concentrations are studied and evaluated. From both steady state and continuous laminate flow perspectives, with respect to the objective which is to use this measurement for feedback control purposes....

  12. Study of a Modified AC Bridge Technique for Loss Angle Measurement of a Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA


    Full Text Available A Wheatstone’s bridge network like Schering Bridge, DeSauty Bridge etc measures the loss angle or tangent of loss angle (tanδ of a dielectric material. In high voltage application this loss angle is generally measured by high voltage Schering Bridge. But continuous measurement of tan δ is not possible by these techniques. In the present paper a modified operational amplifiers based Schering Bridge network has been proposed for continuous measurement of tanδ in the form of a bridge network output voltage. Mathematical analysis of the proposed bridge network has been discussed in the paper and experimental work has been performed assuming the lossy dielectric material as a series combination of loss less capacitor and a resistor. Experimental results are reported in the paper. From the mathematical analysis and experimental results it is found that the output of the proposed bridge network is almost linearly related with tanδ.

  13. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  14. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry (United States)

    Gradl, Paul


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  15. Comparison of 2 Radiographic Techniques for Measurement of Tibiofemoral Joint Space Width. (United States)

    Mehta, Nabil; Duryea, Jeffrey; Badger, Gary J; Akelman, Matthew R; Jones, Morgan H; Spindler, Kurt P; Fleming, Braden C


    No consensus is available regarding the best method for measuring tibiofemoral joint space width (JSW) on radiographs to quantify joint changes after injury. Studies that track articular cartilage thickness after injury frequently use patients' uninjured contralateral knees as controls, although the literature supporting this comparison is limited. (1) To compare JSW measurements using 2 established measurement techniques in healthy control participants and (2) to determine whether the mean JSW of the uninjured contralateral knee in a cohort with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is different from that obtained from a true control population. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Medial and lateral JSWs were measured on standardized, bilateral, semiflexed metatarsophalangeal positioning, posteroanterior radiographs of 60 healthy individuals (26 females; mean ± SD age, 25 ± 6.2 years; no history of knee injury) via 2 published techniques: a computerized surface-delineation method (surface-fit method) and a manual digitization method (midpoint method). Bland-Altman method was used to examine the agreement between JSW measurements obtained with the 2 methods and to examine the agreement between measurements obtained on left and right knees within a participant for each measurement method. Within- and between-participant variance components and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed for JSW measurements corresponding to each method. Two-sample t tests were used to compare the surface-fit method measurements of mean JSW of the true control group (n = 60) with the previously published mean JSW measurements from the Multicenter Orthopaedics Outcomes Network (MOON) nested cohort of 262 contralateral uninjured knees 2 to 3 years after ACL reconstruction. For JSW in the medial compartment, the surface-fit method had lower within-participant interknee variability (σ2within, 0.064; 95% CI, 0.04-0.09) compared with the midpoint

  16. A New Technique for the Retrieval of Near Surface Water Vapor Using DIAL Measurements (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; Ferrare, Richard; Winker, David; Hair, Johnathan; Nehrir, Amin; Notari, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris


    Water vapor is one of the most important atmospheric trace gas species and influences radiation, climate, cloud formation, surface evaporation, precipitation, storm development, transport, dynamics, and chemistry. For improvements in NWP (numerical weather prediction) and climate studies, global water vapor measurements with higher accuracy and vertical resolution are needed than are currently available. Current satellite sensors are challenged to characterize the content and distribution of water vapor in the Boundary Layer (BL) and particularly near the first few hundred meters above the surface within the BL. These measurements are critically needed to infer surface evaporation rates in cloud formation and climate studies. The NASA Langley Research Center Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which uses the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, has demonstrated the capability to provide high quality water vapor measurements in the BL and across the troposphere. A new retrieval technique is investigated to extend these DIAL water vapor measurements to the surface. This method uses signals from both atmospheric backscattering and the strong surface returns (even over low reflectivity oceanic surfaces) using multiple gain channels to cover the large signal dynamic range. Measurements can be made between broken clouds and in presence of optically thin cirrus. Examples of LASE measurements from a variety of conditions encountered during NASA hurricane field experiments over the Atlantic Ocean are presented. Comparisons of retrieved water vapor profiles from LASE near the surface with dropsonde measurements show very good agreement. This presentation also includes a discussion of the feasibility of developing space-based DIAL capability for high resolution water vapor measurements in the BL and above and an assessment of the technology needed for developing this capability.

  17. Inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring situation awareness. (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd


    Query- or probe-based situation awareness (SA) measures sometimes rely on process experts to evaluate operator actions and system states when used in representative settings. This introduces variability of human judgement into the measurements that require inter-rater reliability assessment. However, the literature neglects inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based SA measures. We recruited process experts to provide reference keys to SA queries in trials of a full-scope nuclear power plant simulator experiment to investigate the inter-rater reliability of a query-based SA measure. The query-based SA measure demonstrated only 'moderate' inter-rater reliability even though the queries were seemingly direct. The level of agreement was significantly different across pairs of experts who had different levels of exposure to the experiment. The results caution that inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring SA cannot be assumed in representative settings. Knowledge about the experiment as well as the domain is critical to forming reliable expert judgements. When the responses of domain experts are treated as the correct answers to the queries or probes of SA measures used in representative or industrial settings, practitioners should take caution in assuming (or otherwise assess) inter-rater reliability of the situation awareness measures.

  18. Measurement error of global rainbow technique: The effect of recording parameters (United States)

    Wu, Xue-cheng; Li, Can; Jiang, Hao-yu; Cao, Jian-zheng; Chen, Ling-hong; Gréhan, Gerard; Cen, Ke-fa


    Rainbow refractometry can measure refractive index and size of spray droplets simultaneously. Recording parameters of global rainbow imaging system, such as recording distance and scattering angle recording range, play a vital role in in-situ high accuracy measurement. In the paper, a theoretical and experimental investigation on the effect of recording parameters on measurement error of global rainbow technique was carried out for the first time. The relation of the two recording parameters, and the monochromatic aberrations in global rainbow imaging system were analyzed. In the framework of Lorenz-Mie theory and modified Nussenzveig theory with correction coefficients, measurement error curves of refractive index and size of the droplets caused by aberrations for different recording parameters were simulated. The simulated results showed that measurement error increased with RMS radius of diffuse spot; a long recording distance and a large scattering angle recording range both caused a larger diffuse spot; recording parameters were indicated to have a great effect on refractive index measurement error, but have little effect on measurement of droplet size. A sharp rise in spot radius at large recording parameters was mainly due to spherical aberration and coma. To confirm some of the conclusions, an experiment was conducted. The experimental results showed that the refractive index measurement error was as high as 1 . 3 × 10-3 for a recording distance of 31 cm. In the case, recording parameters are suggested to be set to as small a value as possible under the same optical elements.

  19. Free-flight measurement technique in the free-piston high-enthalpy shock tunnel (United States)

    Tanno, H.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Fujita, K.; Laurence, S. J.


    A novel multi-component force-measurement technique has been developed and implemented at the impulse facility JAXA-HIEST, in which the test model is completely unrestrained during the test and thus experiences free-flight conditions for a period on the order of milliseconds. Advantages over conventional free-flight techniques include the complete absence of aerodynamic interference from a model support system and less variation in model position and attitude during the test itself. A miniature on-board data recorder, which was a key technology for this technique, was also developed in order to acquire and store the measured data. The technique was demonstrated in a HIEST wind-tunnel test campaign in which three-component aerodynamic force measurement was performed on a blunted cone of length 316 mm, total mass 19.75 kg, and moment of inertia 0.152 kgm2. During the test campaign, axial force, normal forces, and pitching moment coefficients were obtained at angles of attack from 14° to 32° under two conditions: H0 = 4 MJ/kg, P0 = 14 MPa; and H0 = 16 MJ/kg, P0 = 16 MPa. For the first, low-enthalpy condition, the test flow was considered a perfect gas; measurements were thus directly compared with those obtained in a conventional blow-down wind tunnel (JAXA-HWT2) to evaluate the accuracy of the technique. The second test condition was a high-enthalpy condition in which 85% of the oxygen molecules were expected to be dissociated; high-temperature real-gas effects were therefore evaluated by comparison with results obtained in perfect-gas conditions. The precision of the present measurements was evaluated through an uncertainty analysis, which showed the aerodynamic coefficients in the HIEST low enthalpy test agreeing well with those of JAXA-HWT2. The pitching-moment coefficient, however, showed significant differences between low- and high-enthalpy tests. These differences are thought to result from high-temperature real-gas effects.

  20. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - How appropriate are our measuring techniques? (United States)

    Fiener, P.; Wilken, F.; Aldana-Jague, E.; Deumlich, D.; Gómez, J. A.; Guzmán, G.; Hardy, R. A.; Quinton, J. N.; Sommer, M.; Van Oost, K.; Wexler, R.


    Tillage erosion on arable land is a very important process leading to a net downslope movement of soil and soil constitutes. Tillage erosion rates are commonly in the same order of magnitude as water erosion rates and can be even higher, especially under highly mechanized agricultural soil management. Despite its prevalence and magnitude, tillage erosion is still understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion and use the different results to discuss and quantify uncertainties associated with tillage erosion measurements. The study was performed in northeastern Germany on a 10 m by 50 m plot with a mean slope of 8%. Tillage erosion was determined after two sequences of seven tillage operations. Two different micro-tracers (magnetic iron oxide mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive radio-frequency identification transponders (RFIDs), size: 4 × 22 mm) were used to directly determine soil fluxes. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were measured for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an unmanned aerial system for structure from motion topography analysis. Based on these elevation differences, corresponding soil fluxes were calculated. The mean translocation distance of all techniques was 0.57 m per tillage pass, with a relatively wide range of mean soil translocation distances ranging from 0.39 to 0.72 m per pass. A benchmark technique could not be identified as all used techniques have individual error sources, which could not be quantified. However, the translocation distances of the macro-tracers used were consistently smaller than the translocation distances of the micro-tracers (mean difference = - 26 ± 12%), which questions the widely used assumption of non-selective soil transport via tillage operations. This study points out that tillage erosion measurements, carried out under almost

  1. Towards Systematic Prediction of Urban Heat Islands: Grounding Measurements, Assessing Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Voelkel


    Full Text Available While there exists extensive assessment of urban heat, we observe myriad methods for describing thermal distribution, factors that mediate temperatures, and potential impacts on urban populations. In addition, the limited spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-derived heat measurements may limit the capacity of decision makers to take effective actions for reducing mortalities in vulnerable populations whose locations require highly-refined measurements. Needed are high resolution spatial and temporal information for urban heat. In this study, we ask three questions: (1 how do urban heat islands vary throughout the day? (2 what statistical methods best explain the presence of temperatures at sub-meter spatial scales; and (3 what landscape features help to explain variation in urban heat islands? Using vehicle-based temperature measurements at three periods of the day in the Pacific Northwest city of Portland, Oregon (USA, we incorporate LiDAR-derived datasets, and evaluate three statistical techniques for modeling and predicting variation in temperatures during a heat wave. Our results indicate that the random forest technique best predicts temperatures, and that the evening model best explains the variation in temperature. The results suggest that ground-based measurements provide high levels of accuracy for describing the distribution of urban heat, its temporal variation, and specific locations where targeted interventions with communities can reduce mortalities from heat events.

  2. MDCT interpretation of the ascending aorta with semiautomated measurement software: improved reproducibility compared with manual techniques. (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameer; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Johnson, Pamela T; Lai, Hong; Kawamoto, Satomi; Horton, Karen M; Fishman, Elliot K


    Treatment decisions for ascending aortic aneurysms are guided by measurements from CT angiograms. The aim was to evaluate the reproducibility of these measurements by using manual techniques and advanced imaging software. Two radiologists measured maximal ascending aorta diameter on CT angiograms in 30 subjects at 4 separate reading sessions-2 with manual techniques and 2 with semiautomated software analysis. Interobserver and intraobserver variabilities were assessed with Bland-Altman plots and Spearman correlation coefficients. Interobserver variability was smaller for the software-assisted method. Limits of agreement for the manual method were -4.2 mm and 9.2 mm compared with -4.0 mm and 4.6 mm for the software-assisted method; coefficients of repeatability were 6.8 mm and 4.3 mm. Intraobserver variability was inconsistent between readers. Strong correlation was found between observers who used both methods (R(2) = 0.8078-0.9881; P < .05 for all). The use of an advanced imaging software for measurement of ascending aortic aneurysm reduces interobserver variability. Copyright © 2014 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and Development of Emittance Measurement Device by Using the Pepper-pot Technique (United States)

    Pakluea, S.; Rimjaem, S.


