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Sample records for profiler measurements significantly

  1. Systematic identification of statistically significant network measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Etay; Koytcheff, Robin; Middendorf, Manuel; Wiggins, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We present a graph embedding space (i.e., a set of measures on graphs) for performing statistical analyses of networks. Key improvements over existing approaches include discovery of “motif hubs” (multiple overlapping significant subgraphs), computational efficiency relative to subgraph census, and flexibility (the method is easily generalizable to weighted and signed graphs). The embedding space is based on scalars, functionals of the adjacency matrix representing the network. Scalars are global, involving all nodes; although they can be related to subgraph enumeration, there is not a one-to-one mapping between scalars and subgraphs. Improvements in network randomization and significance testing—we learn the distribution rather than assuming Gaussianity—are also presented. The resulting algorithm establishes a systematic approach to the identification of the most significant scalars and suggests machine-learning techniques for network classification.

  2. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Lima, Darryl D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  3. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  4. Variational quantum algorithms with significantly fewer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbush, Ryan; McClean, Jarrod; Ding, Nan; Wiebe, Nathan; Boixo, Sergio; Neven, Hartmut

    Variational quantum algorithms provide an approach for using near-term quantum hardware to model diverse physical systems. Systems of interacting fermions, e.g. most materials and chemical reactions, are natural targets due to classical intractability at small sizes and the scientific value of solutions. However, recent work has cast doubt on the viability of chemistry applications due to an extremely large number of measurements that may be required. We overcome this problem by developing strategies which reduce the required measurements by orders of magnitude. Our approach involves an adaptive Bayesian model, simultaneous operator measurement, careful selection of basis functions and insights from N-representability theory. Most improvements are obtained by upper-bounding the required resources and then transforming the problem representation in a fashion that minimizes those upper-bounds. Our results suggest that even for some classically intractable molecules, energies can be measured to chemical precision using existing technology.

  5. On the Way to Work. Profiles of Significant Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Lewy, And Others

    Profiles are presented of several vocational-technical schools and colleges designed to provide large, flexible, well-equipped, comfortable, efficient, teaching and learning spaces. Each demonstrates a conscious effort to fulfill the following requirements--(1) a logical relationship between classroom instruction areas and shop or laboratory…

  6. Interaction Profile of Diphenyl Diselenide with Pharmacologically Significant Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diphenyl diselenide has shown interesting biological activities in various free-radical-induced damage models and can be considered as a potential candidate drug against oxidative stress. Apart from its anti-oxidant activity, this compound can oxidize various thiols. However there are no detailed studies in the literature about the thiol oxidase-like activity of this compound against biologically significant mono and di-thiols with respect to various pH conditions. Keeping in mind the scarcity of data in this area of organochalcogen chemistry, we report for the first time the kinetics of thiol oxidation by diphenyl diselenide, which was carried out in a commonly used phosphate buffer, not only at physiological pH, but also at a number of acidic values. The relative reactivities of the different thiols with diphenyl diselenide were independent of the pKa of the thiol group, such that at pH 7.4, cysteine and dithiothreitol were the most reactive, while 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid and glutathione were weakly reactive and extremely low reactivity was observed with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Rate of oxidation was dependent on the pH of the incubation medium. The results obtained will help us in the design of rational strategies for the safe pharmacological use of diphenyl diselenide.

  7. Sample storage conditions significantly influence faecal microbiome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Leong, Lex E X; Rogers, Geraint B

    2015-11-17

    Sequencing-based studies of the human faecal microbiota are increasingly common. Appropriate storage of sample material is essential to avoid the introduction of post-collection bias in microbial community composition. Rapid freezing to -80 °C is commonly considered to be best-practice. However, this is not feasible in many studies, particularly those involving sample collection in participants' homes. We determined the extent to which a range of stabilisation and storage strategies maintained the composition of faecal microbial community structure relative to freezing to -80 °C. Refrigeration at 4 °C, storage at ambient temperature, and the use of several common preservative buffers (RNAlater, OMNIgene.GUT, Tris-EDTA) were assessed relative to freezing. Following 72 hours of storage, faecal microbial composition was assessed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Refrigeration was associated with no significant alteration in faecal microbiota diversity or composition. However, samples stored using other conditions showed substantial divergence compared to -80 °C control samples. Aside from refrigeration, the use of OMNIgene.GUT resulted in the least alteration, while the greatest change was seen in samples stored in Tris-EDTA buffer. The commercially available OMNIgene.GUT kit may provide an important alternative where refrigeration and cold chain transportation is not available.

