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Sample records for profiling float array

  1. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.; Williams, Nancy L.; Boss, Emmanuel; Haëntjens, Nils; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean. As of February 2016, 86 floats have been deployed. Here the focus is on 56 floats with quality-controlled and adjusted data that have been in the water at least 6 months. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter sensors. The raw data generated by these sensors can suffer from inaccurate initial calibrations and from sensor drift over time. Procedures to correct the data are defined. The initial accuracy of the adjusted concentrations is assessed by comparing the corrected data to laboratory measurements made on samples collected by a hydrographic cast with a rosette sampler at the float deployment station. The long-term accuracy of the corrected data is compared to the GLODAPv2 data set whenever a float made a profile within 20 km of a GLODAPv2 station. Based on these assessments, the fleet average oxygen data are accurate to 1 ± 1%, nitrate to within 0.5 ± 0.5 µmol kg-1, and pH to 0.005 ± 0.007, where the error limit is 1 standard deviation of the fleet data. The bio-optical measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter are used to estimate chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon concentration. The particulate organic carbon concentrations inferred from optical backscatter appear accurate to with 35 mg C m-3 or 20%, whichever is larger. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimated chlorophyll a concentrations are evaluated.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe ocean science community must move toward greater use of autonomous platforms and sensors if we are to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate driven change within the ocean. Essential to this shift in observing strategies is an understanding of the performance that can be obtained from biogeochemical sensors on platforms

  2. Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenkovich, Igor; Haza, Angelique; Gray, Alison R.; Dufour, Carolina O.; Garraffo, Zulema

    2017-09-01

    This study uses Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to examine the reconstruction of biogeochemical variables in the Southern Ocean from an array of autonomous profiling floats. In these OSSEs, designed to be relevant to the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observation and Modeling (SOCCOM) project, the simulated floats move with oceanic currents and sample dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. The annual mean and seasonal cycle of these fields are then reconstructed and compared to the original model fields. The reconstruction skill is quantified with the reconstruction error (RErr), defined as the difference between the reconstructed and actual model fields, weighted by a local measure of the spatiotemporal variability. The square of the RErr is small (exception of the seasonal cycle in parts of the Indo-Atlantic, and that doubling this number to 300 results in a very modest increase in the reconstruction skill for dissolved oxygen.

  3. Active floating micro electrode arrays (AFMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Troyk, P R; Bak, M

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscientists have widely used metal microelectrodes inserted into the cortex to record neural signals from, and provide electrical stimulation to, neural tissue for many years. Recently, the demand for implanting electrode arrays within the cortex, for both stimulation and recording, has rapidly increased. We are developing Active-floating-micro-electrode-arrays (AFMA) that are intended for use as a multielectrode cortical interface while minimizing the number of wires leading from the array to extra-dural circuitry or connectors. When combined with a wireless module, these new microelectrode arrays should allow for simulation and recording within free-roaming animals. This paper mainly discusses the design, fabrication, and packing of the first generation AFMA. Our long-term vision is a wireless-transmission electrode system, for stimulation and recording in free-roaming animals, which uses a family of modular active implantable electrode arrays.

  4. A statistical method for correcting salinity observations from autonomous profiling floats: An ARGO perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Reverdin, G.

    The Profiling Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (PALACE) float is used to implement the Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO). This study presents a statistical approach to correct salinity measurement errors of an ARGO...

  5. Profiling floats and gliders/AUVs powered by ocean temperature differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Development, implementation and testing of a profiling float powered by ocean temperature differentials are described. The current generation profiling floats are all powered by primary battery and therefore have limited lifetime. After a few hundreds dives, the floats have to be disposed in the ocean. To maintain a float array of 3000 units in support of the international Argo program, several hundreds of new floats have to be deployed every year, implying a significant cost for deployment. The limited power from the primary battery also restricts a relatively long (i.e., 10 days) sampling interval and new sensors (e.g., biogeochemical, acoustic and optical) to be attached. Harvesting the ocean thermal energy associated with the vertical temperature differentials has the potential to power profiling floats with fast sampling (e.g., 1 day or 6 hours) while still maintaining a multi-year mission as well as more sensors. The concept of a thermally powered glider will be presented. The design of a thermal recharging station that can be used to dock and charge AUVs will also be discussed.

  6. Freely Drifting Swallow Float Array: May 1987 Trip Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    spectral peak on the i axis at 20.8 Hz. Its amplitude on the midwater column floats’ spectra is between 65 and 70 dIE re ( IpPa )2 per Hz, or -179 to -173 dB... IpPa )2 per Hz to dB re (Im/sec) 2 per Hz, subtract 243.5 dB, as discussed at the beginrning of this section). The horizontal components are general

  7. Optimal Configurations of Wave Energy Converter Arrays with a Floating Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wanchao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An array of floating point-absorbing wave energy converters (WECs is usually employed for extracting efficiently ocean wave energy. For deep water environment, it is more feasible and convenient to connect the absorbers array with a floating body, such as a semi-submersible bottom-moored disk, whose function is to act as the virtual seabed. In the present work, an array of identical floating symmetrically distributed cylinders in a coaxial moored disk as a wave energy device is proposed The power take-off (PTO system in the wave energy device is assumed to be composed of a linear/nonlinear damper activated by the buoys heaving motion. Hydrodynamic analysis of the examined floating system is implemented in frequency domain. Hydrodynamic interferences between the oscillating bodies are accounted for in the corresponding coupled equations. The array layouts under the constraint of the disk, incidence wave directions, separating distance between the absorbers and the PTO damping are considered to optimize this kind of WECs. Numerical results with regular waves are presented and discussed for the axisymmetric system utilizing heave mode with these interaction factors, in terms of a specific numbers of cylinders and expected power production.

  8. A Self-Powered Fast-Sampling Profiling Float in support of a Mesoscale Ocean Observing System in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T.; Chao, Y.; Davis, R. E.; Jones, J.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will describe a new self-powered profiling float that can perform fast sampling over the upper ocean for long durations in support of a mesoscale ocean observing system in the Western North Pacific. The current state-of-the-art profiling floats can provide several hundreds profiles for the upper ocean every ten days. To quantify the role of the upper ocean in modulating the development of Typhoons requires at least an order of magnitude reduction for the sampling interval. With today's profiling float and battery technology, a fast sampling of one day or even a few hours will reduce the typical lifetime of profiling floats from years to months. Interactions between the ocean and typhoons often involves mesoscale eddies and fronts, which require a dense array of floats to reveal the 3-dimensional structure. To measure the mesoscale ocean over a large area like the Western North Pacific therefore requires a new technology that enables fast sampling and long duration at the same time. Harvesting the ocean renewable energy associated with the vertical temperature differentials has the potential to power profiling floats with fast sampling over long durations. Results from the development and deployment of a prototype self-powered profiling float (known as SOLO-TREC) will be presented. With eight hours sampling in the upper 500 meters, the upper ocean temperature and salinity reveal pronounced high frequency variations. Plans to use the SOLO-TREC technology in support of a dense array of fast sampling profiling floats in the Western North Pacific will be discussed.

  9. Drift in salinity data from Argo profiling floats in the Sea of Japan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Bajish, C.C.; Behera, S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    and float CTD matchups have been selected based on the time– space decorrelation scale (6 days and 100 km), as illus- trated in Figs. 2a,b. Although there are about 200 FIG. 3. Trajectory of the float (a) 2900438, (b) 2900440, (c) 2900441, and (d) 2900525... floats provide a good opportunity to examine Argo salinity drift beyond the expected life span of Argo floats. The trajectory of the four selected floats with profile positions and the shipboard CTD matchup positions (blue filled circles) are provided...

  10. Quality of temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, V.; Pankajakshan, T.; Rajkumar, M.; Prasannakumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Ravichandran, M.; Rao, R.R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    on Argo-SPB could not identify any significant systematic bias/error, except for a single profile (cycle No 48) of float-4900675 In the case of Argo-N, significant error is found in most of the salinity profiles from the float-2900268....

  11. Contrasting views of the annual carbon cycle observed with SOCCOM profiling floats in the Pacific and the Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean: A glimpse of future views provided by global observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.; Gray, A. R.; Williams, N. L.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate, Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM) is building an array of profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These profiling floats, with 6 year lifetimes, are designed to extend the decadal-scale observations of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography program into the seasonal and interannual domain. Profiling floats that are equipped with oxygen, nitrate, pH, and biooptical sensors are deployed from GO-SHIP sections, or from ships of opportunity that make GO-SHIP quality observations, to ensure the consistency of the float observations with the long-term climatology. Observations are made from near 2000 m to the surface at 10 day intervals. SOCCOM has deployed arrays of these floats along the P16S line at 150°W in the Pacific and along the A12 line at 0° in the Atlantic. Data from the floats are quality controlled and made available in real time at http://soccom.princeton.edu. The floats are equipped with ice avoidance software to enable operations under ice and floats have been deployed as far south at 68°. At the time of the meeting, nearly two years of data will be available from the Pacific and one year of data in the Atlantic. Dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are derived from the observed pH and estimates of total alkalinity that are estimated from global climatologies. Initial assessments of air-sea gas exchange and net community production derived from the annual changes in dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, and nitrate concentrations along these sections, which were developed using 1D mixed layer models, will be presented. The contrasting views from these floats provide a suggestion of the future capabilities of basin scale observing systems based on profiling floats with biogeochemical sensors.

  12. Free-floating epithelial micro-tissue arrays: a low cost and versatile technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, P; Alvarez, L; Reynaud, E G

    2016-10-11

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue models are invaluable tools that can closely reflect the in vivo physiological environment. However, they are usually difficult to develop, have a low throughput and are often costly; limiting their utility to most laboratories. The recent availability of inexpensive additive manufacturing printers and open source 3D design software offers us the possibility to easily create affordable 3D cell culture platforms. To demonstrate this, we established a simple, inexpensive and robust method for producing arrays of free-floating epithelial micro-tissues. Using a combination of 3D computer aided design and 3D printing, hydrogel micro-moulding and collagen cell encapsulation we engineered microenvironments that consistently direct the growth of micro-tissue arrays. We described the adaptability of this technique by testing several immortalised epithelial cell lines (MDCK, A549, Caco-2) and by generating branching morphology and micron to millimetre scaled micro-tissues. We established by fluorescence and electron microscopy that micro-tissues are polarised, have cell type specific differentiated phenotypes and regain native in vivo tissue qualities. Finally, using Salmonella typhimurium we show micro-tissues display a more physiologically relevant infection response compared to epithelial monolayers grown on permeable filter supports. In summary, we have developed a robust and adaptable technique for producing arrays of epithelial micro-tissues. This in vitro model has the potential to be a valuable tool for studying epithelial cell and tissue function/architecture in a physiologically relevant context.

  13. Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies: Potential synergies with ocean color remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claustre, H.; Bishop, J.; Boss, E.; Bernard, S.; Berthon, J.-F.; Coatanoan, C.; Johnson, K.; Lotiker, A.; Ulloa, O.; Perry, M.J.; D' Ortenzio, F.; D' andon, O.H.F.; Uitz, J.

    2009-10-01

    Profiling floats now represent a mature technology. In parallel with their emergence, the field of miniature, low power bio-optical and biogeochemical sensors is rapidly evolving. Over recent years, the bio-geochemical and bio-optical community has begun to benefit from the increase in observational capacities by developing profiling floats that allow the measurement of key biooptical variables and subsequent products of biogeochemical and ecosystem relevance like Chlorophyll a (Chla), optical backscattering or attenuation coefficients which are proxies of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM). Thanks to recent algorithmic improvements, new bio-optical variables such as backscattering coefficient or absorption by CDOM, at present can also be extracted from space observations of ocean color. In the future, an intensification of in situ measurements by bio-optical profiling floats would permit the elaboration of unique 3D/4D bio-optical climatologies, linking surface (remotely detected) properties to their vertical distribution (measured by autonomous platforms), with which key questions in the role of the ocean in climate could be addressed. In this context, the objective of the IOCCG (International Ocean Color Coordinating Group) BIO-Argo working group is to elaborate recommendations in view of a future use of bio-optical profiling floats as part of a network that would include a global array that could be 'Argo-relevant', and specific arrays that would have more focused objectives or regional targets. The overall network, realizing true multi-scale sustained observations of global marine biogeochemistry and biooptics, should satisfy the requirements for validation of ocean color remote sensing as well as the needs of a wider community investigating the impact of global change on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. Regarding the global profiling float array, the recommendation is that Chla as well as POC should be the

  14. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  15. A piezo-powered floating-gate sensor array for long-term fatigue monitoring in biomechanical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnef, N; Elvin, N G; Chakrabartty, S

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of the cumulative loading statistics experienced by an implant is essential for prediction of long-term fatigue failure. However, the total power that can be harvested using typical in-vivo strain levels is less than 1 muW. In this paper, we present a novel method for long-term, battery-less fatigue monitoring by integrating piezoelectric transduction with hot-electron injection on a floating-gate transistor array. Measured results from a fabricated prototype in a 0.5-mum CMOS process demonstrate that the array can sense, compute, and store loading statistics for over 70000 stress-strain cycles which can be extended to beyond 107 cycles. The measured response also shows excellent agreement with a theoretical model and the nominal power dissipation of the array has been measured to be less than 800 nW.

  16. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  17. Optimal Configuration of Large Arrays of Floating Bodies for Ocean Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokic, Grgur; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2015-11-01

    We study the performance of large (O (100)) wave energy converter (WEC) arrays that are used for ocean energy harvesting. We developed a fast computational algorithm based on the multiple scattering framework that is capable of handling large arrays of different configurations (general finite-size arrays, periodic arrays, periodic arrays of subarrays); for axisymmetric bodies the algorithm imposes no constraints on the body-size-to-wavelength ratio or on the inter-body spacings. Using this fast algorithm, we optimize the spatial configurations of arrays of different types and with increasing number of bodies (up to 400), with the goal of maximizing energy extraction. The results show that employing non-uniform spacings between the bodies in ordered and non-ordered arrays can increase the array gain several times. This holds for body resonant and near-resonant frequencies, as well as for the full spectrum cases. The optimal configurations are analyzed from a physical standpoint and compared to other structured arrays in physics. These results give a guideline on the possible future design of WEC arrays.

  18. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  19. Observing the subsurface thermal signature of the Black Sea cold intermediate layer with Argo profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Anil; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel

    2017-06-01

    Cold intermediate layers (CILs) constitute a key indicator of the subsurface thermal signature in many marginal and subarctic seas. Towards better understanding the impacts of natural and anthropogenic climate variability in the Black Sea, the present study elucidates processes leading to the observed changes of CIL characteristics at mesoscale and monthly-to-interannual scales by analyzing weekly temperature-salinity profiles provided by Argo floats for 2002-2015. The continuous time series data allowed to elucidate different types of CIL formation episodes. For the first time, it was possible to trace their subsequent evolution depending on the number and intensity of successive, but often intermittent, autumn-winter cooling events in addition to the ambient flow and stratification characteristics within the cyclonic interior and anticyclonic coastal eddies/gyres. The spatial distribution of CIL formation in the cold years 2003, 2006 and 2012 covered much of the Black Sea, even coastal anticyclonic eddies as a new feature which has not been documented before. The data also recorded modification of CIL during the rest of the year in terms of its thickness, position, temperature and salinity ranges in response to advective transport by the circulation system, interior turbulent mixing, and quasi-lateral intrusions associated with mesoscale features.

  20. Global distribution of temperature and salinity profiles from profiling floats as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) project, from 1994-11-07 to 2002-01-19 (NCEI Accession 0000936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature-Salinity profile and pressure data were collected by using profiling floats in a world-wide distribution from 07 November 1994 to 19 January 2002. Data...

  1. Kinome profiling of Arabidopsis using arrays of kinase consensus substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieterse Corné MJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinome profiling aims at the parallel analysis of kinase activities in a cell. Novel developed arrays containing consensus substrates for kinases are used to assess those kinase activities. The arrays described in this paper were already used to determine kinase activities in mammalian systems, but since substrates from many organisms are present we decided to test these arrays for the determination of kinase activities in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Kinome profiling using Arabidopsis cell extracts resulted in the labelling of many consensus peptides by kinases from the plant, indicating the usefulness of this kinome profiling tool for plants. Method development showed that fresh and frozen plant material could be used to make cell lysates containing active kinases. Dilution of the plant extract increased the signal to noise ratio and non-radioactive ATP enhances full development of spot intensities. Upon infection of Arabidopsis with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, we could detect differential kinase activities by measuring phosphorylation of consensus peptides. Conclusion We show that kinome profiling on arrays with consensus substrates can be used to monitor kinase activities in plants. In a case study we show that upon infection with avirulent P. syringae differential kinase activities can be found. The PepChip can for example be used to purify (unknown kinases that play a role in P. syringae infection. This paper shows that kinome profiling using arrays of consensus peptides is a valuable new tool to study signal-transduction in plants. It complements the available methods for genomics and proteomics research.

  2. Profile and environmental perception of visitors at river dolphins floating, Anavilhanas National Park, Novo Airão – AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Derzi Vidal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In River Dolphins Floating, situated in the Anavilhanas National Park, municipality of Novo Airão-AM, develops tourism interactive with Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis. Interactions with those animals began in 1998 and since then, the enterprise has become the main tourist spot in the city. Here is presented the profile and perception of environmental 119 visitors of the River Dolphins Floating and concluded that tourism interactive with cetaceans in Anavilhanas National Park is positive both in the economic and social council of the Novo Airão, therefore directly and indirectly promotes the generation income, as under environmental, since the tourism model implemented is seen by visitors as a tool that contributes to the conservation of Amazon River Dolphin.

  3. Hydrodynamics of triangular-grid arrays of floating point-absorber wave energy converters with inter-body and bottom slack-mooring connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Pedro C.; Falcao, Antonio F. de O.; Gato, Luiz M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Justino, Paulo A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    It may be convenient that dense arrays of floating point absorbers are spread-moored to the sea bottom through only some of their elements (possibly located in the periphery), while the other array elements are prevented from drifting and colliding with each other by connections to adjacent elements. An array of identical floating point absorbers located at the grid points of an equilateral triangular grid is considered in the paper. A spread set of slack-mooring lines connect the peripheric floaters to the bottom. A weight is located at the centre of each triangle whose function is o pull the three floaters towards each other and keep the inter-body moorings lines under tension. The whole system - buoys, moorings and power take-off systems - is assumed linear, so that a frequency domain analysis may be employed. Hydrodynamic interference between the oscillating bodies is neglected. Equations are presented for a set of three identical point absorbers. This is then extended to more complex equilateral iriangular grid arrays. Results from numerical simulations, with regular and irregular waves, are presented for the motions and power absorption of hemispherical converters in arrays of three and seven elements and different mooring and power take-off parameters, and wave incidence angles. Comparisons are given with the unmoored and independently-moored buoy situations.

  4. First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca E; Bower, Amy S; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX) float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012), the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local "hot spots", including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62). Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49) was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87). In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing network for

  5. First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Green

    Full Text Available Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012, the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local "hot spots", including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62. Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49 was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing

  6. Low profile conformal antenna arrays on high impedance substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents electromagnetic (EM) design and analysis of dipole antenna array over high impedance substrate (HIS). HIS is a preferred substrate for low-profile antenna design, owing to its unique boundary conditions. Such substrates permit radiating elements to be printed on them without any disturbance in the radiation characteristics. Moreover HIS provides improved impedance matching, enhanced bandwidth, and increased broadside directivity owing to total reflection from the reactive surface and high input impedance. This book considers different configurations of HIS for array design on planar and non-planar high-impedance surfaces. Results are presented for cylindrical dipole, printed dipole, and folded dipole over single- and double-layered square-patch-based HIS and dogbone-based HIS. The performance of antenna arrays is analyzed in terms of performance parameters such as return loss and radiation pattern. The design presented shows acceptable return loss and mainlobe gain of radiation pattern. Thi...

  7. Temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats through the month of August 2017 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1995-09-07 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0042682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent all data collected from Argo profiling floats through the current month (August 2017). The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information...

  8. Upper Ocean Measurements from Profiling Floats in the Arabian Sea During NASCar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    top-level goals] OBJECTIVES The work proposed here is designed to examine the seasonal evolution of the upper ocean in the northern Arabian...circulation of the Arabian Sea and the seasonal and spatial evolution of the surface mixed layer, and would be used in conjunction with HYCOM model...available in real-time on the internet , as is generally done with Argo-type float data. We have collaborated for many years with colleagues in India

  9. Analysis and design of low profile multiband multifunctional antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsicker, Walker F.

    Light-weight phased array antennas for aerospace and mobile applications require utilizing the same antenna aperture to provide multiple functions with dissimilar radiation pattern specifications (e.g., multiband operation for communications and tracking). Multi-functional antennas provide advantages over aggregate antenna clusters by reducing space requirements, and can aid in the optimal placement of all required apertures to provide adequate isolation between channels. Furthermore, the combination of antenna apertures into a common geometry mitigates co-site installation issues by addressing interference within the integrated radiator design itself as opposed to the extensive analysis which is required to configure multiple radiators in close proximity. The combination of multiple radiators into a single aperture can only be achieved with the proper selection of antenna topology and accompanying feed network design. This research proposes a new technique for the design of multiband arrays in which a common aperture is used. Highlighted by this method is the integration of a tri-band array comprised of an X-band (12 GHz) microstrip patch array on a superstrate above printed dual-band (1 and 2 GHz) slot loop antenna arrays in an octave-spaced lattice. The selection of a ground backing reflector is considered for improved gain and system packaging, but restricts the utility of the design principally due to the lambda/4 depth of the ground plane. Therefore, a novel multiband high impedance surfaces (HIS) is proposed to load the slot apertures for reduced height. The novel techniques proposed here will enable the design of a low profile and conformal single aperture supporting multi-band and multi-functional operations.

  10. Evolution of Eighteen Degree Water and deep mixed layer oxygen and properties from profiling floats during CLIMODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, B.; Talley, L.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the CLIMODE observations of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) formation and destruction, 9 profiling floats equipped with optical oxygen sensors as well as CTDs profiled temperature, salinity and oxygen every 5 days to 500 m and every 10 days to 1800 m during 2006 and 2007 in the Gulf Stream region. Thick (200- 450 m) late winter mixed layers with EDW properties were observed close to the Gulf Stream at about 52W, and in a separate cluster up to several hundred kilometers south of the Gulf Stream at about 62W, within the westward recirculation. Relatively thick winter mixed layers at 14C were observed north of the Gulf Stream, and also adjacent to the North Atlantic Current much farther to the east. Mixed layer oxygen saturation is a robust indicator of deep mixing: it is depressed in the thick winter mixed layers and increases abruptly upon cessation of deep mixing. EDW layers for these floats, defined by low potential density gradient, were thickest during and just after late- winter outcropping. EDW thickness declined by about 100 m when mixing ceased, with the EDW layer center also shifting physically downward. Oxygen saturation decreased in the EDW by about 10 percent from late winter to late summer, indicating annual aging of the water mass followed by renewal again in the winter. The oxygen-equipped floats provide an excellent opportunity to study the seasonal evolution of oxygen in the upper ocean in the Sargasso Sea. A well-developed oxygen minimum, centered at about 27.2 sigma theta and originating in the tropical Atlantic, underlies the EDW at about 800 m (south of the Gulf Stream). Above the EDW were the seasonally-evolving mixed layer with a thin underlying oxygen maximum layer in spring/summer and a thin oxygen minimum layer in fall/early winter, associated with photosynthesis/respiration. Although the EDW's absolute oxygen content decreased throughout the year following late winter formation, the EDW was marked by a slight vertical oxygen

  11. Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies: Potential synergies with ocean color remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claustre, H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Profiling floats now represent a mature technology. In parallel with their emergence, the field of miniature, low power bio-optical and biogeochemical sensors is rapidly evolving. Over recent years, the bio-geochemical and bio-optical community has...

  12. Temporal variability of chlorophyll distribution in the Gulf of Mexico: bio-optical data from profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; Perez-Brunius, Paula; Damien, Pierre; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2017-12-01

    Chlorophyll concentration is a key oceanic biogeochemical variable. In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), its distribution, which is mainly obtained from satellite surface observations and scarce in situ experiments, is still poorly understood. In 2011-2012, eight profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors were deployed for the first time in the GOM and generated an unprecedented dataset that significantly increased the number of chlorophyll vertical distribution measurements in the region. The analysis of these data, once calibrated, permits us to reconsider the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll concentration in the water column. At a seasonal scale, results confirm the surface signal seen by satellites, presenting maximum concentrations in winter and low values in summer. It is shown that the deepening of the mixed layer is the primary factor triggering the chlorophyll surface increase in winter. In the GOM, a possible interpretation is that this surface increase corresponds to a biomass increase. However, the present dataset suggests that the basin-scale climatological surface increase in chlorophyll content results from a vertical redistribution of subsurface chlorophyll and/or photoacclimation processes, rather than a net increase of biomass. One plausible explanation for this is the decoupling between the mixed-layer depth and the deep nutrient reservoir since mixed-layer depth only reaches the nitracline in sporadic events in the observations. Float measurements also provide evidence that the depth and the magnitude of the deep chlorophyll maximum is strongly controlled by the mesoscale variability, with higher chlorophyll biomass generally observed in cyclones rather than anticyclones.

  13. Ecological and morphological profile of floating spherical Cladophora socialis aggregations in central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Tsutsui

    Full Text Available The unique beauty of spherical aggregation forming algae has attracted much attention from both the scientific and lay communities. Several aegagropilous seaweeds have been identified to date, including the plants of genus Cladophora and Chaetomorpha. However, this phenomenon remains poorly understood. In July 2013, a mass occurrence of spherical Cladophora aggregations was observed in a salt field reservoir in Central Thailand. The aims of the present study were to describe the habitat of the spherical aggregations and confirm the species. We performed a field survey, internal and external morphological observations, pyrenoid ultrastructure observations, and molecular sequence analysis. Floating spherical Cladophora aggregations (1-8 cm in diameter were observed in an area ~560 m2, on the downwind side of the reservoir where there was water movement. Individual filaments in the aggregations were entangled in each other; consequently, branches growing in different directions were observed within a clump. We suggest that water movement and morphological characteristics promote the formation of spherical aggregations in this species. The molecular sequencing results revealed that the study species was highly homologous to both C. socialis and C. coelothrix. However, the diameter of the apical cells in the study species was less than that of C. coelothrix. The pyrenoid ultrastructure was more consistent with that of C. socialis. We conclude that the study species is C. socialis. This first record of spherical aggregations in this species advances our understanding of these formations. However, further detailed physical measurements are required to fully elucidate the mechanism behind these spherical formations.

  14. Ecological and morphological profile of floating spherical Cladophora socialis aggregations in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Isao; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Sukchai, Halethichanok; Pinphoo, Piyarat; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Meeanan, Chonlada; Songphatkaew, Jaruwan; Klomkling, Sirimas; Yamaguchi, Iori; Ganmanee, Monthon; Sudo, Hiroyuki; Hamano, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The unique beauty of spherical aggregation forming algae has attracted much attention from both the scientific and lay communities. Several aegagropilous seaweeds have been identified to date, including the plants of genus Cladophora and Chaetomorpha. However, this phenomenon remains poorly understood. In July 2013, a mass occurrence of spherical Cladophora aggregations was observed in a salt field reservoir in Central Thailand. The aims of the present study were to describe the habitat of the spherical aggregations and confirm the species. We performed a field survey, internal and external morphological observations, pyrenoid ultrastructure observations, and molecular sequence analysis. Floating spherical Cladophora aggregations (1-8 cm in diameter) were observed in an area ~560 m2, on the downwind side of the reservoir where there was water movement. Individual filaments in the aggregations were entangled in each other; consequently, branches growing in different directions were observed within a clump. We suggest that water movement and morphological characteristics promote the formation of spherical aggregations in this species. The molecular sequencing results revealed that the study species was highly homologous to both C. socialis and C. coelothrix. However, the diameter of the apical cells in the study species was less than that of C. coelothrix. The pyrenoid ultrastructure was more consistent with that of C. socialis. We conclude that the study species is C. socialis. This first record of spherical aggregations in this species advances our understanding of these formations. However, further detailed physical measurements are required to fully elucidate the mechanism behind these spherical formations.

  15. Acetic acid effects on enhancement of growth rate and reduction of amorphous carbon deposition on CNT arrays along a growth window in a floating catalyst reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Morteza; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Sane, Ali; Rahimi, Mohsen; Shirazi, Yaser; Tsakadze, Zviad; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2009-11-01

    The mm-long carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were grown in a floating catalyst reactor, using xylene-ferrocene and a small amount of acetic acid as the feed. The CNT arrays deposited on a quartz substrate at several positions along the reactor were extensively characterized using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Various characterization methods consistently reveal that the acetic acid additive to the feed alleviates deposition of amorphous carbon layer, which gradually thickens CNTs along the reactor. The acetic acid also resulted in a higher growth rate along the so-called growth window, where CNT arrays are deposited on the quartz substrate. High-performance liquid chromatography of extracted byproducts (PAHs) confirmed the presence of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The solid weight of PAHs decreased upon addition of ferrocene as the catalyst precursor, as well as of acetic acid to xylene feed. The results suggest that primary light products of xylene pyrolysis can be competitive reactants for both catalytic and subsequent pyrolytic reactions. They may also be more efficient feeds for CNT growth than xylene itself.

  16. Chlorophyll-a Variability in the Southern Ocean Mixed Layer and Euphotic Zone From Elephant Seals and Profiling Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, M. M.; Gille, S. T.; Franks, P. J. S.; Johnson, K. S.; Girton, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Ocean contains some of the ocean's deepest mixed layers. Because deep mixed layers can transport phytoplankton below the euphotic zone, light levels depend on mixed-layer depth (MLD), and phytoplankton growth is hypothesized to be co-limited by iron and light. Estimates of Chl-a fluorescence, particle backscattering and hydrographic profiles collected by southern elephant seals, EM-APEX, and biogeochemical Argo floats are used to evaluate the extent to which MLD influences phytoplankton bloom development and the vertical structure of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in the Southern Ocean. We find that surface Chl-a (i.e., mean Chl-a for the upper light penetration depth) is a relatively good proxy of phytoplankton biomass (i.e., depth-integrated Chl-a) within the euphotic zone but gives an inadequate representation of biomass within the mixed layer, particularly in the summer. Although nearly vertically homogeneous Chl-a within the mixed layer prevails in seasonal mean profiles, subsurface Chl-a maxima are not uncommon from spring through fall. Deep Chl-a maxima that correlate with particle backscattering in summer and fall are found near the base of the mixed layer, closer to the nutrient maximum than the light maximum, suggesting that nutrient limitation (i.e., essentially iron) can play a greater role than light limitation in governing productivity.

  17. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high-resolution...... array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  18. Floating Substrate Process. Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task, Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkel, M.; Hall, R.N.

    1978-06-23

    The work described was directed toward the demonstration of the practical feasibility of the Floating Substrate Process for the growth of silicon sheet. Supercooling of silicon--tin alloy melts was studied. Values as high as 78/sup 0/C at 1100/sup 0/C and 39/sup 0/C at 1200/sup 0/C were observed, corresponding to supersaturation parameter values 0.025 and 0.053 at 1050/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C, respectively. The interaction of tin with silane gas streams was investigated over the temperature range 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C. Single-pass conversion efficiencies exceeding 30% were obtained. The growth habit of spontaneously-nucleated surface growth was determined to be consistent with dendritic and web growth from <111> singly-twinned triangular nucleii. Surface growth of interlocking silicon crystals, thin enough to follow the surface of the liquid and with growth velocity as high as 5 mm/min, was obtained. Large area single-crystal growth along the melt surface was not achieved. Small single-crystal surface growth was obtained which did not propagate beyond a few millimeters. The probable reason for the polycrystalline growth is the poisoning of the growth interface by impurities.

  19. Analyzing the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Fang Tao; Dong Wu; Li Pang; Wen-Li Zhao; Jun Lu; Na Wang; Jian Wang; Xing Feng; Yan-Hong Li; Jian Ni; Jian Pan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Real-time PCR Array System is the ideal tool for analyzing the expression of a focused panel of genes. In this study, we will analyze the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays. Methods Real-time PCR array was designed and tested firstly. Then gene expression profile of 11 pediatric AML and 10 normal controls was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster so...

  20. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  1. Systematic evaluation of three microRNA profiling platforms: microarray, beads array, and quantitative real-time PCR array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of gene-profiling methodologies have been applied to microRNA research. The diversity of the platforms and analytical methods makes the comparison and integration of cross-platform microRNA profiling data challenging. In this study, we systematically analyze three representative microRNA profiling platforms: Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA microarray, beads array, and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR Low Density Array (TLDA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The microRNA profiles of 40 human osteosarcoma xenograft samples were generated by LNA array, beads array, and TLDA. Results show that each of the three platforms perform similarly regarding intra-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data within one platform while LNA array and TLDA had the best inter-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data across platforms. The endogenous controls/probes contained in each platform have been observed for their stability under different treatments/environments; those included in TLDA have the best performance with minimal coefficients of variation. Importantly, we identify that the proper selection of normalization methods is critical for improving the inter-platform reproducibility, which is evidenced by the application of two non-linear normalization methods (loess and quantile that substantially elevated the sensitivity and specificity of the statistical data assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Each platform is relatively stable in terms of its own microRNA profiling intra-reproducibility; however, the inter-platform reproducibility among different platforms is low. More microRNA specific normalization methods are in demand for cross-platform microRNA microarray data integration and comparison, which will improve the reproducibility and consistency between platforms.

  2. Design of a low-profile printed array of loaded dipoles with inherent frequency selectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Savoia, S.; Gerini, G.; Neto, A.; Galdi, V.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the design of a low-profile array of printed dipoles with inherent filtering properties for radar applications. The antenna and the band-pass filter are integrated in a single module, which is small enough to fit within the array unit cell (with period of about 0.4 ? at the

  3. Sea-state Modification and Heaving Float Interaction Factors from Physical Modelling of Arrays of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Waveenergy converters (WECs) extract energy from ocean waves and have the potential to produce a significant amount of electricity from a renewable resource. However, large “WEC farms” or “WEC arrays” (composed of a large number of individual WECs) are expected to exhibit “WEC array effects...... type WECs have been tested for a range of geometric layout configurations and wave conditions. Each WEC consists of a buoy with a diameter of 0.315 m. Power take-off was modeled by realizing friction based energy dissipation through damping of the WECs' motion. The produced database is presented: WEC...... of the cost of energy from waveenergy systems....

  4. Compression dynamics of quasi-spherical wire arrays with different linear mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrofan@triniti.ru; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Oleinik, G. M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ol’khovskaya, O. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Results of experimental studies of the implosion of quasi-spherical wire (or metalized fiber) arrays are presented. The goal of the experiments was to achieve synchronous three-dimensional compression of the plasma produced in different regions of a quasi-spherical array into its geometrical center. To search for optimal synchronization conditions, quasi-spherical arrays with different initial profiles of the linear mass were used. The following dependences of the linear mass on the poloidal angle were used: m{sub l}(θ) ∝ sin{sup –1}θ and m{sub l}(θ) ∝ sin{sup –2}θ. The compression dynamics of such arrays was compared with that of quasi-spherical arrays without linear mass profiling, m{sub l}(θ) = const. To verify the experimental data, the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasma compression in quasi-spherical arrays was studied using various diagnostics. The experiments on three-dimensional implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made it possible to study how the frozen-in magnetic field of the discharge current penetrates into the array. By measuring the magnetic field in the plasma of a quasi-spherical array, information is obtained on the processes of plasma production and formation of plasma flows from the wire/fiber regions with and without an additionally deposited mass. It is found that penetration of the magnetic flux depends on the initial linear mass profile m{sub l}(θ) of the quasi-spherical array. From space-resolved spectral measurements and frame imaging of plasma X-ray emission, information is obtained on the dimensions and shape of the X-ray source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical array. The intensity of this source is estimated and compared with that of the Z-pinch formed during the implosion of a cylindrical array.