    Transverse emittance of a charged particle beam is one of the most important properties that reveals the quality of the beam. It is related to charge density, transvers size and angular displacement of the beam in transverse phase space. There are several techniques to measure the transverse emittance value. One of practical methods is the pepper-pot technique, which can measure both horizontal and vertical emittance value in a single measurement. This research concentrates on development of a pepper-pot device to measure the transverse emittance of electron beam produced from an accelerator injector system, which consists of a thermionic cathode RF electron gun and an alpha magnet, at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University. Simulation of beam dynamics was conducted with programs PARMELA, ELEGANT and self-developed codes using C and MATLAB. The geometry, dimensions and location of the pepper-pot as well as its corresponding screen station position were included in the simulation. The result from this study will be used to design and develop a practical pepper-pot experimental station.

  4. PREFACE: The 6th International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi


    Research on multi-phase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing, and so on. Also, from the environmental viewpoint, multi-phase flows need to be investigated to overcome global warming. Multi-phase flows originally have non-linear features because they are multi-phased. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The non-linear interaction causes the multi-phase flows to be very difficult to understand phenomena. The International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multi-phase Flows (ISMTMF) is a unique symposium. The target of the symposium is to exchange the state-of-the-art knowledge on the measurement techniques for non-linear multi-phase flows. Measurement technique is the key technology to understanding non-linear phenomena. The ISMTMF began in 1995 in Nanjing, China. The symposium has continuously been held every two or three years. The ISMTMF-2008 was held in Okinawa, Japan as the 6th symposium of ISMTMF on 15-17 December 2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China and Japan have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for more than 1000 years. Please enjoy Okinawa and experience its history to enhance our international communication. The present symposium was attended by 124 participants, the program included 107 contributions with 5 plenary lectures, 2 keynote lectures, and 100 oral regular paper presentations. The topics include, besides the ordinary measurement techniques for multiphase flows, acoustic and electric sensors, bubbles and microbubbles, computed tomography, gas-liquid interface, laser-imaging and PIV, oil/coal/drop and spray, solid and powder, spectral and multi-physics. This volume includes the presented papers at ISMTMF-2008. In addition to this volume, ten selected papers will be published in a special issue of Measurement Science and Technology. We would like to express special thanks to all

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of degenerative cervical myelopathy: a review of structural changes and measurement techniques. (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Mikulis, David; Fehlings, Michael G


    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a spectrum of age-related structural changes of the cervical spine that result in static and dynamic injury to the spinal cord and collectively represent the most common cause of myelopathy in adults. Although cervical myelopathy is determined clinically, the diagnosis requires confirmation via imaging, and MRI is the preferred modality. Because of the heterogeneity of the condition and evolution of MRI technology, multiple techniques have been developed over the years in an attempt to quantify the degree of baseline severity and potential for neurological recovery. In this review, these techniques are categorized anatomically into those that focus on bone, ligaments, discs, and the spinal cord. In addition, measurements for the cervical spine canal size and sagittal alignment are also described briefly. These tools have resulted collectively in the identification of numerous useful parameters. However, the development of multiple techniques for assessing the same feature, such as cord compression, has also resulted in a number of challenges, including introducing ambiguity in terms of which methods to use and hindering effective comparisons of analysis in the literature. In addition, newer techniques that use advanced MRI are emerging and providing exciting new tools for assessing the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy.

  6. Measurement of volatilized mercury by a mini-system: a simple, reliable and reproducible technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cursino


    Full Text Available A simple and easy new technique for volatilized mercury determination in biological systems was developed. This technique is fast and sensitive and can overcome the problems that arise due to the extremely low readings during the measurements and reproducibility in biological material (bacteria. It measures directly the volatilized metallic mercury of bacteria by means of a chemical adsorbent in a coupled mini-system, as a modified technique for mercury in air analysis. It is potentially of interest to the bioremediation and bacterial mercury resistance communitiesUma metodologia simples foi desenvolvida para medir o mercúrio volatilizado em um sistema biológico. Esta técnica é rápida, sensível e pode superar as dificuldades freqüentemente observadas em material biológico tais como, leituras extremamente baixas e a sua reprodutibilidade. Este sistema mede diretamente por meio de um adsorvente químico acoplado a um mini-sistema o mercúrio metálico volatilizado pela bactéria. Para isto, a metodologia para a análise de mercúrio em amostras de ar foi modificada. Esta técnica é de interesse para a biorremediação e para o estudo de comunidades bacterianas resistentes ao mercúrio.

  7. Line edge roughness measurement technique for fingerprint pattern in block copolymer thin film (United States)

    Isawa, Miki; Sakai, Kei; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    Fingerprint edge roughness (FER) is proposed to characterize high frequency roughness of fingerprint pattern edges assembled by lamella forming block copolymer (BCP). The FER is a roughness index which does not include the roughness component of the fingerprint curvature. A technique to evaluate FER by using CD-SEM is also proposed. Centerline of the fingerprint patterns were extracted by utilizing binarization and slimming algorithm, and line width, line width roughness and line edge roughness along the centerline were measured. The FER thus measured showed a good agreement with those determined by utilizing conventional line edge roughness analyzing algorithm. The FERs of fingerprint patterns assembled with various BCP formulations were analyzed. As a result, the proposed technique successfully detected the line edge roughness difference between each BCP formulations with different compositions. The results indicate that the FER might be a useful index to evaluate the patterning performance of BCP as a material for DSA process. The proposed technique will provide a method for fast and easy development of BCP materials and processes

  8. Noninvasive Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Fluids Using Ultrasonic Interferometry Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W.; Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.N.; Lizon, D.C.


    A swept-frequency ultrasonic interferometry technique is used for noninvasively determining acoustic properties of fluids inside containers. Measurements over a frequency range 1-15 MHz on six liquid chemicals are presented. Measurements were made with the liquid inside standard rectangular optical glass cells and stainless steel cylindrical shells. A theoretical model based on one-dimensional planar acoustic wave propagation through multi-layered media is employed for the interpretation of the observed resonance (interference) spectrum. Two analytical methods, derived from the transmission model are used for determination of sound speed, sound attenuation coefficient, and density of liquids from the relative amplitude and half-power peak width of the observed resonance peaks. Effects of the container material and geometrical properties, path-length, wall thickness are also studied. This study shows that the interferometry technique and the experimental method developed are capable of accurate determination of sound speed, sound attenuation, and density in fluids completely noninvasively. It is a capable and versatile fluid characterization technique and has many potential NDE applications.

  9. Advances in Kinetic Isotope Effect Measurement Techniques for Enzyme Mechanism Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gu


    Full Text Available Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs are a very powerful tool for investigating enzyme mechanisms. Precision of measurement is the most important factor for KIE determinations, especially for small heavy atom KIEs. Internal competition is commonly used to measure small KIEs on V/K. Several methods, including such as liquid scintillation counting, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and polarimetry have been used to determine KIEs. In this paper, which does not aspire to be an exhaustive review, we briefly review different experimental approaches for the measurement of KIEs on enzymatic reaction with an emphasis on newer techniques employing mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry as well as some corresponding examples.

  10. Use of indentation technique to measure elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Ferber, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.

  11. Network module detection: Affinity search technique with the multi-node topological overlap measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many clustering procedures only allow the user to input a pairwise dissimilarity or distance measure between objects. We propose a clustering method that can input a multi-point dissimilarity measure d(i1, i2, ..., iP where the number of points P can be larger than 2. The work is motivated by gene network analysis where clusters correspond to modules of highly interconnected nodes. Here, we define modules as clusters of network nodes with high multi-node topological overlap. The topological overlap measure is a robust measure of interconnectedness which is based on shared network neighbors. In previous work, we have shown that the multi-node topological overlap measure yields biologically meaningful results when used as input of network neighborhood analysis. Findings We adapt network neighborhood analysis for the use of module detection. We propose the Module Affinity Search Technique (MAST, which is a generalized version of the Cluster Affinity Search Technique (CAST. MAST can accommodate a multi-node dissimilarity measure. Clusters grow around user-defined or automatically chosen seeds (e.g. hub nodes. We propose both local and global cluster growth stopping rules. We use several simulations and a gene co-expression network application to argue that the MAST approach leads to biologically meaningful results. We compare MAST with hierarchical clustering and partitioning around medoid clustering. Conclusion Our flexible module detection method is implemented in the MTOM software which can be downloaded from the following webpage:

  12. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics. (United States)

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam


    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Osteofascial compartment pressure measurement in closed limb injuries - Whitesides' technique revisited. (United States)

    Beniwal, Rajendra Kumar; Bansal, Abhishek


    Regular monitoring of tissue compartmental pressures and hence a timely intervention in patients with impending compartment syndrome has been shown to prevent morbidity and permanent disability. Intra-compartmental pressure in flexor compartment of forearm and various compartments of legs following recent trauma presenting within 6 h of injury was carried out in 30 subjects using Whitesides' technique and patients were classified into 3 categories for treatment purposes i.e., Category I: pressure 40 mmHg. Category I had 17 subjects, Category II had 6 subjects whereas 7 subjects fell into Category III. 6 patients out of the 30 studied needed fasciotomy, out of which 5 had fair or good result. Whitesides' technique, though not much widely favoured, is a safe, inexpensive, easily assembled and reliable method for measurement of intra-compartmental pressure as a guide for decompression.

  14. Characterization of silver nanoparticles-alginate complexes by combined size separation and size measurement techniques. (United States)

    António, Diana C; Cascio, Claudia; Gilliland, Douglas; Nogueira, António J A; Rossi, François; Calzolai, Luigi


    The detection and quantification of nanoparticles is a complex issue due to the need to combine "classical" identification and quantification of the constituent material, with the accurate determination of the size of submicrometer objects, usually well below the optical diffraction limit. In this work, the authors show that one of the most used analytical methods for silver nanoparticles, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, can be strongly influenced by the presence of dissolved organic matter (such as alginate) and lead to potentially misleading results. The authors explain the anomalies in the separation process and show a very general way forward based on the combination of size separation and size measurement techniques. This combination of techniques results in more robust AF4-based methods for the sizing of silver nanoparticles in environmental conditions and could be generally applied to the sizing of nanoparticles in complex matrices.

  15. The use of an ultrafiltration technique for measurement of orthophosphate in shallow wetlands. (United States)

    Zhang, A; Oldham, C


    The overestimation of orthophosphate by filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) measurement techniques has long been accepted. The aim of this study was to quantify that overestimation in 17 wetlands over time. Specifically an ultrafiltration technique was used prior to the application of the molybdenum blue phosphorus detection method to quantify orthophosphate concentrations. Samples were collected over a 6-month period and analysed for total filterable (PO4). FRP correlated well with PO4, however, FRP overestimated PO4 particularly with increasing colloidal phosphorus concentration. The ratio of DOC to TFP (C:P) influenced the fate of PO4 in the water, implying that DOC was forming complexes with phosphorus. The PO4 concentrations decreased with increasing C:P ratios in some of the wetlands over the 6-month monitoring period.

  16. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh


    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  17. A constant-force technique to measure corneal biomechanical changes after collagen cross-linking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Richoz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To introduce a constant-force technique for the analysis of corneal biomechanical changes induced after collagen cross-linking (CXL that is better adapted to the natural loading in the eye than previous methods. METHODS: For the biomechanical testing, a total of 50 freshly enucleated eyes were obtained and subdivided in groups of 5 eyes each. A Zwicki-Line Testing Machine was used to analyze the strain of 11 mm long and 5 mm wide porcine corneal strips, with and without CXL. Before material testing, the corneal tissues were pre-stressed with 0.02 N until force stabilization. Standard strip extensiometry was performed as control technique. For the constant-force technique, tissue elongation (Δ strain, % was analyzed for 180 seconds while different constant forces (0.25 N, 0.5 N, 1 N, 5 N were applied. RESULTS: Using a constant force of 0.5 N, we observed a significant difference in Δstrain between 0.26±0.01% in controls and 0.12±0.03% in the CXL-treated group (p = 0.003 over baseline. Similarly, using a constant force of 1 N, Δstrain was 0.31±0.03% in controls and 0.19±0.02% after CXL treatment (p = 0.008. No significant differences were observed between CXL-treated groups and controls with 0.25 N or 5 N constant forces. Standard stress-strain extensiometry failed to show significant differences between CXL-treated groups and controls at all percentages of strains tested. CONCLUSION: We propose a constant-force technique to measure corneal biomechanics in a more physiologic way. When compared to standard stress-strain extensiometry, the constant-force technique provides less variability and thus reaches significant results with a lower sample number.