  8. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  9. Profiles of serum cytokines in acute drug-induced liver injury and their prognostic significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury M Steuerwald

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United-States. The aim of the study was to describe serum immune profiles associated with acute DILI, to investigate whether there are profiles associated with clinical features or types of DILI and/or with prognosis, and to assess temporal changes in levels. Twenty-seven immune analytes were measured in the sera of 78 DILI subjects in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN and compared with 40 healthy controls. Immune analytes (14 cytokines, 7 chemokines and 6 growth factors were measured by BioPlex multiplex ELISA at DILI onset and after 6 months. A modeling process utilizing immune principles was used to select a final set of variables among 27 immune analytes and several additional clinical lab values for prediction of early death (within 6 months of DILI onset. Nineteen of the 27 immune analytes were differentially expressed among healthy control, DILI onset and 6-month cohorts. Disparate patterns of immune responses, especially innate and adaptive cellular (mostly TH17 immunity were evident. Low values of four immune analytes (IL-9, IL-17, PDGF-bb and RANTES and serum albumin are predictive of early death [PPV = 88% (95% CI, 65%-100%, NPV = 97% (95% CI, 93%-100%, accuracy = 96% (95% CI, 92%-100%].Acute DILI is associated with robust and varying immune responses. High levels of expression of cytokines associated with innate immunity are associated with a poor prognosis, whereas high levels of expression of adaptive cytokines are associated with good long-term prognosis and eventual recovery. Serum immune analyte profiles at DILI onset appear to be of prognostic, and perhaps, diagnostic significance.

  10. Significant Figures in Measurements with Uncertainty: A Working Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Generally speaking, students have difficulty reporting out measurements and estimates of quantities used in the laboratory, and with handling the significant figures associated with them. When required to make calculation involving quantities with different numbers of significant figures, they have difficulty in assigning the corresponding digits…

  11. BOREAS RSS-17 Dielectric Constant Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); McDonald, Kyle C.; Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-17 team acquired and analyzed imaging radar data from the ESA's ERS-1 over a complete annual cycle at the BOREAS sites in Canada in 1994 to detect shifts in radar backscatter related to varying environmental conditions. This data set consists of dielectric constant profile measurements from selected trees at various BOREAS flux tower sites. The relative dielectric constant was measured at C-band (frequency = 5 GHz) as a function of depth into the trunk of three trees at each site, Measurements were made during April 1994 with an Applied Microwave Corporation field PDP fitted with a 0.358-cm (0.141-inch) diameter coaxial probe tip. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  13. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.A.; Aplin, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kgm−3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neu...

  14. Amplitude modulation reflectometry for density profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V.; Sanchez, J.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Branas, B.; Frances, M. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hirsch, M.; Geist, T.; Hartfuss, H.J. [Max Plank Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom-Ass, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8072 (United States); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a technique for density profile measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas based on the measurement of the phase delay of the modulation in the amplitude of a microwave beam launched and reflected at the plasma. Results from AM experiments in the PBX-M tokamak and the W7-AS stellarator are presented. A general analysis of the capabilities of the technique is performed, particularly centered in the effects of spatial turbulence. Simulations of the effects of two-dimensional turbulence have been performed for medium size (W7-AS) and large devices (LHD stellarator, ITER), showing the capability of the AM technique to operate in turbulent plasmas. Finally, possible solutions to the problem of parasitic reflections in AM systems are presented as development options. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayek Lee-Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means for two groups (females and males. We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.

  16. Ultrasound settings significantly alter arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements

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    Green Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT, measured by ultrasound, are widely used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions. Although assessment methods vary, automated edge-detecting image analysis software is routinely used to measure changes in FMD and CIMT. We aimed to quantify the effect that commonly adjusted ultrasound settings have on arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements made with CIMT measurement software. Methods We constructed phantom arteries from a tissue-mimicking agar compound and scanned them in a water bath with a 10 MHz multi-frequency linear-array probe attached to a high-resolution ultrasound machine. B-mode images of the phantoms were recorded with dynamic range (DR and gain set at five decibel (dB increments from 40 dB to 60 dB and -10 dB to +10 dB respectively. Lumen diameter and wall-thickness were measured off-line using CIMT measurement software. Results Lumen measurements: there was a strong linear relationship between DR and gain and measured lumen diameter. For a given gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR reduced the measured lumen diameter by 0.02 ± 0.004 mm (p CIMT measurements: For a fixed gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR increased measured wall thickness by 0.003 ± 0.002 mm (p Conclusion DR, gain and probe distance significantly alter lumen diameter and CIMT measurements made using image analysis software. When CIMT and FMD are used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions, the DR, gain and probe position used to record baseline scans should be documented and replicated in post-treatment scans in individual trial subjects. If more than one sonographer or imaging centre is used to collect data, the study protocol should document specific DR and gain settings to be used in all subjects.