  5. Whole genome amplification and its impact on CGH array profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum Cliff

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some array comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH platforms require a minimum of micrograms of DNA for the generation of reliable and reproducible data. For studies where there are limited amounts of genetic material, whole genome amplification (WGA is an attractive method for generating sufficient quantities of genomic material from miniscule amounts of starting material. A range of WGA methods are available and the multiple displacement amplification (MDA approach has been shown to be highly accurate, although amplification bias has been reported. In the current study, WGA was used to amplify DNA extracted from whole blood. In total, six array CGH experiments were performed to investigate whether the use of whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA produces reliable and reproducible results. Four experiments were conducted on amplified DNA compared to unamplified DNA and two experiments on unamplified DNA compared to unamplified DNA. Findings All the experiments involving wgaDNA resulted in a high proportion of losses and gains of genomic material. Previously, amplification bias has been overcome by using amplified DNA in both the test and reference DNA. Our data suggests that this approach may not be effective, as the gains and losses introduced by WGA appears to be random and are not reproducible between different experiments using the same DNA. Conclusion In light of these findings, the use of both amplified test and reference DNA on CGH arrays may not provide an accurate representation of copy number variation in the DNA.

  6. [Genomic profiling: from molecular cytogenetics to DNA arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theillet, C; Orsetti, B; Redon, R; Manoir, S D

    2001-03-01

    Genetic instability results, in a large majority of solid tumors, in deep chromosomal rearrangements. However, because chromosomal instability produces highly complex caryotypes, rarely showing stereotypic aberrations, it has not been possible to characterize solid cancers according to specific patterns of chromosomal rearrangements. This contrasts with the situation in hematological malignancies, where cytogenetics has allowed to lay out the basis of a renewed classification. New insights have been brought by the development of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This molecular cytogenetics approach was originally devised to detect regions in the genome of tumor cells undergoing quantitative changes, i.e. gains or losses of copy numbers. The large body of studies based on CGH show that solid tumors undergo frequent gains and losses and that every chromosomes show at least one region of anomaly. Furthermore, different tumor types present distinct CGH patterns of gains and losses. These observations favor the idea that it may be possible to type human solid cancers according to their patterns of genomic aberrations. However, despite the fact that a number of CGH based studies present data suggesting that different tumor types or cancers at different stages of evolution show distinct patterns of gains and losses, it has proven difficult to be conclusive. This can be mainly attributed to the lack of spatial resolution of CGH. Indeed, CGH uses metaphase chromosomes as hybridization targets and therefore its resolution is at the level of chromosomal banding. The recent adaptation of DNA array technology to CGH will allow to pass this limitation. In DNA array based CGH (array-CGH) metaphase chromosomes have been replaced by spots of cloned DNA. These DNA clones may either be genomic (BACs, YACs or cosmids) or coding (cDNAs). The resolution of array-CGH is therefore determined by the size of the cloned DNA insert (100 Kb for BACs, 1-2 kb for cDNAs). Data

  7. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using moored buoy and profiling floats in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 03 October 1972 to 13 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7500548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, east-west current component, north-south current component, fluorescence, and other data were collected using moored buoy and profiling floats...

  8. Prognostic impact of array-based genomic profiles in esophageal squamous cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to obtain a whole genome copy number profile relevant for identifying deranged pathways and clinically applicable markers. METHODS: A 32 k aCGH platform was used for high resolution mapping of copy number changes in 30 stage I-IV ESCC. Potential...

  9. Array-based profiling of ragweed and mugwort pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, G; Wopfner, N; Wallner, M; Egger, M; Didierlaurent, A; Regl, G; Aberger, F; Lang, R; Ferreira, F; Hawranek, T

    2008-11-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen is the main cause of allergic reactions in late summer and autumn. The differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy is a frequent problem encountered by allergologists in areas where both plants are present due to shared antigenic structures and overlapping flowering seasons. To evaluate the sensitization pattern of weed allergic patients towards a large panel of purified allergens in the microarray format and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eight ragweed and six mugwort pollen allergens were purified from natural source or expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Allergens were spotted on protein microarray slides or coated onto ELISA plates. Sera from 19 ragweed and/or mugwort allergic individuals were used to determine the reactivity towards single molecules in both assays. All ragweed allergic individuals were sensitized to Amb a 1, among them 30% were monosensitized to the major ragweed allergen. Art v 1 and Art v 3 were recognized by 89% of mugwort pollen-allergic patients. Extensive cross-reactivity was observed for both patient groups mainly involving the pan-allergens profilin and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. Comparable IgE profiles were obtained with both allergen microarray and ELISA methods. Molecule-based diagnosis provides essential information for the differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy and for the selection of the appropriate allergen source for specific immunotherapy.

  10. Argo Float Data from the APDRC DAPPER Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The floats are designed to drift at a fixed pressure (usually 1000 dbar) for 10 days. After this period, the floats move to a profiling pressure (usually between...

  11. Floating shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    de Pablo Márquez, B.; Castillón Bernal, P.; Fuentes López, I.

    2014-01-01

    La fractura concomitante de clavícula y escápula es una entidad poco frecuente que puede ser una de las causas de afectación del complejo suspensorio del hombro también denominado hombro flotante (floating shoulder). Se relaciona frecuentemente con traumatismos de alta energía. Presentamos un caso de esta patología en un paciente varón de 28 años que consultó por caída en bicicleta con contusión sobre hombro izquierdo. Se describen las diferentes opciones terapéuticas planteadas, las imágenes...

  12. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are gaining increasing interest as complementary information to DNA mutations for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. We introduce a method to simultaneously profile DNA mutation and methylation events for an array of sites with single site...... specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection...... of DNA hybridization, which is insensitive to temperature variation. The melting curve approach further enhances the assay specificity and tolerance to variations in probe length. We demonstrate the utility of this method by simultaneously profiling five mutation and four methylation sites in human...

  13. Floating shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Pablo Márquez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La fractura concomitante de clavícula y escápula es una entidad poco frecuente que puede ser una de las causas de afectación del complejo suspensorio del hombro también denominado hombro flotante (floating shoulder. Se relaciona frecuentemente con traumatismos de alta energía. Presentamos un caso de esta patología en un paciente varón de 28 años que consultó por caída en bicicleta con contusión sobre hombro izquierdo. Se describen las diferentes opciones terapéuticas planteadas, las imágenes radiológicas y una revisión de la literatura.

  14. Optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets using an orthogonal array design and its application for the determination of fungicide concentrations in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Hou, Bang; Li, Songqing; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing

    2014-08-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was developed as a simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of the concentrations of multiple fungicides (triazolone, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil, and trifloxystrobin) in water by high-performance liquid chromatography with variable-wavelength detection. After an approach varying one factor at a time was used, an orthogonal array design [L25 (5(5))] was employed to optimize the method and to determine the interactions between the parameters. The significance of the effects of the different factors was determined using analysis of variance. The results indicated that the extraction solvent volume significantly affects the efficiency of the extraction. Under optimal conditions, the relative standard deviation (n = 5) varied from 2.3 to 5.5% at 0.1 μg/mL for each analyte. Low limits of detection were obtained and ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 ng/mL. In addition, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of fungicides in real water samples. The results show that the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets is a potential method for detecting fungicides in environmental water samples, with recoveries of the target analytes ranging from 70.1 to 102.5%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analyzing the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Tao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Real-time PCR Array System is the ideal tool for analyzing the expression of a focused panel of genes. In this study, we will analyze the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays. Methods Real-time PCR array was designed and tested firstly. Then gene expression profile of 11 pediatric AML and 10 normal controls was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. Results We designed and tested 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for a quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric AML. The gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. To investigate possible biological interactions of differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profile were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. The results revealed 12 significant networks. Of these networks, Cellular Development, Cellular Growth and Proliferation, Tumor Morphology was the highest rated network with 36 focus molecules and the significance score of 41. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to hematological disease, cell death, cell growth and hematological system development. In the top canonical pathways, p53 and Huntington’s disease signaling came out to be the top two most significant pathways with a p value of 1.5E-8 and2.95E-7, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. We

  16. Analyzing the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Fang, Tao; Dong, Wu; Li, Pang; Wen-Li, Zhao; Jun, Lu; Na, Wang; Jian, Wang; Xing, Feng; Yan-Hong, Li; Jian, Ni; Jian, Pan

    2012-09-08

    The Real-time PCR Array System is the ideal tool for analyzing the expression of a focused panel of genes. In this study, we will analyze the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays. Real-time PCR array was designed and tested firstly. Then gene expression profile of 11 pediatric AML and 10 normal controls was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. We designed and tested 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for a quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric AML. The gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. To investigate possible biological interactions of differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profile were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. The results revealed 12 significant networks. Of these networks, Cellular Development, Cellular Growth and Proliferation, Tumor Morphology was the highest rated network with 36 focus molecules and the significance score of 41. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to hematological disease, cell death, cell growth and hematological system development. In the top canonical pathways, p53 and Huntington's disease signaling came out to be the top two most significant pathways with a p value of 1.5E-8 and2.95E-7, respectively. The present study demonstrates the gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. We found some genes dyes-regulated in pediatric AML for the first time as

  17. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheet-covered metal nanoparticle array as a floating gate in multi-functional flash memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional materials appear to be excellent candidates for non-volatile memory applications. However, the limited controllability of charge trapping behaviors and the lack of multi-bit storage studies in two-dimensional based memory devices require further improvement for realistic applications. Here, we report a flash memory consisting of metal NPs-molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a floating gate by introducing a metal nanoparticle (NP) (Ag, Au, Pt) monolayer underneath the MoS2 nanosheets. Controlled charge trapping and long data retention have been achieved in a metal (Ag, Au, Pt) NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memory. This controlled charge trapping is hypothesized to be attributed to band bending and a built-in electric field ξbi between the interface of the metal NPs and MoS2. The metal NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memories were further proven to be multi-bit memory storage devices possessing a 3-bit storage capability and a good retention capability up to 104 s. We anticipate that these findings would provide scientific insight for the development of novel memory devices utilizing an atomically thin two-dimensional lattice structure.Semiconducting two-dimensional materials appear to be excellent candidates for non-volatile memory applications. However, the limited controllability of charge trapping behaviors and the lack of multi-bit storage studies in two-dimensional based memory devices require further improvement for realistic applications. Here, we report a flash memory consisting of metal NPs-molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a floating gate by introducing a metal nanoparticle (NP) (Ag, Au, Pt) monolayer underneath the MoS2 nanosheets. Controlled charge trapping and long data retention have been achieved in a metal (Ag, Au, Pt) NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memory. This controlled charge trapping is hypothesized to be attributed to band bending and a built-in electric field ξbi between the interface of the metal NPs and MoS2. The metal

  18. Temperature and pressure data collected using drifting buoy and profiling floats from the North Atlantic Ocean in part of the IDOE/POLYMODE (International Decade of Ocean Exploration / combination of USSR POLYGON project and US MODE) from 10 January 1975 to 31 May 1981 (NODC Accession 8700121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and pressure data were collected using drifting buoy and profiling floats from CHAIN, GILLISS, OCEANUS, and ENDEAVOR from the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  19. SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array profiling of tears from patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grus, Franz H; Podust, Vladimir N; Bruns, Kai; Lackner, Karl; Fu, Siyu; Dalmasso, Enrique A; Wirthlin, Anton; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2005-03-01

    Protein and peptides in tears play an important role in ocular surface diseases. In previous studies, changes have been demonstrated in the electrophoretic protein profiles of patients with dry eye. The purpose of this work was to determine the usefulness of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) ProteinChip Array (Ciphergen Biosystems, Inc., Fremont, CA) technology for the automated analysis of proteins and peptides in tear fluid. Patients with dry eye (DRY, n = 88) and healthy subjects (CTRL, n = 71) were examined. Their tear proteins were analyzed using SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip Arrays with three different chromatographic surfaces (CM10 cation exchange, Q10 anion exchange, and H50 reversed-phase) prepared by means of a laboratory liquid-handling robotic workstation. The data were analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques and artificial neural networks, and the most important biomarkers were purified and identified by tandem MS. Complex patterns of tear proteins and peptides were detected. The different chromatographic surfaces revealed the selective enrichment of proteins such as lipocalin and lysozyme. Discriminant analysis demonstrated highly significant changes in the protein profiles in patients with dry eye (P < 0.001). With a seven-peptide multimarker panel, an artificial neural network could differentiate between patients with dry eye and healthy individuals with a specificity and sensitivity of 90%. The identification of biomarkers revealed an increase of inflammatory markers in patients with dry eye and a decrease of some proteins that may have protective functions. The SELDI-TOF-MS technology seems to be ideally suitable for the mass screening of peptides and proteins in tears. This highly sensitive approach dramatically reduces the analysis time and provides protein profiles with great mass accuracy. Thus, it may become a very useful tool in the search for potential biomarkers for diagnosis

  20. PCR array analysis of gene expression profiles in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masanao; Hashida, Yumiko; Imajoh, Masayuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Kamioka, Mikio; Senda, Yasutaka; Sato, Tetsuya; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Daibata, Masanori

    2014-07-01

    To determine the host cellular gene expression profiles in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV), peripheral blood samples were obtained from three patients with CAEBV and investigated using a PCR array analysis that focused on T-cell/B-cell activation. We identified six genes with expression levels that were tenfold higher in CAEBV patients compared with those in healthy controls. These results were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We identified four highly upregulated genes, i.e., IL-10, IL-2, IFNGR1, and INHBA. These genes may be involved in inflammatory responses and cell proliferation, and they may contribute to the development and progression of CAEBV. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  2. Development of Pseudorandom Binary Arrays for Calibration of Surface Profile Metrology Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.K.; Takacs, P.; Soldate, P.; Anderson, E.H.; Cambie, R.; McKinney, W.R.; Voronov, D.L.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2009-12-01

    measured and simulated PSD distributions gives the MTF of the instrument. The applicability of the MTF concept to phase map measurements with optical interferometric microscopes needs to be experimentally verified as the optical tool and algorithms may introduce nonlinear artifacts into the process. In previous work [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 670408 (2007); Valeriy V. Yashchuk et al., Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 47, 073602 (2008)] the instrumental MTF of a surface profiler was precisely measured using reference test surfaces based on binary pseudorandom (BPR) gratings. Here, the authors present results of fabricating and using two-dimensional (2D) BPR arrays that allow for a direct 2D calibration of the instrumental MTF. BPR sequences are widely used in engineering and communication applications such as global position systems and wireless communication protocols. The ideal BPR pattern has a flat 'white noise' response over the entire range of spatial frequencies of interest. The BPR array used here is based on the uniformly redundant array (URA) prescription [E. E. Fenimore and T. M. Cannon, Appl. Opt. 17, 337 (1978)] initially used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy applications. The URA's superior imaging capability originates from the fact that its cyclical autocorrelation function very closely approximates a delta function, which produces a flat PSD. Three different size BPR array patterns were fabricated by electron beam lithography and induction coupled plasma etching of silicon. The basic size units were 200, 400, and 600 nm. Two different etch processes were used, CF{sub 4}/Ar and HBr, which resulted in undercut and vertical sidewall profiles, respectively. The 2D BPR arrays were used as standard test surfaces for MTF calibration of the MicroMap{trademark}-570 interferometric microscope using all available objectives. The MicroMap{trademark}-570 interferometric microscope uses incoherent illumination from a tungsten filament source and

  3. An experimental investigation of S-duct flow control using arrays of low-profile vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Bruce A.; Wendt, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to measure the effect of various configurations of low-profile vortex generator arrays on the flow in a diffusing S-duct. Three parameters that characterize the vortex generator array were systematically varied to determine their effect: (1) the vortex generator height; (2) the streamwise location of the vortex generator array; and (3) the vortex generator spacing. Detailed measurements of total pressure at the duct exit, surface static pressure, and surface flow visualization were gathered for each vortex generator configuration. These results are reported here along with total pressure recovery and distortion coefficients determined from the experimental data. Each array of vortex generators tested improved total pressure recovery. The configuration employing the largest vortex generators was the most effective in reducing total pressure recovery. No configuration of vortex generators completely eliminated the flow separation that naturally occurs in the S-duct, however the extent of the separated flow region was reduced.

  4. Expression Profiling Smackdown: Human Transcriptome Array HTA 2.0 vs. RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Meghann; Driscoll, Heather; Tighe, Scott; Dragon, Julie; Bond, Jeff; Shukla, Arti; Vangala, Mahesh; Vincent, James; Hunter, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The advent of both microarray and massively parallel sequencing have revolutionized high-throughput analysis of the human transcriptome. Due to limitations in microarray technology, detecting and quantifying coding transcript isoforms, in addition to non-coding transcripts, has been challenging. As a result, RNA-Seq has been the preferred method for characterizing the full human transcriptome, until now. A new high-resolution array from Affymetrix, GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0), has been designed to interrogate all transcript isoforms in the human transcriptome with >6 million probes targeting coding transcripts, exon-exon splice junctions, and non-coding transcripts. Here we compare expression results from GeneChip HTA 2.0 and RNA-Seq data using identical RNA extractions from three samples each of healthy human mesothelial cells in culture, LP9-C1, and healthy mesothelial cells treated with asbestos, LP9-A1. For GeneChip HTA 2.0 sample preparation, we chose to compare two target preparation methods, NuGEN Ovation Pico WTA V2 with the Encore Biotin Module versus Affymetrix's GeneChip WT PLUS with the WT Terminal Labeling Kit, on identical RNA extractions from both untreated and treated samples. These same RNA extractions were used for the RNA-Seq library preparation. All analyses were performed in Partek Genomics Suite 6.6. Expression profiles for control and asbestos-treated mesothelial cells prepared with NuGEN versus Affymetrix target preparation methods (GeneChip HTA 2.0) are compared to each other as well as to RNA-Seq results.

  5. Self-Assembled TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with U-Shaped Profile by Controlling Anodization Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays with uniform diameter from top to bottom were fabricated. The synthesizing approach is based on the investigation of the influence of electrolyte temperature on the tube diameter. We found that the inner diameter of the tubes increased with the electrolyte temperature. Accordingly, we improved the tube profile from the general V shape to U shape by raising the electrolyte temperature gradually. This is a simple and fast approach to fabricate uniform TiO2 nanotubes in diameter. The improved TiO2 nanotube arrays may show better properties and have broad potential applications.

  6. FLOAT Project - Task 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchalot, Tanguy; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  7. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Floating wind turbines enable harvesting the offshore wind resources over deep sea. About 20 concepts are under development, at varying stages of maturity. Two concepts are demonstrated in full scale; these are HyWind and WindFloat. Both employ a standard on-shore wind turbine with only minor mod...

  8. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  9. Pathway-focused PCR array profiling of enriched populations of laser capture microdissected hippocampal cells after traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah R Boone

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI are associated with irreversible neurodegeneration in brain regions such as the hippocampus. Comparative gene expression analysis of dying and surviving neurons could provide insight into potential therapeutic targets. We used two pathway-specific PCR arrays (RT2 Profiler Apoptosis and Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR arrays to identify and validate TBI-induced gene expression in dying (Fluoro-Jade-positive or surviving (Fluoro-Jade-negative pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. In the Apoptosis PCR array, dying neurons showed significant increases in expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress compared with adjacent, surviving neurons. Pro-survival genes with pleiotropic functions were also significantly increased in dying neurons compared to surviving neurons, suggesting that even irreversibly injured neurons are able to mount a protective response. In the Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR array, which consists of genes that are normally expected to be expressed in both groups of hippocampal neurons, only a few genes were expressed at significantly different levels between dying and surviving neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis of selected, differentially expressed proteins supported the gene expression data. This is the first demonstration of pathway-focused PCR array profiling of identified populations of dying and surviving neurons in the brain after TBI. Combining precise laser microdissection of identifiable cells with pathway-focused PCR array analysis is a practical, low-cost alternative to microarrays that provided insight into neuroprotective signals that could be therapeutically targeted to ameliorate TBI-induced neurodegeneration.

  10. Bilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee: a Rare Complex Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare complex injury of a 45-year-old man who sustained a bilateral floating hip and floating knee and hospitalised in our service six days after a traffic accident. The floating knees were open type III and II of Cauchoix score in phase of suppuration. He also presented with a floating ankle on the right side.

  11. Floating emitter solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  12. Flat-top illumination profile in an epifluorescence microscope by dual microlens arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; van der Pol, E.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2012-01-01

    Low uniformity in illumination across the image plane impairs the ability of a traditional epifluorescence microscope to quantify fluorescence intensities. Two microlens arrays (MLAs) were introduced into the illumination path of two different epifluorescence microscope systems to improve the

  13. IDENTIFIKASI PROFIL DASAR LAUT MENGGUNAKAN INSTRUMEN SIDE SCAN SONAR DENGAN METODE BEAM PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laut Punggur merupakan laut yang terletak di Batam, Kepulauan Riau yang mempunyai beragam habitat objek,dan bentuk struktur bawah laut yang memiliki dinamika laut yang sangat tinggi. Side scan sonar (SSS merupakan instrumen pengembangan sistem sonar yang mampu menunjukkan dalam gambar dua dimensional permukaan dasar laut dengan kondisi kontur, topografi, dan target secara bersamaan. Metode Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array digunakan untuk menghitung beam pattern dua dimensi yang tergantung pada sudut dari gelombang suara yang masuk dari sumbu array yang diterima tergantung pada sudut di mana sinar suara pada array. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Desember 2016 di laut Punggur,Batam, Kepulauan Riau-Indonesia, dengan koordinat 104 ° 08,7102 E dan 1° 03,2448 N sampai 1 ° 03.3977 N dan 104 ° 08,8133 E, menggunakan instrumen Side Scan Sonar C-Max CM2 Tow fish dengan frekuensi 325 kHz. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perekaman terdapat 7 target, dan Beam pattern dari metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array target 4 memiliki nilai tertinggi pada directivity Pattern yaitu 21.08 dB. Hasil model beam pattern ini memiliki nilai pusat pada incidence angle (o terhadap Directivity pattern (dB tidak berada di nilai 0 ataupun pada pusat beam pattern yang dihasilkan pada target 6 dengan nilai incident angle -1.5 o dan 1.5o mengalami penurunan hingga -40 dB. Karakteristik sedimen dasar perairan di laut punggur ditemukan lebih banyak pasir. Hasil metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array ditemukan bangkai kapal tenggelam.Kata Kunci: Side Scan Sonar, Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array, Incidence angle, Directivity pattern IDENTIFICATION OF SEABED PROFILE USING SIDE SCAN SONAR INSTRUMENT WITH PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY METHODRiau Islands is an island that has a variety of habitat objects, and forms of submarine structures that have a very high ocean dynamics, Punggur Sea is the sea

  14. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  15. Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophya Konstantinovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.

  16. MassCode liquid arrays as a tool for multiplexed high-throughput genetic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Richmond

    Full Text Available Multiplexed detection assays that analyze a modest number of nucleic acid targets over large sample sets are emerging as the preferred testing approach in such applications as routine pathogen typing, outbreak monitoring, and diagnostics. However, very few DNA testing platforms have proven to offer a solution for mid-plexed analysis that is high-throughput, sensitive, and with a low cost per test. In this work, an enhanced genotyping method based on MassCode technology was devised and integrated as part of a high-throughput mid-plexing analytical system that facilitates robust qualitative differential detection of DNA targets. Samples are first analyzed using MassCode PCR (MC-PCR performed with an array of primer sets encoded with unique mass tags. Lambda exonuclease and an array of MassCode probes are then contacted with MC-PCR products for further interrogation and target sequences are specifically identified. Primer and probe hybridizations occur in homogeneous solution, a clear advantage over micro- or nanoparticle suspension arrays. The two cognate tags coupled to resultant MassCode hybrids are detected in an automated process using a benchtop single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The prospective value of using MassCode probe arrays for multiplexed bioanalysis was demonstrated after developing a 14plex proof of concept assay designed to subtype a select panel of Salmonella enterica serogroups and serovars. This MassCode system is very flexible and test panels can be customized to include more, less, or different markers.

  17. High-throughput functional microRNAs profiling by recombinant AAV-based microRNA sensor arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs are small and non-coding RNAs which play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. A number of methods have been established to detect and quantify miRNA expression. However, method for high-throughput miRNA function detection is still lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-based microRNA (miRNA sensor (Asensor array for high-throughput functional miRNA profiling. Each Asensor contains a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc and a firefly luciferase (Fluc expression cassette to sense functional miRNA and to serve as an internal control respectively. Using this array, we acquired functional profiles of 115 miRNAs for 12 cell lines and found "functional miRNA signatures" for several specific cell lines. The activities of specific miRNAs including the let-7 family, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-221, and miR-222 in HEK 293 cells were compared with their expression levels determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR. We also demonstrate two other practical applications of the array, including a comparison of the miRNA activity between HEK293 and HEK293T cells and the ability to monitor miRNA activity changes in K562 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach has potential applications in the identification of cell types, the characterization of biological and pathological processes, and the evaluation of responses to interventions.

  18. Autoantibody profiling of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and design of a prototype diagnostic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Lanshchakov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the “gold standard” in diagnostics of thyroid tumors is a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. However, FNAC cannot discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in 15 to 30% of observations. In order to develop an additional tool for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors we evaluated the diagnostic performance of 3-antigen serum autoantibody signature in groups of benign ( n = 22 and malignant ( n = 26 thyroid tumors using a dot-blot ELISA-based analysis The sensitivity and specificity of resultant array were estimated to be 55–60% and 95–100%, respectively ( p < 0.001 according to one-sided Fisher Exact Test. Thus, we created a prototype antigen array for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors which can be regarded as a platform for design of more complicated panel, highly sensitive in thyroid cancer detection, which can significantly improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  19. WindFloat Pacific Project, Final Scientific and Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banister, Kevin [Principle Power, Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-17

    PPI’s WindFloat Pacific project (WFP) was an up to 30 MW floating offshore wind demonstration project proposed off the Coast of Oregon. The project was to be sited approximately 18 miles due west of Coos Bay, in over 1000 ft. of water, and is the first floating offshore wind array proposed in the United States, and the first offshore wind project of any kind proposed off the West Coast. PPI’s WindFloat, a semi-submersible foundation designed for high-capacity (6MW+) offshore wind turbines, is at the heart of the proposed project, and enables access to the world class wind resource at the project site and, equally, to other deep water, high wind resource areas around the country.

  20. Customizing longitudinal electric field profiles using spatial dispersion in dielectric wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Taylor; Gratus, Jonathan; Kinsler, Paul; Letizia, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    We show how spatial dispersion can be used as a mechanism to customize the longitudinal profiles of electric fields inside modulated wire media, using a fast and remarkably accurate 1D inhomogeneous model. This customization gives fine control of the sub-wavelength behaviour of the field, as has been achieved recently for transverse fields in simpler slotted-slab media. Our scheme avoids any necessity to run a long series of computationally intensive 3D simulations of specific structures, in order to iteratively converge (or brute-force search) to an empirical `best-performance' design according to an abstract figure-of-merit. Instead, if supplied with an `ideal waveform' profile, we could now calculate how to construct it directly. Notably, and unlike most work on photonic crystal structures, our focus is specifically on the field profiles because of their potential utility, rather than other issues such as band-gap control, and/or transmission and reflection coefficients.

  1. DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ogrodzki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping. This article updates the application of three genotyping methods across the Cronobacter genus. The three genotyping methods were multilocus sequence typing (MLST, capsular profiling of the K-antigen and colanic acid (CA biosynthesis regions, and CRISPR-cas array profiling. A total of 1654 MLST profiled and 286 whole genome sequenced strains, available by open access at the PubMLST Cronobacter database, were used this analysis. The predominance of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus in clinical infections was confirmed. The majority of clinical strains being in the C. sakazakii clonal complexes (CC 1 and 4, sequence types (ST 8 and 12 and C. malonaticus ST7. The capsular profile K2:CA2, previously proposed as being strongly associated with C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from severe neonatal infections, was also found in C. turicensis, C. dublinensis and C. universalis. The majority of CRISPR-cas types across the genus was the I-E (Ecoli type. Some strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encoded the I-F (Ypseudo type, and others lacked the cas gene loci. The significance of the expanding profiling will be of benefit to researchers as well as governmental and industrial risk assessors.

  2. Acoustic Float for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    development by several teams, is to equip several ocean gliders with hydrophones and marine mammal call-detection software and send them out to monitor in...real time, but the gliders are relatively expensive, at upwards of $100,000 each [Rogers et al., 2004]. A vertical profiler float has been in...inexpensive and reliable tool for oceanogrphers [Kobayashi et al., 2006]. They also can dive to 2000 m whereass Slocum gilder and Seaglider are rated

  3. Analyzing the gene expression profile of anaplastic histology Wilms' tumor with real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Tao, Yan-Fang; Li, Zhi-Heng; Cao, Lan; Hu, Shao-Yan; Wang, Na-Na; Du, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhao, Wen-Li; Xiao, Pei-Fang; Fang, Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Gang; Zhao, He; Ni, Jian; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xing; Pan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wilms' tumor (WT) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract in children. Anaplastic histology (unfavorable histology) accounts for about 10% of whole WTs, and it is the single most important histologic predictor of treatment response and survival in patients with WT; however, until now the molecular basis of this phenotype is not very clearly. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array was designed and tested. Next, the gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT and normal adjacent tissues were analyzed. These expression data were anlyzed with Multi Experiment View (MEV) cluster software further. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool (IPA). 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric anaplastic histology WT were designed and tested. The gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT is significantly different from adjacent normal controls; we identified 15 genes that are up-regulated and 16 genes that are down-regulated in the former. To investigate biological interactions of these differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles were imported into the IPA for further analysis, which revealed three significant networks: Cancer, Hematological Disease, and Gene Expression, which included 27 focus molecules and a significance score of 43. The IPA analysis also grouped the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms related to Cell Death and Survival 1.15E(-12), Cellular Development 2.84E(-11), Cellular Growth and Proliferation 2.84E(-11), Gene Expression 4.43E(-10), and DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair 1.39E(-07). The important upstream regulators of pediatric anaplastic histology WT were TP53 and TGFβ1 signaling (P = 1.15E(-14) and 3.79E(-13), respectively). Our study

  4. Shallow shear-wave velocity profiles and site response characteristics from microtremor array measurements in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutas, Rhommel; Yamanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the outcome of reconnaissance surveys in metropolitan Manila (Metro Manilla), the Philippines, with the aim of mapping shallow shear-wave velocity structures. Metro Manila is a seismically active and densely populated region that is in need of detailed investigation of the subsurface structures, to assess local site effects in seismic hazard estimation. We conducted microtremor array observations and used the spatial autocorrelation method to estimate the shear-wave profiles at 32 sites in major geological settings in Metro Manila. We applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to invert phase velocity data from the spatial autocorrelation method to generate shear-wave velocity models near the global best-fit solution. The comparison between the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles and PS logging showed good agreement in terms of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves and site responses. Then, we utilised the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles to compute the site amplifications with reference to the motion in engineering bedrock. Subsequently, the site amplifications have been grouped, based on NEHRP site classes. The amplification factor has also been compared with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30m at each site, to produce a power-law regression equation that can be used as a starting basis for further site-effects evaluation in the metropolis.

  5. Possible effect of landscape design on IgE recognition profiles of two generations revealed with micro-arrayed allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, V; Wollmann, E; Djambekova, G; Lemell, P; Kmenta, M; Berger, U; Zieglmayer, P; Valenta, R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of landscape design on the IgE sensitization profile toward inhalant allergens in patients with respiratory allergy from Uzbekistan where green areas have been changed during the last two decades by a State program. Sera from two different generations of Uzbek (n=58) and, for control purposes, from two generations of Austrian (n=58) patients were analyzed for IgE reactivity to 112 different micro-arrayed allergen molecules by ImmunoCAP ISAC technology. Changes in molecular IgE sensitization profiles to pollen allergens in the young vs the middle-aged Uzbek population were associated with replanting, whereas those in the Vienna populations reflected natural changes in plant growth. Our data indicate that anthropologic as well as natural changes in the biome may have effects on IgE sensitization profiles already from one to another generation. © 2017 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  6. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  7. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  8. Bead arrays for antibody and complement profiling reveal joint contribution of antibody isotypes to C3 deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ayoglu

    Full Text Available The development of antigen arrays has provided researchers with great tools to identify reactivities against self or foreign antigens from body fluids. Yet, these approaches mostly do not address antibody isotypes and their effector functions even though these are key points for a more detailed understanding of disease processes. Here, we present a bead array-based assay for a multiplexed determination of antigen-specific antibody levels in parallel with their properties for complement activation. We measured the deposition of C3 fragments from serum samples to reflect the degree of complement activation via all three complement activation pathways. We utilized the assay on a bead array containing native and citrullinated peptide antigens to investigate the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA autoantibodies along with their complement activating properties in serum samples of 41 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 40 controls. Our analysis revealed significantly higher IgG reactivity against the citrullinated fibrinogen β and filaggrin peptides as well as an IgA reactivity that was exclusive for citrullinated fibrinogen β peptide and C3 deposition in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In addition, we characterized the humoral immune response against the viral EBNA-1 antigen to demonstrate the applicability of this assay beyond autoimmune conditions. We observed that particular buffer compositions were demanded for separate measurement of antibody reactivity and complement activation, as detection of antigen-antibody complexes appeared to be masked due to C3 deposition. We also found that rheumatoid factors of IgM isotype altered C3 deposition and introduced false-positive reactivities against EBNA-1 antigen. In conclusion, the presented bead-based assay setup can be utilized to profile antibody reactivities and immune-complex induced complement activation in a high-throughput manner and could facilitate the understanding and diagnosis of several diseases

  9. Multiplex flow cytometry barcoding and antibody arrays identify surface antigen profiles of primary and metastatic colon cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sukhdeo

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116. Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.

  10. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...... and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC...

  11. Multidimensional profiling of plasma lipoproteins by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase protein arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernick, Gregor; Obermüller, Stefan; Mangold, Cyrill; Magg, Christine; Matile, Hugues; Gutmann, Oliver; von der Mark, Elisabeth; Handschin, Corinne; Maugeais, Cyrille; Niesor, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of lipoproteins and the association of proteins with various particles are of much interest in the context of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe a technique for the multidimensional analysis of lipoproteins and their associated apolipoproteins. Plasma is separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and fractions are analyzed by reverse-phase arrays. SEC fractions are spotted on nitrocellulose slides and incubated with different antibodies against individual apolipoproteins or antibodies against various apolipoproteins. In this way, tens of analytes can be measured simultaneously in 100 μl of plasma from a single SEC separation. This methodology is particularly suited to simultaneous analysis of multiple proteins that may change their distribution to lipoproteins or alter their conformation, depending on factors that influence circulating lipoprotein size or composition. We observed changes in the distribution of exchangeable apolipoproteins following addition of recombinant apolipoproteins or interaction with exogenous compounds. While the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-dependent formation of pre-β-HDL was inhibited by the CETP inhibitors torcetrapib and anacetrapib, it was not reduced by the CETP modulator dalcetrapib. This finding was elucidated using this technique. PMID:21971713

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism array profiling of adrenocortical tumors--evidence for an adenoma carcinoma sequence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L Ronchi

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors consist of benign adenomas and highly malignant carcinomas with a still incompletely understood pathogenesis. A total of 46 adrenocortical tumors (24 adenomas and 22 carcinomas were investigated aiming to identify novel genes involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (Affymetrix were used to detect copy number alterations (CNAs and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (cnLOH. Genomic clustering showed good separation between adenomas and carcinomas, with best partition including only chromosome 5, which was highly amplified in 17/22 malignant tumors. The malignant tumors had more relevant genomic aberrations than benign tumors, such as a higher median number of recurrent CNA (2631 vs 94, CNAs >100 Kb (62.5 vs 7 and CN losses (72.5 vs 5.5, and a higher percentage of samples with cnLOH (91% vs 29%. Within the carcinoma cohort, a precise genetic pattern (i.e. large gains at chr 5, 7, 12, and 19, and losses at chr 1, 2, 13, 17, and 22 was associated with a better prognosis (overall survival: 72.2 vs 35.4 months, P=0.063. Interestingly, >70% of gains frequent in benign were also present in malignant tumors. Notch signaling was the most frequently involved pathway in both tumor entities. Finally, a CN gain at imprinted "IGF2" locus chr 11p15.5 appeared to be an early alteration in a multi-step tumor progression, followed by the loss of one or two alleles, associated with increased IGF2 expression, only in carcinomas. Our study serves as database for the identification of genes and pathways, such as Notch signaling, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Using these data, we postulate an adenoma-carcinoma sequence for these tumors.