  18. Correlation of Air Displacement Plethysmography with Alternative Body Fat Measurement Techniques in Men and Women. (United States)

    Reinert, Brittany L; Pohlman, Roberta; Hartzler, Lynn

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions with serious health consequences. Techniques used to measure body fat (BF) yield variable BF estimates, and this variability may lead to underestimation or overestimation of BF and subsequent treatment options. The measurements that are most accurate (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) are expensive and often unavailable. The purpose of this study is to find the commonly available BF measurement that is the most accurate and practical for individual body types in the general population and compare these measurements to ADP (BOD POD®) as the standard. Field measurements include skinfolds (SKF), upper, lower, and whole body bioelectrical impedance (BI), waist and hip circumference ratios, body mass index calculations (BMI), and ADP. Our data indicate that BI is the least accurate measurement of body fat in males and females (paired t-tests of % body fat: BI vs. ADP, p0.05). However, preliminary data suggest female- specific SKF equations more accurately predict body fat in obese males than male-specific SKF equations. Given the current obesity trends, it is imperative to update these formulae to accurately reflect the current population.

  19. A digital instantaneous frequency measurement technique utilising high speed analogue to digital converters and field programmable gate arrays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, PLR


    Full Text Available In modern information and sensor systems, the timely estimation of the carrier frequency of received signals is of critical importance. This paper presents a digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) technique, which can measure the carrier...

  20. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique. (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su


    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.

  1. The effect of different weight functions on calibrating corrosion measurements using KNN technique (United States)

    Hamed, Yaman; Shafie, A'fza; Mustaffa, Zahiraniza Bt; Idris, Naila Rusma Binti


    Pipeline corrosion scan devices have different accuracies which may affect the reliability of corrosion measurements used to investigate the pipeline's integrity assessment. In this paper K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) interpolation technique was used to enhance the accuracy of corrosion measurements collected by two corrosion scan devices. Considering that KNN is a weighted interpolator, the use of the proper weight function will raise the chance of representing the original points correctly. The effect of using various weight functions within (KNN) were tested to determine the most appropriate interpolator for calibrating corrosion metrics. The comparison has relied on the effect of the weight function on the neighbor points, the position of the interpolator, and the error between the original and the enhanced metrics using the interpolation technique. (KNN) interpolation showed the potential to enhance corrosion measurements collected by several scan devices with different accuracies. This enhancement will be used to improve the integrity assessment report that depends on the disturbed corrosion metrics of oil and gas pipelines, to decide whether the pipeline is fit for service or needs certain maintenance.

  2. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique (United States)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan


    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  3. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S


    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 {mu}m, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 {mu}m and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 {mu}m. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of tellurite glass fiber by using induced grating autocorrelation technique (United States)

    Traore, Aboubakar

    Nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers have been attracting considerable attention because of the rapid growth of the fiber optics communication industry. The increasing demand in internet use and the expansion of telecommunications in the developing world have triggered the need for high capacity and ultra-fast communication devices and also the need to increase the number of transmission channels in the fibers. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems are capable of transmitting large volumes of data at very high rates into huge numbers of optical transmission channels. This ability is limited by the gain bandwidth of Silica based fiber optics amplifiers already installed in the communication networks. Tellurite based fiber amplifiers offer the necessary bandwidth for amplification of WDM and DWDM channels. To investigate the nonlinear properties of the optical fibers in this research, we used a 10 picoseconds pulse width passively mode-locked Nd:Vanadate ( Nd:YVO4) laser operating at 1342nm with a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We accurately measured the nonlinear refractive index of single mode silica fibers utilizing the Induced Grating Autocorrelation (IGA) technique. IGA technique was extended furthermore to study nonlinear effects in multimode fibers, and for the first time, we successfully measured the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of a multimode silica fiber. Confident of the ability of IGA technique for determining n 2 of multimode silica fibers, we measured the nonlinear refractive index of multimode Tellurite glass fibers with length as short as 0.5 meter. The goal of this work is to provide accurate and reliable information on the nonlinear optical properties of Tellurite glass fibers, novel fibers with promising future for developing ultrafast and high transmission capacity communication devices.

  5. Regional cerebral and extracranial blood flow measurements in acutely and chronically implanted cats: hydrogen clearance technique. (United States)

    Lamar, J C; Carati, P; Van Delft, A M


    A technique is described for measuring regional blood flow concomitantly in the brain and in extracranial tissues of the cat. Hydrogen clearance using the tissue polarographic electrode appears to be a useful technique for intermittent measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in relatively small areas. H2 was administered by inhalation for 10 min. Both chronic and acutely implanted electrodes were placed at different depths in the cat brain, on the surface of the cortex, and in extracranial tissues. Clearance rates in gray matter of 75 to 119 ml/min/100 g tissue have been obtained and of 11 to 14 ml/min/100 g tissue in white matter. Clearance curves have invariably been monoexponential in character in white matter and biexponential in gray matter. Successful recordings of H2 clearance curves were obtained from both chronically (up to 5 months) and acutely implanted electrodes. A new type of electrode is described. The "paperclip" electrode is placed at the surface of the cortex, has a reactive surface much greater than that of needle electrodes, thus limiting the possible variations due to vascularization differences from one local area to the next, and induces no damage to the brain tissue. To test the reliability of the technique, blood flow was measured during hypercapnia and progressive exsanguination. All electrodes indicated increased rCBF following 5-7% CO2 inhalation. A marked decrease in blood flow was seen with peripheral electrodes during exsanguination, whereas it was necessary to lower arterial blood pressure by more than 60% of the baseline value to record decreased flow in brain tissues. The constancy of response from electrodes and the lack of obvious tissue damage on dissection of the brain renders the method an adequate one. It provides highly focal recording of both CBF and extracranial flow in chronically implanted animals.

  6. Novel Cross-Band Relative Absorption (CoBRA) technique For Measuring Atmospheric Species (United States)

    Prasad, N. S.; Pliutau, D.


    We describe a methodology called Cross-Band Relative Absorption (CoBRA) we have implemented to significantly reduce interferences due to variations in atmospheric temperature and pressure in molecular mixing ration measurements [1-4]. The interference reduction is achieved through automatic compensation based on selecting spectral line pairs exhibiting similar evolution behavior under varying atmospheric conditions. The method is applicable to a wide range of molecules including CO2 and CH4 which can be matched with O2 or any other well-mixed atmospheric molecule. Such matching results in automatic simultaneous adjustments of the spectral line shapes at all times with a high precision under varying atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure. We present the results of our selected CoBRA analysis based on line-by-line calculations and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset including more recent evaluation of the error contributions due to water vapor interference effects. References: 1) N. S. Prasad, D. Pliutau, 'Cross-band relative absorption technique for the measurement of molecular mixing ratios.', Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 11, pp. 13279-13292 (2013) 2) D. Pliutau and N. S. Prasad, "Cross-band Relative Absorption Technique for Molecular Mixing Ratio Determination," in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CW3L.4. 3) Denis Pliutau; Narasimha S. Prasad; 'Semi-empirical validation of the cross-band relative absorption technique for the measurement of molecular mixing ratios',.Proc. SPIE 8731, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XVIII, 87310L (May 20, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2016661. 4) Denis Pliutau,; Narasimha S. Prasad; 'Comparative analysis of alternative spectral bands of CO2 and O2 for the sensing of CO2 mixing ratios' Proc. SPIE 8718, Advanced Environmental, Chemical, and Biological Sensing Technologies X, 87180L (May 31, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2016337.

  7. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  8. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ technique. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. Results: The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711. The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  9. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)


    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  10. A new multiplexing single molecule technique for measuring restriction enzyme activity (United States)

    Harbottle, Allison; Cavanaugh, Jillian; Gordon, Wendy; Loparo, Joseph; Price, Allen


    We present a new multiplexing single molecule method for observing the cleavage of DNAs by restriction enzymes. DNAs are attached to a surface at one end using a biotin-streptavidin link and to a micro bead at the other end via a digoxigenin-antidigoxigenin link. The DNAs are stretched by applying a flow. After introduction of the restriction enzyme, the exact time of cleavage of individual DNAs is recorded with video microscopy. We can image hundreds to thousands of DNAs in a single experiment. We are using our technique to search for the signature of facilitated diffusion in the measured rate dependence on ionic strength.

  11. Interpretation of the external band technique for cathode fall measurements of fluorescent lamps (United States)

    Garner, R.


    Cathode fall is a key parameter in assessing the performance of a fluorescent lamp since it is a fundamental part of a lamp's operation and, at the same time, may be responsible indirectly for many undesirable effects, such as shortened life and severe end-darkening. This work addresses the familiar band diagnostic (BD), a technique often used to measure cathode fall. The diagnostic is an easily implemented, non-invasive procedure in which a metal foil is placed around the outer glass wall of a lamp in the electrode region, and the potential difference between the foil and electrode is measured. Unfortunately, there are severe limitations in interpreting the measurement. The goal of this work has been to properly conceptualize this diagnostic to improve understanding, to identify factors limiting interpretation and to identify features from experimental measurements. The result is a lumped parameter model, and a key component is a representation of the wall sheath at the plasma/wall boundary. Conceptually, the BD is identical to the internal floating probe, and therefore the model is applicable to that diagnostic as well. In addition to descriptions of the model and model calculations, comparisons are made between band and probe and between band and experimental measurements.

  12. An experimental technique for the direct measurement of N2O5 reactivity on ambient particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bertram


    Full Text Available An experimental approach for the direct measurement of trace gas reactivity on ambient aerosol particles has been developed. The method utilizes a newly designed entrained aerosol flow reactor coupled to a custom-built chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The experimental method is described via application to the measurement of the N2O5 reaction probability, γ (N2O5. Laboratory investigations on well characterized aerosol particles show that measurements of γ (N2O5 observed with this technique are in agreement with previous observations, using conventional flow tube methods, to within ±20% at atmospherically relevant particle surface area concentrations (0–1000 μm2 cm−3. Uncertainty in the measured γ (N2O5 is discussed in the context of fluctuations in potential ambient biases (e.g., temperature, relative humidity and trace gas loadings. Under ambient operating conditions we estimate a single-point uncertainty in γ (N2O5 that ranges between ± (1.3×10-2 + 0.2×γ (N2O5, and ± (1.3×10-3 + 0.2×γ (N2O5 for particle surface area concentrations of 100 to 1000 μm2 cm−3, respectively. Examples from both laboratory investigations and field observations are included alongside discussion of future applications for the reactivity measurement and optimal deployment locations and conditions.

  13. Long-term measurements using home audiometry with Békésy's technique. (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Grenner, Jan


    To examine the efficacy of fixed-frequency Békésy's home audiometry to assess hearing fluctuation and treatment outcomes in patients with subjectively fluctuating hearing loss. SMAPH, a software audiometry program for Windows, was installed and calibrated on laptop computers. Békésy's audiometry was carried out daily in the patients' homes, using sound-attenuating earphones. Seventeen patients with previously or currently subjectively fluctuating hearing loss. Five patients received of treatment for their conditions during the measurement period. Measurement periods ranged from 6 to 60 days. Varying degrees of compliance were seen, some patients measuring less than 50% of the days, others measuring every day. Based on their long-term measurements the patients were classified into three groups: patients with stable recordings, with fluctuating low-frequency hearing loss, or with fluctuating high-frequency hearing loss. In the patients with stable recordings, significant test-retest differences were seen below 10 dB at frequencies 0.125-8 kHz. Home audiometry with Békésy's technique can be used to evaluate disease activity and to monitor hearing results after therapy.

  14. Validation of image analysis techniques to measure skin aging features from facial photographs. (United States)

    Hamer, M A; Jacobs, L C; Lall, J S; Wollstein, A; Hollestein, L M; Rae, A R; Gossage, K W; Hofman, A; Liu, F; Kayser, M; Nijsten, T; Gunn, D A


    Accurate measurement of the extent skin has aged is crucial for skin aging research. Image analysis offers a quick and consistent approach for quantifying skin aging features from photographs, but is prone to technical bias and requires proper validation. Facial photographs of 75 male and 75 female North-European participants, randomly selected from the Rotterdam Study, were graded by two physicians using photonumeric scales for wrinkles (full face, forehead, crow's feet, nasolabial fold and upper lip), pigmented spots and telangiectasia. Image analysis measurements of the same features were optimized using photonumeric grades from 50 participants, then compared to photonumeric grading in the 100 remaining participants stratified by sex. The inter-rater reliability of the photonumeric grades was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.65-0.93). Correlations between the digital measures and the photonumeric grading were moderate to excellent for all the wrinkle comparisons (Spearman's rho ρ = 0.52-0.89) bar the upper lip wrinkles in the men (fair, ρ = 0.30). Correlations were moderate to good for pigmented spots and telangiectasia (ρ = 0.60-0.75). These comparisons demonstrate that all the image analysis measures, bar the upper lip measure in the men, are suitable for use in skin aging research and highlight areas of improvement for future refinements of the techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons.