  17. Transverse Beam Profile Measurements Using Optical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A; Weiss, A; Bank, A

    2001-01-01

    Two different systems are currently under development at GSI's heavy ion facility to measure transverse beam profiles using optical emitters. At the GSI-LINAC for energies up to 15 MeV/u residual gas fluorescence is investigated for pulsed high current beams. The fluorescence of N2 is monitored by an image intensified CCD camera. For all ion species with energies above 50 MeV/u slowly extracted from the synchrotron SIS a classical viewing screen system is used. Three different target materials have been investigated and their behavior concerning efficiency, saturation and timing performance is evaluated. Both systems (will) use CCD cameras with a digital read out using the IEEE 1394 standard.

  18. Plan View and Profile Relations: Measuring Correlation Between Channel Profile and Network Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, E.; Hilley, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we explore the relationships between channel network attributes and the corresponding channel profile geometries using high-resolution digital topography and model-generated synthetic topographies. This combined analysis addresses one of the long-standing questions in geomorphology relating to the mechanistic significance of various plan-view channel network geometry measures. Statistically based numerical studies suggest that Hortonian measures of channel network architecture (e.g. bifurcation ratio, area ratio, and length ratio) describe virtually all possible network geometries, and so are not diagnostic when evaluating the origins of the geometry of a particular network. We further explore this hypothesis by examining the correlation between Hack exponent, the channel profile characteristics, and process changes (i.e debris flow vs. fluvial flows) within the landscape. Analysis of high resolution DEMs as well as modeled landscapes, suggests that the Hack exponent is likewise insensitive to changes in the channel profile concavity. In contrast, we find that changes in the concavity of channel profiles apparently impacts the spatial distribution of plan-view junction angles of joining stream segments throughout a catchment. In the context of previous work, this angle might be expected to be a function of the ratio between the slopes of the adjoined channels. Channel concavity determines downstream change in this ratio for channel segments throughout the basin, and so such a metric might be used to explicitly link profile channel geometries to plan-view network geometries. Because profile geometries may change with different advective mass transport processes, such a metric may provide a link between the processes that transport material across a landscape, the profile geometry of channels through which these flows traverse, and the overall drainage network geometry. Additional numerical and field data based analysis are required to further

  19. NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volten, H.; Brinksma, E. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Hains, J.; Bergwerff, J. B.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Apituley, A.; Dirksen, R. J.; Calabretta-Jongen, S.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as NO2. However, the interpretation of satellite retrievals is not a trivial matter. We describe a novel instrument, the RIVM NO2 mobile lidar, to measure tropospheric NO2 profiles for the interpretation and validation of satellite data. During the DANDELIONS campaign in 2006 we obtained an extensive collection of lidar NO2 profiles, coinciding with OMI and SCIAMACHY overpasses. On clear days and early mornings a comparison between lidar and in situ measurements showed excellent agreement. At other times the in situ monitors with molybdenum converters suffered from NOy interference. The lidar NO2 profiles indicated a well-mixed boundary layer, with high NO2 concentrations in the boundary layer and concentrations above not differing significantly from zero. The boundary layer concentrations spanned a wide range, which likely depends on the wind directions and on the intensity of local (rush hour) traffic which varies with the day of the week. Large diurnal differences were mainly driven by the height of the boundary layer, although direct photolysis or photochemical processes also contribute. Small-scale temporal and spatial variations in the NO2 concentrations of the order of 20-50% were measured, probably indicative of small-scale eddies. A preliminary comparison between satellite and lidar data shows that the satellite data tend to overestimate the amount of NO2 in the troposphere compared to the lidar data.

  20. S-index: Measuring significant, not average, citation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2009-03-01

    We recently [1] introduced the ``citation density curve'' (or cumulative impact factor curve) that captures the full citation performance of a journal: its size, impact factor, the maximum number of citations per paper, the relative size of the different-cited portions of the journal, etc. The citation density curve displays a universal behavior across journals. We exploit this universality to extract a simple metric (the ``S-index'') to characterize the citation impact of ``significant'' papers in each journal. In doing so, we go beyond the journal impact factor, which only measures the impact of the average paper. The conventional wisdom of ranking journals according to their impact factors is thus challenged. Having shown the utility and robustness of the S-index in comparing and ranking journals of different sizes but within the same field, we explore the concept further, going beyond a single field, and beyond journals. Can we compare different scientific fields, departments, or universities? And how should one generalize the citation density curve and the S-index to address these questions? [1] M. Antonoyiannakis and S. Mitra, ``Is PRL too large to have an `impact'?'', Editorial, Physical Review Letters, December 2008.

  1. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, ‘automaticity’ refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: a functional significance of automaticity; b neurophysiology of automaticity; c measurement of automaticity; d mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and e strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity.

  2. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  3. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The physiological basis and clinical significance of lung volume measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal

    2017-01-01

    From a physiological standpoint, the lung volumes are either dynamic or static. Both subclasses are measured at different degrees of inspiration or expiration; however, dynamic lung volumes are characteristically dependent on the rate of air flow. The static lung volumes/capacities are further subdivided into four standard volumes (tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and residual volumes) and four standard capacities (inspiratory, functional residual, vital and total lung capaciti...