  13. Genomic profiling of rectal adenoma and carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhi-Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Early detection and early therapy are important for the control of death caused by rectal cancer. The present study aims to investigate the genomic alterations in rectal adenoma and carcinoma. Methods We detected the genomic changes of 8 rectal adenomas and 8 carcinomas using array CGH. Then 14 genes were selected for analyzing the expression between rectal tumor and paracancerous normal tissues as well as from adenoma to carcinoma by real-time PCR. The expression of GPNMB and DIS3 were further investigated in rectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results We indentified ten gains and 22 losses in rectal adenoma, and found 25 gains and 14 losses in carcinoma. Gains of 7p21.3-p15.3, 7q22.3-q32.1, 13q13.1-q14.11, 13q21.1-q32.1, 13q32.2-q34, 20p11.21 and 20q11.23-q12 and losses of 17p13.1-p11.2, 18p11.32-p11.21 and 18q11.1-q11.2 were shared by both rectal adenoma and carcinoma. Gains of 1q, 6p21.33-p21.31 and losses of 10p14-p11.21, 14q12-q21.1, 14q22.1-q24.3, 14q31.3-q32.1, 14q32.2-q32.32, 15q15.1-q21.1, 15q22.31 and 15q25.1-q25.2 were only detected in carcinoma but not in adenoma. Copy number and mRNA expression of EFNA1 increased from rectal adenoma to carcinoma. C13orf27 and PMEPA1 with increased copy number in both adenoma and carcinoma were over expressed in rectal cancer tissues. Protein and mRNA expression of GPNMB was significantly higher in cancer tissues than rectal adenoma tissues. Conclusion Our data may help to identify the driving genes involved in the adenoma-carcinoma progression.

  14. Genomic profiling of rectal adenoma and carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Zhang, Yue-Ming; Shang, Li; Hao, Jia-Jie; Zhang, Tong-Tong; Wang, Bo-Shi; Liang, Jian-Wei; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Gui-Qi; Wang, Ming-Rong; Zhang, Yu

    2012-11-16

    Rectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Early detection and early therapy are important for the control of death caused by rectal cancer. The present study aims to investigate the genomic alterations in rectal adenoma and carcinoma. We detected the genomic changes of 8 rectal adenomas and 8 carcinomas using array CGH. Then 14 genes were selected for analyzing the expression between rectal tumor and paracancerous normal tissues as well as from adenoma to carcinoma by real-time PCR. The expression of GPNMB and DIS3 were further investigated in rectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. We indentified ten gains and 22 losses in rectal adenoma, and found 25 gains and 14 losses in carcinoma. Gains of 7p21.3-p15.3, 7q22.3-q32.1, 13q13.1-q14.11, 13q21.1-q32.1, 13q32.2-q34, 20p11.21 and 20q11.23-q12 and losses of 17p13.1-p11.2, 18p11.32-p11.21 and 18q11.1-q11.2 were shared by both rectal adenoma and carcinoma. Gains of 1q, 6p21.33-p21.31 and losses of 10p14-p11.21, 14q12-q21.1, 14q22.1-q24.3, 14q31.3-q32.1, 14q32.2-q32.32, 15q15.1-q21.1, 15q22.31 and 15q25.1-q25.2 were only detected in carcinoma but not in adenoma. Copy number and mRNA expression of EFNA1 increased from rectal adenoma to carcinoma. C13orf27 and PMEPA1 with increased copy number in both adenoma and carcinoma were over expressed in rectal cancer tissues. Protein and mRNA expression of GPNMB was significantly higher in cancer tissues than rectal adenoma tissues. Our data may help to identify the driving genes involved in the adenoma-carcinoma progression.

  15. High-resolution Vertical Profiling of Ocean Velocity and Water Properties Under Hurricane Frances in September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Floating-Harbor syndrome Floating-Harbor syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Floating-Harbor syndrome is a disorder involving short stature, slowing ...

  17. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1992 to 31 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  18. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 12 June 2000 to 29 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from June 12, 2000 to December 29, 2000. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)...

  19. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 14 April 2000 to 20 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000406)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from April 14, 2000 to February 20, 2001. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)...

  20. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  1. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1994 to 31 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  2. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  3. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1993 to 31 December 1993 (NODC Accession 0000389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  4. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  5. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1995 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  6. Temperature profile and other data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 June 2000 to 29 November 2000 (NODC Accession 0000403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from multiple ships from June 1, 2000 to November 29, 2000. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data...

  7. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1997 to 31 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  8. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 1998. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  9. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1996 to 31 December 1996 (NODC Accession 0000392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  10. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 21 October 2000 to 31 January 2001 (NODC Accession 0000405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from October 21, 2000 to January 31, 2001. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service...

  11. Floating microspheres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Yogesh Mukund

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric emptying is a complex process, one that is highly variable and that makes in vivo performance of drug delivery systems uncertain. A controlled drug delivery system with prolonged residence time in the stomach can be of great practical importance for drugs with an absorption window in the upper small intestine. The main limitations are attributed to the inter- and intra-subject variability of gastro-intestinal (GI transit time and to the non-uniformity of drug absorption throughout the alimentary canal. Floating or hydrodynamically controlled drug delivery systems are useful in such applications. Various gastroretentive dosage forms are available, including tablets, capsules, pills, laminated films, floating microspheres, granules and powders. Floating microspheres have been gaining attention due to the uniform distribution of these multiple-unit dosage forms in the stomach, which results in more reproducible drug absorption and reduced risk of local irritation. Such systems have more advantages over the single-unit dosage forms. The present review briefly addresses the physiology of the gastric emptying process with respect to floating drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to bring together the recent literature with respect to the method of preparation, and various parameters affecting the performance and characterization of floating microspheres.O esvaziamento gástrico é um processo complexo, com elevada variabilidade e responsável pela incerteza do desempenho dos medicamentos in vivo. Dessa forma, os sistemas de liberação modificada de fármacos, com tempo de residência prolongado no estômago, em especial, considerando aqueles fármacos com janela de absorção na porção superior do intestino delgado, apresentam fundamental importância. As principais limitações relativas à absorção do fármaco são, no geral, atribuídas à variabilidade inter e intra-paciente do tempo de trânsito gastro-intestinal (GI e

  12. Optimizing laser beam profiles using micro-lens arrays for efficient material processing: applications to solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk; Homburg, Oliver; Mitra, Thomas; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Jarczynski, Manfred; Meinschien, Jens; Bayer, Andreas; Lissotschenko, Vitalij

    2009-02-01

    High power laser sources are used in various production tools for microelectronic products and solar cells, including the applications annealing, lithography, edge isolation as well as dicing and patterning. Besides the right choice of the laser source suitable high performance optics for generating the appropriate beam profile and intensity distribution are of high importance for the right processing speed, quality and yield. For industrial applications equally important is an adequate understanding of the physics of the light-matter interaction behind the process. In advance simulations of the tool performance can minimize technical and financial risk as well as lead times for prototyping and introduction into series production. LIMO has developed its own software founded on the Maxwell equations taking into account all important physical aspects of the laser based process: the light source, the beam shaping optical system and the light-matter interaction. Based on this knowledge together with a unique free-form micro-lens array production technology and patented micro-optics beam shaping designs a number of novel solar cell production tool sub-systems have been built. The basic functionalities, design principles and performance results are presented with a special emphasis on resilience, cost reduction and process reliability.

  13. CGI: Java Software for Mapping and Visualizing Data from Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Xiuweu-Xu Gu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specifi c BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  14. Micropatch-arrayed pads for non-invasive spatial and temporal profiling of topical drugs on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-11-01

    Micropatch-arrayed pads (MAPAs) are presented as a facile and sensitive sampling method for spatial profiling of topical agents adsorbed on the surface of skin. MAPAs are 28 × 28 mm sized pieces of polytetrafluoroethylene containing plurality of cavities filled with agarose hydrogel. They are affixed onto skin for 10 min with the purpose to collect drugs applied topically. Polar compounds are absorbed by the hydrogel micropatches. The probes are subsequently scanned by an automated nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry system operated in the tapping dual-polarity mode. When the liquid junction gets into contact with every micropatch, polar compounds absorbed in the hydrogel matrix are desorbed and transferred to the ion source. A 3D-printed interface prevents evaporation of hydrogel micropatches assuring good reproducibility and sensitivity. MAPAs have been applied to follow dispersion of topical drugs applied to human skin in vivo and to porcine skin ex vivo, in the form of self-adhesive patches. Spatiotemporal characteristics of the drug dispersion process have been revealed using this non-invasive test. Differences between drug dispersion in vivo and ex vivo could be observed. We envision that MAPAs can be used to investigate spatiotemporal kinetics of various topical agents utilized in medical treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  16. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  17. Floating into Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  18. Implementation of float-float operators on graphics hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Da Graçca, Guillaume; Defour, David

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) has evolved into a powerful and flexible processor. The latest graphic processors provide fully programmable vertex and pixel processing units that support vector operations up to single floating-point precision. This computational power is now being used for general-purpose computations. However, some applications require higher precision than single precision. This paper describes the emulation of a 44-bit floating-point number forma...

  19. R/V Seward Johnson Cruise Report (SJ-9807) ACCE S-PALACE Float Deployments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Ellyn

    1999-01-01

    ...). These floats are neutrally buoyant and drift with the water in which they are deployed. They are programmed to obtain temperature and salinity profiles of the top 1000 meters of the ocean every ten days...

  20. 40mm Floating Flare Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renfroe, Donald W

    1973-01-01

    The 40mm Floating Flare can be launched from either the M79 or the M203 Grenade Launcher and provides troops with a standoff capability for marking a target or position in inundated areas during hours of darkness...

  1. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  2. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  3. Shear-wave velocity profile and seismic input derived from ambient vibration array measurements: the case study of downtown L'Aquila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Cara, Fabrizio; Milana, Giuliano; Tallini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Downtown L'Aquila suffered severe damage (VIII-IX EMS98 intensity) during the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.3 earthquake. The city is settled on a top flat hill, with a shear-wave velocity profile characterized by a reversal of velocity at a depth of the order of 50-100 m, corresponding to the contact between calcareous breccia and lacustrine deposits. In the southern sector of downtown, a thin unit of superficial red soils causes a further shallow impedance contrast that may have influenced the damage distribution during the 2009 earthquake. In this paper, the main features of ambient seismic vibrations have been studied in the entire city centre by using array measurements. We deployed six 2-D arrays of seismic stations and 1-D array of vertical geophones. The 2-D arrays recorded ambient noise, whereas the 1-D array recorded signals produced by active sources. Surface-wave dispersion curves have been measured by array methods and have been inverted through a neighbourhood algorithm, jointly with the H/V ambient noise spectral ratios related to Rayleigh waves ellipticity. We obtained shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles representative of the southern and northern sectors of downtown L'Aquila. The theoretical 1-D transfer functions for the estimated Vs profiles have been compared to the available empirical transfer functions computed from aftershock data analysis, revealing a general good agreement. Then, the Vs profiles have been used as input for a deconvolution analysis aimed at deriving the ground motion at bedrock level. The deconvolution has been performed by means of EERA and STRATA codes, two tools commonly employed in the geotechnical engineering community to perform equivalent-linear site response studies. The waveform at the bedrock level has been obtained deconvolving the 2009 main shock recorded at a strong motion station installed in downtown. Finally, this deconvolved waveform has been used as seismic input for evaluating synthetic time-histories in a strong

  4. Floating into Thin Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    On May 18, 2005, a giant helium balloon carrying the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) sailed into the spring sky over the deserts of New Mexico. The spindly steel and aluminum gondola that houses the optics, detectors, and other components of the telescope floated for 25 hours after its launch from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. For 21 of those hours, the balloon was nearly 40 kilometers above Earth's surface--almost four times higher than the altitude routinely flown by commercial jet aircraft. In the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere, HEFT searched the universe for x-ray sources from highly energetic objects such as binary stars, galaxy clusters, and supermassive black holes. Before landing in Arizona, the telescope observed and imaged a dozen scientific targets by capturing photons emitted from these objects in the high-energy (hard) x-ray range (above 10 kiloelectronvolts). Among these targets were the Crab synchrotron nebula, the black hole Cygnus X-1 (one of the brightest x-ray sources in the sky), and the blazar 3C454.3. The scientific data gathered from these targets are among the first focused hard x-ray images returned from high altitudes.

  5. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  6. Floating ability and drug release evaluation of gastroretentive microparticles system containing metronidazole obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Nohemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastroretentive floating microparticles were developed and evaluated for the controlled metronidazole delivery for treatment of gastric disease. Floating microparticles, varying in proportions of chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or ethylcellulose, were obtained by spray drying. Floating microparticles were characterized by physicochemical and in vitro studies, according to their floating ability and drug delivery. Microparticles presented mean diameter from 1.05 to 2.20 µm. The infrared spectroscopy confirmed the drug encapsulation and showed no chemical linkage between microparticles components. X-ray diffraction showed changes in the drug`s solid state, from crystalline to amorphous, indicating partial drug encapsulation, due to the presence of some crystalline peaks of metronidazole in microparticles. All microparticles floated immediately in contact of simulated gastric fluid and both floating and drug release profiles were dependent of microparticles composition. Microparticles samples constituted by chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose revealed the best relationship between floating duration and drug release, remaining floating during the occurrence of the drug release, ideal condition for the floating gastroretentive systems.

  7. Molecular ping-pong Game of Life on a two-dimensional DNA origami array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonoska, N; Seeman, N C

    2015-01-01

    .... The platform is a two-dimensional DNA origami array of tiles decorated with strands that provide both, the floating molecular tiles to attach and to pass communicating signals to neighbouring array tiles...

  8. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  9. Controlled type II diabetes mellitus has no major influence on platelet micro-RNA expression. Results from micro-array profiling in a cohort of 60 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Fiebich, Bernd L; Amann, Michael; Kumar, Asit; Binder, Harald; Hoffmann, Isabell; Valina, Christian; Hochholzer, Willibald; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-05

    Diabetes mellitus as a major contributor to cardiovascular disease burden induces dysfunctional platelets. Platelets contain abundant miRNAs, which are linked to inflammatory responses and, thus, may play a role in atherogenesis. While diabetes mellitus affects plasma miRNAs, no data exist on platelet miRNA profiles in this disease. Therefore, this study sought to explore the miRNA profile of platelets in patients with diabetes mellitus that is unrelated to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Platelet miRNA profiles were assessed in stable diabetic and non-diabetic patients (each n=30); 15 patients in each group had CAD. Platelet miRNA was isolated from leucocyte-depleted platelet-rich plasma, and miRNA profiling was performed using LNA micro-array technology (miRBase18.0, containing 1,917 human miRNAs). Effects of diabetes mellitus were explored by univariate statistical tests for each miRNA, adjusted for potential confounders, and by developing a multivariable signature; evaluated by resampling techniques. Platelets in non-diabetic patients demonstrated miRNA expression profiles comparable to previous data. The miRNA profiles of platelets in diabetics were similar. Statistical analysis unveiled three miRNAs (miR-377-5p, miR-628-3p, miR-3137) with high reselection probabilities in resampling techniques, corresponding to signatures with modest discriminatory performance. Functional annotation of predicted targets for these miRNAs pointed towards an influence of diabetes mellitus on mRNA processing. We did not find major differences in platelet miRNA profiles between diabetics and non-diabetics. Minor differences pertained to miRNAs associated with mRNA processing. Thus, described differences in plasma miRNAs between diabetic and non-diabetic patients cannot be explained by plain changes in platelet miRNA profile.

  10. A laboratory study of floating lenticular anticyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Patrice; de La Rosa, Hector; Cros, Anne; Cruz-Gomez, Raúl; Le Bars, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Oceanic vortices play an important role in the redistribution of heat, salt and momentum in the oceans. Among these vortices, floating lenses or rings are often met in the meanders of warm currents. For instance the North Brazil Current rings are among the most intense and large anticyclonic vortices on Earth. In order to better describe these vortices, we propose here a laboratory study of these floating anticyclonic lenses. A blob of fresh water is slowly injected near the surface of a rotating layer of homogeneous salted water. Because of the opposite effects of rotation that tends to generate columnar structures and density stratification that spreads light water on the surface, the vortices take a finite size three dimensionnal typical shape. Visualization and PIV measurements of the shape, aspect ratios and vorticity profiles are compared to analytical predictions that use first a simple solid body rotation model and then a more realistic isolated Gaussian vorticity field inside the anticyclones. This work was carried out within the framework of a bilateral cooperation between CNRS (France) and CONACYT (Mexico).

  11. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate floating microparticulate oral diltiazem delivery system for possible delivery to the heart. Method: Floating microspheres were prepared using cellulose acetate and Eudragit RS100 polymers by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The dried floating microspheres were evaluated for ...

  12. Feasibility of the AML profiler (Skyline™ Array) for patient risk stratification in a multicentre trial: a preliminary comparison with the conventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomdedéu, Josep F; Puigdecanet, Eulalia; Bussaglia, Elena; Hernández, Juan José; Carricondo, Maite; Estivill, Camino; Martí-Tutusaus, Josep Maria; Tormo, Mar; Zamora, Lurdes; Serrano, Elena; Perea, Granada; de Llano, Maria Paz Queipo; García, Antoni; Sánchez-Ortega, Isabel; Ribera, Josep Maria; Nonell, Lara; Aventin, Anna; Solé, Francesc; Brunet, Maria Salut; Sierra, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid microarrays allow researchers to measure mRNA levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment and could be useful for diagnostic purposes in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We assessed the feasibility of the AML profiler (Skyline™ Array) in genetic stratification of patients with de novo AML and compared the results with those obtained using the standard cytogenetic and molecular approach. Diagnostic bone marrow from 31 consecutive de novo AML cases was used to test MLL-PTD, FLT3-ITD and TKD, NPM1 and CEBPAdm mutations. Purified RNA was used to assess RUNX1-RUNX1T1, PML-RARα and CBFβ-MYH11 rearrangements. RNA remnants underwent gene expression profiling analysis using the AML profiler, which detects chromosomal aberrations: t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), mutations (CEBPAdm, ABD-NPM1) and BAALC and EVI1 expression. Thirty cases were successfully analysed with both methods. Five cases had FLT3-ITD. In one case, a t(8;21) was correctly detected by both methods. Four cases had inv(16); in one, the RNA quality was unsatisfactory and it was not hybridized, and in the other three, the AML profiler detected the genetic lesion - this being a rare type I translocation in one case. Two cases with acute promyelocytic leukaemia were diagnosed by both methods. Results for NPM1 mutations were concordant in all but two cases (2/11, non-ABD mutations). Analysis of costs and turnaround times showed that the AML profiler was no more expensive than the conventional molecular approach. These results suggest that the AML profiler could be useful in multicentre trials to rapidly identify patients with AML with a good prognosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Measurement of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Profile Using Cherenkov Radiation in Two Dimensional Optical Fiber Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; SHIN, D; Park, J; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J [National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Son, J [National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Korea University, Seoul, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, U [National Medical Center in Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy aims to deliver a high dose in a well-defined target volume while sparing the healthy surrounding tissues thanks to their inherent depth dose characteristic (Bragg peak). In proton therapy, several techniques can be used to deliver the dose into the target volume. The one that allows the best conformity with the tumor, is called PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning). The measurement of the proton pencil beam spot profile (spot size) and position is very important for the accurate delivery of dose to the target volume with a good conformity. Methods: We have developed a fine segmented detector array to monitor the PBS. A prototype beam monitor using Cherenkov radiation in clear plastic optical fibers (cPOF) has been developed for continuous display of the pencil beam status during the therapeutic proton Pencil Beam Scanning mode operation. The benefit of using Cherenkov radiation is that the optical output is linear to the dose. Pedestal substraction and the gain adjustment between channels are performed. Spot profiles of various pencil beam energies(100 MeV to 226 MeV) are measured. Two dimensional gaussian fit is used to analyze the beam width and the spot center. The results are compared with that of Lynx(Scintillator-based sensor with CCD camera) and EBT3 Film. Results: The measured gaussian widths using fiber array system changes from 13 to 5 mm for the beam energies from 100 to 226 MeV. The results agree well with Lynx and Film within the systematic error. Conclusion: The results demonstrate good monitoring capability of the system. Not only measuing the spot profile but also monitoring dose map by accumulating each spot measurement is available. The x-y monitoing system with 128 channel readout will be mounted to the snout for the in-situ real time monitoring.

  14. The Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, F; Lenard, H G

    1991-02-01

    We describe the seventh patient with the Floating-Harbor syndrome. Similar to previous cases in the literature this girl presented with proportionate intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, normocephaly, triangular face with bulbous nose, long eyelashes, short upper lip, small vermilion border of upper lip, dorsally rotated ears, deep nuchal hair line, hirsutism, and clinodactyly of little fingers. She exhibited mental retardation and retarded speech development. Clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of this rare syndrome are briefly discussed.

  15. Novel biomarkers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis risk identified by reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling with consideration of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Su, Bojin; Huang, Peiyu; Wei, Weihong; Deng, Yanming; Sehgal, Vasudha; Wang, Donghui; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Guoyi; Li, Anfei; Yang, Huiling; Claret, Francois X

    2017-05-01

    In patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), intertumor heterogeneity causes interpatient heterogeneity in the risk of distant metastasis. We aimed to identify novel biomarkers of metastasis risk using reverse phase protein array (RPPA) profiling of NPC patients at risk for metastasis and considering plasma EBV DNA load. A total of 98 patients with NPC with and without metastasis after treatment, matched with respect to clinical parameters, are enrolled. Total protein expression is measured by RPPA, and protein functions are analyzed by pathway bioinformatics. The RPPA analysis revealed a profile of 70 proteins that are differentially expressed in metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors. Plasma EBV DNA load after treatment correlated with protein expression level better than plasma EBV DNA load before treatment did. The biomarkers of NPC metastasis identified by proteomics regulate signaling pathways involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The authors identified 26 biomarkers associated with 5-year distant failure-free survival in univariate analysis; five biomarkers remained significant in multivariate analysis. A comprehensive RPPA profiling study is warranted to identify novel metastasis-related biomarkers and further examine the activation state of signaling proteins to improve estimation of metastasis risk for patients with EBV-associated NPC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparison of several curve resolution methods for drug impurity profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, PV; Darwinkel, H; Coenegracht, PMJ; de Jong, GJ

    2003-01-01

    The performance of five curve resolution methods was compared systematically for the identification and quantification of impurities in drug impurity profiling. These methods are alternating least-squares (ALS) with either random or iterative key-set factor analysis (IKSFA) initialisation, iterative

  17. Preparation and investigation of novel gastro-floating tablets with 3D extrusion-based printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Guan, Xiaoying; Cui, Mengsuo; Zhu, Zhihong; Chen, Kai; Wen, Haoyang; Jia, Danyang; Hou, Jian; Xu, Wenting; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2018-01-15

    Three dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing is a paste-based rapid prototyping process, which is capable of building complex 3D structures. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of 3D extrusion-based printing as a pharmaceutical manufacture technique for the fabrication of gastro-floating tablets. Novel low-density lattice internal structure gastro-floating tablets of dipyridamole were developed to prolong the gastric residence time in order to improve drug release rate and consequently, improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical study could be efficiently applied in the room temperature 3D extrusion-based printing process. The tablets were designed with three kinds of infill percentage and prepared by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E15) as hydrophilic matrices and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH101) as extrusion molding agent. In vitro evaluation of the 3D printed gastro-floating tablets was performed by determining mechanical properties, content uniformity, and weight variation. Furthermore, re-floating ability, floating duration time, and drug release behavior were also evaluated. Dissolution profiles revealed the relationship between infill percentage and drug release behavior. The results of this study revealed the potential of 3D extrusion-based printing to fabricate gastro-floating tablets with more than 8h floating process with traditional pharmaceutical excipients and lattice internal structure design. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. High-resolution ERG-expression profiling on GeneChip exon 1.0 ST arrays in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Frank P; Salagierski, Maciej; Jannink, Sander; Schalken, Jack A

    2013-05-01

    To assess whether oestrogen-regulated gene (ERG) expression analysis using GeneChip arrays can predict transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion. The expression level of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene was studied in various histological grades of prostate cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). GeneChip Affymetrix exon 1.0 ST arrays were used for expression profiling of ERG, erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) variant gene 1 (ETV1), ETV4 and ETV5 genes in 67 prostate cancer tissue specimens. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and in some cases DNA sequencing was used to validate the presence and the expression levels of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions. In our series of patients with prostate cancer over expression of the ERG gene predicted the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements in almost all cases. ETS expression by itself outmatched the diagnostic performance of the ERG exons ratioing allowing equal detection of the less frequent ETS gene fusion transcripts. The gene fusions were expressed at significantly lower levels in CPRC but occurred more frequently than in primary prostate cancer. ERG expression analysis using GeneChip arrays appears to be an excellent diagnostic tool for identifying gene rearrangements. In coming years, measuring expression of the ETS gene family by itself might become a clinically relevant surrogate test to identify patients with fusion-positive prostate cancer. The variation of gene fusion expression levels, particularly in CPRC, needs to be taken into account when using quantitative molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer. © 2013 BJU International.

  19. Modifying the strength and strain concentration profile within collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Vucetic, Alan; Harley, Brendan A C

    2017-02-01

    The tendon-to-bone junction is a highly specialized tissue which dissipates stress concentrations between mechanically dissimilar tendon and bone. Upon injury, the local heterogeneities across this insertion are not regenerated, leading to poor functional outcomes such as formation of scar tissue at the insertion and re-failure rates exceeding 90%. Although current tissue engineering methods are moving towards the development of spatially-graded biomaterials to begin to address these injuries, significant opportunities remain to engineer the often complex local mechanical behavior of such biomaterials to enhance their bioactivity. Here, we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to create customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid (PLA) fibers that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon bone junction repair. Notably, we use additive manufacturing concepts to generate arrays of spatially-graded fibers from biodegradable PLA that are incorporated into collagen scaffolds to create a collagen-PLA composite. We demonstrate the ability to tune the mechanical performance of the fiber-scaffold composite at the bulk scale. We also demonstrate the incorporation of spatially-heterogeneous fiber designs to establish non-uniform local mechanical performance of the composite biomaterial under tensile load, a critical element in the design of multi-compartment biomaterials for tendon-to-bone regeneration applications. Together, this work highlights the capacity to use multi-scale composite biomaterials to control local and bulk mechanical properties, and provides key insights into design elements under consideration for mechanically competent, multi-tissue regeneration platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Apoptosis Gene Expression Profiling with a PCR Array in the Hippocampus of Ts65Dn Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Down syndrome (DS is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. Intellectual disability is the foremost and most debilitating trait, which caused loss of cognitive abilities and the development of early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Ts65Dn mice were used in this study. We isolated the hippocampus. First, we used transmission scanning electron microscopy to directly observe the hippocampus and confirm if apoptosis had occurred. Second, we customized a PCR array with 53 genes, including several important genes related to cell apoptosis. Gene expression was detected by RT-PCR. There were varying degrees of changes characteristic of apoptosis in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice, which mainly included the following: nuclear membrane thinning, unevenly distributed chromosomes, the production of chromatin crescents, and pyknosis of the nuclei with some nuclear fragmentation. Meanwhile, three genes (API5, AIFM1, and NFκB1 showed changes of expression in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice compared with normal mice. Only NFκB1 expression was significantly increased, while the expressions of API5 and AIFM1 were notably decreased. The fold changes in the expression of API5, AIFM1, and NFκB1 were 11.55, 5.94, and 3.11, respectively. However, some well-known genes related to cell apoptosis, such as the caspase family, Bcl-2, Bad, Bid, Fas, and TNF, did not show changes in expression levels. The genes we found which were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice may be closely related to cell apoptosis. PCR array technology can assist in the screening and identification of genes involved in apoptosis.

  1. Whole genome expression array profiling highlights differences in mucosal defense genes in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Nancarrow

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE, which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we performed comparative, genome-wide expression profiling (using Illumina whole-genome Beadarrays on total RNA extracted from esophageal biopsy tissues from individuals with EAC, BE (in the absence of EAC and those with normal squamous epithelium. We combined these data with publically accessible raw data from three similar studies to investigate key gene and ontology differences between these three tissue states. The results support the deduction that BE is a tissue with enhanced glycoprotein synthesis machinery (DPP4, ATP2A3, AGR2 designed to provide strong mucosal defenses aimed at resisting gastro-esophageal reflux. EAC exhibits the enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling (collagens, IGFBP7, PLAU effects expected in an aggressive form of cancer, as well as evidence of reduced expression of genes associated with mucosal (MUC6, CA2, TFF1 and xenobiotic (AKR1C2, AKR1B10 defenses. When our results are compared to previous whole-genome expression profiling studies keratin, mucin, annexin and trefoil factor gene groups are the most frequently represented differentially expressed gene families. Eleven genes identified here are also represented in at least 3 other profiling studies. We used these genes to discriminate between squamous epithelium, BE and EAC within the two largest cohorts using a support vector machine leave one out cross validation (LOOCV analysis. While this method was satisfactory for discriminating squamous epithelium and BE, it demonstrates the need for more detailed investigations into profiling changes between BE and EAC.

  2. Linear arrays of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 1.0-1.7 micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, D. E.; Hladky, J.; Lange, M. J.; Mason, S.; Erickson, G.; Olsen, G. H.; Ban, V. S.; Forrest, S. R.; Staller, C.

    1990-01-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (SAM-APDs) with a floating guard ring structure that is well-suited to array applications have been successfully demonstrated. Individual APDs have breakdown voltages greater than 80 V, multiplications over 40 at 100 nA dark current, and uniform spatial gain profiles. Uniform I-V characteristics and gains have been measured over linear dimensions as large as 1.2 cm. Gains over 10 at low multiplied dark currents were measured on 21 consecutive devices at the wafer level.

  3. Formulation, release characteristics, and bioavailability study of gastroretentive floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Teaima, Mahmoud H; Abd El-Monem, Rehab A; El Nabarawy, Nagla A; Gaber, Dalia A

    2017-01-01

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH) and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin® 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs. The optimized tablet formula (FT-10) and raft system formula (FRS-11) were found to float within 34±5 sec and 15±7 sec, respectively, and both remain buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid. FT-10 (Compritol/HPMC K100M 1:1) showed the slowest drug release among all prepared tablet formulations, releasing about 80.2% of MbH over 8 h. In contrast, FRS-11 (Sodium alginate 3%/HPMC K100M 1%/Precirol 2%) had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 82.1% within 8 h. Compared with the marketed MbH product, the Cmax of FT-10 was almost the same, while FRS-11 maximum concentration was higher. The tmax was 3.33, 2.167, and 3.0 h for marketed MbH product, FT-10, and FRS-11, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment showed that the relative bioavailability of the MbH was 104.76 and 116.01% after oral administration of FT-10 and FRS-11, respectively, compared to marketed product. These results demonstrated that both controlled-released floating matrix tablet and raft system would be promising gastroretentive delivery systems for prolonging drug action.

  4. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  5. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  6. Serum cytokine/chemokine profiles in patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (FHD) by using protein array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renato Antonio Dos Santos; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire de; Baptista Filho, Paulo Neves Bapti; Braga-Neto, Ulisses de Mendonça; Marques, Ernesto Torres de Azevedo; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales

    2017-04-01

    DENV infection can induce different clinical manifestations varying from mild forms to dengue fever (DF) or the severe hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Several factors are involved in the progression from DF to DHF. No marker is available to predict this progression. Such biomarker could allow a suitable medical care at the beginning of the infection, improving patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare the serum expression levels of acute phase proteins in a well-established cohort of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients, in order to individuate a prognostic marker of diseases severity. The serum levels of 36 cytokines, chemokines and acute phase proteins were determined in DF and DHF patients and compared to healthy volunteers using a multiplex protein array and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence detection. Serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-23, MIF, sCD40 ligand, IP-10 and GRO-α were also determined by ELISA. At the early stages of infection, GRO-α and IP-10 expression levels were different in DF compared to DHF patients. Besides, GRO-α was positively correlated with platelet counts and IP-10 was negatively correlated with total protein levels. These findings suggest that high levels of GRO-α during acute DENV infection may be associated with a good prognosis, while high levels of IP-10 may be a warning sign of infection severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and chemical profiling of monacolins in red yeast rice using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Guo; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Hu, Zhi-Bi

    2004-09-03

    Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice) was one of the food supplements that had the ability of lowering the blood-lipid levels, and monacolins have been proved to be main active constituents. In total 14 monacolin compounds such as monacolin K (mevinolin), J, L, M, X, and their hydroxy acid form, as well as dehydromonacolin K, dihydromonacolin L, compactin, 3alpha-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L, etc. were identified in red yeast rice, using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry. A chemical fingerprint profiling method to display bioactive monacolins in red yeast rice was established and could be used for the quality control of the target material and its related products. Ten finish products labeled as red yeast rice from different manufacturers in marketing were traced using the chromatographic chemical profiling method, and the results show that only two of them were similar while the other eight were significantly different from the reference red yeast rice. All of these materials including raw material powder and finished products available were quantified and the contents of monacolins were calculated with reference of monacolin K (mevinolin) as the standard.

  8. Identification of a characteristic copy number alteration profile by high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays associated with metastatic sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, María; Fontanillo, Celia; Abad, María M; Gutiérrez, María L; Mota, Ines; Bengoechea, Oscar; Santos-Briz, Ángel; Blanco, Oscar; Fonseca, Emilio; Ciudad, Juana; Fuentes, Manuel; De Las Rivas, Javier; Alcazar, José A; García, Jacinto; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luís; Orfao, Alberto; Sayagués, José M

    2014-07-01

    Metastatic dissemination is the most frequent cause of death in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC). It is believed that the metastatic process is related at least in part to a specific background of genetic alterations accumulated in cells from primary tumors, and the ability to detect such alterations is critical for the identification of patients with sCRC who are at risk of developing metastases. The authors used high-resolution, 500-K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to identify copy number alteration profiles present at diagnosis in primary tumors from patients with metastatic (n = 23) versus nonmetastatic (n = 26) sCRC. The results revealed a characteristic pattern of copy number alterations in metastatic sCRC tumors that involved losses of 23 regions at chromosomes 1p, 17p, and 18q, together with gains of 35 regions at chromosomes 7 and 13q. In line with expectations, the copy number profile investigated involved multiple genes that were associated previously with sCRC (ie, SMAD2) and/or the metastatic process (ie, podocalyxin-like [PODXL]), and it also was associated with a poorer outcome. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  9. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important......The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...

  10. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Adela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling microarrays to establish high resolution, genome-wide transcription profiles of the organism as it infects cell lines representative of its life cycle (tick; ISE6 and pathogenesis (human; HL-60 and HMEC-1. Results Detailed, host cell specific transcriptional behavior was revealed. There was extensive differential Ap gene transcription between the tick (ISE6 and the human (HL-60 and HMEC-1 cell lines, with far fewer differentially transcribed genes between the human cell lines, and all disproportionately represented by membrane or surface proteins. There were Ap genes exclusively transcribed in each cell line, apparent human- and tick-specific operons and paralogs, and anti-sense transcripts that suggest novel expression regulation processes. Seven virB2 paralogs (of the bacterial type IV secretion system showed human or tick cell dependent transcription. Previously unrecognized genes and coding sequences were identified, as were the expressed p44/msp2 (major surface proteins paralogs (of 114 total, through elevated signal produced to the unique hypervariable region of each – 2/114 in HL-60, 3/114 in HMEC-1, and none in ISE6. Conclusion Using these methods, whole genome transcription profiles can likely be generated for Ap, as well as other obligate intracellular organisms, in any host cells and for all stages of the cell infection process. Visual representation of comprehensive transcription data alongside an annotated map of the genome renders complex transcription into discernable patterns.