  15. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements (United States)

    Sarmast, S.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Breton, S. P.; Ivanell, S.


    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated and both computed loads and velocity fields around the rotor are compared with detailed PIV measurements. The comparisons show that the computed loadings are generally in agreement with the measurements under the rotor's design condition. Both actuator approaches under-predicted the loading in the inboard part of blade in stall condition as only 2D airfoil data were used in the simulations. The predicted wake velocities generally agree well with the PIV measurements. In the experiment, PIV measurements are also provided close to the hub and nacelle. To study the effect of hub and nacelle, numerical simulations are performed both in the presence and absence of the hub geometry. This study shows that the large hub used in the experiment has only small effects on overall wake behaviour.

  16. Accuracy of MRI technique in measuring tendon cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, R. B.; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring


    , but the accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar...... tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% lower than...... the mould tendon CSA, respectively. Also, 3 tesla tendon CSA, based on the red-green border on the National Institute of Health (NIH) colour scale, was lower than the mould tendon CSA by 2.8%. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. The typical error between examiners...

  17. Interpretation of the external band technique for cathode fall measurements of fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, R [Central Research and Services Laboratory, OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)], E-mail:


    Cathode fall is a key parameter in assessing the performance of a fluorescent lamp since it is a fundamental part of a lamp's operation and, at the same time, may be responsible indirectly for many undesirable effects, such as shortened life and severe end-darkening. This work addresses the familiar band diagnostic (BD), a technique often used to measure cathode fall. The diagnostic is an easily implemented, non-invasive procedure in which a metal foil is placed around the outer glass wall of a lamp in the electrode region, and the potential difference between the foil and electrode is measured. Unfortunately, there are severe limitations in interpreting the measurement. The goal of this work has been to properly conceptualize this diagnostic to improve understanding, to identify factors limiting interpretation and to identify features from experimental measurements. The result is a lumped parameter model, and a key component is a representation of the wall sheath at the plasma/wall boundary. Conceptually, the BD is identical to the internal floating probe, and therefore the model is applicable to that diagnostic as well. In addition to descriptions of the model and model calculations, comparisons are made between band and probe and between band and experimental measurements.

  18. Three dimensional ray tracing technique for tropospheric water vapor tomography using GPS measurements (United States)

    Haji Aghajany, Saeid; Amerian, Yazdan


    Tropospheric water vapor has a key role in tropospheric processes and it is an important parameter in meteorology studies. Because of its non-uniform spatiotemporal distribution, modeling the spatiotemporal variations of water vapor is a challenging subject in meteorology. The GNSS tomography of the troposphere is a promising method to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of water vapor parameter in this layer. The tomography method efficiency is dependent on the ray tracing technique and GPS derived tropospheric slant wet delays. Implementing constraints and regularization methods are necessary in order to achieve the regularized solution in troposphere tomography. In this paper, the three dimensional (3D) ray tracing technique based on Eikonal equations and ERA-I data are used to perform the reconstruction the signal path, Iranian Permanent GPS Network (IPGN) measurements are used to calculate slant wet delays and the LSQR regularization technique is used to obtain a regularized tomographic solution for tropospheric water vapor. The modeled water vapor profiles are validated using radiosonde observations.

  19. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques (United States)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.


    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  20. Novel Measurements and Techniques for Outlet Glacier Fjord Ice/Ocean Interactions (United States)

    Behar, A.; Howat, I. M.; Holland, D. M.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Larsen, S. H.


    Glacier fjord bathymetry and conditions indicate that they play fundamental roles for outlet glacier dynamics and thus knowledge of these parameters is extremely beneficial to upcoming models that predict changes. In particular, the bathymetry of a fjord gives important information about the exchange between fjord waters close to marine-terminating glaciers and the shelf and ocean. Currently, only sparse bathymetric data near the ice fronts are available for the majority of fjords in Greenland. The challenge in obtaining these measurements is that the fjord melange environment is a terrible one for mechanical gear, or ship or any other kind of access. There is hope however, and this work focuses on novel ways of obtaining this data using a multitude of upcoming technologies and techniques that are now being tested and planned. The span of the techniques described include but are not limited to: 1) manned helicopter-based live-reading instruments and deployable/retriavable sensor packages 2) remote or autonomous unmanned miniature boats (Depth/CTD), and 3) UAV's that either read live data or deploy small sensors that can telemeter their data (ice-flow trackers, image acquisition, etc.). A review of current results obtained at Jakobshavn and Upernavik Glaciers will be given as well as a description of the techniques and hardware used.

  1. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  2. Optical Biosensor Based on Microbendings Technique: An Optimized Mean to Measure the Bone Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Singh


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, a disease in humans, reduces bone mineral density. The microarchitecture of the bone gets deteriorated with change in variety of proteins in the bone. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the strength of human bone, considering its structural properties and degradation due to aging, disease, and therapeutic treatment, becomes an integral part of the bioengineering studies. This paper presents a model of fiber optic biosensors (FOBs which utilizes microbending technique to measure the strength of the bone. In parallel, an artificial neural network (ANN based test bench has been developed for the optimization of FOBs strain measurement in orthoapplications using MATLAB. The performance accuracy of the given model appears to be considerable in ensuring the detection of the onset of osteoporosis.

  3. The Thoron Issue: Monitoring Activities, Measuring Techniques and Dose Conversion Factors (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccetelli, C.; Bochicchio, F


    The health risk due to the presence of thoron indoors is usually neglected because of its generally low concentration in indoor environments, which is essentially caused by its short half-life. However, in certain not uncommon situations, such as when thorium-rich building materials are used, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) may represent a significant source of radioactive exposure. In recent years, renewed interest has led to more intensive monitoring of thoron gas and its decay products. A tentatively comprehensive summary of these measurement results and a review of the most innovative measurement techniques for {sup 220}Rn are here presented. Finally, dose-exposure conversion factors currently used for thoron decay products are analysed, highlighting the poorer basis of such factors, when compared to those for radon. (author)

  4. Absorption characteristics of an acoustic material at oblique incidence measured with the two-microphone technique (United States)

    Minten, M.; Cops, A.; Lauriks, W.


    The two-microphone technique has been extended to the direct determination of the specific acoustic impedance, which is one of the basic quantities in acoustics. This method can be used to determine some acoustical characteristics of an absorbing sample (such as the reflection coefficient, characteristic acoustic impedance, and sound absorption coefficient) from the specific acoustic impedance. All measurements have been carried out in an anechoic room. It will be shown that the distance to the sample and the microphone spacing are critical parameters due to the standing waves in front of the sample. Some simple theoretical models are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results. At normal incidence the results are also compared with the results of Kundt tube measurements.

  5. Investigation of surface and subsurface profile, techniques of measurement, and replication of the Chinese Magic Mirror (United States)

    Kang Min, Eden T.; Watt, Sook May; Sreemathy, Parthasarathy; Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand


    The Chinese magic mirror is an ancient convex bronze mirror, it reflects parallel light rays to form a unique image within the reflected patch of light by altering the reflected ray paths. Using Phase Measuring Reflectometry (PMR), surface irregularities of a micron range were found to be present on the mirror; these irregularities concentrate and disperse reflected light rays, giving rise to brighter and darker patches on the reflected image, forming a contrast, allowing the unique pattern to be observed. To ascertain location and nature of the surface defects that come in forms of indentations and raised platforms, other measurement techniques were employed. Reverse engineering then facilitated the exploration of reproduction of a very own original Chinese Magic Mirror with the use of optical principles behind the mirror.

  6. New Dielectric Sensors and Sensing Techniques for Soil and Snow Moisture Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schuhmann


    Full Text Available Measurements of material moisture are essential in fields such as agriculture or civil engineering. Electromagnetic techniques, more precisely dielectric methods, have gained wide acceptance in the last decades. Frequency or Time Domain methods take advantage of the high dielectric permittivity of water compared to dry materials. This paper presents four new dielectric sensors for the determination of soil or snow water content. After a short introduction into the principles, both the hardware and operating mode of each sensor are described. Field test results show the advantages and potentials such as automatic measurement and profiling, state-of-ground detection or large-scale determination. From the results it follows that the presented sensors offer promising new tools for modern environmental research.

  7. Electron beam phase-space measurement using a high-precision tomography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yakimenko


    Full Text Available We report a measurement of the multidimensional phase-space density distribution of an electron bunch. The measurement combines the techniques of picosecond slice-emittance measurement and high-resolution tomographic measurement of transverse phase space. This technique should have a significant impact on the development of low emittance beams and their many applications, such as short-wavelength free-electron lasers and laser accelerators. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multidimensional phase space is an essential tool for obtaining a small emittance at a reasonable charge and for understanding the physics of emittance growth. We previously reported a measurement of the slice emittance of a picosecond electron beam [J. S. Fraser, R. L. Sheffield, and E. R. Gray, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 250, 71 (1986.]. The tomographic reconstruction of the phase space was suggested [X. Qiu, K. Batchelor, I. Ben-Zvi, and X. J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3723 (1996.] and implemented [C. B. McKee, P. G. O’Shea, and J. M. J. Madey, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 358, 264 (1995; I. Ben-Zvi, J. X. Qiu, and X. J. Wang, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, 1997 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997.] using a single quadrupole scan. In the present work we expand the tomographic reconstruction work and combine it with the slice-emittance method. Our present tomographic work pays special attention to the accuracy of the phase-space reconstruction. We use a transport line with nine focusing magnets, and present an analysis and technique aimed at the control of the optical functions and phases. This high-precision phase-space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply nonlinear radial emittance corrections. Combining the

  8. Noninvasive Techniques for Blood Pressure Measurement Are Not a Reliable Alternative to Direct Measurement: A Randomized Crossover Trial in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ribezzo


    Full Text Available Introduction. Noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP monitoring methods are widely used in critically ill patients despite poor evidence of their accuracy. The erroneous interpretations of blood pressure (BP may lead to clinical errors. Objectives. To test the accuracy and reliability of aneroid (ABP and oscillometric (OBP devices compared to the invasive BP (IBP monitoring in an ICU population. Materials and Methods. Fifty adult patients (200 comparisons were included in a randomized crossover trial. BP was recorded simultaneously by IBP and either by ABP or by OBP, taking IBP as gold standard. Results. Compared with ABP, IBP systolic values were significantly higher (mean difference ± standard deviation 9.74±13.8; P<0.0001. Both diastolic (-5.13±7.1; P<0.0001 and mean (-2.14±7.1; P=0.0033 IBP were instead lower. Compared with OBP, systolic (10.80±14.9; P<0.0001 and mean (5.36±7.1; P<0.0001 IBP were higher, while diastolic IBP (-3.62±6.0; P<0.0001 was lower. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement in both NIBP-IBP comparisons. Conclusions. BP measurements with different devices produced significantly different results. Since in critically ill patients the importance of BP readings is often crucial, noninvasive techniques cannot be regarded as reliable alternatives to direct measurements.