  5. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  6. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  7. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  8. The Retrieval of Ozone Profiles from Limb Scatter Measurements: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flittner, D. E.; Herman, B. M.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Hilsenrath, E.

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for retrieving vertical profiles of O3 concentration using measurements of UV and visible light scattered from the limb of the atmosphere. The UV measurements provide information about the O3 profile in the upper and middle stratosphere, while only visible wavelengths are capable of probing the lower stratospheric O3 profile. Sensitivity to the underlying scene reflectance is greatly reduced by normalizing measurements at a tangent height high in the atmosphere (approximately 55 km), and relating measurements taken at lower altitudes to this normalization point. To decrease the effect of scattering by thin aerosols/clouds that may be present in the field of view, these normalized measurements are then combined by pairing wavelengths with strong and weak O3 absorption. We conclude that limb scatter can be used to measure O3 between 15 km and 50 km with 2-3 km vertical resolution and better than 10% accuracy.

  9. No prognostic significance of antimitochondrial antibody profile testing in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleggaar, Frank P; van Buuren, Henk R

    2004-01-01

    The rate of disease progression varies considerably between individuals with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). On the basis of serological subtyping 4 antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) profiles (A, B, C and D) can be defined. The finding of previous studies that profile C/D is associated with a progressive course, in contrast to profile A/B, is a question of debate. The aim of the study was to investigate whether AMA profiles predicted the course for a cohort of Dutch PBC patients. Patients with an established diagnosis of AMA-positive PBC, AMA-negative PBC patients, non-PBC decompensated cirrhotics and healthy volunteers. Serum samples from 38 AMA-positive progressive patients, 31 AMA-positive patients without evidence of progression for at least 6 years, 5 AMA-negative PBC patients, 5 non-PBC decompensated cirrhotics and 5 healthy volunteers were assessed. AMA profiles were determined without knowledge of the clinical data. In the progressive AMA-positive group, 13% had profile A/B and 84% had profile C/D. In the non-progressive group, 13% had profile A/B, 77% profile C/D; 10% had no profile. During follow-up, a change from profile A/B to profile C/D or vice versa was not observed. This study found that not only PBC patients with AMA profile C/D but also patients with profile A/B may run a progressive course and therefore does not support the suggestion that AMA profiles can be used as independent prognostic indicator. The divergent results of this and previous studies may be explained by the selection of different patient populations.

  10. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  11. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  12. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laviron, C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Manso, M. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance,

  13. A subharmonic detrending or data-smoothing approach for longitudinal road profile measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used figure-of-merits for longitudinal road profiles such as the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Ride Number (RN) are based on statistical properties. Raw measured longitudinal road profile data may contain large trending components especially when the measurements are made...... with walking profilers in hilly regions. To obtain approximate stationary data suitable for statistical processing measurements should be subjected to detrending before calculating the IRI- or RN- value. In this paper a novel detrending method is proposed which is well suited for removing large profile trends...... without significantly corrupting the short wavelength content of the profile data. The method called sub-harmonic detrending works by fitting sub-harmonic sinusoids to the data followed by circular filtering in order to remove the trend. The method is also well suited for data-smoothing....

  14. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soitamo, Arto J; Jada, Balaji; Lehto, Kirsi

    2011-04-20

    these plants, apparently leading to decreased transmethylation capacity. The proteome analysis using 2D-PAGE indicated significantly altered proteome profile, which may have been both due to altered transcript levels, decreased translation, and increased proteosomal/protease activity. Expression of the HC-Pro RSS mimics transcriptional changes previously shown to occur in plants infected with intact viruses (e.g. Tobacco etch virus, TEV). The results indicate that the HC-Pro RSS contributes a significant part of virus-plant interactions by changing the levels of multiple cellular RNAs and proteins.

  15. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM were also decreased in these plants, apparently leading to decreased transmethylation capacity. The proteome analysis using 2D-PAGE indicated significantly altered proteome profile, which may have been both due to altered transcript levels, decreased translation, and increased proteosomal/protease activity. Conclusion Expression of the HC-Pro RSS mimics transcriptional changes previously shown to occur in plants infected with intact viruses (e.g. Tobacco etch virus, TEV. The results indicate that the HC-Pro RSS contributes a significant part of virus-plant interactions by changing the levels of multiple cellular RNAs and proteins.