  11. Towards Memristive Dynamic Adaptive Neural Network Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    and logic circuits are used, avoiding the use of digital signal processors , floating-point units, arithmetic- logic units, memory arrays and other...Technique for a CMOS/ Nano Memristive Trainable Threshold Gate Array,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1051–1060, 2012. 6. Z. Abid, A...Memristor- CMOS Hybrid Integrated Circuits for Reconfigurable Logic,” Nano Letters, pp. 3640 –3645, September 2009. 10. J. Rofeh, A. Sodhi, M. Payvand, M

  12. Integrated Avalanche Photodiode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2017-04-18

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  13. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  14. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  15. Floating-Harbor syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, G; Sarac, A; Erkek Atay, N; Kulali, F

    2008-04-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare disorder which is clinically characterized by short stature, retarded speech development, delayed bone ages, triangular face, bulbous nose and thin lips. We described two cases with Floating-Harbor syndrome and briefly reviewed the relevant literature.

  16. Formulation of Nimesulide Floating Microparticles Using Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nimesulide release was faster in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) than in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and distilled water (pH 6.5). Conclusion: Coacervation non-solvent addition is a suitable technique for preparing floating microparticles of nimesulide using low-viscosity HPMC. Keywords: Floating microparticles ...

  17. The night float paradigm to decrease sleep deprivation: good solution or a new problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Anita; Ris, M Douglas; Succop, Paul

    2003-06-10

    In the late 1980s physician residency training programs developed the night float rotation, characterized by a sequence of 5 - 15 days of night work without any daytime duties, thereby involving an abrupt reversal of the wake - sleep schedule. We examined the effect of the night float rotation on sleep, mood and performance of pediatric residents. Residents completed sleep diaries daily, and tests of mood (Profile of Mood States) and attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test) three times a week during the two-week night float rotation, and during equivalent blocks of time of their daytime rotations. Results show that, despite having ample opportunity to sleep during the day, while on night float rotation residents slept less than during the nights of their normal daytime rotations, 6.3 h +/- 2.5 h and 7.2 h +/- 1.7 h, respectively, p inertia scores, 8.7 +/- 4.1 and 4.8 +/- 2.4, respectively, p < 0.0001, and decreased vigor-activity scores 10.7 +/- 5.4 and 14.8 +/- 5.3, respectively, p = 0.02. The scores for attention were not significantly different between night float and daytime rotations. The correlation coefficients of fatigue with measures of attention were not statistically significant for daytime rotations. However, for night float fatigue correlated with omission errors, r = 0.51, p = 0.001 and with attentiveness r = - 0.36, p = 0.03. Training programs that adopt the night float rotation must be aware of potential deleterious effects of the night float rotation as they may lead to serious consequences on residents' performance and patients' safety.

  18. Identification of metabolites from liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection profiling: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and refractionation provide essential information orthogonal to LC-MS/microNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathungu, Rose M; Bird, Susan S; Sheldon, Diane P; Kautz, Roger; Vouros, Paul; Matson, Wayne R; Kristal, Bruce S

    2014-06-01

    Liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection (LC-EC) is a sensitive, quantitative, and robust metabolomics profiling tool that complements the commonly used mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based approaches. However, LC-EC provides little structural information. We recently demonstrated a workflow for the structural characterization of metabolites detected by LC-EC profiling combined with LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and microNMR. This methodology is now extended to include (i) gas chromatography (GC)-electron ionization (EI)-MS analysis to fill structural gaps left by LC-ESI-MS and NMR and (ii) secondary fractionation of LC-collected fractions containing multiple coeluting analytes. GC-EI-MS spectra have more informative fragment ions that are reproducible for database searches. Secondary fractionation provides enhanced metabolite characterization by reducing spectral overlap in NMR and ion suppression in LC-ESI-MS. The need for these additional methods in the analysis of the broad chemical classes and concentration ranges found in plasma is illustrated with discussion of four specific examples: (i) characterization of compounds for which one or more of the detectors is insensitive (e.g., positional isomers in LC-MS, the direct detection of carboxylic groups and sulfonic groups in (1)H NMR, or nonvolatile species in GC-MS), (ii) detection of labile compounds, (iii) resolution of closely eluting and/or coeluting compounds, and (iv) the capability to harness structural similarities common in many biologically related, LC-EC-detectable compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycan profiling analysis using evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted lectin array: Importance of sugar recognition for cellular uptake of exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Asako; Tahara, Yoshiro; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2017-09-23

    Studies involving the functional analysis of exosomal contents including proteins, DNA, and RNA have been reported. Most membrane proteins and lipids are glycosylated, which controls their physical properties and functions, but little is known about glycans on exosomes owing to the difficulty of analysing them. To shed light on these issues, we collected exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human adipose tissue for glycan profiling using evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted lectin array as well as analysis of their uptake in vivo. Initial analyses showed that the mean diameter of the collected exosomes was 178 nm and they presented with typical exosomal and MSC markers. Regarding the glycan profiling, exosomes interacted more strongly than the membrane of the original MSCs did with a range of lectins, especially sialic acid-binding lectins. The findings also showed that cellular exosome uptake involved recognition by HeLa cell-surface-bound sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs). Confirming this siglec-related uptake, in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous injection of the fluorescently labelled exosomes into mice showed their transport into lymph nodes and internalization by antigen-presenting cells, particularly those expressing CD11b. Closer analysis revealed the colocalization of the exosomes with siglecs, indicating their involvement in the uptake. These findings provide us with an improved understanding of the importance of exosomal transport and targeting in relation to glycans on exosomal surfaces, potentially enabling us to standardize exosomes when using them for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growing halophytes floating at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Radulovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733 days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5 mm yr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0 kg m−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

  1. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip) may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH) GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV) regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In addition to transcript

  2. Program Converts VAX Floating-Point Data To UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marcos; Chapman, Bruce; Chu, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    VAX Floating Point to Host Floating Point Conversion (VAXFC) software converts non-ASCII files to unformatted floating-point representation of UNIX machine. This is done by reading bytes bit by bit, converting them to floating-point numbers, then writing results to another file. Useful when data files created by VAX computer must be used on other machines. Written in C language.

  3. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521. ...

  4. Video-OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains digital video files from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site...

  5. Thumb polydactyly with a floating ulnar thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Thumb polydactyly is reported to be the most common congenital anomaly of the hand in Japan. The floating type is not particularly rare, accounting for 0.9 to 15% of all cases of thumb polydactyly. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been only one case of thumb polydactyly with a floating ulnar thumb, reported by Onizuka. Herein, we report a case very similar to that reported by Onizuka. In our case, the vessels feeding the floating ulnar thumb branched from the superficial palmar arterial arch, and X-rays revealed triphalangism. In surgery, we not only reconstructed the morphology of the thumb, but also tried to preserve the sensation in the reconstructed thumb by transposing the digital nerve of the floating ulnar thumb to the radial thumb. In addition to thumb polydactyly, our case also showed hypoplasia of the thenar muscles.

  6. Validation of salinity data from ARGO floats: Comparison between the older ARGO floats and that of later deployments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Youn, Y.-H.; Lee, H.; Chang, Y.-S.; Pankajakshan, T.

    depolyed in different years. Floats deployed in the East Sea and the Indian Ocean are examined to find out float-to-float match-ups in such a way that an older float pops up simultaneously with a newer deployment (with tolerable space-time difference). A...

  7. Floating structures (based on water activities)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodionovskaya Inna Serafi movna; Kocheryaev Stanislav Alexandrovich; Shakhova Marina Evgenevna

    2012-01-01

    The article briefly describes the types of structures that are widely spread worldwide, and many well-known projects that remain unimplemented. Particular attention is driven to the main features of floating structures and areas of their application. Despite the advances of the present-day technology, floating structures are only used in the travel industry and low-rise construction. The authors consider a substantial though yet unexplored potential of rivers, seas and lakes, a...

  8. Floating phenomenon and mode of color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hironobu; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    2002-06-01

    We found an interesting phenomenon concerning the motion perception and the mode of color appearance. We suppose you are holding a stiff sheet of picture and move it laterally to and fro in front of the eye. Though the picture and all items in it move physically altogether with your hand, your perception is not always so. But when the picture that is a figure appears light-source color mode and a background of object color, a figure appears to slip on a background. We call this a 'floating phenomenon.' We predicted the occurrence of floating phenomenon depends on whether the color is perceived to belong to an object or not. To examine the relation between the floating phenomenon and the mode of color appearance, we measured the luminance threshold of floating phenomenon and the transition luminance between two color modes by constant stimulus method to use a mondrian. Our results show the floating never occurred when the target appeared as object color mode. The floating phenomenon may be caused by the separation of the light-source color from an object or week-belonging.

  9. Reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling identifies a biomarker signature for risk classification of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sonntag

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust subclassification of luminal breast cancer, the most common molecular subtype of human breast cancer, is crucial for therapy decisions. While a part of patients is at higher risk of recurrence and requires chemo-endocrine treatment, the other part is at lower risk and also poorly responds to chemotherapeutic regimens. To approximate the risk of cancer recurrence, clinical guidelines recommend determining histologic grading and abundance of a cell proliferation marker in tumor specimens. However, this approach assigns an intermediate risk to a substantial number of patients and in addition suffers from a high interobserver variability. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify a quantitative protein biomarker signature to facilitate risk classification. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were used to obtain quantitative expression data for 128 breast cancer relevant proteins in a set of hormone receptor-positive tumors (n = 109. Proteomic data for the subset of histologic G1 (n = 14 and G3 (n = 22 samples were used for biomarker discovery serving as surrogates of low and high recurrence risk, respectively. A novel biomarker selection workflow based on combining three different classification methods identified caveolin-1, NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 as top candidates. NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 were expressed at elevated levels in high risk tumors whereas caveolin-1 was observed as downregulated. The identified biomarker signature was subsequently analyzed using an independent test set (AUC = 0.78. Further evaluation of the identified biomarker panel by Western blot and mRNA profiling confirmed the proteomic signature obtained by RPPA. In conclusion, the biomarker signature introduced supports RPPA as a tool for cancer biomarker discovery.

  10. Formulation, release characteristics, and bioavailability study of gastroretentive floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Nabarawi MA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A El Nabarawi,1 Mahmoud H Teaima,1 Rehab A Abd El-Monem,2 Nagla A El Nabarawy,3 Dalia A Gaber4 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October, Egypt; 3National Egyptian Center of Environment and Toxicological Research (NECTER, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Department of Quality Control, Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin® 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs. The optimized tablet formula (FT-10 and raft system formula (FRS-11 were found to float within 34±5 sec and 15±7 sec, respectively, and both remain buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid. FT-10 (Compritol/HPMC K,100M 1:1 showed the slowest drug release among all prepared tablet formulations, releasing about 80.2% of MbH over 8 h. In contrast, FRS-11 (Sodium alginate 3%/HPMC K,100M 1%/Precirol 2% had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 82.1% within 8 h. Compared with the marketed MbH product, the Cmax of FT-10 was almost the same, while FRS-11 maximum concentration was higher. The tmax was 3.33, 2.167, and 3.0 h for marketed MbH product, FT-10, and FRS-11, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment showed that the relative

  11. Two databases derived from BGC-Argo float measurements for marine biogeochemical and bio-optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organelli, Emanuele; Barbieux, Marie; Claustre, Hervé; Schmechtig, Catherine; Poteau, Antoine; Bricaud, Annick; Boss, Emmanuel; Briggs, Nathan; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Leymarie, Edouard; Mangin, Antoine; Obolensky, Grigor; Penkerc'h, Christophe; Prieur, Louis; Roesler, Collin; Serra, Romain; Uitz, Julia; Xing, Xiaogang

    2017-11-01

    Since 2012, an array of 105 Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) floats has been deployed across the world's oceans to assist in filling observational gaps that are required for characterizing open-ocean environments. Profiles of biogeochemical (chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter) and optical (single-wavelength particulate optical backscattering, downward irradiance at three wavelengths, and photosynthetically available radiation) variables are collected in the upper 1000 m every 1 to 10 days. The database of 9837 vertical profiles collected up to January 2016 is presented and its spatial and temporal coverage is discussed. Each variable is quality controlled with specifically developed procedures and its time series is quality-assessed to identify issues related to biofouling and/or instrument drift. A second database of 5748 profile-derived products within the first optical depth (i.e., the layer of interest for satellite remote sensing) is also presented and its spatiotemporal distribution discussed. This database, devoted to field and remote ocean color applications, includes diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance at three narrow wavebands and one broad waveband (photosynthetically available radiation), calibrated chlorophyll and fluorescent dissolved organic matter concentrations, and single-wavelength particulate optical backscattering. To demonstrate the applicability of these databases, data within the first optical depth are compared with previously established bio-optical models and used to validate remotely derived bio-optical products. The quality-controlled databases are publicly available from the SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition) publisher at https://doi.org/10.17882/49388" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.17882/49388 and https://doi.org/10.17882/47142" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.17882/47142 for vertical profiles and products within the first optical depth, respectively.

  12. Two databases derived from BGC-Argo float measurements for marine biogeochemical and bio-optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Organelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2012, an array of 105 Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo floats has been deployed across the world's oceans to assist in filling observational gaps that are required for characterizing open-ocean environments. Profiles of biogeochemical (chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter and optical (single-wavelength particulate optical backscattering, downward irradiance at three wavelengths, and photosynthetically available radiation variables are collected in the upper 1000 m every 1 to 10 days. The database of 9837 vertical profiles collected up to January 2016 is presented and its spatial and temporal coverage is discussed. Each variable is quality controlled with specifically developed procedures and its time series is quality-assessed to identify issues related to biofouling and/or instrument drift. A second database of 5748 profile-derived products within the first optical depth (i.e., the layer of interest for satellite remote sensing is also presented and its spatiotemporal distribution discussed. This database, devoted to field and remote ocean color applications, includes diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance at three narrow wavebands and one broad waveband (photosynthetically available radiation, calibrated chlorophyll and fluorescent dissolved organic matter concentrations, and single-wavelength particulate optical backscattering. To demonstrate the applicability of these databases, data within the first optical depth are compared with previously established bio-optical models and used to validate remotely derived bio-optical products. The quality-controlled databases are publicly available from the SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition publisher at https://doi.org/10.17882/49388 and https://doi.org/10.17882/47142 for vertical profiles and products within the first optical depth, respectively.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of a Gastric Floating Dosage Form of Capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Taghizadeh Davoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as nausea and vomiting, are considered amongst the main adverse effects associated with oral anticancer drugs due to their fast release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Sustained release formulations with proper release profiles can overcome some side effects of conventional formulations. The current study was designed to prepare sustained release tablets of Capecitabine, which is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbomer934P, sodium alginate, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method and characterized such that floating lag time, total floating time, hardness, friability, drug content, weight uniformity, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The sustained release tablets showed good hardness and passed the friability test. The tablets’ floating lag time was determined to be 30–200 seconds, and it floated more than 24 hours and released the drug for 24 hours. Then, the stability test was done and compared with the initial samples. In conclusion, by adjusting the right ratios of the excipients including release-retarding gel-forming polymers like HPMC K4M, Na alginate, carbomer934P, and sodium bicarbonate, sustained release Capecitabine floating tablet was formulated.

  14. Preparation and characterization of a gastric floating dosage form of capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh Davoudi, Ehsan; Ibrahim Noordin, Mohamed; Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as nausea and vomiting, are considered amongst the main adverse effects associated with oral anticancer drugs due to their fast release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Sustained release formulations with proper release profiles can overcome some side effects of conventional formulations. The current study was designed to prepare sustained release tablets of Capecitabine, which is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomer934P, sodium alginate, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method and characterized such that floating lag time, total floating time, hardness, friability, drug content, weight uniformity, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The sustained release tablets showed good hardness and passed the friability test. The tablets' floating lag time was determined to be 30-200 seconds, and it floated more than 24 hours and released the drug for 24 hours. Then, the stability test was done and compared with the initial samples. In conclusion, by adjusting the right ratios of the excipients including release-retarding gel-forming polymers like HPMC K4M, Na alginate, carbomer934P, and sodium bicarbonate, sustained release Capecitabine floating tablet was formulated.

  15. Floating offshore wind turbines for shallow waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B.H.; Peeringa, J.M.; Pierik, J.T.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Henderson, A. [Section Wind Energy, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Van Hees, M.Th. [Maritime Research Institute Netherlands, MARIN, Wageningen (Netherlands); Snijders, E.J.B. [Marine Structure Consultants MSC, Schiedam (Netherlands); Wijnants, G.H.; Wolf, M.J. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    Bottom mounted Offshore wind turbines seem to have a promising future but they are restricted to shallow waters such as in Northern Europe. Many projects are planned or are in the phase of construction in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. All projects planned to date are in water depths of up to approximately 25 m. The research project reported in this paper investigated the technical and economical feasibility of floating wind energy systems in deeper waters, of approximately 50 m and deeper. It is assumed that at a certain water depth floating wind turbines will have better economics than bottom mounted wind turbines. Floating wind energy systems seem to have some advantages over bottom mounted wind energy systems, such as: lower cost installation (in a harbour); lower maintenance cost; lower removal cost. But floating wind energy systems have their own technical challenges, such as dynamic interactions between floater and wind turbine; floater conceptual design including mooring system, taking into account restriction w.rt. stability of floater and wind turbine, minimizing wave induced motion, water depth, etc. This paper summarises the activities undertaken within the FloatWind feasibility study carried out during 2001-2002. Full details are to be found in the Final Report, also available from ECN or any of the authors.

  16. Genomic profiling using array comparative genomic hybridization define distinct subtypes of diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma comprising of greater than 30% of adult non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. DLBCL represents a diverse set of lymphomas, defined as diffuse proliferation of large B lymphoid cells. Numerous cytogenetic studies including karyotypes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as morphological, biological, clinical, microarray and sequencing technologies have attempted to categorize DLBCL into morphological variants, molecular and immunophenotypic subgroups, as well as distinct disease entities. Despite such efforts, most lymphoma remains undistinguishable and falls into DLBCL, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS). The advent of microarray-based studies (chromosome, RNA, gene expression, etc) has provided a plethora of high-resolution data that could potentially facilitate the finer classification of DLBCL. This review covers the microarray data currently published for DLBCL. We will focus on these types of data; 1) array based CGH; 2) classical CGH; and 3) gene expression profiling studies. The aims of this review were three-fold: (1) to catalog chromosome loci that are present in at least 20% or more of distinct DLBCL subtypes; a detailed list of gains and losses for different subtypes was generated in a table form to illustrate specific chromosome loci affected in selected subtypes; (2) to determine common and distinct copy number alterations among the different subtypes and based on this information, characteristic and similar chromosome loci for the different subtypes were depicted in two separate chromosome ideograms; and, (3) to list re-classified subtypes and those that remained indistinguishable after review of the microarray data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to compile and review available literatures on microarray analysis data and their practical utility in classifying DLBCL subtypes. Although conventional cytogenetic methods such as Karyotypes and

  17. Physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David

    2014-01-01

    As the result of a 12-year program of sediment-transport research and field testing on the Colorado River (6 stations in UT and AZ), Yampa River (2 stations in CO), Little Snake River (1 station in CO), Green River (1 station in CO and 2 stations in UT), and Rio Grande (2 stations in TX), we have developed a physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size at 15-minute intervals using multifrequency arrays of acoustic-Doppler profilers. This multi-frequency method is able to achieve much higher accuracies than single-frequency acoustic methods because it allows removal of the influence of changes in grain size on acoustic backscatter. The method proceeds as follows. (1) Acoustic attenuation at each frequency is related to the concentration of silt and clay with a known grain-size distribution in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (2) The combination of acoustic backscatter and attenuation at each frequency is uniquely related to the concentration of sand (with a known reference grain-size distribution) and the concentration of silt and clay (with a known reference grain-size distribution) in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (3) Comparison of the suspended-sand concentrations measured at each frequency using this approach then allows theory-based calculation of the median grain size of the suspended sand and final correction of the suspended-sand concentration to compensate for the influence of changing grain size on backscatter. Although this method of measuring suspended-sediment concentration is somewhat less accurate than using conventional samplers in either the EDI or EWI methods, it is much more accurate than estimating suspended-sediment concentrations using calibrated pump measurements or single-frequency acoustics. Though the EDI and EWI methods provide the most accurate measurements of suspended-sediment concentration, these measurements are labor-intensive, expensive, and

  18. Economic Floating Waste Detectionfor Surface Cleaning Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumroengrit Jakkrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing waste out of water surface is a routine task and can be operated by using autonomous surface cleaning robots. This paper presents amethodoflaser-based floating waste detection for surface robot guidance when waste positions are unknown beforehand. Basing on concept of refraction and reflection of laser ray, the proposed laser-based technique is proven to be applicable on floating waste detection. The economic waste detector is constructed and mounted on the robot. Five DOF equations of motion are formulated for calculation of waste position incorporating distance measured by the laser and also the robot motion caused by external wind force as well as water surface tension. Experiments were conducted on a pond with calm water and results show that the presented economic waste detection successfully identify and locate position of plastic bottles floating on water surface within the range of 5 meters.

  19. Floating Fraction of Basal Ice, a Possible Mechanism for Ice Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    Increased melt on major ice sheets will lead to increasing sea level. The two major ice masses on Earth, Greenland and Antarctica, seem to react faster to global warming than originally was thought, by increased draining of ice into the sea. Most of the draining takes place through fast moving calving glaciers called ice streams. A not well understood condition for ice streams to occur is the presence of basal water. We present a possible mechanism for ice stream draining by introducing the floating fraction of basal ice in a flow line model. We will show that this fraction is really an uncoupling percentage of the ice mass from the bed. Two limiting situations occur in the value of the uncoupling percentage. In one case, the ice mass is completely uncoupled which will result in an ice shelf profile. In the second case, the ice mass is completely coupled which will result in a parabolic shaped ice sheet. As ice streams are transitional between sheet-flow and shelf- flow, the uncoupling percentage or the floating fraction has to have its value between the two limiting situations. We will first present a test case in which the floating fraction is known along a flow line, leading to an ice sheet profile. We will use the produced ice profile as input to see if we can reproduce our floating fraction. To see if our model makes any sense in the real world, the model will be tested with a field data set for Whillans Ice Stream. The results show us that the model is a good first order approximation but has shortcomings due to simplifications in ice rheology. The beauty of the model lies in the fact that it is simple and thus quick and that the floating fraction provides a gradual transition from ice sheet to shelf flow, representing an ice stream.

  20. FLOAT2 WP4: Development of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Aarup, Bendt

    This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC.......This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC....

  1. Block floating point for radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1999-01-01

    Integer, floating point, and block floating point (BFP) data formats are analyzed and compared in order to establish the mathematical tools for selection of an optimal format which fulfils the demands of high resolution radar (SAR) data to large dynamic range and adequate S/N. The analysis takes...... quantization noise and saturation distortion into account and concludes that it is preferred to use small blocks and a (new) modified BFP format applying fractional exponents. Data from the EMISAR radar system are applied to illustrate the merits of the different schemes....

  2. Floating Inductance and FDNR Using Positive Polarity Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized circuit based on five positive polarity second-generation current conveyors is introduced. The circuit simulates a floating inductance, capacitor floatation circuit and floating fdnr. All these circuits use grounded capacitors.

  3. 14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25.753 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design...

  4. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Szabo, S.; Gragnani, A.; Nes, van E.H.; Rinaldi, S.; Kautsky, N.; Norberg, J.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Franken, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Their results, based on experiments, field data, and models (in Dutch ditches and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe), represent evidence for

  5. Formulation of Nimesulide Floating Microparticles Using Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    weakly acidic drugs, such as nimesulide, on the stomach by avoiding direct contact with gastric mucosa. Methods: Sustained release floating microparticles of ... acidic drug, nimesulide, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the gel-forming ... (phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) separately. An amount of the microparticles, ...

  6. Cystic ovarian teratoma with intracystic floating globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, A E; Astarcioglu, H; Obuz, F; Canda, M S

    2005-01-01

    Ovarian cystic teratomas are cystic fatty tumors that are often found in patients of reproductive age, and the diagnosis can be easily made radiologically. We present a case of postmenopausal ovarian cystic teratoma with an unusual radiologic appearance of intracystic floating globules.

  7. Phytophilous Macroinvertebrates of Floating Nymphaea lotus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytophilous macroinvertebrates associated with two dominant floating aquatic macrophytes, water lilly (Nymphaea lotus) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in River Orogodo, Niger Delta were sampled between February and July 2006. The location of both plant species exhibited similar water quality characteristics during ...

  8. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Floating point numbers are an important data type in compu- tation which is used extensively. Yet, many users do not know the standard which is used in almost all computer hardware to store and process these. In this article, we explain the standards evolved by The Institute of Electrical and Elec- tronic Engineers in 1985 ...

  9. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers. V Rajaraman. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 11-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/01/0011-0030. Keywords.

  10. Perlukah Sistem Nilai Tukar Free Float Dipertahankan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koestandar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Article discuss the necessary in keeping free float exchange rate system that consist of exchange rate system, stock market, and crisis on rupiah exchange rate system. It also explain comparison of flexible exchange rate and fixed exchange rate.

  11. Gastroretentive Floating Microspheres of Silymarin: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties based on parameters such as angle of repose and compressibility index, as well as for various other physicochemical properties including particle size, incorporation efficiency, in vitro floatability, and in vitro drug release. The shape and surface morphology of the ...

  12. Reis kosmosesse : [Floating-kambrist] / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Ameerika psühholoogi John C. Lilly poolt kasutusele võetud Floating-kambrist ehk hõljumisvannist, mis aeglustab ajulaineid ning seeläbi aitab vähendada lihaspinget, stressi, ärevust, peavalusid, vererõhku ning parandada und, selgroo- ja kaelavigastusi, suurendada loovust ja heaolu jne

  13. Ocular abnormalities in Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseidat, Ibrahim; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2009-04-01

    We present the first case report of a comprehensive eye examination in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. Ocular findings were limited to partially accommodative, acquired esotropia, and unusual eyelashes. A variety of other ocular features have been previously reported in the nonophthalmic medical literature and are herein reviewed.

  14. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  15. Floating RC Networks Using Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zeman

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of floating one- and/or two-port high-order networks. The current conveyor CCII+ seems to be a suitable active building block for this purpose. Some examples of the above mentioned networks are shown .

  16. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  17. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  18. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. Bhowmik D, Chiranjib.B, Margret C, Jayakar B, Sampath. KPK. Floating drug delivery system-a review. Der. Pharmacia Lettre 2009; 1(2): 199-218. 4. Gangadharappa HV, Kumar PTM, Shiva KHG. Gastric floatiing drug delivery system: A review. Indian J. Pharm Educ Res 2007; 41(4): 295-305. 5. Hoffman A, Stepensky D, ...

  19. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  20. Independence of VNTR alleles defined as floating bins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, B.S. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Data bases of VNTR fragments determined for Caucasians and blacks by Cellmark Diagnostics and Lifecodes Corporation are analyzed for independence of variants within and between loci. Floating bins are constructed around specific fragment lengths and are used to define discrete genotypes. Simple [chi][sup 2] test statistics for independence of bins within and between loci are described and applied to large sets of randomly generated four-locus profiles. The proportions of significant test statistics were about as expected under the hypothesis of independence, suggesting the absence of both Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium. In any particular forensic application, however, these need to be performed on the fragments in question. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Finescale Water-Mass Variability from ARGO Profiling Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    assessment of water-mass (aka thermohaline or spice) variability as a measure of stirring along isopycnals, as well as density ratio Rρ statistics, from the...Schmitt 1990) or double-diffusively-driven thermohaline interleaving. The coarse temporal and vertical sampling of the data are unlikely to allow...us to distinguish between these 2 mechanisms though persistent thermohaline intrusions spanning O(1000 km) have been reported in the equatorial

  2. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  3. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Safwan Abdel; Carter, Paul A; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer-Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50-54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile.

  4. Floating tablets for controlled release of ofloxacin via compression coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose combined with effervescent agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Haiyan; Rui, Yao; Yang, Fengjiao; Ma, Ning; Wu, Zhenghong

    2015-07-15

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within gastrointestinal trace until all drug released at desired rate was one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery system. Herein, we developed a fine floating tablet via compression coating of hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropyl cellulose) combined with effervescent agent (sodium bicarbonate) to achieve simultaneous control of release rate and location of ofloxacin. Sodium alginate was also added in the coating layer to regulate the drug release rate. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated. The optimized formulations were found to immediately float within 30s and remain lastingly buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) without pepsin, indicating a satisfactory floating and zero-order drug release profile. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment in New Zealand rabbits showed that, the relative bioavailability of the ofloxacin after administrated of floating tablets was 172.19%, compared to marketed common release tablets TaiLiBiTuo(®). These results demonstrated that those controlled-released floating tables would be a promising gastro-retentive delivery system for drugs acting in stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-resolution ERG-expression profiling on GeneChip exon 1.0 ST arrays in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.P.; Salagierski, M.; Jannink, S.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether oestrogen-regulated gene (ERG) expression analysis using GeneChip arrays can predict transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion. The expression level of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene was studied in various histological grades of prostate cancer and castration-resistant

  6. Implementation of a Novel Low-Cost Low-Profile Ku-Band Antenna Array for Single Beam Steering from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas afford many advantages over traditional reflector antennas due to their conformality, high aperture efficiency, and unfettered beam steering capability at the price of increased cost and complexity. This paper eliminates the complex and costly array backend via the implementation of a series fed array employing a propagation constant reconfigurable transmission line connecting each element in series. Scanning can then be accomplished through one small (less than or equal to 100mil) linear motion that controls propagation constant. Specifically, each element is fed via a reconfigurable coplanar stripline transmission line with a tapered dielectric insert positioned between the transmission line traces. The dielectric insert is allowed to move up and down to control propagation constant and therefore induce scanning. We present a 20 element patch array design, scanning from -25 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 21 deg. at 13GHz. Measurements achieve only10.5 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 22 deg. scanning due to a faulty, yet correctable, manufacturing process. Beam squint is measured to be plus or minus 3 deg. for a 600MHz bandwidth. This prototype was improved to give scanning of 3.5 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 22 deg. Cross-pol patterns were shown to be -15dB below the main beam. Simulations accounting for fabrication errors match measured patterns, thus validating the designs.

  7. Preparation and statistical optimization of alginate based stomach specific floating microcapsules of simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premchandani, Tushar A; Barik, Bhakti B

    2012-01-01

    The present study involves preparation and characterization of floating microcapsules with simvastatin as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. The main objective is to improve solubility of simvastatin beta-CD complex (1:2) by co-precipitation method and then to deliver the same in sustained release dosage form. Sustained-release simvastatin microcapsules were prepared by the ionic gelation technique, using carbopol 941 as swellable floating polymer. A 3(3) full factorial design was used to study the effect of polymer concentration, drug complex and sodium alginate by plotting main effect plot and 3D surface plots. The formed microcapsules were subjected to various evaluation tests such as drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Powdered X-ray diffractometry and FTIR were used to investigate the complexation of simvastatin in the microcapsules. As the carbopol 941 is self swellable polymer, immediate floating was observed. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were performed in HCI buffer of pH 1.2. The release profile and dissolution kinetic showed that drug release from the microcapsules follows zero order kinetics. It was concluded from the present investigation that porous carbopol 941 microcapsules are promising sustained release system as well as stomach specific carriers for delivery of simvastatin.

  8. Towards closure of regional heat budgets in the North Atlantic using Argo floats and surface flux datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wells

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007a, b. The method includes optimal interpolation of the individual profiles to produce gridded fields with error estimates at a 10°×10° grid box resolution. Closure of the heat budget is obtained within the error estimates for some regions – particularly the eastern subtropical Atlantic – but not for those boxes that include the Gulf Stream. Over the whole range considered, closure is obtained for 13 (9 out of 20 boxes with the NOC (NCEP/NCAR surface fluxes. The seasonal heat budget at 20–30° N, 35–25° W is considered in detail. Here, the NCEP based budget has an annual mean residual of −55±35 Wm−2 compared with a NOC based value of −4±35 Wm−2. For this box, the net heat divergence of 36 Wm−2 (Ekman=−4 Wm−2, geostrophic=11 Wm−2, diffusion=29 Wm−2 offsets the net heating of 32 Wm−2 from the NOC surface heat fluxes. The results in this box are consistent with an earlier evaluation of the fluxes using measurements from research buoys in the subduction array which revealed biases in NCEP but good agreement of the buoy values with the NOC fields.

  9. Floating platform for offshore hydrocarbon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.W.

    1994-07-27

    A floating platform comprises a vessel having a deck or topsides portion mounted above the highest expected water level at the site where the platform is to be located, and a tension moored wellhead/manifold assembly secured to the seabed by at least two tethers against the action of its own buoyancy and floating below the water surface at a predetermined height above the seabed, the arrangement being such that the vessel can be positioned directly over the tension moored wellhead/manifold assembly and can draw oil and/or gas from risers and/or conductors terminating in that assembly for processing and export via the deck or topsides. The vessel may be fixed in position by catenary anchors or tension legs. (Author)

  10. Floating Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt

    -scale prototypes to full-scale pre-commercial wind parks. This thesis explores different aspects of numerical and physical modeling of floating offshore wind turbines. Numerical investigations, validated by physical test data, are used to highlight some of the implications of modeling these highly coupled aero......The concept of harnessing the power of the wind dates all the way back to the first ships traversing the seas. Later, windmills enabled the use of wind power for industrial purposes. Since then, technology has allowed the production of clean renewable energy through the use of wind turbines....... These turbines have traditionally been placed on land, but several factors have urged a move to offshore locations. Now the boundaries are being pushed into deeper and deeper waters, where the idea of floating offshore wind turbines has emerged. In less than a decade, these have gone from scattered small...

  11. Voltage-Controlled Floating Resistor Using DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumngern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new simple configuration to realize the voltage-controlled floating resistor, which is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The proposed resistor is composed of three main components: MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region, DDCC, and MOS voltage divider. The MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region is used to configure a floating linear resistor. The DDCC and the MOS transistor voltage divider are used for canceling the nonlinear component term of MOS transistor in the non-saturation region to obtain a linear current/voltage relationship. The DDCC is employed to provide a simple summer of the circuit. This circuit offers an ease for realizing the voltage divider circuit and the temperature effect that includes in term of threshold voltage can be compensated. The proposed configuration employs only 16 MOS transistors. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with PSPICE to confirm the presented theory.

  12. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  13. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  14. Floating-Harbor syndrome and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudley, A E; Moroz, S P

    1991-03-15

    We report on a 17-year-old young woman with a speech impediment, developmental delay, short stature, and facial anomalies consistent with the Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS). In addition, she has clinical and histological evidence of celiac disease, which was observed in 1 of the 6 previously reported cases of FHS, suggesting a possible association between the 2 conditions or pleiotropism of a presumed autosomal recessive disorder.

  15. Changing phenotype in Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, J H; Groom, K R; Yen, F F; Verdi, G D

    1998-02-26

    We report on a girl with Floating-Harbor syndrome, trigonocephaly due to metopic suture synostosis, preauricular pit, hypoplastic thumb, subluxated radial head, and Sprengel deformity. A review suggests that trigonocephaly may be an important craniofacial manifestation in this syndrome that is recognizable in infancy. With time, this finding appears to become less noticeable, and the face develops a triangular shape, accentuated by a broad and bulbous nose.

  16. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  17. Effect of antioxidants on captopril floating matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Inéz; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Villafuerte-Robles, Leopoldo

    2010-06-01

    Stability of captopril in a controlled release formulation has been a challenge for some time. The sustained release of captopril from floating matrices has been studied varying the antioxidant load, the sodium bicarbonate proportion and the compaction pressure. Although in many cases the effect of compaction pressure remains hidden, actual results show that matrices compacted at 55 MPa have smaller density and float in the dissolution medium while those compacted at 165 MPa float only adding sodium bicarbonate. The increase of compaction pressure reduces the hydration volume and increases the time necessary to attain its maximum. These changes are attributed to lower matrix porosity and to the consequent diminution of water and drug transport. Increasing ascorbic acid proportions increase the matrix hydration volume and the drug released. The use of sodium ascorbate and the substitution of 15% polymer with sodium bicarbonate reduce the matrix hydration volume, shorten the matrix hydration process and increase the drug released. This is attributed to carbon dioxide bubbles that decrease the matrix coherence and expand the matrix volume, facilitating drug dissolution and only a limited further matrix expansion. The antioxidant protection provided by sodium ascorbate was lesser of that of ascorbic acid because of greater molecular mass and lesser release rate.