  9. The Application of Six Sigma Techniques in the Evaluation of Enzyme Measurement Procedures in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo


    Recently, Six Sigma techniques have been adopted by clinical laboratories to evaluate laboratory performance. Measurement procedures in laboratories can be categorized as "excellent", "good", and "improvement needed" based on sigma (σ) metrics of σ ≥ 6, 3 ≤ σ 1.2 indicates that the trueness of the procedure needs to be improved; 0.8 ≤ QGI ≤ 1.2 indicates that both the precision and trueness of the procedure need to be improved. Fresh frozen sera containing seven enzymes (ALT, ALP, AMY, AST, CK, GGT, and LDH) were sent to 78 clinical laboratories in China. The biases for measurement procedures in each laboratory (Bias) were calculated based on the target values assigned by 18 laboratories performing IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory medicine) recommended reference methods. The imprecision of each measurement procedure was represented by coefficient variations (CV) calculated based on internal quality control (IQC) data. The σ and QGI values were calculated as follows: σ = (TEa-Bias)/CV; QGI = Bias/(1.5 x CV). TEa is allowable total error for each enzyme derived from biological variation. Our study indicated that 7.9% (6/76, ALP) to 31.0% (18/58, AMY) of the participating laboratories were scored as "excellent" (σ ≥ 6), 21.1% (16/76, ALP) to 41.3% (31/75, CK) of the laboratories were scored as "good" (3 ≤ σ Six Sigma techniques still suggested that approximately 31.1% to 71.0% of the laboratories need to improve their enzyme measurement procedures, either in terms of precision, trueness, or both.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidong Kim


    Full Text Available Surface pressure distributions on a rotating blade were measured by using pressure sensitive paint (PSP to understand aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor blade. The present study was conducted to investigate the PSP techniques for measuring the pressure distributions on a rotor blade. In order to perform the experiment, the PSP was required to response very fast due to rapid pressure fluctuations on a rotor blade. High energy excitation light source was also needed to acquire proper intensity images in a short excitation time. The techniques were based on a lifetime method. Qualitative pressure distributions on an upper surface of small scale rotor in hovering condition were measured as a preliminary experiment prior to forward flight conditions in the KARI low speed wind tunnel laboratory. From measured pressure distributions, striking pressure gradient was observed on an upper surface of rotor blade and the resulting pressure showed expected gradient depending on different collective pitch angles. ABSTRAK : Pengagihan tekanan permukaan ke atas berbilah putar disukat menggunakan cat sensitive tekanan (pressure sensitive paint (PSP untuk memahami sifat-sifat aerodinamik suatu berbilah putar. Kajian telah dijalankan untuk menyelidik teknik-teknik PSP dengan mengukur agihan tekanan ke atas suatu berbilah putar. Agar eksperimen dapat dijalankan dengan baik, PSP harus bertindak cepat kerana tekanan naik turun dengan pantas ke atas berbilah putar. Sumber cahaya ujaan tenaga tinggi diperlukan untuk mendapatkan imej keamatan wajar dalam jangka masa ujaan yang pendek. Teknik-teknik tersebut terhasil daripada kajian semasa hayat. Agihan tekanan kualitatif ke permukaan atas berskala kecil pemutar dalam keadaan mengapung diukur sebagai permulaan eksperimen, sebelum penerbangan kehadapan dalam makmal terowong angin laju rendah KARI. Daripada agihan tekanan yang disukat, kecerunan tekanan yang ketara diperolehi daripada permerhatian terhadap permukaan

  11. Techniques, regression, and applications of glass strength measurements for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) mirrors (United States)

    Krevor, David; Milbourne, Mike


    A primary failure mode for glass failure in reflective CPV systems is the mechanical stress caused by a thermal gradient. To establish the necessary reflector specifications, it is essential to have both economic techniques to measure glass strength and an insight into the failure mechanisms. Due to the highly stochastic nature of glass fracture, large data sets are necessary for statistical validity and to provide meaningful estimates of field failure rates. This paper discusses experimental measurement techniques for both value-added reflectors and for non-value surrogate substrates which are generated as waste during the manufacturing process. Specialized tooling enables measurement by commercially available stress-strain equipment (e.g., "Instron" testers). The glass strength is calculated from the force-to-break data, sample thickness and a substrate shape dependence. These strength data are regressed using a two-parameter Weibull model, enabling calculation of the Weibull modulus, which is a measure of the distribution of flaws of a brittle material. Using a finite element analysis model of the thermal-mechanical stress to determine the critical stress, the Weibull analysis enables extrapolation of the data to predict field failure rates. The test and regression now comprise an On-going Reliability Test (ORT) that is inherently low-cost and appropriate for high-volume manufacture. For fracture, the initiating flaws are the result of glass cutting and trimming operations. There can be low-strength outliers which result from bulk glass defects, though such flawed product should be culled during the manufacturing and inspection processes. As expected and commonly known, the glass strength is very sensitive to the cutting method and resulting quality.

  12. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current (United States)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.


    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  13. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert


    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  14. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - how appropriate are our measuring techniques? (United States)

    Fiener, Peter; Deumlich, Detlef; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Hardy, Robert; Jague, Emilien A.; Quinton, John; Sommer, Michael; van Oost, Kristof; Wexler, Robert; Wilken, Florian


    discrepancies between measurements based on different techniques. The latter introduces substantial uncertainties in any existing tillage erosion modelling approach.

  15. A new imaging technique for measuring the surface strains applied to dentine. (United States)

    Palamara, J E; Wilson, P R; Thomas, C D; Messer, H H


    To investigate possible variation in directional material properties of dentine in relationship to tubule orientation using a new optical imaging technique. The optical imaging technique records photometrically a grid pattern formed by using a transmission electron microscope grid as a template on the polished surface of the dentine. The grid pattern is silhouetted onto the sample surface using standard techniques. Compression (c) and diametral compression (dc) tests were undertaken using a servo hydraulic testing machine (MTS model 810) acting on rectangular blocks of dentine with dimensions 1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 mm (for c) and cylindrical samples with dimensions 2.1 mm in diameter and 1-1.5 mm thick (for dc), respectively. The samples were cut using a diamond wheel and miniature lathe and the cut surfaces polished. Images due to a changing load profile were captured and stored as digitised files on a computer for later analysis. The precision is mainly determined by the pixel resolution of the charged-coupled device camera. Preliminary results show the value of elastic modulus of dentine (10.4 +/- 2.9 GPa) to be similar to those previously reported in the literature. Very small localised strains at the surface of a sample can be observed qualitatively and measured quantitatively by reference to the line spacing (approximately 85 microns). Maximum strength varied with tubule orientation and (compressive/tensile) stress. Very small samples of dentine may be investigated for strain in more than one direction using the imaging technique described. These results may be more appropriate for finding relative directional change rather than obtaining the elastic properties of the dentine.

  16. SU-E-T-443: Developmental Technique for Proton Pencil Beam Measurements: Depth Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandy, B; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Hsi, W; Park, S [McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, MI (United States)


    Purpose: Measurements of depth dose distribution (DDD) of pencil beam in proton therapy can be challenging and time consuming. We have developed a technique that uses two Bragg peak chambers to expedite these measurements with a high accuracy. Methods and Material: We used a PTW water tank and two PTW 10.5 cm3 Bragg peak chambers; one as a field chamber and the other as a reference chamber to measure DDDs for 100–250 MeV proton pencil beams. The reference chamber was positioned outside of the water tank upstream with respect to field chamber. We used Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to model the ProTom proton beam to generate DDDs. The MCS generated DDDs were used to account for halo effects of proton pencil beam that are not measureable with Bragg peak chambers. We also used PTW PEAKFINDER to measure DDDs for comparison purpose. Results: We compared measured and MCS DDDs with Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) ranges to verify the range of proton beams that were supplied by the manufacturer. The agreements between all DDD with respect to CSDA were within ±0.5 mm. The WET for Bragg peak chamber for energies between 100–250 MeV was 12.7 ± 0.5 mm. The correction for halo effect was negligible below 150 MeV and was in order of ∼5-10% for 150–250 MeV. Conclusion: Use of Bragg Peak chamber as a reference chamber can facilitate DDD measurements in proton pencil beam with a high accuracy. Some corrections will be required to account for halo effect in case of high energy proton beams due to physical size of chamber.

  17. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (cpl) and the total hemispherical emissivity (ɛTl) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to cpl is derived. This technique also allows us to measure ɛTl once cpl is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levitator at JPL in which 2-3 mm diameter metallic samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in vacuum. The averaged specific heats and total hemispherical emissivities of Zr and Ni over the undercooled regions agree well with the results obtained by drop calorimetry: cpl,av(Zr)=40.8±0.9 J/mol K, ɛTl,av(Zr)=0.28±0.01, cpl,av(Ni)=42.6±0.8 J/mol K, and ɛTl,av(Ni)=0.16±0.01.

  18. High-Speed Photography and Digital Optical Measurement Techniques for Geomaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (United States)

    Xing, H. Z.; Zhang, Q. B.; Braithwaite, C. H.; Pan, B.; Zhao, J.


    Geomaterials (i.e. rock, sand, soil and concrete) are increasingly being encountered and used in extreme environments, in terms of the pressure magnitude and the loading rate. Advancing the understanding of the mechanical response of materials to impact loading relies heavily on having suitable high-speed diagnostics. One such diagnostic is high-speed photography, which combined with a variety of digital optical measurement techniques can provide detailed insights into phenomena including fracture, impact, fragmentation and penetration in geological materials. This review begins with a brief history of high-speed imaging. Section 2 discusses of the current state of the art of high-speed cameras, which includes a comparison between charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensors. The application of high-speed photography to geomechanical experiments is summarized in Sect. 3. Section 4 is concerned with digital optical measurement techniques including photoelastic coating, Moiré, caustics, holographic interferometry, particle image velocimetry, digital image correlation and infrared thermography, in combination with high-speed photography to capture transient phenomena. The last section provides a brief summary and discussion of future directions in the field.

  19. Noise Measurements Of Resistors With The Use Of Dual-Phase Virtual Lock-In Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Adam Witold


    Full Text Available Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  20. A comparison of selected vertical wind measurement techniques on basis of the EUCAARI IMPACT observations (United States)

    Arabas, S.; Baehr, C.; Boquet, M.; Dufournet, Y.; Pawlowska, H.; Siebert, H.; Unal, C.


    The poster presents a comparison of selected methods for determination of the vertical wind in the boundary layer used during the EUCAARI IMPACT campaign that took place in May 2008 in The Netherlands. The campaign covered a monthlong intensified ground-based and airborne measurements in the vicinity of the CESAR observatory in Cabauw. Ground-based vertical wind remote sensing was carried out using the Leosphere WindCube WLS70 IR Doppler lidar, Vaisala LAP3000 radar wind-profiler and the TUDelft TARA S-band radar. In-situ airborne measurements were performed using an ultrasonic anemometer (on the ACTOS helicopter underhung platform) and a 5-hole pressure probe (on the SAFIRE ATR-42 airplane radome). Several in-situ anemometers were deployed on the 200-meter high tower of the CESAR observatory. A summary of the characteristics and principles of the considered techniques is presented. A comparison of the results obtained from different platforms depicts the capabilities of each technique and highlights the time, space and velocity resolutions.

  1. Determination of vertical ozone distributions by spacecraft measurements using a limb-scan technique. (United States)

    Aruga, T; Heath, D F


    A method for inference of vertical ozone profiles from measurements of the limb radiance resulting from scattered solar ultraviolet radiation is described in terms of a new inversion technique using multiple wavelengths. The inversion equation for this method is based on weighting functions which correspond to the sensitivity of the limb radiance to the relative increment of ozone density at each altitude, and the equation is solved by an iteration technique. In principle, the ozone vertical profile can be recovered from the inversion of a limb scan at a single wavelength. In practice, however, much more information of a higher accuracy over a wider height range can be obtained if one uses multiple wavelengths. Computer simulations were done for 280, 300, 320, and 340 nm. These results indicate the feasibility of determining ozone profiles on a global basis from satellite platforms over the altitude range of ~20-70 km with a vertical resolution of 1-2 km. The inferred profile error is about three to four times larger than measurement error in the 20-70-km altitude region. If one uses the wavelengths down to 260 nm, the accuracy of ozone profile of the highest altitude region may be improved. Ozone densities can be inferred above 70 km from the observations, although the errors are significantly larger.

  2. The application of a shift theorem analysis technique to multipoint measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dieckmann

    Full Text Available A Fourier domain technique has been proposed previously which, in principle, quantifies the extent to which multipoint in-situ measurements can identify whether or not an observed structure is time stationary in its rest frame. Once a structure, sampled for example by four spacecraft, is shown to be quasi-stationary in its rest frame, the structure's velocity vector can be determined with respect to the sampling spacecraft. We investigate the properties of this technique, which we will refer to as a stationarity test, by applying it to two point measurements of a simulated boundary layer. The boundary layer was evolved using a PIC (particle in cell electromagnetic code. Initial and boundary conditions were chosen such, that two cases could be considered, i.e. a spacecraft pair moving through (1 a time stationary boundary structure and (2 a boundary structure which is evolving (expanding in time. The code also introduces noise in the simulated data time series which is uncorrelated between the two spacecraft. We demonstrate that, provided that the time series is Hanning windowed, the test is effective in determining the relative velocity between the boundary layer and spacecraft and in determining the range of frequencies over which the data can be treated as time stationary or time evolving. This work presents a first step towards understanding the effectiveness of this technique, as required in order for it to be applied to multispacecraft data.

    Key words. Electromagnetics (wave propagation · Radio science (waves in plasma · Space plasma physics (active perturbation experiments.