  16. Profile Measurement of Worn Acetabular Cup by Holographic Contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakunai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Tohoru; Sakurai, Daisuke; Aota, Yuuki; Shelton, Julia

    Wear in a polyethylene acetabular cup is dependent on the history of the cup, namely on the sterilization treatment, initial mounting situation, the patient's lifestyle and length of time in vivo. Understanding wear patterns is essential in order to prevent inflammation and prosthesis failure. This study describes the profile measurement of a worn acetabular cup by holographic contouring, which can provide non-contact measurement over the entire visual field. Experiments were performed to verify the method, and measurements of cups worn in vivo were carried out. Cup profile was investigated using holograms obtained in three directions and changes in cup profile were evaluated using fringe patterns in which the interval range was adjusted from tens of microns to several millimeters.

  17. A measurement system for vertical seawater profiles close to the air–sea interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sims

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a near-surface ocean profiler, which has been designed to precisely measure vertical gradients in the top 10 m of the ocean. Variations in the depth of seawater collection are minimized when using the profiler compared to conventional CTD/rosette deployments. The profiler consists of a remotely operated winch mounted on a tethered yet free-floating buoy, which is used to raise and lower a small frame housing sensors and inlet tubing. Seawater at the inlet depth is pumped back to the ship for analysis. The profiler can be used to make continuous vertical profiles or to target a series of discrete depths. The profiler has been successfully deployed during wind speeds up to 10 m s−1 and significant wave heights up to 2 m. We demonstrate the potential of the profiler by presenting measured vertical profiles of the trace gases carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide. Trace gas measurements use an efficient microporous membrane equilibrator to minimize the system response time. The example profiles show vertical gradients in the upper 5 m for temperature, carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide of 0.15 °C, 4 µatm and 0.4 nM respectively.

  18. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  19. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  20. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Van Belle, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Thirty Stage Annular Centrifugal Contactor Thermal Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    A thirty stage 5 cm annular centrifugal contactor cascade has been assembled and tested to obtain thermal profiles during both ambient and heated input conditions of operation. Thermocouples were installed on every stage as well as feed inputs and Real-time data was taken during experiments lasting from two to eight hours at total flow rates of 0.5 to 1.4 liters per minute. Ambient temperature profile results show that only a small amount of heat is generated by the mechanical energy of the contactors. Steady state temperature profiles mimic the ambient temperature of the lab but are higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated inlet solutions gave temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients, more driven by the temperature of the inlet solutions than ambient lab temperature. Temperature effects of solution mixing, even at rotor speeds of 4000 rpm, were not measurable.

  2. Measurement of electron density profile by microwave reflectometry on tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, F.

    1985-05-01

    A new method for measuring the electron density spatial profile has been successfully tested on the tokamak of Fontenay aux Roses (TFR). This method is based on the total reflection experienced by a wave of frequency F on the layer where F = F/sub p/e(r). The experimental results show that the maximum electron density in the discharge is also easily measured and that accurate determination of a density profile can be obtained with a time resolution of 5 ms. This diagnostic is well adapted to all fusion devices where access to the total plasma cross section is limited, particularly for large tokamaks.

  3. Soil Moisture Profile Effect on Radar Signal Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    André Chanzy; Nicolas Baghdadi; Mehrez Zribi; Aurélie Le Morvan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of a backscattered signal according to soil moisture depth over bare soils. Analysis based on experimental vertical moisture profiles and ASAR/ENVISAT measurements has been carried out. A modified IEM model with three permittivity layers (0-1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm) has been developed and used in this study. Results show a small effect of moisture profile on the backscattered signal (less than 0.5dB). However, measurements and simulations have ...

  4. Profile measurements of thin liquid films using reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchak, M. S.; Vangsness, M. D.; Byrd, L. W.; Ervin, J. S.; Jones, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Microscope-based reflectometry was used to measure the thickness profile of thin films of n-octane on silicon wafer substrates. Coupled with micro-positioning motorized stages and custom software, two-dimensional profiles of the film thickness from the adsorbed film (˜10 nm) to the intrinsic meniscus (˜1000 nm) were automatically and repeatedly measured. The reflectometer aperture was modified to provide better spatial resolution in areas of high curvature, the transition region, where evaporative flux is at a maximum. This technique will provide data for the validation of both existing and future models of thin film evaporation.

  5. "Topological significance" analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles from prostate cancer cells reveals key mechanisms of androgen response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaikkalam Vellaichamy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prostate cancer progression to androgen independence has been extensively studied. Several studies systematically analyzed gene expression profiles in the context of biological networks and pathways, uncovering novel aspects of prostate cancer. Despite significant research efforts, the mechanisms underlying tumor progression are poorly understood. We applied a novel approach to reconstruct system-wide molecular events following stimulation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with synthetic androgen and to identify potential mechanisms of androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer.We have performed concurrent measurements of gene expression and protein levels following the treatment using microarrays and iTRAQ proteomics. Sets of up-regulated genes and proteins were analyzed using our novel concept of "topological significance". This method combines high-throughput molecular data with the global network of protein interactions to identify nodes which occupy significant network positions with respect to differentially expressed genes or proteins. Our analysis identified the network of growth factor regulation of cell cycle as the main response module for androgen treatment in LNCap cells. We show that the majority of signaling nodes in this network occupy significant positions with respect to the observed gene expression and proteomic profiles elicited by androgen stimulus. Our results further indicate that growth factor signaling probably represents a "second phase" response, not directly dependent on the initial androgen stimulus.We conclude that in prostate cancer cells the proliferative signals are likely to be transmitted from multiple growth factor receptors by a multitude of signaling pathways converging on several key regulators of cell proliferation such as c-Myc, Cyclin D and CREB1. Moreover, these pathways are not isolated but constitute an interconnected network module containing many alternative routes from inputs