  18. Pigmented Free-Floating Posterior Vitreous Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous cysts are very rare ocular malformations. In this observational case study, we report on an unusual case of a pigmented free-floating vitreous cyst and discuss its differential diagnosis. A 14-year-old male was referred to ophthalmology for a pigmented lesion in his left eye. He complained of an intermittent floater in the left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable bilaterally, except for a piece of brownish oval material floating in the vitreous in the left eye. He had received a knock on the left side of his head a few days before the visual discomfort of the left eye. Real-time ultrasound of the left eye detected a piece of hyperechogenic spherical material with no internal reflectivity, floating in the middle of the vitreous. The first use of color Doppler ultrasound in this context indicated no arterial flow, ruling out the presence of a persistent hyaloid artery. Intraocular cysts are rare ocular disorders, which have been divided into clear and pigmented cysts, and into those that occupy the anterior chamber, the retrolental space, and the vitreous cavity. This last is extremely rare. We describe such a case.

  19. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An array effect of wave energy farm buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ocean buoy energy farm is considered for Green energy generation and delivery to small towns along the Korean coast. The present studypresents that the floating buoy-type energy farm appears to be sufficiently feasible fortrapping more energy compared to afixed cylinder duck array. It is also seen from the numerical resultsthat the resonated waves between spaced buoys are further trapped by floating buoy motion. Our numerical study is analyzed by a plane-wave approximation, in which evanescent mode effects are included in a modified mild-slope equation based on the scattering characteristics for a single buoy.

  1. An array effect of wave energy farm buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Hyuck-Min; Lee, Jung-Lyul

    2012-12-01

    An ocean buoy energy farm is considered for Green energy generation and delivery to small towns along the Korean coast. The present studypresents that the floating buoy-type energy farm appears to be sufficiently feasible fortrapping more energy compared to afixed cylinder duck array. It is also seen from the numerical resultsthat the resonated waves between spaced buoys are further trapped by floating buoy motion.Our numerical study is analyzed by a plane-wave approximation, in which evanescent mode effects are included in a modified mild-slope equation based on the scattering characteristics for a single buoy.

  2. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  3. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  4. Floating Potential Probe Deployed on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 2000, at the request of the International Space Station (ISS) Program Office, a Plasma Contactor Unit Tiger Team was set up to investigate the threat of the ISS arcing in the event of a plasma contactor outage. Modeling and ground tests done under that effort showed that it is possible for the external structure of the ISS to become electrically charged to as much as -160 V under some conditions. Much of this work was done in anticipation of the deployment of the first large ISS solar array in November 2000. It was recognized that, with this deployment, the power system would be energized to its full voltage and that the predicted charging would pose an immediate threat to crewmembers involved in extravehicular activities (EVA's), as well as long-term damage to the station structure, were the ISS plasma contactors to be turned off or stop functioning. The Floating Potential Probe was conceived, designed, built, and deployed in record time by a crack team of scientists and engineers led by the NASA Glenn Research Center in response to ISS concerns about crew safety.

  5. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahim S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Safwan Abdel Rahim,1,2 Paul A Carter,1 Amal Ali Elkordy11Department of Pharmacy, Health and Well-being, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied Science University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2 at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer–Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50–54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile.Keywords: floating tablets, sodium alginate, pentoxifylline, dissolution, swelling, effervescent

  6. Overflow Water Pathways in the Subpolar North Atlantic Observed with Deep Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy; Furey, Heather; Lozier, Susan

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), a total of 135 acoustically tracked RAFOS floats have been deployed in the deep boundary currents of the Iceland, Irminger and Labrador Basins, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone, to investigate the pathways of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Floats were released annually in 2014, 2015 and 2016 at depths between 1800 and 2800 m for two-year missions. The array of sound sources used for tracking was expanded from 10 to 13 moorings in 2016 when it was discovered that wintertime surface roughness was negatively impacting acoustic ranges. The floats from the first setting reveal several examples of persistent , deep coherent eddy motion, including a cyclonic eddy spinning off the tip of Eirik Ridge (southwest of Cape Farewell), a cyclonic eddy in the northeastern Labrador Basin near where anticyclonic Irminger Rings are formed, and an anticyclonic eddy under the North Atlantic Current (NAC) in the central Iceland Basin. A consistent region of boundary-interior exchange was observed near Hamilton Bank on the western boundary of the Labrador Sea. Deep cyclonic recirculation gyres are revealed in all three basins. Floats released in the southward-flowing deep boundary current over the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge show that shallower layers of ISOW peel off to the west and cross the Ridge into the Irminger Basin through various gaps south of 60°N, including the Bight Fracture Zone. These floats tend to turn northward and continue along the slope in the Irminger Basin. Interestingly, floats released at the ISOW level in the CGFZ did not turn into the Irminger Basin as often depicted in deep circulation schematics, but rather drifted west-northwestward toward the Labrador Sea, or eddied around west of the CGFZ and (in some cases) turned southward. This result is consistent with some previous hydrographic and high-resolution model results

  7. Diagnosis and prognostication of ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas based on genome-wide DNA methylation profiling by bacterial artificial chromosome array-based methylated CpG island amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Masahiro; Arai, Eri; Wakai-Ushijima, Saori; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kosuge, Tomoo; Hosoda, Fumie; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoi, Sana; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Kanai, Yae

    2011-01-01

    To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T) from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  8. Diagnosis and Prognostication of Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Array-Based Methylated CpG Island Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Gotoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  9. World's largest floating crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A giant 50 t floating crane is about to become operational at the OBA terminal in Amsterdam. Fabricated to a new design but still to the lemniscate principle, it has the largest capacity ever. By good development and innovations in the crane design, the Netherlands oldest crane builders, Figee, has produced a model with increased lifting force and relatively lighter weight. By applying the lemniscate principle (a figee patent) in combination with a hydraulic control, the crane has greater load lifting capacity without speed and stability being affected. The crane will be used to unload large bulk carriers outside the IJmuiden locks to the special mooring facility. 1 photo.

  10. Floating-Harbor syndrome. A neuropsychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davalos, I P; Figuera, L E; Bobadilla, L; Martinez-Martinez, R; Matute, E; Partida, M G; Bañuelos, L A; Ramirez-Dueñas, M L

    1996-01-01

    We describe a six year old Mexican girl whose clinical picture (short stature with delayed bone age, language difficulties and triangular face with prominent nose) was compatible with the diagnosis of Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS). A neuropsychological evaluation disclosed a mild mental retardation, a constructive apraxia, a comprehensive and expressive language impairment. The analysis of the present case and sixteen patients previously described establishes that the FHS is mainly characterized by proportionate short stature with significantly delayed bone age, delayed expressive language and peculiar face.

  11. Explicit free‐floating beam element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A two‐node free‐floating beam element capable of undergoing arbitrary large displacements and finite rotations is presented in explicit form. The configuration of the beam in three‐dimensional space is represented by the global components of the position of the beam nodes and an associated set of...... interpolation of kinematic variables, resulting in a locking‐free formulation in terms of three explicit matrices. A set of classic benchmark examples illustrates excellent performance of the explicit beam element. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  12. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  13. The array-control heater and non-uniform resistance module design for regulating the temperature profile in a reactor chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Huanxiong; Xiang, Dong; Mou, Peng [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    The process chamber is the core unit of chamber-category integrated circuit manufacturing equipment. The physical field distribution in the chamber directly determines the process quality, but flexible and refined regulation of the physical field is the severest difficulty the equipment design confronts. The actual process chamber is relatively rigid in general, and lacks enough degrees of freedom (DOF) to flexibly regulate the distribution of process factors. As a result, it is difficult to achieve refined regulation of the process quality of the large-area wafer. To solve this problem, a multi-DOF and flexible design concept for the spatial distribution of process factors was proposed, and based on this concept, two typical design solutions were presented. To solve this kind of high-DOF and physical field involved design problem, a generalized profile error feedback (PEF) method was established that employs an iterative-approximation mode and starts from an initial guessed model. Four operations, including error obtainment, weight matrix configuration, error distribution and compensation, are in each iteration step. This iterative loop is run to make the current physical field profile in the critical domain continuously approximate the expected profile. The two design solutions both achieved the flexible and refined regulation of the thermal field via the PEF method. And under the condition of model-based simulation, the PEF method drove the current temperature profile to approximate the expected one in the chamber, and found a design variables sequence to make the relative error reduce from 2.91∼5.28% of the initial guessed model to 0.012∼0.015%.

  14. Ultra-Low Power Consuming Direct Radiation Sensors Based on Floating Gate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Pikhay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on ultra-low power consuming single poly floating gate direct radiation sensors. The developed devices are intended for total ionizing dose (TID measurements and fabricated in a standard CMOS process flow. Sensor design and operation is discussed in detail. Original array sensors were suggested and fabricated that allowed high statistical significance of the radiation measurements and radiation imaging functions. Single sensors and array sensors were analyzed in combination with the specially developed test structures. This allowed insight into the physics of sensor operations and exclusion of the phenomena related to material degradation under irradiation in the interpretation of the measurement results. Response of the developed sensors to various sources of ionizing radiation (Gamma, X-ray, UV, energetic ions was investigated. The optimal design of sensor for implementation in dosimetry systems was suggested. The roadmap for future improvement of sensor performance is suggested.

  15. Water-Pressure Distribution on Seaplane Float

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1929-01-01

    The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author)

  16. Wrinkling of floating monoatomic graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elettro, Herve; Melo, Francisco; Soft Matter Research; Technology Center (SMAT-C) Team

    Graphene is a carbon-based honeycomb structure only one atom thick that combines exceptional thermal, electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Whereas conventional bulk and thin film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical behavior of 2D materials (cracking, folding) are barely explored, mainly due to complexity of manipulation. Reaching quantitative understanding of these phenomena will prove valuable to the production of high-quality graphene at industrial scale, applicable in a wide range of technologies such as wearable bio-sensors and supercapacitors. In that state of mind, we investigate the complex behavior of graphene under compression and bending in a free-floating configuration. This adaptative support allows study of graphene intrinsic properties both at large and local scales. We have optimized preparation protocols for production of few defects mm scale floating samples. We use capillary confinement and micromechanical indentation to induce wrinkling, folding and tearing of monoatomic graphene sheets. Graphene samples are characterized by high-resolution optical microscopy combined with confocal Raman analysis to assess its physical quality and monoatomic thinness. Our results show exciting insights into the unique mechanics of 2D membranes. We acknowledge support from the chilean ministry of science Fondecyt/Conycit.

  17. Floating roof tank drainage system improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Wagner Andrade da; Holdack, Ricardo; Ruza, Adilson; Schraml, Karina Chacur; Fujikawa, Mauro Yutaka [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Adilson Batista da [ATP Engenharia Ltda., Parnamirim, RN (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    TRANSPETRO's tank TQ-8803 is a floating roof tank, used for storing gasoline at atmospheric pressure. This tank presented a roof movement restriction at a certain height in the receiving and sending operations, besides problems in draining the rainwater from the floating roof. The roof drain was a central articulated pipe, with a single intake spot. The tank had an anti-rotational 12-inch guide tube and a separate 8-inch gauging tube. It was verified that there were signs of friction between the tubes and their nozzles, and that both the tubes were out of plummet. The solution was removing both the tubes and installing a single anti-rotational guide tube, which received the level and temperature gauges, besides being used for manual gauging and as sampling nozzle. A new drainage system was also projected. It uses a flexible tube, supported in a spiral form on the bottom of the tank, and has a main and four auxiliary drainage boxes, positioned in the center of the roof and next to the pontoon, below the mobile stairs. These boxes were provided with elastomer duckbill check valves, substituting the swing check valves previously installed. After the maintenance conclusion, the anomalies found before were solved. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... float to the radius of gyration in roll. (c) Bow loading. The resultant limit load must be applied in... follows: EC28SE91.043 where— ρ=mass density of water (slugs/ft.2); V=volume of float (ft.2); C x...

  19. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: HPMC K4M loading clearly enhanced floating properties while CP934P showed negative effect on floating properties but was helpful in controlling drug release. The quadratic mathematical model developed was used to predict optimum formulations. The computer optimization process, contour plots and response ...

  20. 3D float tracking: in situ floodplain roughness estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to quantify in situ hydrodynamic roughness of submerged floodplain vegetation: 3D float tracking. This method uses a custom-built floating tripod that is released on the inundated floodplain and tracked from shore by a robotic total station. Simultaneously, an

  1. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  2. C/O logging neutron generator with floating power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Zhon Gjin; Li Wen Sheng; Guo Jing Fu; Wei Bao Jie

    2002-01-01

    Floating power supply is used to neutron tube in logging neutron generator, which minimizes the space of high-strength electric field, and reduces the voltage gradient by 1/3 in the high-strength electric field. Under condition of floating power supply pulse width modulation autocontrol is used to stabilize operation of neutron generator in high temperature circumstance

  3. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and characterize a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system for diltiazem hydrochloride using psyllium husk and sodium alginate as natural herbal carriers to improve the therapeutic effect of the drug in cardiac patients. Methods: Floating microparticles containing diltiazem hydrochloride were ...

  4. associated injuries and complications in floating knee management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This retrospective study set out to explore associated injuries and complications in floating knee management. Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: The investigation lasted ten years from 1st January, 2000 to 31st December, 2009. All the patients admitted in that period with a floating knee were ...

  5. Development and evaluation of floating microspheres of curcumin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence and to study their effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion-solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  6. Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  7. Formulation and evaluation of floating matrix tablets of metformin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results obtained, all formulated gastroretentive floating matrix (GRFM) granules were free flowing with angle of repose and Carr's index ≤ 30.2º and ≤ 11% respectively. The floating lag time for GRFM tablets formulated with Irvingia gabonesis was ≤ 850 s. The in vitro buoyancy times of GRFM tablets formulations ...

  8. 33 CFR 144.01-10 - Equipment for life floats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet) nor more than 4 meters (12 feet) in length. The water light must be mounted on a bracket so that when the life float is launched, the water light will pull free of the bracket. (c) Two paddles shall... 1/2 inch in diameter. (b) Each life float must have a water light of an approved automatic electric...

  9. Production of floating pellets using appropriate methods | Suleiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated into the use of floating materials like candle wax, yeast and baking powder to achieve pellet buoyancy. Ten diets were formulated with incorporation of floating agents; Diet I-YBCT- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -toasted), Diet II-YBCU- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -untoasted) Diet III ...

  10. Collective Behavior of Camphor Floats Migrating on the Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Hiraku; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    As simple and easily controllable objects among various self-propelled particles, camphor floats on the water surface have been widely recognized. In this paper, we introduce characteristic behaviors and discuss the background mechanism of camphor floats on water, both in isolated and non-isolated conditions. In particular, we focus on: (i) the transition of dynamical characters through bifurcations exhibited by systems with small number of camphor floats and (ii) the emergence of a rich variety of complex dynamics observed in systems with large number camphor floats, and attempt to elucidate these phenomena through mathematical modeling as well as experimental analysis. Finally, we discuss the connection of the dynamics of camphor floats to that of a wider class of complex and sophisticated dynamics exhibited by various types of self-propelled particles.

  11. Balloon Pump with Floating Valves for Portable Liquid Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Morimoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a balloon pump with floating valves to control the discharge flow rates of sample solutions. Because the floating valves were made from a photoreactive resin, the shapes of the floating valves could be controlled by employing different exposure patterns without any change in the pump configurations. Owing to the simple preparation process of the pump, we succeeded in changing the discharge flow rates in accordance with the number and length of the floating valves. Because our methods could be used to easily prepare balloon pumps with arbitrary discharge properties, we achieved several microfluidic operations by the integration of the balloon pumps with microfluidic devices. Therefore, we believe that the balloon pump with floating valves will be a useful driving component for portable microfluidic systems.

  12. Children's knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure: quantifier floating in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-06-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not obvious in the input or do they employ a sentence comprehension strategy based on the available input? Two experiments examined four- to six-year-old Japanese-speaking children for their interpretations of floating quantifiers in SOV and OSV sentences. The results revealed that no child employed a comprehension strategy in terms of the linear ordering of constituents, and most five- and six-year-olds correctly interpreted floating quantifiers when word-order difficulty was reduced. These facts indicate that children's interpretation of floating quantifiers is structurally dependent on hierarchical phrase structure, suggesting that this knowledge is a part of children's grammar despite the insufficient input available to them.

  13. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of an antidepressant drug by thermoplastic granulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ashok Pawar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an aim to formulate, develop and evaluate gastroretentive floating tablets of an antidepressant drug, Venlafaxine HCl (hydrochloride, which release the drug in a sustained manner over a period of 24 h. Three different hydrophobic retardants namely hydrogenated cottonseed oil, carnauba wax, cetyl alcohol and a hydrophilic polymer Methocel® (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M were used in different combinations at different ratios for the preparation of tablets. The tablets were prepared by Hot Melt or Thermoplastic granulation method and evaluated for tablet thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, floating lag time and in vitro drug release. Formulation F8 with hydrophilic polymer (Methocel® K15M and hydrophobic retardant (carnauba wax in the ratio 1:2.6 (approx. was considered as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation showed satisfactory sustained drug release and remained buoyant on the surface of the medium for more than 24 h and its release profile was comparable with the marketed formulation (VENTAB-XL 37.5. It can also be concluded that floating drug delivery system of Venlafaxine HCl can be successfully formulated as an approach to increase gastric residence time and thereby improving its bioavailability.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of novel coated floating tablets of bergenin and cetirizine dihydrochloride for gastric delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuang; Li, Feng; Zhou, Dan; Du, Junrong; Huang, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    A novel coated gastric floating drug-delivery system (GFDDS) of bergenin (BN) and cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET) was developed. First, the pharmacodynamic studies were performed and the results revealed that the new compounds of bergenin/cetirizine dihydrochloride had comparative efficacy as commercial products (bergenin/chlorphenamine maleate) but with fewer side effects on central nervous system (CNS). Subsequently, bergenin was formulated as an extended-release core tablet while cetirizine dihydrochloride was incorporated into the gastric coating film for immediate release. The formulation of GFDDS was optimized by CET content uniformity test, in vitro buoyancy and drug release. Herein, the effects of sodium bicarbonate (effervescent), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, matrix polymer) and coating weight gain were investigated respectively. The optimized GFDDS exhibited good floating properties (buoyancy lag time 10 h) and satisfactory drug-release profiles (immediate release of CET in 10 min and sustained release of BN for 12 h). In vivo gamma scintigraphy proved that the optimized GFDDS could retain in the stomach with a prolonged gastric retention time (GRT) of 5 h, and the coating layer showed no side effect for gastric retention. The novel coated gastric floating drug-delivery system offers a new approach to enhance BN's absorption at its absorption site and the efficacy of both CET and BN.

  15. Prediction of the mooring force of a 2-D floating oil storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinjie; Dong, Sheng; Zhao, Xizeng

    2014-12-01

    A Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based model is developed to predict the mooring force of a two-dimensional floating oil storage tank under wave conditions, which is validated against to a newly performed experiment. In the experiment, a box-shaped floating oil storage apparatus is used. Computations are performed by an improved CIP-based Cartesian grid model, in which the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A multiphase flow solver is adopted to treat the water-air-body interactions. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is implemented to treat the body surface. Main attention is paid to the sum force of mooring line and velocity field around the body. It is found that the sum force of the mooring line increases with increasing wave amplitude. The body suffers from water wave impact and large body motions occur near the free surface. The vortex occurs near the sharp edge, i.e., the sharp bottom corners of the floating oil storage tank and the vortex shedding can be captured by the present numerical model. The present model could be further improved by including turbulence model which is currently under development. Comparison between the computational mooring forces and the measured mooring forces is presented with a reasonable agreement. The developed numerical model can predict the mooring line forces very well.

  16. Effects of pore forming agents on chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel properties for use as a matrix for floating drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, E.; Al-Shidqi, M. F.; Cahyana, A. H.

    2017-07-01

    Eradicating H. pylori-based infection by using conventional oral dosage form of amoxicillin trihydrate finds difficulties to overcome rapid gastric retention time. Encapsulating amoxicillin trihydrate in floating drug delivery system may solve the problem. In this research, the floating drug delivery system of amoxicillin trihydrate encapsulated in floating chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogels containing CaCO3 and NaHCO3 as pore forming agents has been successfully prepared. Pore forming agents used was varied with the ratio of 10 to 25% pore forming agents to total mass of the used materials. The hydrogel were characterizedusing FTIR spectrophotometer and stereo microscope. As pore forming agents compositions increased, the porosity (%) and floating properties increased but followed by decrease in drug entrapment efficiency. Most of the floating hydrogels possessed floating ability longer than 180 min and the highest porosity was found in hydrogel containing 25% NaHCO3. Hydrogel containing CaCO3 showed sustained drug release profile than hydrogel containing NaHCO3. However, the optimum formulation was achieved at composition of 10% NaHCO3 with 57% of drug entrapped within the hydrogel and 43% drug released. The results of these studies show that NaHCO3 is an effective pore forming agents for chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogel preparation as compare to CaCO3.

  17. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  18. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Che; Zhou, Xiaobo; Taylor, Jesalyn J; Huang, Wan-Ting; Ren, Xianwen; Monzon, Federico; Feng, Yongdong; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Lu, Xin-Yan; Fabio, Facchetti; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Creighton, Chad J; Jaffe, Elaine S; Lau, Ching-Ching

    2009-11-12

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL) is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related) and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40%) include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related) cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related) than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  19. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  20. The phenotype of Floating-Harbor syndrome in 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M; Morgan, Angela; Da Costa, Annette; Lacombe, Didier; Knight, Samantha J L; Houlston, Richard; Whiteford, Margo L; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth A; Hurst, Jane A

    2010-04-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition typified by short stature, speech impairment, delayed bone age, and characteristic facies. The diagnosis can be difficult as the facial changes are subtle in infancy, and the features of short stature, delayed speech, and delayed bone age are frequently encountered in clinical practice. We refine the phenotype in FHS by reporting clinical findings in 10 typically affected individuals ranging in age from 7 to 34 years and present a mother and daughter who display some features of FHS. Bone age measurements were delayed when measured from age 6 months to 6 years but in some patients were normal between 6 and 12 years. Dysmorphic features at different ages are characterized. The lateral profile of the face and the characteristic body habitus aided diagnosis. Significant behavioral problems of hyperactivity, short attention span and aggression during childhood were reported for most individuals. The children studied had a severe and incapacitating disorder of speech and language. Intellectual functioning ranged from borderline normal to moderate intellectual disability. Early puberty was noted. Adult heights were 140-155 cm. Microarray analysis in eight of the patients provided no evidence that FHS is caused by a large-scale copy-number genomic change. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. When chromatin organisation floats astray: the Srcap gene and Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giovanni; Atterrato, Maria Teresa; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2016-12-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare human disease characterised by delayed bone mineralisation and growth deficiency, often associated with mental retardation and skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. FHS was first described at Boston's Floating Hospital 42 years ago, but the causative gene, called Srcap, was identified only recently. Truncated SRCAP protein variants have been implicated in the mechanism of FHS, but the molecular bases underlying the disease must still be elucidated and investigating the molecular defects leading to the onset of FHS remains a challenge. Here we comprehensively review recent work and provide alterative hypotheses to explain how the Srcap truncating mutations lead to the onset of FHS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  3. Near shore floating oscillating wave column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Three different types of floating buoys, using oscillating wave columns, have been considered for generating electric power in an Atlantic environment. The study considered the situation close to the shore, but in the ultimate it was hoped to deploy units offshore. Although other designs would have greater power capture efficiency, the Spar Buoy was studied in greatest depth as it was expected to have the edge in terms of building cost and operating economics. A risk assessment was carried out for both concrete and steel buoys. The report covers (1) history of the project development; (2) project definition; (3) power generation and sensitivities and (4) lessons learned. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  4. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  5. Floating Vitreous Cyst: Two Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Lavric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report two cases of solitary unilateral vitreous cyst. Methods: A complete ocular examination, fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed in both patients. Results: The first patient (a 39-year-old man presented with transient blurred vision in the right eye. The second patient (a 78-year-old man reported transient blurred vision in the right eye when changing head position. He was referred to the Eye Hospital because of vitreomacular traction in the other eye. After examination, a diagnosis of vitreous cyst was made in both cases. Conclusions: Vitreous cysts are rare clinical findings. They can occur in normal eyes or in eyes with certain ocular pathologies. When a cyst floats into the visual axis area, it can disturb visual function; therefore, patients usually report transient blurring of vision. A prompt clinical examination is necessary for differentiating this rare condition.

  6. High transmission float glass for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaubitt, W.; Sporn, D.; Hussmann, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung (ISC), Wuerzburg (Germany); Gombert, A.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Antireflective quarter-wave single layers with an improved abrasion resistance were prepared from sols by dip coating of float glasses, which can be used for covering solar cells and collectors. The coating sols are based on tetraalkoxysilane hydrolyzed in the presence of different organic additives, eg. polymers. This kind of sols lead to a stable pore structure in the pre-annealed film, which allows to treat it even at temperatures neccessary for glass strengthening. A heat treatment above 600 C improved the abrasion resistance, but was not accompanied by a reduction of the pore volume as would commonly be expected. The resulting porous film therefore showed the required effective refractive index of <1.3, and increased the transmission of such coated low-iron glass up to 99.6% in the visible spectral range and 97.0% in the solar spectral range. (orig.)

  7. UFO: "Unidentified" Floating Object Driven by Thermocapillarity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yuejun

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we show thermocapillary actuation of a binary drop of water and heptanol where the binary drop in motion takes on a UFO-like shape. On a parylene-coated silicon surface subjected to a linear temperature gradient, a pure heptanol droplet quickly moves to the cold side by the Marangoni stress, while a pure water droplet remains stuck due to a large contact angle hysteresis. When the water droplet was encapsulated by a thin layer of heptanol and thermally actuated, the binary droplet takes on a peculiar shape resembling an UFO, i.e. an "unidentified" floating object as the mechanism is not yet completely understood. Our finding suggests that pure liquid droplets (e.g. aqueous solutions) that are not conducive to thermocapillary actuation can be made so by encapsulating them with another judiciously chosen liquid (e.g. heptanol).

  8. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Alla; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  10. Plasma sheath effects and voltage distributions of large high-power satellite solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the floating voltage configuration of a large array in orbit is needed in order to estimate various plasma-interaction effects. The equilibrium configuration of array voltages relative to space depends on the sheath structure. The latter dependence for an exposed array is examined in the light of two finite-sheath effects. One effect is that electron currents may be seriously underestimated. The other is that a potential barrier for electrons can occur, restricting electron currents. A conducting surface is assumed on the basis of a conductivity argument. Finite-sheath effects are investigated. The results of assuming thin-sheath and thick-sheath limits on the floating configuration of a linearly connected array are studied. Sheath thickness and parasitic power leakage are estimated. Numerically computed fields using a 3-D code are displayed in the thick-sheath limit.

  11. Solid dispersions in the development of a nimodipine floating tablet formulation and optimization by artificial neural networks and genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Georgarakis, Emanouil

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of nimodipine-polyethylene glycol solid dispersions for the development of effervescent controlled release floating tablet formulations. The physical state of the dispersed nimodipine in the polymer matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and polarized light microscopy, and the mixture proportions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), effervescent agents (EFF) and nimodipine were optimized in relation to drug release (% release at 60 min, and time at which the 90% of the drug was dissolved) and floating properties (tablet's floating strength and duration), employing a 25-run D-optimal mixture design combined with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP). It was found that nimodipine exists as mod I microcrystals in the solid dispersions and is stable for at least a three-month period. The tablets showed good floating properties and controlled release profiles, with drug release proceeding via the concomitant operation of swelling and erosion of the polymer matrix. ANNs and GP both proved to be efficient tools in the optimization of the tablet formulation, and the global optimum formulation suggested by the GP equations consisted of PEG=9%, PVP=30%, HPMC=36%, EFF=11%, nimodipine=14%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A MEMS Floating Element Shear Stress Sensor for Hypersonic Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheplak, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ... for the measurement of unsteady hypersonic flow phenomena. The work focused on three parts: (1) modeling, optimization, and fabrication of a piezoresistive-based micromachined, floating element shear stress sensor, (2...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K. Kalyan

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40...

  14. Astronaut Gerald Carr floats in forward dome area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander for the Skylab 4 mission, demonstrates the effects of zero-gravity as he floats in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab space station while in Earth orbit.

  15. Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) survey of the Oregon outer Continental shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  16. Bathymetry Hillshade-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the USGS survey of the Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The shaded-relief raster was generated from bathymetry data...

  17. Preparation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, G D

    2009-10-01

    The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Acyclovir as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose and gas generating agent like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Floating noneffervescent tablets were prepared by polypropylene foam powder and different matrix forming polymers like HPMC K 4M, Carbopol 934P, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was found to follow both the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer and Peppas equation. The drug release mechanism was found fickian type in most of the formulations.

  18. Contours-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains data from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  19. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  20. Floating microspheres: to prolong the gastric retention time in stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadouriya, Priyanka; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-05-01

    A gastroretentive drug delivery system with prolong retention time in the stomach have great practical importance for drugs with an absorption window in the upper small intestine. Floating drug delivery system are expected to remain buoyant in the gastric content for prolong duration of time thus enhance the bioavailability of drugs. There are several gastroretentive drug delivery systems, which are floating microspheres, granules, tablets, powder, pills, laminated films and capsules. Floating microspheres are gaining special attention because of their wide applicability in the targeting of drug to stomach. Floating microspheres have several advantages, that they remain buoyant in the stomach and distributed uniformly to avoid the vagaries of gastric emptying and release the drug for prolong period of time.

  1. Geologic Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Windfarm Suite Data Release presents geological observations from video collected on U.S. Geological...

  2. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  3. Lossy / lossless floating / grounded inductance simulation using one DDCC

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim, Muhammed A.; Minaei, Shahram; Yüce, Erkan; Herencsar, Norbert; Koton, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present new topologies for realizing one lossless grounded inductor and two floating, one lossless and one lossy, inductors employing a single differential difference current conveyor (DDCC) and a minimum number of passive components, two resistors, and one grounded capacitor. The floating inductors are based on ordinary dual-output differential difference current conveyor (DO-DDCC) while the grounded lossless inductor is based one a modified dual-output differential differen...

  4. [Floating-Harbor syndrome in a girl with somatic asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, A T; Rogowska, M; Hubert, E; Hassman-Poznańska, E; Popko, J

    1995-09-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome, a genetic disorder of unknown etiology, was diagnosed in a 9-year-old girl with delayed morphologic, bone and dental age, lateral asymmetry of the body, triangular face, hypotelorism, broad palpepral fissures, long eye-lashes, narrow jaw, retrogenia, a defect of phonemic audition and speech delay with poor articulation. Similarity between Floating-Harbor syndrome and Silver-Russel syndrome is discussed.

  5. Radiometry from Bio-Argo Floats: a New Strategy to Validate Ocean Color Products at the Global Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organelli, E.; Claustre, H.; Serra, R.; Bricaud, A.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Poteau, A.; Mangin, A.; Leymarie, E.; Obolensky, G.; Prieur, L. M.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Xing, X.

    2016-02-01

    Thanks to a new generation of Bio-Argo floats equipped with sensors for PAR (Photosynthetically Available Irradiance) and downward irradiance measurements at selected wavelengths (i.e., 380, 412 and 490 nm), the number of radiometric measurements has been dramatically increasing and data are available for diverse open ocean systems, including winter periods with harsh seas when ships can hardly sample. More than 6500 radiometric profiles have so far been acquired around solar noon in the upper 250 m of the ocean. These radiometric profiles, acquired simultaneously to other key biogeochemical and bio-optical variables (chlorophyll a, CDOM, light backscattering), represent a fruitful data source for validation of Ocean Color (OC) products. Two different strategies can be implemented: direct validation of satellite OC products and identification of regions characterized by bio-optical anomalies. Diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) derived from these profiles, after a specifically developed quality control, are used for these purposes.A good agreement is observed between satellite-derived Kd values at 490 nm and their Bio-Argo counterparts. However, satellite overestimates low in situ Kd values found in very clear waters (e.g., Atlantic and Pacific Sub-Tropical Gyres). The analysis of the spectral Kd variability in the surface ocean shows the potential of Bio-Argo floats in identifying those regions with optical properties departing from global bio-optical relationships. Divergences of the ratio between Kd values at 380 nm and those at 490 nm from global bio-optical models are observed in areas such as the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic in winter. This might cause difficulties in retrieving biogeochemical parameters from satellite data. Hence, delineation of "anomalous" regions by Bio-Argo floats represents a useful strategy for planning dedicated cruises, setting mooring buoys or using CAL/VAL floats in order to improve Ocean Color applications.

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by drifting buoy and XBT in the Worldwide Oceans from 18 October 1999 to 28 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using moored buoy, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 18 October 1999 to 28 February 2000....

  7. Global Near Real-Time Temperature and Salinity Profile Data from the GTSPP project from 9/1/1999 - 11/30/1999 (NODC Accession 0000059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using moored buoy, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 01 September 1999 to 30 November 1999....

  8. Residents' perceptions of a night float system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granieri Rosanne

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Night Float (NF system has been implemented by many institutions to address increasing concerns about residents' work hours. The purpose of our study was to examine the perceptions of residents towards a NF system. Methods A 115-item questionnaire was developed to assess residents' perceptions of the NF rotation as compared with a regular call month. The categories included patient care, education, medical errors, and overall satisfaction. Internal Medicine housestaff (post-graduate years 1–3 from three hospital settings at the University of Pittsburgh completed the questionnaire. Results The response rate was 90% (n = 149. Of these, 74 had completed the NF rotation. The housestaff felt that the quality of patient care was improved because of NF (41% agreed and 18% disagreed. A majority also felt that better care was provided by a rested physician in spite of being less familiar with the patient (46% agreed and 21% disagreed. Most felt that there was less emphasis on education (65% and more emphasis on service (52% during NF. Overall, the residents felt more rested during their call months (83% and strongly supported the 80-hour workweek requirement (77%. Conclusion Housestaff felt that the overall quality of patient care was improved by a NF system. The perceived improved quality of care by a rested physician coupled with a perceived decrease in the emphasis on education may have significant implications in housestaff training.

  9. Phased arrays '85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, M. R.

    1985-11-01

    The conference Phased Arrays '85 was held in Bedford, MA, on October 15-18, 1985. It is pointed out that the 15 years between the 1970 and 1985 conferences dedicated to phased array antennas have seen many technological advances. Attention is given to the principle of operation, monolithic phased arrays, active arrays of monopole elements, scan compensated active element patterns, microstrip arrays, time delay technologies for phased array systems, ferrite materials for mm-wave phase shifters, phase-only optimization of phased array excitation by B-quadratic programming, a nearly frequency-independent sidelobe suppression technique for phased arrays, and active impedance effects in low sidelobe and ultrawideband phased arrays.

  10. Macroscopic Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Using Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, S. Ahmad; Kazemzadeh, Asghar; Abedin Maghanaki, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report an efficient process to grow well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with a good area distribution density (about 5.6 ×107 CNT/mm2). Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) have been produced by controlling flow rate, temperature and catalyst nanoparticles using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) technique. They were synthesized on quartz substrates at 800 °C from toluene as a carbon source. VA-CNT samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and their surface area and pore size were determined by nitrogen adsorption analysis. The synthesized CNTs have a length of 500 µm and diameters ranging from 120±40 nm. The CNT filaments form a strength structure and exhibit a good vertical alignment. The remarkable properties of CNTs make them attractive for separation applications, especially for water and wastewater treatment.

  11. Disturb-Free Three-Dimensional Vertical Floating Gate NAND with Separated-Sidewall Control Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Moon-Sik; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) vertical floating gate (FG) type NAND cell arrays with the sidewall control gate (SCG) structure are receiving attention to overcome the reliability issues of charge trap (CT) type 3D NAND. In order to achieve the multilevel cell (MLC) operation for lower bit cost in 3D NAND, it is important to eliminate reliability issues, such as the Vth distribution with interference and disturbance problems and Vth shift with retention issues. In this paper, we intensively investigated the disturbance problems of the 3D vertical FG type NAND cell with separated-sidewall control gate (S-SCG) structure for the reliable MLC operation. Above all, we successfully demonstrate the fully suppressed disturbance problems, such as indirect programming of the unselected cells, hot electron injection of the edge cells and direct influence to the neighboring passing cells, by using the S-SCG with 30 nm pillar size.