  3. The application of a shift theorem analysis technique to multipoint measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dieckmann


    Full Text Available A Fourier domain technique has been proposed previously which, in principle, quantifies the extent to which multipoint in-situ measurements can identify whether or not an observed structure is time stationary in its rest frame. Once a structure, sampled for example by four spacecraft, is shown to be quasi-stationary in its rest frame, the structure's velocity vector can be determined with respect to the sampling spacecraft. We investigate the properties of this technique, which we will refer to as a stationarity test, by applying it to two point measurements of a simulated boundary layer. The boundary layer was evolved using a PIC (particle in cell electromagnetic code. Initial and boundary conditions were chosen such, that two cases could be considered, i.e. a spacecraft pair moving through (1 a time stationary boundary structure and (2 a boundary structure which is evolving (expanding in time. The code also introduces noise in the simulated data time series which is uncorrelated between the two spacecraft. We demonstrate that, provided that the time series is Hanning windowed, the test is effective in determining the relative velocity between the boundary layer and spacecraft and in determining the range of frequencies over which the data can be treated as time stationary or time evolving. This work presents a first step towards understanding the effectiveness of this technique, as required in order for it to be applied to multispacecraft data.Key words. Electromagnetics (wave propagation · Radio science (waves in plasma · Space plasma physics (active perturbation experiments.

  4. Measurement of scattered radiation in a volumetric 64-slice CT scanner using three experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, A; Ay, M R; Sarkar, S [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghadiri, H [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaidi, H [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    Compton scatter poses a significant threat to volumetric x-ray computed tomography, bringing cupping and streak artefacts thus impacting qualitative and quantitative imaging procedures. To perform appropriate scatter compensation, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of x-ray scatter. The aim of this study is to compare three experimental methods for measurement of the scattered radiation profile in a 64-slice CT scanner. The explored techniques involve the use of collimator shadow, a single blocker (a lead bar that suppresses the primary radiation) and an array blocker. The latter was recently proposed and validated by our group. The collimator shadow technique was used as reference for comparison since it established itself as the most accurate experimental procedure available today. The mean relative error of measurements in all tube voltages was 3.9 {+-} 5.5% (with a maximum value of 20%) for the single blocker method whereas it was 1.4 {+-} 1.1% (with a maximum value of 5%) for the proposed blocker array method. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) using the blocker array method for the tube voltages of 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.148 and 1.034, respectively. For a larger polypropylene phantom, the maximum SPR achieved was 0.803 and 6.458 at 140 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. Although the three compared methods present a reasonable accuracy for calculation of the scattered profile in the region corresponding to the object, the collimator shadow method is by far the most accurate empirical technique. Nevertheless, the blocker array method is relatively straightforward for scatter estimation providing minor additional radiation exposure to the patient.

  5. Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Eriksson


    Full Text Available The four Cluster satellites each carry two instruments designed for measuring the electric field: a double-probe instrument (EFW and an electron drift instrument (EDI. We compare data from the two instruments in a representative sample of plasma regions. The complementary merits and weaknesses of the two techniques are illustrated. EDI operations are confined to regions of magnetic fields above 30 nT and where wave activity and keV electron fluxes are not too high, while EFW can provide data everywhere, and can go far higher in sampling frequency than EDI. On the other hand, the EDI technique is immune to variations in the low energy plasma, while EFW sometimes detects significant nongeophysical electric fields, particularly in regions with drifting plasma, with ion energy (in eV below the spacecraft potential (in volts. We show that the polar cap is a particularly intricate region for the double-probe technique, where large nongeophysical fields regularly contaminate EFW measurments of the DC electric field. We present a model explaining this in terms of enhanced cold plasma wake effects appearing when the ion flow energy is higher than the thermal energy but below the spacecraft potential multiplied by the ion charge. We suggest that these conditions, which are typical of the polar wind and occur sporadically in other regions containing a significant low energy ion population, cause a large cold plasma wake behind the spacecraft, resulting in spurious electric fields in EFW data. This interpretation is supported by an analysis of the direction of the spurious electric field, and by showing that use of active potential control alleviates the situation.

  6. Variability of Liver Shear Wave Measurements Using a New Ultrasound Elastographic Technique. (United States)

    Nadebaum, David P; Nicoll, Amanda J; Sood, Siddharth; Gorelik, Alexandra; Gibson, Robert N


    A new 2-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastographic (SWE) device has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Guidelines on measurement acquisition parameters are not yet well established for this technique. Our study aimed to assess 2D SWE measurement variability and to determine the number of measurements required per patient to reliably assess liver stiffness. Two-dimensional SWE was assessed in 55 patients with mixed-etiology chronic liver disease on an Aplio 500 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan). Ten measurements were obtained per patient by an operator blinded to all preceding readings. Results were analyzed with clinical information obtained from medical records. The median interquartile range/median ratio for 2D SWE was 0.131 (quartiles 1-3, 0.089-0.174). Five readings provided an approximation within 0.11 m/s, or 4.2% of the median velocity of 10 measurements. Factors associated with increased measurement variability included body mass index (ρ = 0.388; P = .01), increased skin-to-liver capsule distance (ρ = 0.426; P = .002), and measurements taken within 1.5 cm of the liver capsule (P  0.15) showed greater deviation from the set's median velocity than those with an ROI SD/speed ratio of 0.15 or lower (0.42 versus 0.22 m/s; P = .001). Two-dimensional SWE showed low overall measurement variability, with a minimum of 5 readings providing equivalent precision to the existing method using 10 samples. Obesity, increasing abdominal wall thickness, subcapsular measurements and an ROI SD/speed ratio of greater than 0.15 were all associated with increased measurement variability. The ROI SD/speed ratio warrants further evaluation as a quality assessment metric, to allow objective operator assessment of individual 2D SWE measurement reliability in real time. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. A measurement of the mass of the top quark using the ideogram technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houben, Pieter Willem Huib [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This thesis describes a measurement of the mass of the top quark on data collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron collider in the period from 2002 until 2006. The first chapter describes the Standard Model and the prominent role of the top quark mass. The second chapter gives a description of the D0 detector which is used for this measurement. After the p$\\bar{p}$ collisions have been recorded, reconstruction of physics objects is required, which is described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes how the interesting collisions in which top quarks are produced are separated from the `uninteresting' ones with a set of selection criteria. The method to extract the top quark mass from the sample of selected collisions (also called events), which is based on the ideogram technique, is explained in Chapter 5, followed in Chapter 6 by the description of the calibration of the method using simulation of our most precise knowledge of nature. Chapter 7 shows the result of the measurement together with some cross checks and an estimation of the uncertainty on this measurement. This thesis concludes with a constraint on the Higgs boson mass.

  8. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K McFarlin


    Full Text Available Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual’s temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes for the measurement of peripheral (bicep and central (abdominal skin temperature. Young men and women (N=30 were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO 2 max of cycling in a hot (39±2°C, humid (45±5% RH environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5 were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5, For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9 and thermal (1.9, suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35ºC, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects

  9. Precision mass measurements using the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance detection technique

    CERN Document Server

    Karthein, Jonas

    This thesis presents the implementation and improvement of the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (PI-ICR) detection technique at the ISOLTRAP experiment, located at the ISOLDE / CERN, with the purpose of on-line high-precision and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Extensive simulation studies were performed with the aim of improving the phase-imaging resolution and finding the optimal position for detector placement. Following the outcome of these simulations, the detector was moved out of a region of electric-field distortion and closer to the center of the Penning trap, showing a dramatic improvement in the quality and reproducibility of the phase-imaging measurements. A new image reconstitution and analysis software for the MCP-PS detector was written in Python and ROOT and introduced in the framework of PI-ICR mass measurements. The state of the art in the field of time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements is illustrated through an analysis of on-line measurements of the mirror nuclei $...

  10. A High-Resolution Multi-Slit Phase Space Measurement Technique for Low-Emittance Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraj, J. C.T. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.


    Precise measurement of transverse phase space of a high-brightness electron beamis of fundamental importance in modern accelerators and free-electron lasers. Often, the transverse phase space of a high-brightness, space-charge-dominated electron beam is measured using a multi-slit method. In this method, a transverse mask (slit/pepperpot) samples the beaminto a set of beamlets, which are then analyzed on to a screen downstream. The resolution in this method is limited by the type of screen used which is typically around 20 mum for a high-sensitivity Yttrium Aluminum Garnet screen. Accurate measurement of sub-micron transverse emittance using this method would require a long drift space between the multi-slit mask and observation screen. In this paper, we explore a variation of the technique that incorporates quadrupole magnets between the multi-slit mask and the screen. It is shown that this arrangement can improve the resolution of the transverse-phase-space measurement with in a short footprint.

  11. Unstable and Multiple Pulsing Can Be Invisible to Ultrashort Pulse Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rhodes


    Full Text Available Multiple pulsing occurs in most ultrashort-pulse laser systems when pumped at excessively high powers, and small fluctuations in pump power in certain regimes can cause unusual variations in the temporal separations of sub-pulses. Unfortunately, the ability of modern intensity-and-phase pulse measurement techniques to measure such unstable multi-pulsing has not been studied. Here we report calculations and simulations finding that allowing variations in just the relative phase of a satellite pulse causes the second pulse to completely disappear from a spectral interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER measurement. We find that, although neither frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG nor autocorrelation can determine the precise properties of satellite pulses due to the presence of instability, they always succeed in, at least, seeing the satellite pulses. Also, additional post-processing of the measured FROG trace can determine the correct approximate relative height of the satellite pulse and definitively indicate the presence of unstable multiple-pulsing.

  12. Comparison of different intraocular pressure measurement techniques in normal eyes and post small incision lenticule extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny M


    Full Text Available Mohamed Hosny, Fayrouz Aboalazayem, Hoda El Shiwy, Mohsen Salem Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP measurement after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT and ocular response analyzer (ORA.Methods: This is a prospective clinical study that was conducted on 30 eyes in the interval between February 2016 and September 2016. The age of the patients ranged between 19 and 40 years. The patients underwent SMILE surgery using the femto laser. IOP was measured preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively by both techniques, the GAT and the ORA.Results: GAT recorded lower values than ORA values (IOPcc preoperatively and postoperatively and the difference was statistically significant. Both GAT and ORA IOP measurements decreased after SMILE. There was no statistically significant correlation between the changes in the GAT and ORA readings and the postoperative corneal pachymetry or the lenticule thickness. Both corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor showed significant decline after the procedure, which correlated with the lenticule thickness.Conclusion: SMILE causes significant reduction in IOP measurement by ORA and GAT. Corneal biomechanics decreases following SMILE and this correlates with lenticule thickness. Keywords: ocular response analyzer, small incision lenticule extraction, corneal hysteresis

  13. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Rizzuto


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues’ spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation.

  14. Harnessing tunable scanning probe techniques to measure shear enhanced adhesion of gecko-inspired fibrillar arrays. (United States)

    Li, Yasong; Zhou, James H-W; Zhang, Cheng; Menon, Carlo; Gates, Byron D


    The hierarchical arrays of mesoscale to nanoscale fibrillar structures on a gecko's foot enable the animal to climb surfaces of varying roughness. Adhesion force between the fibrillar structures and various surfaces is maximized after the gecko drags its foot in one direction, which has also been demonstrated to improve the adhesion forces of artificial fibrillar arrays. Essential conditions that influence the magnitude of these interactions include the lateral distance traveled and velocity between the contacting surfaces, as well as the velocity at which the two surfaces are subsequently separated. These parameters have, however, not been systematically investigated to assess the adhesion properties of artificial adhesives. We introduce a systematic study that investigates these conditions using a scanning probe microscope to measure the adhesion forces of artificial adhesives through a process that mimics the mechanism by which a gecko climbs. The measured adhesion response was different for arrays of shorter and longer fibrils. These results from 9000 independent measurements also provide further insight into the dynamics of the interactions between fibrillar arrays and contacting surfaces. These studies establish scanning probe microscopy techniques as a versatile approach for measuring a variety of adhesion properties of artificial fibrillar adhesives.