  6. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  7. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  8. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  9. Tunneled catheters with taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution significantly improve the inflammatory profile of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré, Néstor; Cardozo, Celia; Donate, Javier; Soriano, Alex; Muros, Mercedes; Pons, Mercedes; Mensa, Josep; Campistol, Josep M; Navarro-González, Juan F; Maduell, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Mortality and morbidity are significantly higher among patients with dialysis catheters, which has been associated with chronic activation of the immune system. We hypothesized that bacteria colonizing the catheter lumen trigger an inflammatory response. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory profile of hemodialysis patients before and after locking catheters with an antimicrobial lock solution. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured in serum, and levels of mRNA gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Samples were obtained at baseline and again after 3 months' use of taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution (TCHLS) in 31 hemodialysis patients. The rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was 1.08 per 1,000 catheter-days in the heparin period and 0.04 in the TCHLS period (P = 0.023). Compared with the baseline data, serum levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 showed median percent reductions of 18.1% and 25.2%, respectively (P profile in hemodialysis patients with tunneled catheters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tukiainen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time occultations of GOMOS have been proven to be of good quality, the daytime occultations are more challenging due to weaker signal-to-noise ratio. During daytime GOMOS measures limb scattered solar radiation in addition to stellar radiation. In this paper we introduce a retrieval method that determines ozone profiles between 20–60 km from GOMOS limb scattered solar radiances. GOMOS observations contain a considerable amount of stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those measured by the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, a standard onion peeling method is used. The first comparisons with other data sets suggest that the retrieved ozone profiles in 22–50 km are within 10% compared with the GOMOS night-time occultations and within 15% compared with OSIRIS. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data available for scientific use.

  11. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, S.; Kyrölä, E.; Verronen, P. T.; Fussen, D.; Blanot, L.; Barrot, G.; Hauchecorne, A.; Lloyd, N.

    2011-04-01

    The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time occultations of GOMOS have been proven to be of good quality, the daytime occultations are more challenging due to weaker signal-to-noise ratio. During daytime GOMOS measures limb scattered solar radiation in addition to stellar radiation. In this paper we introduce a retrieval method that determines ozone profiles between 20-60 km from GOMOS limb scattered solar radiances. GOMOS observations contain a considerable amount of stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those measured by the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System) instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, a standard onion peeling method is used. The first comparisons with other data sets suggest that the retrieved ozone profiles in 22-50 km are within 10% compared with the GOMOS night-time occultations and within 15% compared with OSIRIS. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data available for scientific use.

  12. Antiproton beam profile measurements using Gas Electron Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Spanggaard, Jens; Tranquille, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X_0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEgIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  13. Soil Moisture Profile Effect on Radar Signal Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Chanzy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of a backscattered signalaccording to soil moisture depth over bare soils. Analysis based on experimental verticalmoisture profiles and ASAR/ENVISAT measurements has been carried out. A modifiedIEM model with three permittivity layers (0-1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm has been developed andused in this study. Results show a small effect of moisture profile on the backscatteredsignal (less than 0.5dB. However, measurements and simulations have provided a moredetailed insight into the behaviour of the radar signal and have shown that it was importantto consistently use the same protocol when performing ground truth measurements of soilmoisture.

  14. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  16. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  17. Measurement of plasma edge profile on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Philipp; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Denner, Peter; Rack, Michael; Liu, Shaocheng; Wang, Nunchao; Nicolai, Dirk; Hollfeld, Klaus; Satheeswaran, Guruparan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, Juelich (Germany); Grulke, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under commissioning at the IPP Greifswald, will be the world's largest stellarator with modular superconducting coils, which will enable steady-state-like plasma operation of up to thirty minutes in order to explore the reactor relevance of this concept. The first operation phase of W7-X will employ a limiter configuration. It will be used primarily for setting up the diagnostics and testing the magnetic configuration. In conjunction with the multipurpose manipulator, a fast reciprocating probe is installed. The combined probe head will be used to measure the radial distribution of the magnetic field using magnetic pick-up coils; the plasma temperature and density profiles and the radial electric field using Langmuir pins; and the plasma flows using a Mach setup. As a quasi-isodynamic stellarator, it has been predicted that not only neoclassical but also turbulent transport will be comparable to or possibly even lower than that of tokamaks. Edge plasma profile measurements, especially those of the electron temperature and density, will play a key role in validating this performance in comparison to the tokamak and hence the viability of a stellarator fusion reactor. The edge plasma profile measurements using the combined probe head are presented.