  12. Impact of Solar Array Position on ISS Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, John; Mikatarian, Ronald; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), because of its large structure and high voltage solar arrays, has a complex plasma interaction with the ionosphere in low Earth orbit (LEO). This interaction of the ISS US Segment photovoltaic (PV) power system with the LEO ionospheric plasma produces floating potentials on conducting elements of the ISS structure relative to the local plasma environment. To control the ISS floating potentials, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) are installed on the Z1 truss. Each PCU discharges accumulated electrons from the Space Station structure, thus reducing the potential difference between the ISS structure and the surrounding charged plasma environment. Operations of the PCUs were intended to keep the ISS floating potential to 40 Volts (Reference 1). Exposed dielectric surfaces overlying conducting structure on the Space Station will collect an opposite charge from the ionosphere as the ISS charges. In theory, when an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember is tethered to structure via the crew safety tether or when metallic surfaces of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) come in contact with conducting metallic surfaces of the ISS, the EMU conducting components, including the perspiration-soaked crewmember inside, can become charged to the Space Station floating potential. The concern is the potential dielectric breakdown of anodized aluminum surfaces on the EMU producing an arc from the EMU to the ambient plasma, or nearby ISS structure. If the EMU arcs, an electrical current of an unknown magnitude and duration may conduct through the EVA crewmember, producing an unacceptable condition. This electrical current may be sufficient to startle or fatally shock the EVA crewmember (Reference 2). Hence, as currently defined by the EVA community, the ISS floating potential for all nominal and contingency EVA worksites and translation paths must have a magnitude less than 40 volts relative to the local ionosphere at all times during EVA

  13. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using drifting buoy and profiling buoy casts from the Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 01 September 1972 to 01 April 1974 (NODC Accession 7400622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile east-west current component, north-south current component, and other data were collected using drifting buoy and profiling float casts from the...

  14. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  15. Free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, C. J. V.

    2007-11-01

    A long-lived (0.3 second, 10-20 cm diameter) ball plasma floating in the air above a water surface has been formed and studied in the laboratory. A 0.4 - 1 mF capacitor is charged to 4-5 kV, and subsequently discharged (30-60 Amps, 20-50 msec duration) into central copper cathode held fixed just below the surface of a bucket of water (with a weak solution of various salts in distilled water, such as CuSO4 or CuCl2, LiCl or NaCl). An underwater ring anode completes the circuit. A bubble of hot vapor from the water surface rises up in the first few milliseconds, and changes from a mushroom cloud with stalk, to a detached quasi-spherical object, finally evolving into a vortex ring. The plasma consists of ionized water vapor, with positive salts and OH- radicals, as well as molecular species, and it completely excludes nitrogen or oxygen from the rising plasma structure. A fine boundary layer is visible in orange, in contrast to a green ball interior when using Cu/CuSO4, and filamentary structures are visible at late times. Finally, a whisp of smoke ring is observed as a residue. A variety of visible and infrared imaging (both video and still cameras) are used, along with 200-800 nm time & space resolved spectroscopy, to identify features of this laboratory analog to ball lightning. Possible applications include a windowless ball- plasma powered pulsed copper vapor laser operating at 510 nm.

  16. Combustion of liquid fuels floating on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garo Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented consists of a study of the burning characteristics of a liquid fuel floating on water with emphasis in the phenomena known as boilover. The problem is of technical interest in the petro-chemical industry, particularly from the point of view of pollution and fires resulting from accidental liquid fuel spills in open water. Testing with multicomponent fuels gives information's about events that can occur in a practical situation, while testing with single component fuels permits obtaining fundamental information about the problem. It evidences the major effects caused by the transfer of heat from the fuel to the water underneath. One of these effects is the disruptive burning of the fuel known as boilover, that is caused by the water boiling and splashing, and results in a sharp increase in burning rate and often in the explosive burning of the fuel. It is shown that this event is caused by the onset of water boiling nucleation at the fuel/water interface and that it occurs at an approximate constant temperature that is above the saturation temperature of the water (water is superheated. These measurements conducted in two laboratories, address the major issues of the process by analyzing the effect of the variation of the parameters of the problem (initial fuel-layer thickness, pool diameter, and fuel type, on the burning rate, time to start of boilover, pre-boilover mass ratio, and boilover intensity. Finally, two types of modeling are proposed to describe the heat transfer in fuel and water phases: one simple for practical purposes, the other, more elaborated and transient, taking particularly into consideration the radiation in depth.

  17. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Woo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  18. Pengaruh Frekuensi Melihat Iklan Floating terhadap Tingkat Kesadaran Merek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forddhanto Bimantoro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Floating ad  is online advertisement aiming to stimulate brand awareness by increasing familiarity through reexposing advertisement. This research examines the influence of ARCO Depok members’ exposure of floating ad at www.detik.com to their brand awareness about Samsung LED TV. The frequency of consuming the advertisement is differentiated into three categories, namely three times, five times and never. The result shows that the respondents’ exposure of floating ad could influence the level of brand awareness as much as 40.7%. However, this tendency was not represented in the category of five times. The result also shows that the only control variable which was able to significantly influence the level of brand awareness was the variable of respondents’ visitation to the site of detik.com. Abstrak: Iklan floating merupakan iklan di media internet yang bertujuan mencapai kesadaran merek dengan cara meningkatkan familiarity melalui frekuensi pengulangan iklan. Frekuensi melihat iklan floating dibedakan  dengan memilah kelompok responden yang dikenai frekuensi melihat iklan 3 kali, 5 kali dan tidak melihat iklan. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh frekuensi melihat iklan floating di www.detik.com terhadap tingkat kesadaran merek Samsung LED TV pada warga ARCO Depok, Jawa Barat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi melihat iklan floating dapat mempengaruhi tingkat kesadaran merek sebesar 40,7%; namun tidak terbukti pada kelompok yang melihat iklan sebanyak lima kali. Variabel kontrol yang mampu mempengaruhi tingkat kesadaran merek secara signifikan hanya variabel kunjungan responden ke detik.com.Â

  19. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of Silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2009-06-01

    The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Silymarin as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose and gas generating agent like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Floating noneffervescent tablets were prepared by polypropylene foam powder and different matrix forming polymers like HPMC K 4M, Carbopol 934P, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was found to follow both the Higuchi and the Korsemeyer and Peppas equation. The drug release mechanism was found fickian type in most of the formulations. The developed floating tablets of Silymarin may be used in clinic for prolonged drug release for at least 24 h, thereby improving the bioavailability and patient compliance.

  1. Floating microspheres as drug delivery system: newer approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil K; Agrawal, Govind P; Jain, Narendra K

    2008-07-01

    A controlled drug delivery system with prolonged residence time in the stomach can be of great practical importance for drugs with an absorption window in the upper small intestine. The main limitations are attributed to the inter- and intra-subject variability of gastro-intestinal (GI) transit time and the non-uniformity of drug absorption throughout the alimentary canal. Floating drug delivery systems (FDDSs) are expected to remain buoyant in a lasting way upon the gastric contents and consequently to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. The various buoyant preparations include hollow microspheres, granules, powders, tablets, capsules, pills and laminated films. Floating microspheres are specially gaining attention due to their wide applicability in the targeting of drugs to stomach. These floating microspheres have the advantage that they remain buoyant and distributed uniformly over the gastric fluid to avoid the vagaries of gastric emptying and release the drug for prolonged period of time. A major drawback of low-density floating drug delivery systems is that their performance is strongly dependent upon the gastric emptying process of stomach. Multiparticulate low-density particles can successfully prolong the gastric retention time of drugs. This article is a review of two important approaches utilized to prepare and improve the performance of floating microspheres.

  2. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    of delicate micro-electromechanical devices impede the use of most direct shear sensors. Similarly, the cavity required for sensing element displacement is sensitive to particulate obstruction. This work was focused on developing a shear stress sensor for use in subsonic wind tunnel test facilities applicable to an array of test configurations. The non-displacement shear sensors described here have minimal packaging requirements resulting in minimal or no disturbance of boundary layer flow. Compared to previous concepts, device installation could be simple with reduced cost and down-time. The novelty lies in the creation of low profile (nanoscale to 100 µm) micropost arrays that stay within the viscous sub-layer of the airflow. Aerodynamic forces, which are related to the surface shear stress, cause post deflection and optical property changes. Ultimately, a reliable, accurate shear stress sensor that does not disrupt the airflow has the potential to provide high value data for flow physics researchers, aerodynamicists, and aircraft manufacturers leading to greater flight efficiency arising from more in-depth knowledge on how aircraft design impacts near surface properties.

  3. Process Study of Oceanic Responses to Typhoons Using Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    of ITOP), subsurface temperature measurements on the moorings were transmitted via Iridium satellite, and one upward-looking 75-kHz Long Ranger ADCP ...sensors. Each of subsurface moorings was equipped with one 75-kHz ADCP , capable of measuring current velocity in the upper 500 m. In Sept 2010, an

  4. Process Study of Oceanic Responses to Typhoons Using Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Hurricane Opal , Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1366-1383, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128򒴖:EOAWOF>2.0.CO;2 ...decreasing 2.5°C in the mixed layer during Hurricane Frances. A similar simulation was made for Typhoon Fanapi. Our simulation shows there is 1.5°C...external forcing inside the model except for hurricane wind. Fig. 7 shows the results at a data point 32 km on the left side of the track. Most of the

  5. Freely Drifting Swallow Float Array: August 1990 NATIVE 1 Experiment (First Deployment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CAMPECHE 31 07 32 46.16 34.456 N 166.162 W I 14 NEW MEXICO. <SNM>. MD 3.3 (SNM). Felt In the Bernardo area. 31 69 I1 17.6. 17.706 X 61.326 W 50 * 4.6...121.638 IN 7 3.6 36 CENTRAL CALIFORNIA. <SRK>. ML 4.0 (8RK). Felt (IV) at Aromas. Costroville. Chualar. Monterey. Son Juan . autisto. Tree Pines and

  6. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  7. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  8. Orthogonal test and experimental study on fire floating pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. R.; Zheng, J. F.; Fu, D. P.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to develop high efficiency fire floating pump, 250YYB-250 fire floating pump was taken as an example. The orthogonal experiment of L9 (34), which contains factors with three levels of blade numbers of impeller, outlet angle, impeller fold-angle, was performed to design nine types of impellers. Numerical simulation of whole flow field based on Fluent was adopted to perform an orthogonal test, the order of geometric parameters affects the performance of fire floating pump with complex impeller. The best design scheme for pump model was acquired. Meanwhile, the optimized design scheme was determined, and corresponding test was carried out. It demonstrated that the efficiency of the final optimal design model pump at rated flow point is of 85%. The efficiency is higher than the national standards, which verified the feasibility of the method of orthogonal design in pump design.

  9. Investigation of Tank 241-AN-101 Floating Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Douglas P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States); Meznarich, H. K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Tank 241-AN-101 is the receiver tank for retrieval of several C-Farms waste tanks, including Tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-111. Tank 241 C 111 received first-cycle decontamination waste from the bismuth phosphate process and Plutonium and Uranium Extraction cladding waste, as well as hydraulic fluid. Three grab samples, 1AN-16-01, 1AN-16-01A, and 1AN-16-01B, were collected at the surface of Tank 241-AN-101 on April 25, 2016, after Tank 241-C-111 retrieval was completed. Floating solids were observed in the three grab samples in the 11A hot cell after the samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory. Routine chemical analyses, solid phase characterization on the floating and settled solids, semivolatile organic analysis mainly on the aqueous phase for identification of degradation products of hydraulic fluids were performed. Investigation of the floating solids is reported.

  10. Plural large floating thrombi in the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hisao; Soeda, Takeshi; Saitoh, Yuhei; Nakahara, Takahiro

    2016-08-01

    Floating thrombi in the ascending aorta are a very rare finding in non-aneurysmal, mildly atherosclerotic or normal aortas. We report a case of floating thrombi in a 66-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain and dyspnea. Enhanced computed tomography showed two large floating thrombi in the ascending aorta, type B aortic dissection, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. A temporary inferior vena cava filter was inserted and the subject underwent an emergency surgical intervention to remove both masses. His postoperative course was uneventful; the etiology of the thrombi is unknown. Lifelong anticoagulation therapy was started and the subject has been stable without recurrence for the last 2 years.

  11. Numerical investigation of floating breakwater movement using SPH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the movement pattern of a floating breakwater is numerically analyzed using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH method as a Lagrangian scheme. At the seaside, the regular incident waves with varying height and period were considered as the dynamic free surface boundary conditions. The smooth and impermeable beach slope was defined as the bottom boundary condition. The effects of various boundary conditions such as incident wave characteristics, beach slope, and water depth on the movement of the floating body were studied. The numerical results are in good agreement with the available experimental data in the literature The results of the movement of the floating body were used to determine the transmitted wave height at the corresponding boundary conditions

  12. Floating-Harbor syndrome associated with middle ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Desprechins, Brigitte; Casselman, Jan; Gordts, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, which was first described in 1973. A triad of main features characterizes Floating-Harbor syndrome: short stature, characteristic face, and an expressive speech delay. We present a patient in whom the hearing thresholds improved insufficiently after placement of grommets. High-resolution CT scan of the temporal bone showed a prominent soft-tissue thickening suspected of causing fixation of the malleus, and fusion of the malleus head with the body of the incus. To our knowledge this is the first reported abnormal middle ear anatomy in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. A conservative treatment with hearing aids was preferred as an initial treatment in favor of a surgical exploration.

  13. Seismic monitoring in the oceans by autonomous floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhovich, Alexey; Bonnieux, Sébastien; Hello, Yann; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Simons, Frederik J.; Nolet, Guust

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of the internal dynamics of the Earth is largely based on images of seismic velocity variations in the mantle obtained with global tomography. However, our ability to image the mantle is severely hampered by a lack of seismic data collected in marine areas. Here we report observations made under different noise conditions (in the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian and Pacific Oceans) by a submarine floating seismograph, and show that such floats are able to fill the oceanic data gap. Depending on the ambient noise level, the floats can record between 35 and 63% of distant earthquakes with a moment magnitude M>=6.5. Even magnitudes noise conditions. The serendipitous recording of an earthquake swarm near the Indian Ocean triple junction enabled us to establish a threshold magnitude between 2.7 and 3.4 for local earthquakes in the noisiest of the three environments.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of glipizide floating-bioadhesive tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayvadan K. Patel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating-bioadhesive tablets to lengthen the stay of glipizide in its absorption area. Effervescent tablets were made using chitosan (CH, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbopolP934 (CP, polymethacrylic acid (PMA, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets with 5% effervescent base had longer lag time than 10%. The type of polymer had no significant effect on the floating lag time. All tablets floated atop the medium for 23-24 hr. Increasing carbopolP934 caused higher bioadhesion than chitosan (p < 0.05. All formulations showed a Higuchi, non-Fickian release mechanism. Tablets with 10% effervescent base, 80% CH/20% HPMC, or 80% CP/20% PMA seemed desirable.

  15. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Yoshida, E; Takeyama, H; Matsunaga, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. We have investigated the viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine micro-algae. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. Maximum density of attached cells of 2.0 x 10(8) cells/cm2 was achieved using seawater. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks.

  16. Organic nano-floating-gate transistor memory with metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tho, Luu; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Organic non-volatile memory is advanced topics for various soft electronics applications as lightweight, low-cost, flexible, and printable solid-state data storage media. As a key building block, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a nano-floating gate are widely used and promising structures to store digital information stably in a memory cell. Different types of nano-floating-gates and their various synthesis methods have been developed and applied to fabricate nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices. In this review, recent advances in the classes of nano-floating-gate OFET memory devices using metal nanoparticles as charge-trapping sites are briefly reviewed. Details of device fabrication, characterization, and operation mechanisms are reported based on recent research activities reported in the literature.

  17. Some aspects of arctic offshore floating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubbad, Raed Khalil

    2011-01-15

    The present work highlights some aspects related to the analyses of Arctic offshore floating structures. This thesis consists of five papers, which can be divided into two main categories. One category deals with the dynamics of slender structures with an emphasis on the prediction and suppression of vortex induced vibrations (VIV), and the other category examines the process of interaction between sloping structures and sea ice with focus on developing a numerical model to simulate this process in real time. Slender structures, such as mooring lines and marine risers, are very important for the offshore petroleum industry, which is currently approaching deeper waters. Increasingly, attention has been focused on predicting the susceptibility of these structures to VIV. In this thesis, two asymptotic techniques namely, the local analysis and the WKB methods, were used to derive closed-form solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of slender line-like structures. Both the top-tensioned nearly-vertical configuration and the catenary configuration were considered. The accuracy of the solutions derived was established through comparison with other analytic solution techniques and with results of numerical finite element solutions. The effects of the bending stiffness and the effects of approximating the tension variation as a linear function were discussed. Experimental data on the multi-modal in-line and cross-flow response behaviour of a towed catenary model were analysed to examine the usefulness of the solutions for predicting the response frequencies and envelopes due to VIV. Helical strakes are often used as a mitigating measure to suppress the VIV of slender structures. This thesis presented an innovative method to fit ropes helically to a riser in the installation phase. Such a procedure will help to overcome the handling problem associated with the use of conventional sharp-edged strakes. Experimental investigations were then performed to verify

  18. The float model: visualizing personal reflection in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukes, Leo C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Zwierstra, Rein P; Slaets, Joris Pj

    2009-05-01

    Healthcare students and practitioners need to be able to critically assess themselves and their actions in order to learn from their experiences and improve their care of patients. Students' behaviours can be directly observed and faculty can provide direct feedback on it, when necessary. But 'reflection', a mechanism for assessing one's self, is less visible and often remains an abstract notion that is difficult to understand, use, and assess. We designed an educational model to help healthcare educators and learners visualize reflection. We posit that it can provide a greater understanding of what reflection is, how it works and how to facilitate its development and use by individuals. As a metaphor we used the angler's (fisherman's) float, which to function properly must stand balanced and steady in the water. Likewise, healthcare practitioners try to maintain an upright balance to be able to learn and work effectively. The visible component of the float, the portion above the water, is the 'behaviour'. The hidden, "mental" components of the float are under water: expert thinking (a combination of 'clinical reasoning' and 'scientific thinking'), 'personal reflection', and 'unconscious thoughts'. Each of these mental components plays a role in maintaining balance in learning and working, varying with the circumstances and context. And of course, without water a float has no meaning. In the float model, the water symbolizes the organisational and cultural context in which each practitioner must learn to function. We propose that the float model can be used to reveal the interplay among clinicians' mental processes, which occur unseen "underneath the water" but subtly influence the appropriateness of the behaviour witnessed at the surface. We believe the model can help prevent errors in understanding practitioners' behaviours and their causes, such as when they blur scientific thinking and personal reflection, take reflection as a goal in and of itself, and deny

  19. An Aeroelastic Perspective of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Formation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven N.; Jaworski, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    The wake formation and wake stability of floating offshore wind turbines are investigated from an aeroelastic perspective. The aeroelastic model is composed of the Sebastian-Lackner free-vortex wake aerodynamic model coupled to the nonlinear Hodges-Dowell beam equations, which are extended to include the effects of blade profile asymmetry, higher-order torsional effects, and kinetic energy components associated with periodic rigid-body motions of floating platforms. Rigid-body platform motions are also assigned to the aerodynamic model as varying inflow conditions to emulate operational rotor-wake interactions. Careful attention is given to the wake formation within operational states where the ratio of inflow velocity to induced velocity is over 50%. These states are most susceptible to aerodynamic instabilities, and provide a range of states about which a wake stability analysis can be performed. In addition, the stability analysis used for the numerical framework is implemented into a standalone free-vortex wake aerodynamic model. Both aeroelastic and standalone aerodynamic results are compared to evaluate the level of impact that flexible blades have on the wake formation and wake stability.

  20. Modulating Drug Release from Gastric-Floating Microcapsules through Spray-Coating Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoyang Nicholas; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Floating dosage forms with prolonged gastric residence time have garnered much interest in the field of oral delivery. However, studies had shown that slow and incomplete release of hydrophobic drugs during gastric residence period would reduce drug absorption and cause drug wastage. Herein, a spray-coated floating microcapsule system was developed to encapsulate fenofibrate and piroxicam, as model hydrophobic drugs, into the coating layers with the aim of enhancing and tuning drug release rates. Incorporating fenofibrate into rubbery poly(caprolactone) (PCL) coating layer resulted in a complete and sustained release for up to 8 h, with outermost non-drug-holding PCL coating layer serving as a rate-controlling membrane. To realize a multidrug-loaded system, both hydrophilic metformin HCl and hydrophobic fenofibrate were simultaneously incorporated into these spray-coated microcapsules, with metformin HCl and fenofibrate localized within the hollow cavity of the capsule and coating layer, respectively. Both drugs were observed to be completely released from these coated microcapsules in a sustained manner. Through specific tailoring of coating polymers and their configurations, piroxicam loaded in both the outer polyethylene glycol and inner PCL coating layers was released in a double-profile manner (i.e. an immediate burst release as the loading dose, followed by a sustained release as the maintenance dose). The fabricated microcapsules exhibited excellent buoyancy in simulated gastric fluid, and provided controlled and sustained release, thus revealing its potential as a rate-controlled oral drug delivery system. PMID:25470374

  1. Development and in vitro characterization of floating sustained-release drug delivery systems of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Ohad; Lavy, Eran; Gati, Irith; Kohen, Ron; Friedman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize floating stomach-retentive matrix tablets that will deliver polyphenols in a controlled release manner. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. A number of polymers were examined and egg albumin was chosen in light of a better performance in terms of floating behavior and decomposition time. Dissolution studies for three representative polyphenols loaded into a number of formulations were performed using the "f₂" factor in order to compare release profiles of different polyphenols and formulations. The release data showed a good fit into the power law equation and zero-order kinetics has been determined for some of the systems. Erosion and textural analysis studies revealed that higher concentration of egg albumin results in a higher gel strength that is less susceptible to erosion, potentially leading to a prolonged delivery time of drug. The ability of egg albumin-based tablets to resist high mechanical forces was also determined, while comparison to cellulose-derived polymers revealed that the latter have a much lower ability to resist the same forces. The developed delivery system has the potential to increase the efficacy of the therapy for various pathological stomach conditions and to improve patient compliance.

  2. Development of novel floating delivery system based on psyllium: application on metformin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnanand, Mahalaxmi; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Udupa, N; Kalra, Atin

    2013-06-01

    psyllium, a medicinally active gel forming natural polysaccharide and a dietary fiber has been used as a medicine in myriad of conditions such as constipation and inflammatory bowel syndrome. One of its more recent uses that have received attention has been its ability to reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics. Therefore present work is an attempt to formulate anti diabetic drug Metformin as a controlled release floating delivery making use of pysllium as release retardant and to assist the drug in stabilizing blood sugar level in type II diabetics. Drug and excipients compatibility studies were monitored by thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR). The DSC thermogram and FTIR of drug and drug-polymer mixture did not reveal any incompatibility. psyllium was tried in different concentrations along with other polymers like HPMC K15M and carbopol 940 to achieve the desired release profile. The total drug: polymer ratio was kept between 1:0.4 to 1:0.5, and different polymer combinations were tried to achieve desired drug release for 12 hours. The prepared tablets were evaluated for in vitro release studies and floating behavior. Our conclusion from the present study indicated that pysllium could potentially be used in conjunction with other polymers to formulate controlled release formulations of anti-diabetic drugs to provide better control over blood glucose levels.

  3. Simulation of floating bodies in waves using REEF3D

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Lu, Jiayi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the validation of the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) algorithm implemented in REEF3D for floating bodies. The 6DOF of a free-floating structure are three displacements in each axis and three rotations around each axis. REEF3D is an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code developed in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at NTNU. In the thesis, the numerical model used for the development of the simulations is explained as well as the main...

  4. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading : volume II annex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  5. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  6. Integrated infrared array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of integrated infrared (IR) array technology is presented. Although the array pixel formats are smaller, and the readout noise of IR arrays is larger than the corresponding values achieved with optical charge-coupled-device silicon technology, substantial progress is being made in IR technology. Both existing IR arrays and those being developed are described. Examples of astronomical images are given which illustrate the potential of integrated IR arrays for scientific investigations.

  7. Comparative clinical study in plaque removal efficacy of a new sonic toothbrush (Float-Brush) with floating bristle action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Miki; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Matsuo, Tadayuki; Kanesaki, Nobuo; Hanioka, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Floating action toothbrush bristles have been incorporated into a V-shaped sonic toothbrush. The base of the bristles moves down or up according to the pressure of the toothbrush being applied to a tooth surface. It was thought that this floating action with sonic vibration may generate new motion for increased plaque removal efficacy through increased contact between bristles and tooth surfaces. The objective of this investigation was to compare the plaque removal efficacy of a sonic toothbrush with floating bristle action (Float-Brush) to either a conventional V-shaped sonic toothbrush (Techno-Brush) or a manual toothbrush. A single-blind, three-treatment cross-over study was performed on 42 subjects. Each subject refrained from brushing for 24 hours, followed by assessment for dental plaque on the Ramfjord teeth employing the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index. Plaque removal efficacy was determined by the percentage of plaque score reduction in a single-use toothbrushing under supervision for two minutes. Forty participants completed this study. No significant difference in pre-brushing plaque scores was detected among the three toothbrushes. In the comparison of whole mouth mean scores, plaque removal efficacy of the Float-Brush (65.0%) was significantly higher than that of the Techno-Brush (59.1%, p = 0.0487) and the manual toothbrush (50.9%, p Brush was similar to whole mouth scores, when comparing the gumline and interproximal tooth area scores. These findings indicate the superiority of the Float-Brush for plaque removal compared to the Techno-Brush and the manual toothbrush.

  8. Effects of vegetation, season and temperature on removal pollutants in experimental floating treatment wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Moortel, Annelies; Meers, Erik; De Pauw, Niels; Tack, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The research and interest towards the use of constructed floating wetlands for (waste)water treatment is emerging as more treatment opportunities are marked out, and the technique is applied more often. To evaluate the effect of a floating macrophyte mat and the influence of temperature and season on physico-chemical changes and removal, two constructed floating wetlands (CFWs), including a floating macrophyte mat, and a control, without emergent vegetation, were built. Raw domestic wastewate...

  9. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas using Microstructure EM APEX Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Microstructure EM -APEX Floats Ren-Chieh Lien Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington 98105...modulation of sea surface temperature and air–sea fluxes. APPROACH Two microstructure EM -APEX floats will be deployed in Indonesian Seas. The...mixing in these regions, where vigorous diapycnal mixing activity is expected, using the autonomous microstructure EM -APEX floats. These floats measure

  10. Performance Analysis of Multiple Wave Energy Converters Placed on a Floating Platform in the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyebin Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind-wave hybrid power generation systems have the potential to become a significant source of affordable renewable energy. However, their strong interactions with both wind- and wave-induced forces raise a number of technical challenges for modelling. The present study undertakes a numerical investigation on multi-body hydrodynamic interaction between a wind-wave hybrid floating platform and multiple wave energy converters (WECs in a frequency domain. In addition to the exact responses of the platform and the WECs, the power take-off (PTO mechanism was taken into account for analysis. The coupled hydrodynamic coefficients and wave exciting forces were obtained from WAMIT, the 3D diffraction/radiation solver based on the boundary element method. The overall performance of the multiple WECs is presented and compared with the performance of a single isolated WEC. The analysis showed significant differences in the dynamic responses of the WECs when the multi-body interaction was considered. In addition, the PTO damping effect made a considerable difference to the responses of the WECs. However, the platform response was only minimally affected by PTO damping. With regard to energy capture, the interaction effect of the designed multiple WEC array layout is evaluated. The WEC array configuration showed both constructive and destructive effects in accordance with the incident wave frequency and direction.

  11. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Motions: Analysis of LatMix -EM-APEX Float Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    absolute velocity using GPS fixes for every surfacing of the floats and compared the processed absolute velocities to nearby ADCP shipboard data for...rate. The floats were programmed to rise to the surface at the same time. In addition to Slocum gliders and Lagrangian floats, three-ship ADCP , S, T

  12. Sabrewing: A lightweight architecture for combined floating-point and integer arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruintjes, Tom; Walters, K.H.G.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In spite of the fact that floating-point arithmetic is costly in terms of silicon area, the joint design of hardware for floating-point and integer arithmetic is seldom considered. While components like multipliers and adders can potentially be shared, floating-point and integer units in

  13. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Original Research Article. Design ... Keywords: Effervescent, Floating tablet, Design of Experiment, Release kinetics, Central composite .... software. First, a feasible space was located and second, an exhaustive grid search was conducted to predict the possible solutions. Four formulations were selected as the confirmatory.

  14. Automated ''float'' method for determination of densities of molten salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Helge A.; Bjerrum, Niels; Foverskov, Carl Erik

    1977-01-01

    wound with platinum wire, an amplifier, a digital voltmeter, an interface, a paper tape punch, and a recorder. The advantages of the system are its ease of operation compared to other ''float'' methods, and the possibility of looking at highly colored melts and also melts having a high vapor pressure....... Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  15. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  16. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F8, containing citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, showed lower lag time and longer floating duration than the formulations ... Keywords: Salbutamol sulphate, Ethyl cellulose, Acrycoat S-100, Sodium bicarbonate, Citric acid,. Tartaric acid. Received: 20 ... gastric contents and remain in the stomach without affecting gastric ...

  17. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebille, van Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Franeker, van J.A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, F.; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on

  18. Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro-retentive Floating Multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro-retentive Floating Multi-particulate System of Metoprolol Tartarate. ... Methods: Dried microparticles of metoprolol tartarate were prepared by solvent evaporation using Eudragit® RS-PO, polypropylene foam powder, and ... They were highly porous and also irregular in shape. The drug ...

  19. An Asynchronous IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Noche

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An asynchronous floating-point arithmetic unit is designed and tested at the transistor level usingCadence software. It uses CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor and DCVS (differentialcascode voltage switch logic in a 0.35 µm process using a 3.3 V supply voltage, with dual-rail data andsingle-rail control signals using four-phase handshaking.Using 17,085 transistors, the unit handles single-precision (32-bit addition/subtraction, multiplication,division, and remainder using the IEEE 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, withrounding and other operations to be handled by separate hardware or software. Division and remainderare done using a restoring subtractive algorithm; multiplication uses an additive algorithm. Exceptionsare noted by flags (and not trap handlers and the output is in single-precision.Previous work on asynchronous floating-point arithmetic units have mostly focused on single operationssuch as division. This is the first work to the authors' knowledge that can perform floating-point addition,multiplication, division, and remainder using a common datapath.

  20. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sebille, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831921; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Van Franeker, Jan A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, Francois; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North

  1. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape parameter, b, characterizes the curve as either exponential (b = 1, Case 1), sigmoid, S-shaped, with upward curvature followed by a turning point (b > 1, Case 2), or parabolic, with a higher initial slope and thereafter consistent with the exponential (b < 1, Case 3). Table 5: Composition and floating properties of ...

  2. Oral floating extended release stavudine hydrophilic matrix tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of extended-release (ER) d4T improves patient compliance and minimizes dose related side effects. This study, therefore, aims at formulating once-a-day floating d4T ER hydrophilic matrix tablets using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release-modifying polymer. NaHCO3 and microcrystalline ...

  3. Study of Army Maintenance Float Policies and Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    1.1.1 During the past few years, considerable attention’ has beer . focu-sed on Army policies aid procedures for determining maintenance float...the criterio , should vary depending upon local conditions. For example, if a troop unit is about to begin a field training exercise, the time limit

  4. Observation of floating potential asymmetry in the edge plasma of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Edge plasma properties in a tokamak is an interesting subject of study from the view point of confinement and stability of tokamak plasma. The edge plasma of SINP-tokamak has been investigated using specially designed Langmuir probes. We have observed a poloidal asymmetry of floating potentials, particularly ...

  5. Experimental testing of moorings for large floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a test campaign, which investigates the behaviour of a synthetic mooring system applied to the Floating Power Plant wave energy converter. The study investigates the motion and tension response under operational and extreme sea states expected at the deployment...

  6. Changing weather conditions and floating plants in temperate drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Zuidam, van B.G.; Zuidam, van J.P.; Nes, van E.H.; Kosten, S.; Heuts, P.G.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Netten, J.J.C.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dominance of free-floating plants such as duckweed is undesirable as it indicates eutrophication. The objectives of this study are to investigate whether the onset of duckweed dominance is related to weather conditions by analysing field observations, to evaluate the effect of different climate

  7. Determination of bacterial and fungal numbers in floats of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the numbers of bacteria and fungi in the floats of main soaking, liming, deliming-bating, degreasing and pickling stages. To this end, the numbers of total aerobic mesophilic, proteolytic, lipolytic and aerobic spore-forming bacteria and, the numbers of total aerobic fungi (yeast and mould), ...

  8. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The formation of floating sulphur biofilm was observed in the microbial ecology studies of tannery ponds undertaken by the. Environmental Biotechnology Group at Rhodes University. This was related to the steep Redox gradients established at the air/ water interface of anaerobic, organically loaded and actively sulphate ...

  9. Biodiversity and Importance of Floating Weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering ...

  10. The floating harbor syndrome with cardiac septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, N; McPherson, E; Rittmeyer, L J; Mulvihill, J J

    1996-12-18

    The Floating Harbor syndrome of short stature, very delayed bone age, expressive language delay, and characteristic facial changes has not been associated with cardiac anomalies, except for one patient with pulmonic stenosis. We report on a 10-year-old boy with the syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot with atrial septal defect.

  11. Further observations on the Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlston, R S; Collins, A L; Dennis, N R; Temple, I K

    1994-04-01

    We report two unrelated female patients aged 2- and 15-years-old with short stature, language delay and craniofacial anomalies consistent with the Floating-Harbor syndrome. One patient had evidence of coeliac disease. This increasingly recognized association suggests pleiotropism.

  12. Underwater shock response analysis of a floating cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Vaders, J.A.A.; Trouwborst, W.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were done of a heavy underwater shock trial on a floating cylinder, which was executed in 1996. The analyses were done using the so-called Simplified Interaction Tool, an approximate interaction method developed by TNO as an add-on to LS-DYNA. The analysis was continued

  13. Experiment study of the motion of the floating offshore turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Yang; Yang, Ray-Yeng; Chen, Yang-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recently the wind industry moved to offshore areas. The floating wind turbine combined the platform and the mooring system. This research focuses on studying the motion of the floating offshore turbine with a mooring system. The platform, which was developed by the Ship and Ocean Industries R&D Center, had been test in a wave-wind flume in the Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory by using a 1:50 Froude scaling model. In the experiment, the floating offshore turbine was placed in a water flume and exposed to periodic waves at frequencies ranging from 0.22 rad/s - 0.875 rad/s, the wave amplitude is about 2.5 meter, and with the different pretension of the mooring lines. The experiment includes the measurement of damping coefficient from the free decay test and the dynamic response in a sea state. This research compares the motion of the floating offshore turbine with the different pretension of the mooring lines, and the model provides comprehensive data for the operational, design, and survival seas states, as well as the calibration and improvement of the existing design and performance of numerical models.

  14. A floating trap for sampling downstream migrant fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; Fred H. Everest; William R. Humphreys; Mario F. Solazzi

    1989-01-01

    Fishery scientists and managers are interested in obtaining information about downstream movements of fish species for biological and economic reasons. Different types of nets and traps have been used for this purpose with only partial success. The floating, self-cleaning downstream migrant trap described here proved successful for sampling several salmoniform and...

  15. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  16. Floating knee: epidemiology and results of treatment | Abalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Floating Knee is the term applied to ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia. Management of this complex injury has been variously described in the literature. This retrospective study was designed to present our experience with treatment of this injury, its complications and the functional results of these ...

  17. Recent Developments in the Construction of Floating Structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... marinas and even relay bases for receiving micro waves from outer space, etc, (b) connecting lands separated by rivers, lakes, fjords and channels via floating bridges and tunnels and (c) mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods or providing emergency rescue command stations ...