  15. Measuring permeability, Young's modulus, and stress relaxation by the beam-bending technique (United States)

    Vichit-Vadakan, Wilasa

    Recent interest in the permeability of cement paste, mortars, and concrete lies in the need to gain further understanding of mechanisms affecting the durability of these materials. Conventional techniques for measuring permeability are cumbersome and often take days to complete just one measurement. This thesis proposes a new technique for measuring the permeability. The advantage of this technique is that the results are obtained in a few minutes to a few hours; moreover, there is no problem with leaks or need for high pressures. The method is particularly well suited for examining the changes in permeability and viscoelastic properties of young cement paste samples. When a saturated rod of a porous material is instantaneously deflected under three-point bending, two types of relaxation processes occur simultaneously: hydrodynamic relaxation, caused by the flow of liquid in the porous body to restore ambient pressure, and viscoelastic relaxation of the solid network. By measuring the decrease in the force required to sustain a constant deflection, it is possible to obtain the permeability and Young's modulus from the hydrodynamic relaxation function, in addition to the stress relaxation function of the sample. The exact viscoelastic solution is developed and the total relaxation is shown to be very closely approximated as the product of the hydrodynamic and stress relaxation functions. The analytical results are verified on porous VycorRTM glass saturated in various solvents, including normal alcohols, water, and glycerol. The results show excellent agreement with the theory. Consistent with observations of previous workers, the permeability is found to be influenced by the size of the solvent molecule; by assuming that the pore surfaces are covered with a monolayer of immobile solvent, the observed variation can be explained. The evolution of the permeability, Young's modulus, and stress relaxation function are reported for Type III Portland cement paste with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campbell


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9 or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532 and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ. In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532 by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40

  17. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hassler


    Full Text Available Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC and other ozone depleting substance (ODS concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/World Meteorological Organization (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument. Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  18. Towards Measurement of Polarization Properties of Skin using the Ellipsometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejhman Ghassemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The human skin is an active medium from the optical point of view. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques employing light are increasing. Current optical techniques are based on the measurement of the intensity of reflected absorbed or backscattered light from or within skin. Studies have shown that biological tissues, and in particular skin, demonstrate polarization properties. Scattering of light from the surface of skin or the layers within it is a function of incident polarization. Therefore, by changing the polarization of the incident light and measuring the backscattered light, we can study those skin properties which affect the state of polarization. Material and methods: We have implemented a scattering ellipsometry system in order to investigate the polarization properties of a phantom representing skin. Using the Stocks vector defining the state of polarization and measuring the elements of the Mueller matrix representing the phantom under study, we have shown that by changing the reflection and scattering properties of the sample, polarization characteristics of the backscattered light will be affected. Results: The results of this investigation showed that some elements of the Mueller matrix of the phantom under study were affected by the polarization state of the incident light and the scattering component within the phantom. Therefore, these elements have the potential of being used as polarization markers of the biological tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Upon interaction of polarized light with the skin tissue, the backscattered light will contain optical and polarization information about the skin. Using a simple laboratory-made phantom, we have shown that by analyzing the polarization information within the backscattered light we can study the cause, and possibly the disease, which affected the polarization characteristics of the skin.

  19. Scanning electron microscope technique for measuring electrical conductivity: application to tetrathiafulvalene--tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, James Peter [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    A new technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of small samples and its application to the organic conductor tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is reported. A movable current source provided by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is used to map out the potential distribution on crystal faces containing the a-b crystallographic axes. Silver paint contacts are used to return the beam current to ground and measure voltage changes as the beam position is moved. The results of the new technique are confirmed and complemented by the conventional movable contact method and the extension of both methods to low temperature is discussed. The potential distributions for our samples reveal frequently occurring irregularities in current flow which are attributable to sample imperfections and inhomogeneities in the silver paint contacts. Methods are presented whereby the commonly reported conductivities sigmaa and sigmab can be determined despite the presence of certain current flow irrgularities; room temperature values are found to be: sigmab = 490 ± 80 (Ωcm)-1 and sigmaa = 1.21 ± 0.15 (Ωcm)-1. The relationship of sigmaa/ and sigmab to the elements of the correctly expressed conductivity tensor for TTF-TCNQ is clarified. The influence of contact inhomogeneities on four-probe measurements of the temperature dependence of the b-axis conductivity as determined with an electrolytic tank model are also presented. It is found that there is a large probability of slightly underestimating conductivity, but that it is possible in a small number of cases to greatly overestimate conductivity.

  20. CT gel dosimetry technique: comparison of a planned and measured 3D stereotactic dose volume. (United States)

    Audet, C; Hilts, M; Jirasek, A; Duzenli, C


    This study presents a 3D dose mapping of complex dose distributions using an x-ray computed tomography (CT) polymer gel dosimetry technique. Two polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) of identical composition were irradiated with the same four arc stereotactic treatment to maximum doses of 15 Gy (PAG1) and 8 Gy (PAG2). The PAGs were CT imaged using a previously defined protocol that involves image averaging and background subtraction to improve image quality. For comparison with the planned isodose distribution, the PAG images were converted to relative dose maps using a CT number-dose calibration curve or simple division. The PAG images were then co-registered with the planning CT images in the BrainLab treatment planning software which automatically provides reconstructed sagittal and coronal images for 3D evaluation of measured and planned dose. The hypo-intense high dose region in both sets of gel images agreed with the planned 80% isodose contour and was shifted by up to 1.5 and 3.0 mm in the axial and reconstructed planes, respectively. This demonstrates the ability of the CT gel technique to accurately localize the high dose region produced by the stereotactic treatment. The resulting agreement of the measured relative dose volume for PAG1 was within 3.0 mm for the 50% and 80% isodose surfaces. However, the dose contrast was too low in PAG2 to allow for accurate definition of measured relative dose surfaces. Thus, a PAG should be irradiated to higher doses if quantitative relative dose information is required. Unfortunately, this implies use of an additional PAG and its CT number dose response since doses greater than 8-10 Gy fall outside the linear regions of the response.

  1. Measurement techniques of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace for low- and medium-income countries: A systematic review. (United States)

    Boccuni, Fabio; Gagliardi, Diana; Ferrante, Riccardo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio


    Nanotechnology offers many opportunities but there is still considerable uncertainty about the health risks and how to assess these.In the field of risk analysis for workers potentially exposed to nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) different methodological approaches to measure airborne NOAA have been proposed.This study proposes a systematic review of scientific literature on occupational exposure to NOAA in the workplace with the aim to identify techniques of exposure measurement to be recommended in low- and medium-income countries.We gathered scientific papers reporting techniques of NOAA exposure measurements in the workplace, we summarized the data for each eligible technique according to PRISMA guidelines, and we rated the quality of evidence following an adapted GRADE approach.We found 69 eligible studies to be included in qualitative synthesis: the majority of studies reported a moderate quality and only two studies demonstrated the use of a high quality exposure measurement technique.The review demonstrates that a basic exposure measurement, i.e. evidence for the presence or absence of NOAA in the workplace air, can be achieved with moderate (40 techniques) to high (2 techniques) quality; comprehensive exposure measurement, that allow the quantification of NOAA in the workplace, can be achieved with moderate (11 techniques) to high (2 techniques) quality.The findings of the study also allowed to finalize a list of requirements that must be fulfilled by an effective measurement technique (either basic or comprehensive) and to highlight the main weaknesses that need to be tackled for an effective affordability evaluation of measurement techniques to be recommended in low- and medium-income countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of geologic nitrogen using mass spectrometry, colorimetry, and a newly adapted fluorometry technique (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin W.; Drage, Natashia; Spence, Jody; Hanson, Nova; El-Sabaawi, Rana; Goldblatt, Colin


    Long viewed as a mostly noble, atmospheric species, recent work demonstrates that nitrogen in fact cycles throughout the Earth system, including the atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, and solid Earth. Despite this new-found behaviour, more thorough investigation of N in geologic materials is limited due to its low concentration (one to tens of parts per million) and difficulty in analysis. In addition, N can exist in multiple species (NO3-, NH4+, N2, organic N), and determining which species is actually quantified can be difficult. In rocks and minerals, NH4+ is the most stable form of N over geologic timescales. As such, techniques designed to measure NH4+ can be particularly useful.We measured a number of geochemical rock standards using three different techniques: elemental analyzer (EA) mass spectrometry, colorimetry, and fluorometry. The fluorometry approach is a novel adaptation of a technique commonly used in biologic science, applied herein to geologic NH4+. Briefly, NH4+ can be quantified by HF dissolution, neutralization, addition of a fluorescing reagent, and analysis on a standard fluorometer. We reproduce published values for several rock standards (BCR-2, BHVO-2, and G-2), especially if an additional distillation step is performed. While it is difficult to assess the quality of each method, due to lack of international geologic N standards, fluorometry appears better suited to analyzing mineral-bound NH4+ than EA mass spectrometry and is a simpler, quicker alternative to colorimetry.To demonstrate a potential application of fluorometry, we calculated a continental crust N budget based on new measurements. We used glacial tills as a proxy for upper crust and analyzed several poorly constrained rock types (volcanics, mid-crustal xenoliths) to determine that the continental crust contains ˜ 2 × 1018 kg N. This estimate is consistent with recent budget estimates and shows that fluorometry is appropriate for large-scale questions where high sample throughput

  3. Old and new techniques mixed up into optical photomask measurement method (United States)

    Fukui, Jumpei; Tachibana, Yusaku; Osanai, Makoto


    It has been still highly required for cost efficient solution with easy operation for full-automated CD measurement for line width about 500nm up to 5μm on photomask, because it is frequently use such photomask in the process of manufacturing MEMS sensor for IoT and some devices made in BCD (Bipola CMOS DMOS). As reply to such demand in photomask manufacturing field, we try to take a low noise digital camera technology and LED light source for i-line, which are recently developed, into new measuring tool in order to achieve 1nm (3σ) repeatability for line width measurement between 300nm to 10μm. In addition, for the purpose of full-automated operation, it is very important to find where an initial target line in dense pattern. To achieve such auto line detection precisely, we have improved accuracy of high precision stage (20nm as 3σ) and an alignment algorithm of MEMS Stepper to combine with this tool. As for user-friendly interface, Windows based software helps a lot for not only the operation but also recipe creation or edition in Excel. Actually, in the MEMS manufacturing process, there are various photomasks which need to be check and measure frequently therefore various recipe files are also have to be created and edited frequently.. In order to meet such a requirement in photomask management, we try to make it true by mixing old and new techniques together into one system, which comes to fully automated and cost efficient tool with 1nm repeatability in CD measurement.

  4. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique. (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K


    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stochastic Order Redshift Technique (SORT): a simple, efficient and robust method to improve cosmological redshift measurements (United States)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.


    We present a simple, efficient and robust approach to improve cosmological redshift measurements. The method is based on the presence of a reference sample for which a precise redshift number distribution (dN/dz) can be obtained for different pencil-beam-like sub-volumes within the original survey. For each sub-volume we then impose that: (i) the redshift number distribution of the uncertain redshift measurements matches the reference dN/dz corrected by their selection functions and (ii) the rank order in redshift of the original ensemble of uncertain measurements is preserved. The latter step is motivated by the fact that random variables drawn from Gaussian probability density functions (PDFs) of different means and arbitrarily large standard deviations satisfy stochastic ordering. We then repeat this simple algorithm for multiple arbitrary pencil-beam-like overlapping sub-volumes; in this manner, each uncertain measurement has multiple (non-independent) 'recovered' redshifts which can be used to estimate a new redshift PDF. We refer to this method as the Stochastic Order Redshift Technique (SORT). We have used a state-of-the-art N-body simulation to test the performance of SORT under simple assumptions and found that it can improve the quality of cosmological redshifts in a robust and efficient manner. Particularly, SORT redshifts (zsort) are able to recover the distinctive features of the so-called 'cosmic web' and can provide unbiased measurement of the two-point correlation function on scales ≳4 h-1Mpc. Given its simplicity, we envision that a method like SORT can be incorporated into more sophisticated algorithms aimed to exploit the full potential of large extragalactic photometric surveys.

  6. Absorptance measurements of transmissive optical components by the surface thermal lensing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Han, Y.; Tian, L.Y.


    The surface thermal lensing technique (STL) successfully resolved and measured the absorptance of transmissive optical components: near- normal angle-of-incidence anti-reflectors and beam splatters. The STL system uses an Ar ion laser to pump the components at 514.5 mn. The absorptance-induced surface deformation diffracts the HeNe probe beam into a photo-detector. The signal intensity was calibrated with a sample of known absorptance. The optical components were designed to function in a copper vapor laser (CVL) transport system, and were previously tested for absorptance with a high power CVL system at 511 rtm. To assure proper absorptance data from the STL system, the pump laser power densities were set at the operational level of the coatings, absorptance time trends were monitored, and absorptance area scans were made. Both types of transmissive optics are more stable than the CVL high reflectors that were measured in another study. Parameter studies based on Fresnel diffraction theory were also performed to optimize experimental condition. The STL system was assessed to have 10 ppb sensitivity for absorption measurement given 2 W of pump power.

  7. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of seven heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbons measured using the Knudsen effusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Jillian L., E-mail: [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Suuberg, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Suuberg@brown.ed [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)


    The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol{sup -1} were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.