  18. Errors in GNSS radio occultation data: relevance of the measurement geometry and obliquity of profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Foelsche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric profiles retrieved from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation (RO measurements are increasingly used to validate other measurement data. For this purpose it is important to be aware of the characteristics of RO measurements. RO data are frequently compared with vertical reference profiles, but the RO method does not provide vertical scans through the atmosphere. The average elevation angle of the tangent point trajectory (which would be 90° for a vertical scan is about 40° at altitudes above 70 km, decreasing to about 25° at 20 km and to less than 5° below 3 km. In an atmosphere with high horizontal variability we can thus expect noticeable representativeness errors if the retrieved profiles are compared with vertical reference profiles. We have performed an end-to-end simulation study using high-resolution analysis fields (T799L91 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF to simulate a representative ensemble of RO profiles via high-precision 3-D ray tracing. Thereby we focused on the dependence of systematic and random errors on the measurement geometry, specifically on the incidence angle of the RO measurement rays with respect to the orbit plane of the receiving satellite, also termed azimuth angle, which determines the obliquity of RO profiles. We analyzed by how much errors are reduced if the reference profile is not taken vertical at the mean tangent point but along the retrieved tangent point trajectory (TPT of the RO profile. The exact TPT can only be determined by performing ray tracing, but our results confirm that the retrieved TPT – calculated from observed impact parameters – is a very good approximation to the "true" one. Systematic and random errors in RO data increase with increasing azimuth angle, less if the TPT is properly taken in to account, since the increasing obliquity of the RO profiles leads to an increasing sensitivity to departures from horizontal

  19. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  20. Study on error analysis and accuracy improvement for aspheric profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are important to the optical systems and need high precision surface metrology. Stylus profilometry is currently the most common approach to measure axially symmetric elements. However, if the asphere has the rotational alignment errors, the wrong cresting point would be located deducing the significantly incorrect surface errors. This paper studied the simulated results of an asphere with rotational angles around X-axis and Y-axis, and the stylus tip shift in X, Y and Z direction. Experimental results show that the same absolute value of rotational errors around X-axis would cause the same profile errors and different value of rotational errors around Y-axis would cause profile errors with different title angle. Moreover, the greater the rotational errors, the bigger the peak-to-valley value of profile errors. To identify the rotational angles in X-axis and Y-axis, the algorithms are performed to analyze the X-axis and Y-axis rotational angles respectively. Then the actual profile errors with multiple profile measurement around X-axis are calculated according to the proposed analysis flow chart. The aim of the multiple measurements strategy is to achieve the zero position of X-axis rotational errors. Finally, experimental results prove the proposed algorithms achieve accurate profile errors for aspheric surfaces avoiding both X-axis and Y-axis rotational errors. Finally, a measurement strategy for aspheric surface is presented systematically.

  1. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  2. MODELLING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A ROAD PROFILE MEASURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  3. Differential phase reflectometry for edge profile measurements on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; England, A.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Collazo, I. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Wilson, J.R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1994-06-01

    Edge electron density profile measurements, including the scrape-off layer, have been made during ICRF heating with the two-frequency differential phase reflectometer installed in an ICRF antenna on TFTR. This system probes the plasma using the extraordinary mode with two signals swept from 90 to 118 GHz while maintaining a fixed difference frequency of 125 MHz. The extraordinary mode is used to obtain density profiles in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} in high-field (4.5- to 4.9-T) full size (R{sub 0} = 2.62 m, a = .96 m) TFTR plasmas. The reflectometer launcher is located in an ICRF antenna and views the plasma through a small penetration in the center of the Faraday shield. A 26 m long overmoded waveguide run connects the launcher to the reflectometer microwave electronics. Profile measurements made with this reflectometer system will be presented along with a discussion of the characteristics of this differential phase reflectometer and data analysis.

  4. Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rihl, Mariana; Baglin, Vincent; Barschel, Colin; Bay, Aurelio; Blanc, Frederic; Bravin, Enrico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Chritin, Nicolas; Dehning, Bernd; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Gaspar, Clara; Gianì, Sebastiana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Greim, Roman; Haefeli, Guido; Hopchev, Plamen; Jacobsson, Richard; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Jurado, Nicolas; Kain, Verena; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kirn, Thomas; Kuhn, Maria; Luthi, Berengere; Magagnin, Paolo; Matev, Rosen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Neufeld, Niko; Panman, Jaap; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Salvant, Benoit; Schael, Stefan; Schneider, Olivier; Schwering, Georg; Tobin, Mark; Veness, Raymond; Veyrat, Quentin; Vlachos, Sotiris; Wlochal, Michael; Xu, Zhirui; von Dratzig, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.