  18. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  19. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of floating drug delivery system of famotidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishbabu, B K; Sandeep, V R; Ravi, R B; Shrutinag, R

    2010-11-01

    A multiple unit oral floating drug delivery system of famotidine was developed to prolong gastric residence time, target stomach mucosa and increase drug bioavailability. Drug and polymer compatibility was studied by subjecting physical mixtures of drug and polymers to differential scanning calorimetry. Cod liver oil entrapped calcium alginate beads containing famotidine, capable of floating in the gastric condition were formulated and evaluated. The gel beads were prepared by emulsion gelation method by employing sodium alginate alone and mixture of sodium alginate and hydrophilic copolymers such as carbopol 934P and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K15M grade in three different ratios. The effect of selected factors, such as percentage of oil and amount of copolymers on floating properties was investigated. The beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, buoyancy and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release study of the beads was carried out in simulated gastric media employing a modified Rosette-Rice test apparatus. Wherein, the apparatus was further modified by incorporating a water jacket to the apparatus to circulate hot water to maintain 37±2° for throughout the release study. All the oil entrapped calcium alginate beads floated if a sufficient amount of oil was used. Beads formulated employing sodium alginate alone could not sustain the drug release up to 8 h, whereas beads formulated with mixture of sodium alginate and copolymers demonstrated sustained release of famotidine up to 8 h. The results suggested that cod liver oil entrapped calcium alginate beads were promising as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery of famotidine.

  1. Mechanical stability of the LHC dipole-dipole 50-75K thermal shield interconnect "floating" expansion joint concept

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Blazej

    1998-01-01

    The LHC dipole cryostats are equipped with thermal shields carrying super-insulation. A cold helium transfer line equipped with expansion joints is integrated into the shield carrying trays (aluminium profiles supported on three composite feet). The stainless steel (316 L) expansion joints compensate for thermal contraction/expansion of the aluminium panels as well as for their misalignment. Design of the LHC thermal shield interconnect is based on the "floating" expansion joint concept (distance between the supports is of around 5 m). The present paper is dedicated to the analysis of mechanical stability of this large span system working at room and at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Swelling/floating capability and drug release characterizations of gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a combination of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chen Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the swelling and floating behaviors of gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS composed of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC and to optimize HEC/NaCMC GRDDS to incorporate three model drugs with different solubilities (metformin, ciprofloxacin, and esomeprazole. Various ratios of NaCMC to HEC were formulated, and their swelling and floating behaviors were characterized. Influences of media containing various NaCl concentrations on the swelling and floating behaviors and drug solubility were also characterized. Finally, release profiles of the three model drugs from GRDDS formulation (F1-4 and formulation (F1-1 were examined. Results demonstrated when the GRDDS tablets were tested in simulated gastric solution, the degree of swelling at 6 h was decreased for each formulation that contained NaCMC in comparison to those in de-ionized water (DIW. Of note, floating duration was enhanced when in simulated gastric solution compared to DIW. Further, the hydration of tablets was found to be retarded as the NaCl concentration in the medium increased resulting in smaller gel layers and swelling sizes. Dissolution profiles of the three model drugs in media containing various concentrations of NaCl showed that the addition of NaCl to the media affected the solubility of the drugs, and also their gelling behaviors, resulting in different mechanisms for controlling a drug's release. The release mechanism of the freely water-soluble drug, metformin, was mainly diffusion-controlled, while those of the water-soluble drug, ciprofloxacin, and the slightly water-soluble drug, esomeprazole, were mainly anomalous diffusion. Overall results showed that the developed GRDDS composed of HEC 250HHX and NaCMC of 450 cps possessed proper swelling extents and desired floating periods with sustained-release characteristics.

  3. Research on heat transfer characteristic of crude oil during the tubular heating process in the floating roof tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of finite volume method, the heat transfer characteristic of crude oil under the tubular heating in the floating roof tank is investigated by numerical simulation. The evolution of temperature profile and its relationship with the flow pattern is presented in detail. A noticeable finding is that there exists the transformation of the flow pattern which affects the temperature profile apparently during the heating process. Special concern is taken on the evolution of temperature distribution on the interface between oil and the inner wall of the tank. The temperature profile on the top wall, sidewall and base wall of the tank is investigated. It is concluded that the plume induced by natural convection takes most responsibility for the formation of temperature field in the tank. The second factor is the boundary condition of the tank.

  4. On the warm pool dynamics in the southeastern Arabian Sea during April – May 2005 based on the satellite remote sensing and ARGO float data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Krishna, S.M.; Nagaraju, A.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; RameshBabu, V.; Sengupta, D.; Sindu, P.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Rajesh, G.

    profiles from an ARGO float (ID No. 2900345) in a 3°x1° box closer to ARMEX-II buoy (8.3°N, 72.68°E) in the SEAS during January – September 2005 revealed evolution of warm pool (SST>28°C) in spring 2005. The Argo data derived D20 (depth of 20°C isotherm...

  5. Multi-input and binary reproducible, high bandwidth floating point adder in a collective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-03-10

    To add floating point numbers in a parallel computing system, a collective logic device receives the floating point numbers from computing nodes. The collective logic devices converts the floating point numbers to integer numbers. The collective logic device adds the integer numbers and generating a summation of the integer numbers. The collective logic device converts the summation to a floating point number. The collective logic device performs the receiving, the converting the floating point numbers, the adding, the generating and the converting the summation in one pass. One pass indicates that the computing nodes send inputs only once to the collective logic device and receive outputs only once from the collective logic device.

  6. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sihai, Chen; Huan, Luo; Yifan, Zhou; Jianjun, Lai; Yiqing, Gao

    2012-06-01

    Concave microlens array is fabricated with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) material. Resist thermal reflow method and reverse pattern replication method are employed to fabricate the concave microlens array. The optical performance of the PDMS concave microlens array is analyzed with ray-trace method. Profile of the PDMS concave microlens array is observed by metallographic microscope and Talystep. It is indicated by the results that the surface profile of the PDMS concave microlens array is clear and distinct. Optical properties are also tested with Beamprofiler system. The shine spots on the focal plane of the microscope objective are of highly uniformity, and essentially coincide well with the simulation result. The PDMS concave microlens array has potential application in many optoelectronic devices, such as diffusers and scanners.

  8. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  9. Clocked combustor can array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  10. Are the older ARGO-Floats more vulnerable to Fouling and Associated Salinity drift compared to that of later deployments?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Youn, Y.H.; Lee, H.

    in different years Floats deployed in the East/Japan Sea and in the Indian Ocean are examined to find out float-to-float match-ups in such a way that an older float pops up simultaneously with a newer deployment (with tolerable space-time difference) A time...

  11. Analyses and thought on countermeasures for the family formation trend among floating population in Wuhan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Sun, L

    1997-01-01

    The familized floating population in China consists of families formed from blood kinship networks of floating population. This study examines the size of the familized floating population in Wuhan City in 1995 and the negative impacts for urban management, supplies, family planning, education, and employment. Floating population families are formed due to the presence of rural and urban differences, the desire for income, and a goal of permanent urban residence with family stability and steady economic gains. Data were obtained from a 1% sample survey among the floating population who lived in rented, borrowed, or self-built houses or apartments for over 6 months. 69.2% of the floating population, or 335,000 people, were familized floating population. 55.01% of the familized floating population were women, and 60.41% of the laborers were women. 33.50% of the women who "should" be employed were not. 50% of the women in some districts were unemployed. 30.61% were children under 14 years of age. The dependency burden for the employed floating population was greater than for the urban employed population. The birth rate among the familized floating population was 44.60%. 89.59% of women aged older than 15 years in the familized floating population were of childbearing age. Most had a low level of education. The floating population creates the need for educating 15,000 new students every year; this requires construction of 10 new schools every year. The floating population increases the need to produce more electricity, clothing, food, houses, and other services or facilities. The floating population brings norms about a higher family size, which challenges urban residents' beliefs and impedes smooth implementation of the family planning policy. Management needs to regulate population flow, reduce consumption, and control family formation and childbearing. Management needs to increase mobility costs.

  12. Multiplexed charge-locking device for large arrays of quantum devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puddy, R. K., E-mail: rkp27@cam.ac.uk; Smith, L. W; Chong, C. H.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Pepper, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour.

  13. Effects of hydrodynamic interactions and control within a point absorber array on electrical output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambiar, Anup J.; Forehand, David I.M.; Kramer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and farms of WECs. The total power extracted by an array of WECs is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between them, especially when the WECs are spaced very closely. By control of the power take-off (PTO) forces and moments acting on the WECs within the array, the hydrodynamic interactions between......-domain, allows the use of constraints on the maximum PTO moment to be applied in order to make the study realistic. In this paper, the effects that PTO control has on the hydrodynamic interactions between the floats and on the total power generated by the device, when placed in a range of irregular sea states......, are studied. It was found that the performance of the three-float device improved as the sophistication of the PTO control strategy and the level of hydrodynamic interactions taken into account in the control problem increased. From among the different control strategies tested in this work, fully...

  14. ARGO profiling float temperature, salinity, and oxygen data measurements collected using profiling floats in the World Ocean from 1996 to 2005 (NODC Accession 0002352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Thermophotovoltaic Array Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SBurger; E Brown; K Rahner; L Danielson; J Openlander; J Vell; D Siganporia

    2004-07-29

    A systematic approach to thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array design and fabrication was used to optimize the performance of a 192-cell TPV array. The systematic approach began with cell selection criteria that ranked cells and then matched cell characteristics to maximize power output. Following cell selection, optimization continued with an array packaging design and fabrication techniques that introduced negligible electrical interconnect resistance and minimal parasitic losses while maintaining original cell electrical performance. This paper describes the cell selection and packaging aspects of array optimization as applied to fabrication of a 192-cell array.

  16. Floating Marine Debris in waters of the Mexican Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torres, Evelyn R; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Silva-Iñiguez, Lidia; Nene-Preciado, Alejandro; Orozco, Ernesto Torres

    2017-02-15

    The presence of marine debris has been reported recently in several oceans basins; there is very little information available for Mexican Pacific coasts, however. This research examined the composition, possible sources, distribution, and density of Floating Marine Debris (FMD) during nine research surveys conducted during 2010-2012 in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Of 1820 floating objects recorded, 80% were plastic items. Sources of FMD were determined using key objects, which indicated that the most were related to the presence of the industrial harbor and of a growing fishing industry in the study area. Densities were relatively high, ranging from 40 to 2440objects/km 2 ; the highest densities were recorded in autumn. FMD were distributed near coastal regions, mainly in Jalisco, influenced by river outflow and surface currents. Our results seem to follow worldwide trends and highlight the need for further studies on potential ecological impacts within coastal waters of the MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron scattering of a floating heavy water bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elmar C [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Bitschnau, Brigitte [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Rechbauerstrasse 12, 8010 Graz (Austria); Woisetschlaeger, Jakob [Institute of Thermal Turbomachnery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 25A, Graz (Austria); Maier, Eugen [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Beuneu, Brigitte; Teixeira, Jose [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS/IRAMIS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-03-21

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two beakers close to each other, a water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the first data on neutron scattering of a floating heavy water bridge are presented and possible interpretations are discussed. D{sub 2}O was measured instead of H{sub 2}O because of the very strong incoherent scattering of H. The obtained data support the 'bubble hypothesis' suggested earlier (Fuchs et al 2008).

  18. Predicting vehicle fuel consumption patterns using floating vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiman; Wu, Jianping; Yang, Senyan; Zhou, Liutong

    2017-09-01

    The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively. The fuel consumption forecasting model was established by using a Back Propagation Neural Network. Part of the sample set was used to train the forecasting model and the remaining part of the sample set was used as input to the forecasting model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    on the different crest front steepness values of the single wave, which is embedded in the nonlinear irregular background sea state. It was concluded that the embedded wave approach provided a controlled and time efficient engineering tool also for the floating offshore wind turbine generators.......The PhD work evaluated the performance of engineering procedures, used in the design of bottom fixed offshore wind turbines, for the hydrodynamic ULS analysis of a FOWT tension leg platform (TLP). Dynamically sensitive topsides have been included and water depths were considered, where wave shapes...... and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...

  20. Determination of current loads of floating platform for special purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This article studied a new floating offshore platform for special purposes, which was assembled by standard floating modules. The environmental load calculation of the platform is an important part of the research of the ocean platform, which has always been paid attention to by engineers. In addition to wave loads, the wind loads and current loads are also important environmental factors that affect the dynamic response of the offshore platform. The current loads on the bottom structure should not be ignored. By Fluent software, the hydrostatic conditions and external current loads of the platform were calculated in this paper. The coefficient which is independent of the current velocity, namely, current force coefficient, can be fitted through current loads, which can be used for the consequent hydrodynamic and mooring analyses.

  1. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and purposes oriented design procedures are the backbone of a cost efficient offshore wind industry. Conventional engineering procedures for the assessment of extreme event impacts, i.e. ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of floating structures, as they have been used in the oil and gas industry, neglect two...... and will even overtake bottom fixed foundation within the coming two decades, Bossler (2011). FOWTs are believed having a large potential of lowering the cost of energy (CoE). The CoE minimization is currently the main driver for technological development in the offshore wind industry. Therefore reliable...... important aspects, which make them non-conservative in use for FOWT: (A) The offshore wind industry intends to install floating structures at much lower water depth (from 50m onwards), than the offshore oil & gas industry (from 300m onwards). In such cases a linear wave theory approach might...

  2. Effect of combined ecological floating bed for eutrophic lake remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liguo; Wang, Haiping

    2017-05-01

    A novel combined ecological floating bed(CEFB) integrated high-density hydrophyte and aquatic animals, the wave-making equipments, water cycling automatic aerators and fluorescence inducing equipments. The water quality of a eutrophic lake was improved significantly after three months remediation of CEFB. Compared with the background value, the results showed that the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia(NH3-N), total phosphorous(TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water reached 31.5%, 33%, 30.5% and 53%, respectively. CEFB could manipulate biotic interactions in the aquatic ecosystem, and then absorb eutrophic material efficiently by the co-effect of floating the sediment slowly, refreshing the static eutrophic water body, changing the photosynthetic and biochemical environment of the eutrophic water body and inducing plankton directional movement. At the same time, plants and fish grew good in CEFB,which can bring economic income to some extent.

  3. Pra Desain Pabrik Floating LNG Di Blok Masela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezron Yerido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas alam dapat ditemukan di ladang minyak, ladang gas bumi dan juga tambang batu bara. Gas alam cair (Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG adalah gas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan pengotor dan hidrokarbon berat, kemudian gas alam dikondensasi menjadi cairan pada tekanan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar -160° C. Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam terdiri dari 3 unit utama, diantaranya 1. Treating unit: yang terdiri dari dehydration unit.  2. Fractionation unit : Plant  Fractionation Unit bertujuan untuk memisahkan hidrokarbon berat dalam gas alam sehingga menghasilkan LNG dengan kandungan methane tinggi. 3. CO2 Removal Unit dan Liquefaction unit : yang terdiri dari Refrigeration Unit dan Liquefaction Unit diikitu oleh CO2 Removal. Sekitar sepertiga atau 60 Trillyun Ft3 cadangan gas alam di dunia berada di lepas pantai, sehingga dengan adanya Floating LNG plant dapat memaksimalkan sumber daya gas alam yang selama ini masih belum terjamah. Maka dari itu, Floating LNG Plant ini diproyeksikan menjadi solusi jangka panjang guna memenuhi pasokan gas untuk pembangkit listrik. Selain itu dapat mengatasi permasalahan pembebasan tanah untuk jalur pipa yang selama ini sulit untuk dilakukan, sehingga lebih memungkinkan untuk membangun pabrik LNG terapung (Floating LNG Plant. Proses FLNG ini berlangsung secara kontinyu, selama 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun dengan perencanaan sebagai berikut dengan kapasitas produksi = 2,5 MTPA (Juta Ton/Tahun. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan Discounted Cash Flow yang terdiri dari perhitungan biaya produksi dan aliran kas/kinerja keuangan yang telah dilakukan, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: IRR = 40,05 % pertahun Pay Back Periode = 3,23 tahun dan BEP = 46,8 % Ditinjau dari uraian di atas, dapat disimpulkan secara teknis dan ekonomis, bahwa pra desain pabrik “Floating LNG” ini layak untuk didirikan.

  4. Wave transmission prediction of multilayer floating breakwater using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Patil, S.G.; Hegde, A.V.

    in unison to solve a specific problem. The network learns through examples, so it requires good examples to train properly and further a trained network model can be used for prediction purpose. Proceedings of ICOE 2009 Wave transmission... prediction of multilayer floating breakwater using neural network 577 In order to allow the network to learn both non-linear and linear relationships between input nodes and output nodes, multiple-layer neural networks are often used...

  5. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  6. [Bipolar forearm dislocation or floating forearm (a case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, A; Elibrahimi, A; Loudiyi, W D; Elmrini, A; Chakour, K; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the forearm or floating forearm is a rare injury. It combines concomitant elbow and wrist dislocation. Only six cases have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of wrist dislocation may initially be missed and therefore the prognosis will be worse. The authors report a case of a bipolar dislocation with a posterior dislocation of the elbow and a perilunate dislocation of the wrist.

  7. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Rebecca L.; Schenkel, Laila C.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Ainsworth, Peter J.; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M.; Bulman, Dennis E.; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using hi...

  8. Floating Harbor syndrome. Case report and further syndrome delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, A T; Olchowik, B; Rogowska, M; Hubert, E; Hassman-Poznańska, E; Papasz, A; Szulc, S; Wiśniewski, A

    1997-01-01

    Floating Harbor syndrome was diagnosed in a 9 years old girl on the basis of short stature, delayed bone age, mild mental retardation, speech problems and specific craniofacial features. A detailed phenotype description is given and evaluated together with 18 other published case reports according to the concept of the Munich Dysmorphology Database (Stengel-Rutkowski et al., 1996) with the aim to delineate the spectrum of clinical and anthropological features.

  9. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  10. Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison by Andrew Cachiaras Science and Mathematics Academy at Aberdeen High School...Aberdeen, MD Luke Gilde Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN George D Quinn National Institute of Standards and...transparent armor systems. Thus, it is necessary to measure and compare the chemical composition as well as the physical and mechanical properties of

  11. Water Pressure Distribution on a Twin-Float Seaplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1930-01-01

    This is the second of a series of investigations to determine water pressure distribution on various types of seaplane floats and hulls, and was conducted on a twin-float seaplane. It consisted of measuring water pressures and accelerations on a TS-1 seaplane during numerous landing and taxiing maneuvers at various speeds and angles. The results show that water pressures as great as 10 lbs. per sq. in.may occur at the step in various maneuvers and that pressures of approximately the same magnitude occur at the stern and near the bow in hard pancake landings with the stern way down. At the other parts of the float the pressures are less and are usually zero or slightly negative for some distance abaft the step. A maximum negative pressure of 0.87 lb. Per square inch was measured immediately abaft the step. The maximum positive pressures have a duration of approximately one-twentieth to one-hundredth second at any given location and are distributed over a very limited area at any particular instant.

  12. Gastroretentive floating drug-delivery systems: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotreka, Udaya K; Adeyeye, Moji Christianah

    2011-01-01

    The oral delivery of drugs with a narrow absorption window in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the site of absorption. To overcome this drawback and to maximize the oral absorption of these drugs, gastroretentive systems such as mucoadhesive, high-density, expandable, and floating systems have been developed. These systems provide controlled delivery of drugs with prolonged gastric residence time. However, in humans, differences in various physiological and biological factors can affect the gastric residence time and drug-delivery behavior from gastroretentive systems. Some floating drug-delivery systems (FDDS) have shown the capability to accommodate these variations without affecting drug release. This review mainly focuses on various physiological considerations for development of FDDS, and highlights recent technological developments including new dosage forms and their production techniques (e.g., holt-melt extrusion, melt pelletization, and pulsed plasma-irradiation processes). Alternatives to the existing in vitro compendial methods for evaluating floating dosage forms will be discussed, and a critical analysis of the existing literature on FDDS, identifying the potential areas for future research, is provided.

  13. Computational fluid dynamic analysis for independent floating water treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Swee, M. G.; Zainal, N. S.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamarudin, M. A.; Ramli, M. Z.

    2017-09-01

    This project is to design and develop 3D Independent Floating Water Treatment Device using 3D CAD software. The device is designed to treat water for better water qualities and water flows of the lakes. A prototype was manufactured to study the water treatment efficiency of the device. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to capture the efficiency of the Independent Floating Water Treatment Device by simulates and model the water flows, pressure and velocity. According to the results, the maximum velocity magnitude was around 1m3/s. The velocity contour showed the device has high velocity at the pipe outlet. The velocity became lower and lower as the distance is further from the pipe outlet. The result from the velocity measurement was 1.05m/s. The pressure magnitude was in between 1426 Pa to 1429 Pa. The laboratory results based on water parameters proved that the water movement and direction of water flow of the Independent Floating Water Treatment Device enable the efficient pollutant removal. The vector plot, velocity contour, water flow path lines, water flow streamline and pressure contour was successful modeled.

  14. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K Kalyan

    2011-06-01

    Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility through-out the length of the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40 %) and short biological half life (4.2 h). Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M). Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from effervescent floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there is no drug excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. Optimized formulation (F9) was selected based on the similarity factor (f2) (74.2), dissolution efficiency at 2, 6 and 8 h, and t50 (5.4 h) and was used in radiographic studies by incorporating BaSO4. In vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers showed that the mean gastric residence time was 6.2 ± 0.2 h.

  16. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Assmy

    Full Text Available During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  17. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  18. Effect of formulation parameters on the drug release and floating properties of gastric floating two-layer tablets with acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasçiçek, Canan; Yüksel-Tilkan, Günseli; Türkmen, Berna; Ozdemir, Nurten

    2011-09-01

    Floating dosage forms of acetylsalicylic acid, used for its antithrombotic effect, were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase bioavailability. In the two-layer tablet formulation, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of high viscosity and an effervescent mixture of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate formed the floating layer. The release layer contained the drug, direct tableting agent and different types of matrix-forming polymers such as HPMC of low viscosity, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression technique. The effect of formulation variables on physicochemical and floating properties and the drug release from tablets were investigated. Floating ability was dependent on the amount of effervescent agent and gel-forming polymer of the floating layer. Drug release was prolonged to 8 hours by changing the type and viscosity of the matrix-forming polymer in the drug-loading layer and all formulations showed a diffusion release mechanisms.

  19. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  20. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chervenak, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Wollack, Ed

    2003-02-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorn-coupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of ~10-17 W/√Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below 1fW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity. We also present a design and preliminary results for an enhanced-dynamic-range transition edge sensor suitable for broadband ultralow-background detectors.

  1. Methylated arsenic species throughout a 4-m deep core from a free-floating peat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; Raber, Georg; D'Orazio, Valeria; Shotyk, William; Miano, Teodoro M; Francesconi, Kevin

    2017-11-22

    Arsenic (As) occurs in soils mostly in inorganic forms, whereas the organic forms usually occur only in trace amounts. Peatlands are waterlogged, generally anoxic, organic soils representing the first step in coal formation; the contribution of organic vs. inorganic As species in this environment has received little research attention. Here, 57 peat samples collected throughout a 4-m deep, free-floating mire were analysed for total As and for its organic species, including dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), methylarsonic acid (MA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and arsenobetaine (AB), by HPLC-ICPMS. Aqueous trifluoroacetic acid was used as extractant, resulting in an average extraction efficiency of almost 80%. Total As concentration throughout the profile ranged between 0.2 and 9.8mg/kgpeat (mean: 1.4±1.2mg/kgpeat). Organic As species (DMA+MA+TMAO+AB) accounted, on average, for 28±10% of total As (range: 6-51%), and for 37±13% of the extracted As (range: 7-64%). The relative abundance of organoarsenicals generally followed the order DMA>TMAO~MA≫AB. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was found among all organic As compounds, whereas their concentrations were negatively correlated with total sulfur content. The submerged zone (bottom 300cm) showed average and maximum concentrations of organoarsenic compounds that were almost twice those found in the top 100cm. This study shows that significant proportions of methylated As species occur even in peat samples characterized by low total As concentration (mostly <2mg/kg). Finally, this work provides the first evidence of organoarsenic species in free-floating mires, i.e., a globally distributed but scarcely investigated ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Floating Ocean Energy Conversion Device and Numerical Study on Buoy Shape and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyin Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wave and current energy can be harnessed in the East China Sea and South China Sea; however, both areas are subject to high frequencies of typhoon events. To improve the safety of the ocean energy conversion device, a Floating Ocean Energy Conversion Device (FOECD with a single mooring system is proposed, which can be towed to avoid severe ocean conditions or for regular maintenance. In this paper, the structure of the FOECD is introduced, and it includes a catamaran platform, an oscillating buoy part, a current turbine blade, hydraulic energy storage and an electrical generation part. The numerical study models the large catamaran platform as a single, large buoy, while the four floating buoys were modeled simply as small buoys. Theoretical models on wave energy power capture and efficiency were established. To improve the suitability of the buoy for use in the FOECD and its power harvesting capability, a numerical simulation of the four buoy geometries was undertaken. The shape profiles examined in this paper are cylindrical, turbinate (V-shaped and U-shaped cone with cylinder, and combined cylinder-hemisphere buoys. Simulation results reveal that the suitability of a turbinate buoy is the best of the four types. Further simulation models were carried out by adjusting the tip radius of the turbinate buoy. Three performance criteria including suitability, power harvesting capability and energy capture efficiency were analyzed. It reveals that the turbinate buoy has almost the same power harvesting capabilities and energy capture efficiency, while its suitability is far better than that of a cylindrical buoy.

  3. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  4. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  5. Numerical study on aerodynamic damping of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Harvesting offshore wind energy resources using floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has attracted an increasing interest in recent years. Due to its potential impact on fatigue damage, the aerodynamic damping should be considered in the preliminary design of a floating VAWT based...... on the frequency domain method. However, currently the study on aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs is very limited. Due to the essential difference in aerodynamic load characteristics, the aerodynamic damping of a floating VAWT could be different from that of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT...... to four were considered. The aerodynamic damping under steady and turbulent wind conditions were estimated using fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic time domain simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic damping ratio of the considered floating VAWTs ranges from 1.8% to 5.3%. Moreover...

  6. Dynamically Reconfigurable Microphone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Static + 2 Wireless Using only a standard computer sound card, a robot is limited to binaural inputs. Even when using wireless microphones, the audio...Abstract—Robotic sound localization has traditionally been restricted to either on-robot microphone arrays or embedded microphones in aware...a microphone array has a significant impact on the mathematics of sound source localization. Arrays, for instance, are commonly designed to

  7. High Fill-Factor Imagers for Neuromorphic Processing Enabled by Floating-Gate Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Paul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In neuromorphic modeling of the retina, it would be very nice to have processing capabilities at the focal plane while retaining the density of typical active pixel sensor (APS imager designs. Unfortunately, these two goals have been mostly incompatible. We introduce our transform imager technology and basic architecture that uses analog floating-gate devices to make it possible to have computational imagers with high pixel densities. This imager approach allows programmable focal-plane processing that can perform retinal and higher-level bioinspired computation. The processing is performed continuously on the image via programmable matrix operations that can operate on the entire image or blocks within the image. The resulting dataflow architecture can directly perform computation of spatial transforms, motion computations, and stereo computations. The core imager performs computations at the pixel plane, but still holds a fill factor greater than 40 percent—comparable to the high fill factors of APS imagers. Each pixel is composed of a photodiode sensor element and a multiplier. We present experimental results from several imager arrays built in 0.5 m process (up to in an area of 4 millimeter squared.

  8. Push the flash floating gate memories toward the future low energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, V.; Just, G.; Regnier, A.; Ogier, J.-L.; Simola, R.; Niel, S.; Postel-Pellerin, J.; Lalande, F.; Masoero, L.; Molas, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the energy consumption of flash floating gate cell, during a channel hot electron operation, is investigated. We characterize the device using different ramp and box pulses on control gate, to find the best solution to have low energy consumption and good cell performances. We use a new dynamic method to measure the drain current absorption in order to evaluate the impact of different bias conditions, and to study the cell behavior. The programming window and the energy consumption are considered as fundamental parameters. Using this dynamic technique, three zones of work are found; it is possible to optimize the drain voltage during the programming operation to minimize the energy consumption. Moreover, the cell's performances are improved using the CHISEL effect, with a reverse body bias. After the study concerning the programming pulses adjusting, we show the results obtained by increasing the channel doping dose parameter. Considering a channel hot electron programming operation, it is important to focus our attention on the bitline leakage consumption contribution. We measured it for the unselected bitline cells, and we show the effects of the lightly doped drain implantation energy on the leakage current. In this way the impact of gate induced drain leakage in band-to-band tunneling regime decreases, improving the cell's performances in a memory array.

  9. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITIES OF FLOATING MICROSPHERES OF HERBAL DRUG

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Kumar; Rai, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect. Floating microsphere were prepared using hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), eudragit RS 100 polymer in different ratio and dichloromethane and heavy liquid paraffin as solvent by emulsion solvent diffusion method. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties based on paramet...

  11. Low Noise Bias Current/Voltage References Based on Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of floating-gate MOS transistors as reference current and voltage sources is investigated. Test structures of common source and common drain floating-gate devices have been implemented in a commercially available 0.8 micron double-poly CMOS process. The measurements performed pro...... promise a good maintenance of the operating point of the floating-gate devices. Examples of utilizing of such bias sources in low-noise sensor preamplifiers are discussed....

  12. IEEE-754 compliant Algorithms for Fast Multiplication of Double Precision Floating Point Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Wasson

    2011-01-01

    In image and signal processing applications floating-point multiplication is major concern in calculations. Performing multiplication on floating point data is a long course of action and requires huge quantity of processing time. By improving the speed of multiplication task overall speed of the system can be enhanced. The Bottleneck in the floating point multiplication process is the multiplication of mantissas which needs 53*53 bit integer multiplier f...

  13. A fully coupled method for numerical modeling and dynamic analysis of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    •Aerodynamic modeling of floating VAWTs is established using the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow method.•A fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tool, i.e. SIMO-RIFLEX-AC, is developed for floating VAWTs.•The developedsimulation tool is verified to be accurate by a series of code-to-code ......-to-code comparisons.•This simulation tool can be used for design and response analysis of different floating VAWT concepts....

  14. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Jing [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, Francis E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  15. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis E. H.; Miao, Jianmin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF6/O2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  16. A novel control process of cyanobacterial bloom using cyanobacteriolytic bacteria immobilized in floating biodegradable plastic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N; Nakano, K; Sugiura, N; Matsumura, M

    2003-12-01

    A process using a floating carrier for immobilization of cyanobacteriolytic bacteria, B.cereus N-14, was proposed to realize an effective in situ control of natural floating cyanobacterial blooms. The critical concentrations of the cyanobacteriolytic substance and B.cereus N-14 cells required to exhibit cyanobacteriolytic activity were investigated. The results indicated the necessity of cell growth to produce sufficiently high amounts of the cyanobacteriolytic substance to exhibit its activity and also for conditions enabling good contact between high concentrations of the cyanobacteriolytic substance and cyanobacteria. Floating biodegradable plastics made of starch were applied as a carrier material to maintain close contact between the immobilized cyanobacteriolytic bacteria and floating cyanobacteria. The floating starch-carriers could eliminate 99% of floating cyanobacteria in 4 d. Since B.cereus N-14 could produce the cyanobacteriolytic substance under the presence of starch and some amino acids, the cyanobacteriolytic activity could be attributed to carbon source fed from starch carrier and amino acids eluted from lysed cyanobacteria. Therefore, the effect of using a floating starch-carrier was confirmed from both view points as a carrier for immobilization and a nutrient source to stimulate cyanobacteriolytic activity. The new concept to apply a floating carrier immobilizing useful microorganisms for intensive treatment of a nuisance floating target was demonstrated.

  17. Paranoia.Ada: A diagnostic program to evaluate Ada floating-point arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermstad, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Many essential software functions in the mission critical computer resource application domain depend on floating point arithmetic. Numerically intensive functions associated with the Space Station project, such as emphemeris generation or the implementation of Kalman filters, are likely to employ the floating point facilities of Ada. Paranoia.Ada appears to be a valuabe program to insure that Ada environments and their underlying hardware exhibit the precision and correctness required to satisfy mission computational requirements. As a diagnostic tool, Paranoia.Ada reveals many essential characteristics of an Ada floating point implementation. Equipped with such knowledge, programmers need not tremble before the complex task of floating point computation.

  18. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  19. Concomitant ligamentous and meniscal injuries in floating knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Shu; Li, Rui; Yue, Xianhu

    2015-01-01

    To identify and characterize the concomitant ligamentous and meniscal injuries in floating knee. A total of 37 cases of floating knee were enrolled. Arthroscopic or open surgical examination of the knee, Lachman test, posterior drawer's test, and varus and valgus stress tests under anesthesia were carried out to determine the incidence of knee injury. Through arthroscopic and open surgical examinations, a medial meniscal tear was detected in 14 (37.8%) cases and a lateral meniscal tear in 11 (29.7%). Twenty-one (56.8%) patients had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury including complete injury in 6 and incomplete injury in 15 cases. Three (8.1%) patients had posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear, including complete injury in 1 and incomplete injury in 2. Varus and valgus stress tests revealed that 10 (27.0%) and 7 (18.9%) patients had medial and lateral collateral ligament (MCL and LCL) laxity, respectively. Lachman test showed positive in 8 (21.6%) cases. Posterior drawer test showed positive in 3 (8.1%) cases. Twenty-six (70.3%) patients had knee ligamentous injuries. ACL injury was the most common ligamentous injury. ACL injury in 15 (71.4%) cases was associated with meniscal injury, including medial meniscal injury in 9 (42.9%) and lateral meniscal injury in 6 (28.6%). Physicians should pay attention to the concomitant ligamentous and meniscal injuries in floating knee. Careful clinical examination with aid of arthroscopic examination is helpful for the early diagnosis and treatment of these injuries.

  20. Development of cloxacillin loaded multiple-unit alginate-based floating system by emulsion-gelation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Jadupati; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of liquid paraffin-entrapped multiple-unit alginate-based floating system containing cloxacillin by emulsion-gelation method for gastro retentive delivery. The effect of process variables like drug to polymer ratio by weight, and liquid paraffin to water ratio by volume on various physicochemical properties in case of liquid paraffin-entrapped calcium alginate beads containing cloxacillin applicable to drug entrapment efficiency, density and drug release was optimized using 3(2) factorial design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The observed (actual values) responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.63±0.78%, density of 0.90±0.05 g/cm(3), and drug release of 56.72±0.85% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8h with floating lag time of 8.45 min and floated well over 12h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The average size of all dried beads ranged from 1.73±0.04 to 1.97±0.08 mm. The beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of cloxacillin over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The cloxacillin release profile from liquid paraffin beads followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model over a period of 8h with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism for drug release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coded SQUID arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, M.; Weenink, J.; Weenink, J.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    2001-01-01

    We report on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system to read out large arrays of cryogenic detectors. In order to reduce the number of SQUIDs required for an array of these detectors, we used code-division multiplexing. This simplifies the electronics because of a significantly

  2. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  3. Floating attenuator wave energy device. Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Wavegen Project which set out to develop a floating externally tensioned articulated wave-energy generator based on work carried out at RMCS Shrivenham in the 1980s has been abandoned until further notice. The computer modelling carried out in the early days indicated much promise, but the promise turned to disappointment when difficulties cropped-up in attempting to put the design into practice. A particular problem arose in matching the external tension to an equivalent beam stiffness to tune the natural bending frequency of the raft to that of the driving waves. A further eleven practical problems encountered are discussed.

  4. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Species and dynamics of floating weed seeds in paddy field

    OpenAIRE

    Ranling Zuo; Sheng Qiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore effective methods for weed control in paddy fields, we investigated the dynamics of weed seeds in Nanjing from June to November of 2005. A total of 24 weed species representing 15families were found before seedling transplanting and at late growth stage of rice, while during irrigation stage, 26 species of 17 families were identified from floating weed seeds. The two stages shared 18 weed species, accounting for 56.25% of the total weeds. Most of them belonged to Gramineae...