  8. CELLO measurement technique for local identification and characterization of various types of solar cell defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, Juergen; Schuett, Andreas; Foell, Helmut [Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Popkirov, George [Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Central Lab. Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The CELLO technique allows to measure local data for a large number of solar cell parameters like bulk life time, back side surface recombination velocity, diffusion coefficient, and serial resistance. Inhomogeneities of these parameters induce lateral current flow in forward direction, which mixes the effects of the different defect types. Even if all local parameters would be known, a complete simulation is needed to obtain information about the local efficiency. Direct CELLO measurement at e.g. the working of the solar cell or at open circuit allows extracting this combined information directly. Examples for this will be presented in this paper, dealing with multicrystalline silicon solar cells showing a variety of defect types. Mainly to save measurement time several frequencies are applied simultaneously as a Laser intensity perturbation signal and analyzed by FFT deconvolution. The frequencies can be applied simultaneously to 3 confocal Lasers with different wavelength, i.e. penetration depths. Typically 4 frequencies are analyzed simultaneously in order to maintain a good signal to noise ratio. This features will be discussed shortly as well. Especially the application of a deep penetrating Laser significantly increases the robustness of the fitting procedure and allows to separate reliably bulk and surface recombination and mobility dependencies (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. A novel acoustic method for gas flow measurement using correlation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Physics


    The study demonstrates a new kind of acoustic method for gas flow measurement. The method uses upstream and downstream propagating low frequency plane wave and correlation techniques for volume flow rate determination. The theory of propagating low frequency plane waves in the pipe is introduced and is proved empirically to be applicable for flow measurement. The flow profile dependence of the method is verified and found to be negligible at least in the region of moderate perturbations. The physical principles of the method were applied in practice in the form of a flowmeter with new design concepts. The developed prototype meters were verified against the reference standard of NMI (Nederlands Meetinstituut), which showed that a wide dynamic range of 1:80 is achievable with total expanded uncertainty below 0.3 %. Also the requirements used for turbine meters of linearity, weighted mean error and stability were shown to be well fulfilled. A brief comparison with other flowmeter types shows the new flowmeter to be competitive. The advantages it offers are a small pressure drop over the meter, no blockage of flow in possible malfunction, no pulsation to flow, essentially no moving parts, and the possibility for bidirectional measurements. The introduced flowmeter is also capable of using the telephone network or a radio-modem to read the consumption of gas and report its operation to the user. (orig.) 51 refs.

  10. Non-Contact Measurement of Cereal Quality by Image Sensing and Numerical Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein W. B.


    Full Text Available In this paper, digital image processing techniques are applied to measure some of the quality parameters of the durum wheat semolina. One of these parameters is the semolina colour value in the lab colour space L*a*b*, which is the commonly employed colour space in food field. Several numerical methods are developed and analysed for mapping the RGB digital images to L*a*b*. These methods are direct, polynomial regression, and neural network methods. The accuracy of each method is obtained with respect to the measured L*a*b* values captured with a Chroma-Meter instrument. The numerical models outcomes showed lowest colour deviations of 0.72. The results also demonstrated a significant effect of the training data set on the numerical L*a*b* outputs. Moreover, a partial least-squares regression model was developed to numerically predict the β–carotene content in semolina, as another important quality parameter. The model proved a correlation coefficient of 0.94 between numerical predictions and experimental measurements according to the ICC standard method 152 for extracting the durum carotenoids, thus bears a high potential for facilitating carotene detection in durum.

  11. Comparison of thermistor linearization techniques for accurate temperature measurement in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, S B; Kyriacou, P A, E-mail: [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)


    Alternate energy technologies are developing rapidly in the recent years. A significant part of this trend is the development of different phase change materials (PCMs). Proper utilization of PCMs requires accurate thermal characterization. There are several methodologies used in this field. This paper stresses the importance of accurate temperature measurements during the implementation of T-history method. Since the temperature sensor size is also important thermistors have been selected as the sensing modality. Two thermistor linearization techniques, one based on Wheatstone bridge and the other based on simple serial-parallel resistor connection, are compared in terms of achievable temperature accuracy through consideration of both, nonlinearity and self-heating errors. Proper calibration was performed before T-history measurement of RT21 (RUBITHERM (registered) GmbH) PCM. Measurement results suggest that the utilization of serial-parallel resistor connection gives better accuracy (less than {+-}0.1 deg. C) in comparison with the Wheatstone bridge based configuration (up to {+-}1.5 deg. C).

  12. Spacecraft Communications System Verification Using On-Axis Near Field Measurement Techniques (United States)

    Keating, Thomas; Baugh, Mark; Gosselin, R. B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)


    Determination of the readiness of a spacecraft for launch is a critical requirement. The final assembly of all subsystems must be verified. Testing of a communications system can mostly be done using closed-circuits (cabling to/from test ports), but the final connections to the antenna require radiation tests. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Project used a readily available 'near-fleld on-axis' equation to predict the values to be used for comparison with those obtained in a test program. Tests were performed in a 'clean room' environment at both Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and in Japan at the Tanegashima Space Center (TnSC) launch facilities. Most of the measured values agreed with the predicted values to within 0.5 dB. This demonstrates that sometimes you can use relatively simple techniques to make antenna performance measurements when use of the 'far field ranges, anechoic chambers, or precision near-field ranges' are neither available nor practical. Test data and photographs are provided.

  13. Assessment of measurement techniques to determine the interfacial properties of bilayer dental ceramics (United States)

    Anunmana, Chuchai

    The clinical success of all-ceramic dental restorations depends on the quality of interfacial bonding between ceramic layers. In addition, the residual stress in the structure that developed during ceramic processing is one of the important factors that contributes to the quality of the bond. Because all-ceramic restorations are usually fabricated as bilayer or trilayer structures and failures of all-ceramic restorations have been frequently reported as chipping or delamination of the veneer layers, the interfacial quality of bilayer dental ceramic restorations was investigated. However, most of the published bond test data reflect strength values that are inversely related to cross-sectional areas and failure locations are frequently disregarded or bond strength values are misinterpreted. In addition, residual tensile stresses that develop in the structures because of thermal expansion/contraction mismatches may also adversely affect interfacial fracture resistance. The first objective of this study was to determine the interfacial toughness of bonded bilayer ceramics using two different approaches. The results indicate that the short-bar chevron-notch test and a controlled-flaw microtensile test can induce interfacial failure that represents true bonding quality. The second objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that residual stresses estimated from an indentation technique are not significantly different from residual stresses that are calculated based on fractography and flexural strength. The indentation technique may be useful as a simplified method to determine residual stresses in bilayer dental ceramics. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no significant difference in mean residual stresses determined from the two techniques. Because of relationship between residual stresses and apparent interfacial toughness, estimates of residual stresses can now be estimated more rapidly by measuring the apparent interfacial toughness of

  14. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements. (United States)

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M


    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged images were obtained. The diameter of bruise images were measured by three computer aided measurement techniques: Image J (segmentation with Simple Interactive Object Extraction (maximum Feret diameter), 'Circular Selection Tool' (Circle diameter), & the Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p Images were available for 38 bruises in vivo, with 48 bruises visible on cross polarized imaging and 46 on conventional imaging (some bruises interpreted as being single in vivo appeared to be multiple in digital images). Correlation coefficients were >0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high for all maximum diameter measurements (ICC's > 0.7). Whilst there are minimal differences between measurements of images obtained, the most consistent results were obtained when conventional images, segmented by Image J Software, were measured with a Feret

  15. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (United States)

    Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J


    Background The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Methods Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Results Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. Conclusion In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures

  16. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.


    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose (/sup 75/Se, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption.

  17. [Measuring residents' and specialists' laparoscopic technique with the MENTOR® training box]. (United States)

    Kakucs, Tímea; Lukovich, Péter; Dobó, Noémi; Benkő, Péter; Harsányi, László


    Operating room is not the ideal place to acquire laparoscopic skills since patients can be put at risk and it is also relatively expensive. Using training boxes seems to be a more appropriate way of teaching and learning the technique, but there is little data about measuring the technique of experienced specialists and comparing their results with residents. At the 1st Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University we tested 30 residents and 25 specialists in general surgery and urology on MENTOR® training box. Before training, all participants completed a questionnaire on professional experience, previous usage of training boxes, virtual simulators, and video games, and whether they played a musical instrument earlier. Subjects were asked to complete in a defined time limit 3 of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks (which is required for American surgical residents for surgical board examination), and 3 tasks decided by us. Linear regression analysis (ANOVA table) was used to evaluate the data. 16% of the specialists and 6.66% of the residents completed all tasks within time limit. Statistically significant correlation (p learning instrument handling. Nonetheless, residents acquire most of their laparoscopic surgical skills on patients in Hungary, yet. For this reason there is a need for organized training opportunities.

  18. Relation of Elite Rifle Shooters' Technique-Test Measures to Competition Performance. (United States)

    Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Mononen, Kaisu; Kuitunen, Sami


    To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters. Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters' competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period. Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05-.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = -.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = -.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000). The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

  19. CT reconstruction techniques for improved accuracy of lung CT airway measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Ranallo, F. N. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Judy, P. F. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Gierada, D. S. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Fain, S. B., E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering,University of Wisconsin School of Engineering, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    Purpose: To determine the impact of constrained reconstruction techniques on quantitative CT (qCT) of the lung parenchyma and airways for low x-ray radiation dose. Methods: Measurement of small airways with qCT remains a challenge, especially for low x-ray dose protocols. Images of the COPDGene quality assurance phantom (CTP698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) were obtained using a GE discovery CT750 HD scanner for helical scans at x-ray radiation dose-equivalents ranging from 1 to 4.12 mSv (12–100 mA s current–time product). Other parameters were 40 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch, 0.5 s rotation, and 0.625 mm thickness. The phantom was sandwiched between 7.5 cm thick water attenuating phantoms for a total length of 20 cm to better simulate the scatter conditions of patient scans. Image data sets were reconstructed using STANDARD (STD), DETAIL, BONE, and EDGE algorithms for filtered back projection (FBP), 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and Veo reconstructions. Reduced (half) display field of view (DFOV) was used to increase sampling across airway phantom structures. Inner diameter (ID), wall area percent (WA%), and wall thickness (WT) measurements of eight airway mimicking tubes in the phantom, including a 2.5 mm ID (42.6 WA%, 0.4 mm WT), 3 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 0.6 mm WT), and 6 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 1.2 mm WT) were performed with Airway Inspector (Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA) using the phase congruency edge detection method. The average of individual measures at five central slices of the phantom was taken to reduce measurement error. Results: WA% measures were greatly overestimated while IDs were underestimated for the smaller airways, especially for reconstructions at full DFOV (36 cm) using the STD kernel, due to poor sampling and spatial resolution (0.7 mm pixel size). Despite low radiation dose, the ID of the 6 mm ID airway was consistently measured accurately for all methods other than STD

  20. CT reconstruction techniques for improved accuracy of lung CT airway measurement (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Ranallo, F. N.; Judy, P. F.; Gierada, D. S.; Fain, S. B.


    Purpose: To determine the impact of constrained reconstruction techniques on quantitative CT (qCT) of the lung parenchyma and airways for low x-ray radiation dose. Methods: Measurement of small airways with qCT remains a challenge, especially for low x-ray dose protocols. Images of the COPDGene quality assurance phantom (CTP698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) were obtained using a GE discovery CT750 HD scanner for helical scans at x-ray radiation dose-equivalents ranging from 1 to 4.12 mSv (12–100 mA s current–time product). Other parameters were 40 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch, 0.5 s rotation, and 0.625 mm thickness. The phantom was sandwiched between 7.5 cm thick water attenuating phantoms for a total length of 20 cm to better simulate the scatter conditions of patient scans. Image data sets were reconstructed using STANDARD (STD), DETAIL, BONE, and EDGE algorithms for filtered back projection (FBP), 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and Veo reconstructions. Reduced (half) display field of view (DFOV) was used to increase sampling across airway phantom structures. Inner diameter (ID), wall area percent (WA%), and wall thickness (WT) measurements of eight airway mimicking tubes in the phantom, including a 2.5 mm ID (42.6 WA%, 0.4 mm WT), 3 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 0.6 mm WT), and 6 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 1.2 mm WT) were performed with Airway Inspector (Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA) using the phase congruency edge detection method. The average of individual measures at five central slices of the phantom was taken to reduce measurement error. Results: WA% measures were greatly overestimated while IDs were underestimated for the smaller airways, especially for reconstructions at full DFOV (36 cm) using the STD kernel, due to poor sampling and spatial resolution (0.7 mm pixel size). Despite low radiation dose, the ID of the 6 mm ID airway was consistently measured accurately for all methods other than STD