  6. GRFPU- High Performance IEEE-754 Floating-Point Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catovic, Edvin

    2004-06-01

    To improve floating- point performance of LEON-based systems, a new FPU called GRFPU has been developed at Gaisler Research. With a peak performance of 250 MFLOPS on a typical 0.13 um process GRFPU offers a significant performance improvement over the existing solutions. Although primarily developed for LEON processor GRFPUcan be used as a building block in a custom compute engine or a DSP. GRFPU is easily interfaced to LEON processor through GRFPU Control unit (GRFPC).GRFPU and GRFPC are written in high- level synthesizable VHDL code and are suitable for both ASIC and FPGA development. GRFPU and GRFPC are fully SEU protected using TMR and EDAC protection.

  7. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  8. Detailed neuropsychological evaluation in a patient with Floating Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, D; Goldenberg, A; Hannequin, D; Lecointre, C; Lechevallier, J; Cormier-Daire, V; Martinaud, O

    2012-01-01

    The Floating Harbor syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by a triad of clinical signs: specific dysmorphic facial features, short stature with delayed bone age, and language and speech disorders. These signs are, in most cases, associated with borderline normal intelligence to moderate delay concerning intellectual functioning. We report an extensive neuropsychological evaluation for an adult female patient and show, in particular, a severe visuospatial impairment. We discuss this deficit in the light of the previous reported cases and suggest that visuospatial abilities should be explored more systematically.

  9. Growth hormone deficiency: an unusual presentation of floating harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Emmanouilidou, Eleftheria; Maggana, Ioanna; Kotanidou, Eleni; Kokka, Paraskevi; Stylianou, Charilaos

    2011-01-01

    Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS) is a very rare condition of unknown etiology characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, characteristic facial features, delayed language skills and usually normal motor development. This syndrome has only once been associated with growth hormone deficiency and precocious puberty in the same patient. We describe a 5 4/12 year-old girl with the typical features of FHS in whom growth hormone deficiency was diagnosed and two years later central precocious puberty was noted. The patient showed a good response to human recombinant growth hormone as well as gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue treatment.

  10. Two more diagnostic signs in the Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mello, S; Peippo, M

    1996-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy with the Floating-Harbor syndrome (F-HS) is described. We propose that his exceptionally high-pitched voice and supernumerary upper incisor are additional diagnostic signs of F-HS. The elevated gliadin antibody levels suggest coeliac disease, which has been described in three out of the 15 previously reported F-HS patients. His facial features and delayed speech development are very characteristic but his shortness (-3 SD) is milder than usual. The patient is a sporadic case like all the F-HS cases so far.

  11. Extreme load predictions for floating offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    An effective stochastic procedure for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind induced stochastic loads is applied to a tension-leg concept for floating offshore wind turbines. The method is based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and as the procedure makes use of only short...... time-domain simulations all kinds of non-linearities can be included. The procedure has been used previously for wave induced loads and is in this note extended to combined wave and wind loads....

  12. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. The use of floating structures for deeper waters is being explored. The control objective is a tradeoff between power capture and fatigue, especially that produced by the oscillations caused by the reduced...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  13. Fracture characterisation of float glass under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nyounguè

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of float glass fracture under static and dynamic loading, with the use of experimental and numerical fracture mechanics methods. It has been shown that the value of notch fracture toughness under static loading depends neither on the kind of test nor on specimen geometry. This makes it possible to replace the three-points-bending specimens with the Brazilian discs which are, under certain test conditions, simpler and convenient to study. For both types of specimens, an analysis of the fracture strength, the notch stress intensity factor and fragmentation of specimens was carried out.

  14. Electronically Tunable Multi-Terminal Floating Nullor and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangsrirat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A realization scheme of an electronically tun- able multi-terminal floating nullor (ET-MTFN is de- scribed in this paper. The proposed circuit mainly employs a transconductance amplifier, an improved translinear cell, two complementary current mirrors with variable current gain and improved Wilson current mirrors, which provide an electronic tuning of the current gain. The va- lidity of the performance of the scheme is verified through PSPICE simulation results. Example applications employing the proposed ET-MTFN as an active element demonstrate that the circuit properties can be varied by electronic means.

  15. Experience in float over integrated deck -- Design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, J.H.; Naudin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Since early 1980, Technip-Geoproduction (TPG), as designer or as installation contractor, has been using with success the float over system UNIDECK-TPG for the transportation and installation of integrated decks for offshore platforms. The concept offers the advantages of significant savings in transportation and installation cost by minimizing the installation time and offshore hook-up and eliminating the need for a heavy lift derrick barge. The paper describes the technology used for the installation, the required engineering studies, the consequences of using such a concept on platform design and the selection of an appropriate barge size to be used.

  16. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  17. Fluidic communication between multiple vertically segregated microfluidic channels connected by nanocapillary array membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maojun; Flachsbart, Bruce R; Shannon, Mark A; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2008-03-01

    Hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic devices offer unique capabilities for manipulating and analyzing minute volumes of expensive or hard-to-obtain samples. Here, multilayer poly-(methyl methacrylate) microchips, with multiple spatially isolated microfluidic channels interconnected by nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs), are fabricated using an adhesive contact printing process. The NCAMs, positioned between the microfluidic channel layers, add functionality to the inter-microchannel fluid transfer unit operation. They do so because the transport of specific analytes through the NCAM can be controlled by adjusting the ionic strength, the polarity of the applied bias, the surface charge density, and the pore size. A simplified, floating injection technique for NCAM-coupled nanofluidic devices is described and compared with conventional biased injection. In the floating injection approach, a voltage is applied across the injection channel and the slight electric field extension at the cross-section is used to transfer analytes through the nanopores to the separation channel. Floating injection excels in plug reproducibility, separation resolution, and operation simplicity, although it decreases assay throughput relative to biased injection. Floating injection can avoid the uneven distribution of analytes in the microfluidic channel that sometimes results from biased injection because of the volume mismatch between NCAM nanopore transport capacity and the supply of fluid. Moreover, the pressure-driven flow caused by the mismatch of the EOFs in the microfluidic channels connected by an NCAM must be considered when using NCAMs with pore diameters below 50 nm.

  18. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  19. A submillimeter VLBI array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintroub, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: jweintroub@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    A VLBI array operating at {lambda} 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm is being designed using existing submillimeter telescopes as ad-hoc stations. Initial three station {lambda} = 1.3 mm observations of SgrA* and other AGN have produced remarkable results, which are reported by Doeleman elsewhere in this proceedings. Future observations are planned with an enhanced array which has longer baselines, more stations, and greater sensitivity. At {lambda} = 0.8 mm and on the long baselines, the array will have about a 20 {mu}as angular resolution which equals the diameter of the event horizon of the massive black hole in SgrA*. Candidate single dish facilities include the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) in Mexico, ASTE and APEX in Chile, and the IRAM 30 m in Spain; interferometers include the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) in California, IRAM PdB Interferometer in France, and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. I will discuss the techniques we have developed for phasing interferometric arrays to act as single VLBI station. A strategy for detection of short (10s) time-scale source variability using VLBI closure phase will be described.

  20. Functionalization of Carbon Nanofibres Obtained by Floating Catalyst Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excellent physicochemical and electrical properties of carbon nanofibres (CNF combined with the possibility of being produced at industrial scale at reasonable costs have promoted the interest in their use in very diverse areas. However, there are still some drawbacks that must be solved in order to optimize their set of properties such as the presence of impurities or the imperfections in the crystalline structure. In this work, different modification treatments of CNFs produced by the floating catalyst method have been studied. Three types of modification processes have been explored that can be grouped as mechanical, thermal, and chemical functionalization processes. Mechanical processing has allowed solving the agglomeration problem related to CNFs produced by floating catalyst method and the resulting modified product ensures the secure handling of carbon nanofibres. Thermal and chemical treatments lead to purer and more crystalline products by removing catalyst impurities and amorphous carbon. Functionalization processes explored in this work open the possibility of customized posttreatment of carbon nanofibres according to the desired requirements.

  1. Resolution of ambiguous radar measurements using a floating bin correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, E. R.; Frost, E. L.

    It is pointed out that the Chinese Remainder Theorem (Mooney and Skillman, 1970) can be used to yield unambiguous measurements by comparing outputs allocated to fixed integer number bins using integer arithmetic to modulo to the correct bin number. In general, targets straddling two or more bins or the assignment of an incorrect bin number will yield incorrect parameter values. An ambiguity resolution technique using multiple pulse repetition frequency (PRF) data and a sliding floating point window or 'floating bin' to correlate ambiguous centroided Doppler measurements is proposed. An advantage of the technique is that false targets are much less prevalent than in classical techniques. What is more, the same technique may be employed to resolve ambiguous range wherein centroided range measurements are moduloed with the pulse repetition interval associated with each PRF. Results demonstrate that this method is better than conventional approaches in that the number of false targets produced is significantly lower while simultaneoulsy providing a high probability of correlation. In addition, the correlation can be effected in real time.

  2. Floating Escherichia coli by expressing cyanobacterial gas vesicle genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Kang, Li; Li, Jiaheng; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Peiran; Gong, Minghao; Lai, Weihong; Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Lei; Peng, Yong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Lian; Bao, Yingying; Xu, Haowen; Zhang, Xiaohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow, air-filled polyprotein structures that provide the buoyancy to cells. They are found in a variety of prokaryotes. In this study, we isolated a partial gas vesicle protein gene cluster containing gvpA and gvpC20Ψ from Planktothrix rubescens, and inserted it into an expression vector and expressed it in E. coli. The gas vesicle was developed in bacterial cells, which made bacterial cells to float on medium surface. We also amplified gvpA and gvpC20Ψ separately and synthesized an artificial operon by fusing these two genes with the standardized gene expression controlling elements of E. coli. The artificial operon was expressed in E. coli, forming gas vesicles and floating bacteria cells. Our findings verified that the whole set of genes and the overall structure of gas vesicle gene cluster are not necessary for developing gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Two genes, gvpA and gvpC20Ψ, of the gas vesicle gene cluster are sufficient for synthesizing an artificial operon that can develop gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Our findings provided a wide range of applications including easing the harvest of cultured microalgae and bacteria, as well as enriching and remediating aquatic pollutants by constructing gas vesicles in their cells.

  3. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  4. Efficiency rate of independent floating water treatment device (IFWAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Zainal, N. S.; Swee, M. G.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamarudin, M. A.; Shabbir, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    The independent Floating Treatment Device (IFWAD) is a small scale water treatment device specifically functions to treat water. The independent term being used due to IFWAD is not dependent to any power source as it receive it powers from solar. Additionally, its floating features enable it to being place anywhere according to the suitability of site condition. Treatment element of this device used absorption and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon to remove pollutants. Removal parameters used are turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and suspended solid. The result shows about 94% removal efficiency for turbidity. TSS result showed about 92% of TSS removal after 48 hours of treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (high range) shows almost 0 for reading after 84 hours of treatment. The pH for water sample not exceed 8 and the temperature remain below 40 C. the color result showed decreasing in number from 1036 pt-co to 7.5pt-co after 48 hours of treatment.

  5. Wave Energy, Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency......The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg...... University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed...

  6. Floating attenuator wave energy device: Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) into the feasibility of developing and constructing a floating attenuator wave energy device known as HYDRA following initial studies by Wavegen. HYDRA is a floating externally tensioned articulated raft wave energy generator based on work by Professor FJM Farley and colleagues during the 1980s. The project's first four work tasks confirmed the theoretical potential of the device but also highlighted significant practical problems in translating that potential into a viable design. It was therefore decided not to proceed further, i.e. not to construct and test a prototype device. The report provides a general description of the device and describes the results of the initial analysis and the first series of model tests. It then discusses device design and component testing and explains the methodology for determining device performance at a particular site and mathematical modelling of a one-third scale device. To help future research and development programmes, the report emphasises the generic problems associated with the development of wave devices.

  7. Coupled Thermal Field of the Rotor of Liquid Floated Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation devices include star sensor, GPS, and gyroscope. Optical fiber and laser gyroscopes provide high accuracy, and their manufacturing costs are also high. Magnetic suspension rotor gyroscope improves the accuracy and reduces the production cost of the device because of the influence of thermodynamic coupling. Therefore, the precision of the gyroscope is reduced and drift rate is increased. In this study, the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope, particularly the dished rotor gyroscope, was placed under a thermal field, which improved the measurement accuracy of the gyroscope. A dynamic theory of the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope was proposed, and the thermal field of the rotor was simulated. The maximum stress was in x, 1.4; y, 8.43; min 97.23; and max 154.34. This stress occurred at the border of the dished rotor at a high-speed rotation. The secondary flow reached 5549 r/min, and the generated heat increased. Meanwhile, the high-speed rotation of the rotor was volatile, and the dished rotor movement was unstable. Thus, nanomaterials must be added to reduce the thermal coupling fluctuations in the dished rotor and improve the accuracy of the measurement error and drift rate.

  8. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  9. Present Status and Internationalization Prospect of China Float Glass Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng, Shou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief account on the development course of China float glass technology accompanied by a detailed introduction of the current status of China float glass technology, covering the respects of production line scale, product variety, product quality, technology & equipment level, etc., and makes prospects for internationalized development trend of China flat glass industry.

    Este trabajo presenta una breve recopilación de los desarrollos en curso de la tecnología de vidrio flotado en China, acompañada por una introducción detallada de la situación de la industria y tecnología del vidrio plano en este país. Se cubren los aspectos de líneas de producción, variedad de productos, calidad de los productos, tecnología y nivel de equipamiento, etc. y se hacen algunas predicciones sobre las tendencias de desarrollo e internacionalización de la industria china de vidrio plano.

  10. Flow-induced oscillations of a floating moored cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    An experimental study of flow-induced oscillations of a floating model spar buoy was conducted. The model spar consisted of a floating uniform cylinder moored in a water tunnel test section, and free to oscillate about its mooring attachment point near the center of mass. For the bare cylinder, counter-clockwise (CCW) figure-eight trajectories approaching A* =1 in amplitude were observed at the lower part of the spar for a reduced velocity range of U* =4-11, while its upper part experienced clockwise (CW) orbits. It was hypothesized that the portion of the spar undergoing CCW figure eights is the portion within which the flow excites the structure. By adding helical strakes to the portion of the cylinder with CCW figure eights, the response amplitude was significantly reduced, while adding strakes to portions with clockwise orbital motion had a minimal influence on the amplitude of response. This work is partially supported by the NSF-sponsored IGERT: Offshore Wind Energy Engineering, Environmental Science, and Policy (Grant Number 1068864).

  11. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  12. Sphagnum growth in floating cultures: Effect of planting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish rapid and stable Sphagnum growth, capitulum culture of a selected strain of S. palustre was carried out using a floating culture method. Four planting treatments were tested at mountain and urban sites in Kumamoto Prefecture on Kyushu Island, south-west Japan. Capitula were planted in colonies of different sizes on 30 cm square floating rafts, but with strict control of the number (75–77 of capitula per raft. The initial cover of live green Sphagnum ranged from 15 to 20 %. Growth of the colonies was followed throughout the growing season (April to November of 2008. After three months, green coverage rates reached 40–50 % in all planting treatments. At the end of the growing season, the highest Sphagnum cover (almost 90 % at the urban site was recorded in the planting treatment with eleven re-introduced colonies of seven capitula (‘11×7cap’, while the highest capitulum number and biomass (dry weight gain occurred in the ‘4×19cap’ planting treatment. Average stem elongation ranged from 5 cm to 7 cm in the ‘77×1cap’ and ‘4×19cap’planting treatments, respectively, indicating that the larger sized colony grew longer stems. However, contrary to expectation, the ‘4×19cap’planting treatment - which had the largest colony size - did not deliver the highest number of newly formed side shoots.

  13. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z. Z.; Causon, D. M.; Mingham, C. G.; Qian, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT) to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC) device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water). The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  14. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  15. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1.... (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern...

  16. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  17. Definition of the Floating System for Phase IV of OC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.

    2010-05-01

    Phase IV of the IEA Annex XXIII Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) involves the modeling of an offshore floating wind turbine. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which are needed by the OC3 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  18. Rifabutin-loaded Floating Gellan Gum Beads: Effect of Calcium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate rifabutin-loaded floating gel beads for stomach-specific release. Methods: Rifabutin-loaded floating gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic calcium-induced gelation in acidic medium. In-vitro buoyancy and drug release studies were performed using a USP dissolution apparatus type II in ...

  19. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... membrane cover. 63.942 Section 63.942 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... impoundment floating membrane cover. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this subpart and controlling air emissions from a surface impoundment using a floating membrane cover. (b) The...

  20. Algorithm for output of floating-point numbers in fixed-point form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Input/output of data items and information are very common operations performed on computer systems. Various data types require special ways to perform these operations on them. Floating-point numbers are no exceptions. Presented in this paper is an algorithm with which floating-point numbers can be converted to ...

  1. Wake losses optimization of offshore wind farms with moveable floating wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Rodrigues; R. Teixeira Pinto (Rodrigo); M. Soleimanzadeh (Maryam); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); P. Bauer (Pavol)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the future, floating wind turbines could be used to harvest energy in deep offshore areas where higher wind mean speeds are observed. Currently, several floating turbine concepts are being designed and tested in small scale projects; in particular, one concept allows the turbine to

  2. Dynamic modeling of a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, L.B.; Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Staerdahl, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The installation of floating wind farms in deeper water is encouraged by the stronger and steadier wind, the lower visibility and noise impact, the absence of road restrictions, but also the absence or shortage of shallow water. In the summer of 2009, the first large-scale floating wind turbine

  3. Competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in a future of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01


    This research was about the asymmetric competition between free-floating and submerged macrophytes in shallow freshwater ecosystems. I studied the effect of climate change on the dominance of free-floating macrophytes in temperate regions. The research approach was a combination of outdoor

  4. 49 CFR 1242.44 - Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX-23-43 and XX-23-44). 1242.44 Section 1242.44... Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX...

  5. Numerical study on aerodynamic damping of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-09-01

    Harvesting offshore wind energy resources using floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has attracted an increasing interest in recent years. Due to its potential impact on fatigue damage, the aerodynamic damping should be considered in the preliminary design of a floating VAWT based on the frequency domain method. However, currently the study on aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs is very limited. Due to the essential difference in aerodynamic load characteristics, the aerodynamic damping of a floating VAWT could be different from that of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). In this study, the aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs was studied in a fully coupled manner, and its influential factors and its effects on the motions, especially the pitch motion, were demonstrated. Three straight-bladed floating VAWTs with identical solidity and with a blade number varying from two to four were considered. The aerodynamic damping under steady and turbulent wind conditions were estimated using fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic time domain simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic damping ratio of the considered floating VAWTs ranges from 1.8% to 5.3%. Moreover, the aerodynamic damping is almost independent of the rotor azimuth angle, and is to some extent sensitive to the blade number.

  6. Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, T.; Kaminski, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated

  7. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 and citric acid were used as gas (CO2 generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72±2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50±0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr.

  8. A Descriptive Study of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions about Sinking-Floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet; Aktan, Filiz; Kaynar, Hamza; Kilinc, Sena; Gorkemli, Tugce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to determine the pre-service science teachers' misconceptions about floating and sinking. Secondly, it aims to reveal the level of pre-service science teachers' misconceptions, scientific knowledge, lack of knowledge, and lack of confidence related to floating and sinking. To conduct the…

  9. Current status and future of floating structures at harbor. Kowan ni okeru futai kozobutsu no genkyo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S. (Ministry of transport, Port and Harbour Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-25

    Considering that there are many maintenance plans now for floating structural facilities, problems concerning the plan and design of floating structures are extracted and a design manual is being prepared. The current states and future of those floating structures are outlined, and the summary of the safety precaution is explained referring to the design manual for the floating structures. Most of the current floating structures utilize ships. In many cases, they are used as restaurants, exhibition halls, museums, etc. The sites for those floating structures are calm sea areas where there is no direct action of waves from the open sea. For the safety of floating structures, design of the mooring facility is extremely important. Details which are not provided in the technical standards are given in the floating structure manual. The content of the manual is introduced. An examples of the design of mooring facility is introduced. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy...

  11. Development of the Floating Centrifugal Pump by Use of Non Contact Magnetic Drive and Its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Uno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impeller construction, non contact driving method and performance of a newly developed shaftless floating pump with centrifugal impeller. The drive principle of the floating impeller pump used the magnet induction method similar to the levitation theory of the linear motor. In order to reduce the axial thrust by the pressure different between shroud and disk side, the balance hole and the aileron blade were installed in the floating impeller. Considering the above effect, floating of an impeller in a pump was realized. Moreover, the performance curves of a developed pump are in agreement with a general centrifugal pump, and the dimensionless characteristic curve also agrees under the different rotational speed due to no mechanical friction of the rotational part. Therefore, utility of a non contacting magnetic-drive style pump with the floating impeller was made clear.

  12. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  13. Optimal array of sand fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  14. Design of Infrasonic Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blandford, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Infrasound Experts Group of the Geneva Conference on Disarmament Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban has recommended an infrasound array design consisting of four elements, with three elements...

  15. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  16. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  17. The retinal readout array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litke, Alan; Meister, Markus

    1991-12-01

    We have fabricated and tested a set of electrode arrays for the study of information processing in the retina. Live retinal tissue is placed on top of an array with the output neurons directly above the electrodes. Absorption of light by the photoreceptor cells leads to the generation of electrical pulses in the output neurons. These pulses, in turn, produce voltage signals on the electrodes which are recorded simultaneously by external electronics. Thus, for the first time, the spatial and temporal firing patterns of a large set of retinal nerve cells can be studied. The arrays are fabricated on quartz wafers coated with a transparent conducting layer of indium tin oxide. The electrodes are electroplated with platinum black. Polyimide is used for insulation. The fabrication and properties of these arrays, and illustrative results with retinal tissue, are described.

  18. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M.R.; Seaman, C.E.; Beck, T.W.; Colinet, J.F.; Mischler, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8. PMID:28936001

  19. Floating tablets of minocycline hydrochloride: Formulation, in-vitro evaluation and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Raza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study was aimed to formulate gastroretentive floating tablets of minocycline hydrochloride with desired floating properties, desired drug release rate, its local action in stomach for treatment of H. pylori infection and prevention of a side effect, pseudomembranous colitis. Simplex lattice mixture design was used to get experimental layout. Methocel K100LV (X1, Methocel K15M (X2 and Carbopol 934 (X3 were selected as independent variables. Ten formulations (F1 to F10 were developed by direct compression and were evaluated for physical parameters, swelling index, floating lag time, floating time and in-vitro drug release rate. Furthermore, FTIR spectroscopic studies were performed to determine drug polymer interaction. Floating lag time (Y1, floating time (Y2, cumulative drug release at 3 h (Y3, 6 h (Y4 and 12 h (Y5 were selected as dependent variables. Results showed that floating lag time and floating time were decreased by presence of Carbopol 934 in formulation while increased by Methocel K100LV and Methocel K15M. Presence of Carbopol 934 also caused an increase in drug release rate while Methocel K100LV and Methocel K15M contributed in decreasing release rate. Except F1, all the other formulations showed floating time >12 h. On the basis of optimization criteria, composition of optimized formulation F0 (Methocel K100LV = 77.98 mg and Carbopol 934 = 82.02 mg was determined by statistical analysis. FTIR spectroscopic studies showed that no interaction found between polymers and drug. Concisely, concluded that Carbopol 934 and Methocel 100LV can be used to fabricate gastroretentive floating tablets of minocycline hydrochloride with good buoyancy properties and sustained release action.

  20. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M R; Seaman, C E; Beck, T W; Colinet, J F; Mischler, S E

    2017-09-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8.

  1. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  2. The Affect of Mobile Performance Support Devices on Anxiety and Self-Efficacy of Hospital Float Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley McKee, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Floating describes the act of staff moving from one unit to another based on the needs of the patients in a hospital. Many staff who float to different units express negative feelings, including anxiety and lack in self-efficacy. However, floating is both an economical and efficient method to use staff across the hospital, especially with current…

  3. An Analysis of the Loads on and Dynamic Response of a Floating Flexible Tube in Waves and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    grow algae for biofuels in floating flexible tubes that are fed municipal wastewater from coastal wastewater outfalls. Aspects of this concept have...a potential design for the coastal production of algae biomass using municipal wastewater in floating flexible tubes. Figure 1: Conceptual...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Proposed offshore structure designs for algal production using wastewater may incorporate floating flexible

  4. Development of mucoadhesive floating hollow beads of acyclovir with gastroretentive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirskis, Darren; Seyfoddin, Ali; Chalabi, Suna; In Kim, Joanne Hye; Langford, Christopher; Painter, Sivani; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed at improving the oral bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) through incorporating it into gastroretentive dosage form based on floating hollow chitosan beads. Hollow chitosan beads were prepared using a solvent free, ionotropic gelation method. The effect of formulation parameters, including chitosan molecular weight and drug concentration, on bead characteristics was studied. The drug containing formulations had yields >70.5 ± 0.31%. The entrapment efficiencies for the medium molecular weight chitosan formulations (56.29 ± 0.94%-62.75 ± 0.86%) was greater than the high molecular weight chitosan formulation (29.21 ± 0.89%). The density of all formulations was below that of gastric fluid, the greatest density observed was 0.60 ± 0.01 g cm(-3). Unsurprisingly, the formulations were immediate bouyant to different degrees in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 media. In addition, the chitosan beads were all seen to swell in pH 1.2 media and demonstrated mucoadhesive properties. A sustained release profile was observed from the chitosan beads, the developed formulations released drug at slower rates than a marketed ACV oral tablet. The developed system has the dual advantages of being gastroretentive, to increase oral bioavailability and releasing drug in a controlled manner, to reduce the required frequency of administration thereby promoting patient adherence.

  5. Characterization of 4H Silicon Carbide Films Grown by Solvent-Laser Heated Floating Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Andrew, A; Sayir, Ali; Neudeck, Philip, G; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Commercially available bulk silicon carbide (SiC) has a high number (>2000/sq cm) of screw dislocations (SD) that have been linked to degradation of high-field power device electrical performance properties. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have proposed a method to mass-produce significantly higher quality bulk SiC. In order for this bulk growth method to become reality, growth of long single crystal SiC fibers must first be achieved. Therefore, a new growth method, Solvent-Laser Heated Floating Zone (Solvent-LHFZ), has been implemented. While some of the initial Solvent-LHFZ results have recently been reported, this paper focuses on further characterization of grown crystals and their growth fronts. To this end, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiles, cross section analysis by focused ion beam (FIB) milling and mechanical polishing, and orientation and structural characterization by x-ray transmission Laue diffraction patterns and x-ray topography were used. Results paint a picture of a chaotic growth front, with Fe incorporation dependant on C concentration.

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis of a floating body with an open chamber using a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed Uzair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic analysis of a surface-piercing body with an open chamber was performed with incident regular waves and forced-heaving body motions. The floating body was simulated in the time domain using a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT technique based on potential theory. This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic behavior of the free surfaces inside the chamber for various input conditions, including a two-input system: both incident wave profiles and forced body velocities were implemented in order to calculate the maximum surface elevations for the respective inputs and evaluate their interactions. An appropriate equivalent linear or quadratic viscous damping coefficient, which was selected from experimental data, was employed on the free surface boundary inside the chamber to account for the viscous energy loss on the system. Then a comprehensive parametric study was performed to investigate the nonlinear behavior of the wave-body interaction.

  7. Application of enthalpy model for floating zone silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, A.; Bergfelds, K.; Virbulis, J.

    2017-09-01

    A 2D simplified crystal growth model based on the enthalpy method and coupled with a low-frequency harmonic electromagnetic model is developed to simulate the silicon crystal growth near the external triple point (ETP) and crystal melting on the open melting front of a polycrystalline feed rod in FZ crystal growth systems. Simulations of the crystal growth near the ETP show significant influence of the inhomogeneities of the EM power distribution on the crystal growth rate for a 4 in floating zone (FZ) system. The generated growth rate fluctuations are shown to be larger in the system with higher crystal pull rate. Simulations of crystal melting on the open melting front of the polycrystalline rod show the development of melt-filled grooves at the open melting front surface. The distance between the grooves is shown to grow with the increase of the skin-layer depth in the solid material.

  8. Geometry-Driven Folding of a Floating Annular Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Joseph D.; Démery, Vincent; Toga, K. Buǧra; Qiu, Zhanlong; Russell, Thomas P.; Davidovitch, Benny; Menon, Narayanan

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the large-amplitude deformations of thin elastic sheets is difficult due to the complications of self contact, geometric nonlinearities, and a multitude of low-lying energy states. We study a simple two-dimensional setting where an annular polymer sheet floating on an air-water interface is subjected to different tensions on the inner and outer rims. The sheet folds and wrinkles into many distinct morphologies that break axisymmetry. These states can be understood within a recent geometric approach for determining the gross shape of extremely bendable yet inextensible sheets by extremizing an appropriate area functional. Our analysis explains the remarkable feature that the observed buckling transitions between wrinkled and folded shapes are insensitive to the bending rigidity of the sheet.

  9. Understanding and optimizing the floating body retention in FDSOI UTBOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoulaiche, M.; Simoen, E.; Caillat, C.; Witters, L.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Nguyen, B.-Y.; Martino, J.; Claeys, C.; Fazan, P.; Jurczak, M.

    2016-03-01

    The floating body retention time is investigated on fully depleted SOI devices with UTBOX. The retention is occurring through the junctions and strongly assisted by defects in the junction space charge region during the holding state at a negative gate voltage. For standard devices with a gate overlap, the junction field is high and the dominant mechanism in this case is the generation by band-to-band tunneling. For optimized extensionless devices with lower junction field, the Shockley-Read-Hall generation enhanced by the field and Poole-Frenkel mechanism takes over the band-to-band tunneling. Therefore, reducing the concentration of Si impurities closer to the junctions is the key to approach an ideal retention time only due to band-to-band tunneling with the Si bandgap as the energy barrier for tunneling.

  10. Wave-induced collisions of thin floating disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiew, L. J.; Bennetts, L. G.; Meylan, M. H.; Thomas, G. A.; French, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Collisions between two thin floating disks forced by regular water waves are studied for a range of wave amplitudes and lengths, using laboratory wave basin experiments and a mathematical model. Three collision regimes are identified from the experiments in terms of collision frequency and strength, and the collisions are shown to be caused by drift for short incident wavelengths and relative surge motion between the disks for longer incident waves. The model is based on slope-sliding theory for the wave-induced disk motions and rigid-body collisions. It is shown to predict collision frequencies and velocities accurately for intermediate-long incident wavelengths. Incorporating drift and wave scattering forces into the model is shown to capture the collision behaviours for short incident wavelengths.

  11. Estimation of bearing capacity of floating group of stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Fattah

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, a general equation was obtained by carrying out statistical analysis using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program from the present experimental work and previous studies. The equation is used to estimate the bearing capacity of floating stone column group installed in clays of different undrained shear strengths between (4–25 kPa and with different diameters and L/D ratios constructed by cased bored method. The equation indicates that the most controlling parameter in the prediction of stone columns bearing capacity, qu, is the area replacement ration, As, where qu increases considerably with increase of As, i.e. decrease of spacing between columns.

  12. A Novel Floating Memristor Emulator with Minimal Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new floating emulator for the flux-controlled memristor is introduced in this paper. The proposed emulator circuit is very simple and consists of only two current feedback operational amplifiers (CFOAs, two analog multipliers, three resistors, and two capacitors. The emulator can be configured as an incremental or decremental type memristor by using an additional switch. The mathematical model of the emulator is derived to characterize its behavior. The hysteresis behavior of the emulator is discussed in detail, showing that the pinched hysteresis loops in v-i plane depend not only on the amplitude-to-frequency ratio of the exciting signal but also on the time constant of the emulator circuit itself. Experimental tests are provided to validate the emulator’s workability.

  13. Simple Floating Voltage-Controlled Memductor Emulator for Analog Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Fouda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The topic of memristive circuits is a novel topic in circuit theory that has become of great importance due to its unique behavior which is useful in different applications. But since there is a lack of memristor samples, a memristor emulator is used instead of a solid state memristor. In this paper, a new simple floating voltage-controlled memductor emulator is introduced which is implemented using commercial off the shelf (COTS realization. The mathematical modeling of the proposed circuit is derived to match the theoretical model. The proposed circuit is tested experimentally using different excitation signals such as sinusoidal, square, and triangular waves showing an excellent matching with previously reported simulations.

  14. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape......A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape....

  15. Floating Gate Dosimeter Suitability for Accelerator-Like Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucoli, M.; Danzeca, S.; Brugger, M.; Masi, A.; Pineda, A.; Cesari, J.; Dusseau, L.; Wrobel, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the suitability of floating gate dosimeter as total ionizing dose (TID) detector in mixed fields, representative of large hadron collider (LHC) radiation environment, has been investigated. Several experiments were performed in order to characterize the dosimeter. Exposures to γ-ray were carried out to study the sensitivity and linearity of the radiation response. Experiments in mixed radiation field were performed at CERN High energy AcceleRator Mixed field facility (CHARM) at CERN together with RadFETs to compare the performances. In particular, the minimum dose to be cumulated in order to obtain the facility calibration factor has been evaluated and discussed. The effect of the temperature on the output signal has been characterized and a compensation method has been developed and implemented. The fading of the output after irradiation was measured in order to evaluate the retention of the analog information.

  16. Perthes disease: A new finding in Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Donatella; Scuvera, Giulietta; Gatti, Marta; Tolva, Gianluca; Bonarrigo, Francesca; Esposito, Susanna; Gervasini, Cristina

    2018-01-31

    Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS; OMIM #136140) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by expressive language delay, short stature with delayed bone mineralization, a triangular face with a prominent nose, and deep-set eyes, and hand anomalies. First reported in 1973, FHS is associated with mutations in the SRCAP gene, which encodes SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein. Mutations in the CREBBP gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS; OMIM #180849, #613684), another rare disease characterized by broad thumbs and halluces, facial dysmorphisms, short stature, and intellectual disability, which has a phenotypic overlap with FHS. We describe a case of FHS associated with a novel SRCAP mutation and characterized by Perthes disease, a skeletal anomaly described in approximately 3% of patients with RSTS. Thus Perthes disease can be added to the list of clinical features that overlap between FHS and RSTS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rebecca L; Schenkel, Laila C; Nikkel, Sarah M; Ainsworth, Peter J; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M; Bulman, Dennis E; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-12-09

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder.

  18. A Numerical Model for a Floating TLP Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar Vasanta

    A numerical model is developed for a TLP configuration of a floating offshore wind turbine. The platform dynamics and hydrodynamic forces are derived and implemented in an advanced aero-elastic code, Flex5, to compute the hydro-aero-servo-elastic loads and responses on the floater and the wind...... turbine. This is achieved through three steps. In the first step, an independent 2D code with fourteen degrees of freedom (DOFs) is developed and the responses are verified for load cases concerning steady and spatially coherent turbulent wind with regular and irregular waves. In the second step, the 2D...... irregular waves. In addition, the effect of wind-wave misalignment is investigated. Further, in the third step, the 3D platform dynamics and wave loading are implemented into Flex5, resulting in a fully coupled hydro-aero-servo-elastic code. The implementation is tested to make the model reliable and robust...

  19. Ice rafts not sails: Floating the rocks at Racetrack Playa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.; Barnes, Jason W.; Spitale, Joe; Keller, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that the existence of many of the rock-carved trails at Racetrack Playa in Death Valley National Park is predominantly due to the effect of arbitrarily weak winds on rocks that are floated off the soft bed by small rafts of ice, as also occurs in arctic tidal beaches to form boulder barricades. These ice cakes need not have a particularly large surface area if the ice is adequately thick—the ice cakes allow the rocks to move by buoyantly reducing the reaction and friction forces at the bed, not by increasing the wind drag. The parameter space of ice thickness and extent versus rock size for flotation is calculated and found to be reasonable. We demonstrate the effect with a simple experiment.

  20. Repetitive Motion Planning of Free-Floating Space Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a repetitive motion-planning scheme of free-floating space manipulators is presented. Repetitive motion means when one task ends, the end-effector pose, the joint angles and the base pose should reset (return to their initial value, which will facilitate the subsequent tasks. First, due to the lack of DOF, an order of priority to the given tasks is introduced. Second, the joint reset optimization operator, the base attitude reset optimization operator and the end-effector attitude reset optimization operator are designed. Then, the repetitive motion scheme is proposed by combining the three optimization operators above in a creative way. Finally, to make the optimization of repetitive motion obvious, the base attitude maintenance is also considered. Simulation results verify the correctness and the validity of the repetitive motion planning method of space manipulator.