  5. Profiler measurements of turbulence and wind shear in a snowstorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Leblanc, S.G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Cohn, S.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Ecklund, W.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Carter, D.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; Wilson, J.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

    1996-02-01

    Observations of a large and vigorous snowstorm with a UHF wind profiler were used to investigate the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and its relation to the vertical wind shear. Turbulence was estimated from the spread of the Doppler spectrum in the vertical beam of the profiler, after correcting for the contribution of the horizontal wind speed to the spread. Wind shear was computed directly from the measured wind profiles. Over the 24 h duration of the storm, shear values exceeding 0.02 s{sup -1} existed nearly continuously in the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere and in a broad elevated layer that slowly descended from 4 km to 2 km. The pattern of Doppler spread in time-height coordinates closely resembled the pattern of wind shear, though a detailed, point-by-point comparison of these two quantities by linear regression yielded a correlation coefficient of only 0.4. Focusing on just the observations in the lowest few hundred meters gave a higher correlation coefficient. The Richardson number as a function of height and time was computed by combining the measured wind shear values with temperature profiles generated by a mesoscale numerical model. We found evidence of weak turbulence even in regions with Ri>1, but a value close to the theoretical threshold of Ri=1/4 separates the more intense turbulence from the weaker. Estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, {epsilon}, based on the Doppler spread, range as high as 500 cm{sup 2} s{sup -3}, the largest values being near the ground. (orig.)

  6. Hamiltonian Evolution of Monokinetic Measures with Rough Momentum Profile

    KAUST Repository

    Bardos, Claude W.

    2014-12-27

    Consider a monokinetic probability measure on the phase space (Formula presented.) , i.e. (Formula presented.) where Uin is a vector field on RN and ρin a probability density on RN. Let Φt be a Hamiltonian flow on RN × RN. In this paper, we study the structure of the transported measure (Formula presented.) and of its integral in the ξ variable denoted ρ(t). In particular, we give estimates on the number of folds in (Formula presented.) , on which μ(t) is concentrated. We explain how our results can be applied to investigate the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation by using the formalism of Wigner measures. Our formalism includes initial momentum profiles Uin with much lower regularity than required by the WKB method. Finally, we discuss a few examples showing that our results are sharp.

  7. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-09-16

    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  8. The Profiles of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities and Known Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Karen; Quick, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the characteristics of students in Grades 3-12 with significant cognitive disabilities (SCD) and known hearing loss. The study analyzed results of a survey of teachers of students with SCD (n = 38,367) who were slated to participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards in 14 states in the…

  9. Measuring nanolayer profiles of various materials by evanescent light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchin, Nina; Apter, Boris; Lapsker, Igor; Fogel, V; Gorodetsky, Uri; Popescu, Simona A; Peled, Aaron; Popescu-Pelin, Gianina; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Duta, Liviu; Popescu, Andrei; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2012-03-01

    The evanescent light photon extraction efficiency of insulator, semiconductor and conductor amorphous nanolayers deposited on glass waveguides was evaluated from Differential Evanescent Light Intensity measurements. The Differential Evanescent Light Intensity technique uses the evanescent field scattered by the deposited nanolayer, enabling nanometer thickness profiling due to the high inherent dark background contrast. The results show that the effective evanescent photon penetration depth increases from metal to semiconductor and then to insulating layers, establishing thus the effective photon-material interaction length for the various materials classes.

  10. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2008-11-17

    We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  11. Measuring the longitudinal bunch profile at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, A E; Bettoni, S; Braun†, H H; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Shaker, H; Soby, L; Skowronski, P K; Tecker, F; Velasco, M

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration in order to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration scheme. The monitoring and control of the bunch length throughout the CTF3 complex is important since this affects the efficiency and the stability of the final RF power production process. Bunch length diagnostics therefore form an essential component of the beam instrumentation at CTF3. This paper presents longitudinal profile measurements based on Streak camera and non-destructive RF power and microwave spectrometry techniques.

  12. Interlaboratory comparison of autoradiographic DNA profiling measurements: precision and concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewer, D L; Lalonde, S A; Aubin, R A; Fourney, R M; Reeder, D J

    1998-05-01

    Knowledge of the expected uncertainty in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) measurements is required for confident exchange of such data among different laboratories. The total measurement uncertainty among all Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods laboratories has previously been characterized and found to be acceptably small. Casework cell line control measurements provided by six Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and 30 U.S. commercial, local, state, and Federal forensic laboratories enable quantitative determination of the within-laboratory precision and among-laboratory concordance components of measurement uncertainty typical of both sets of laboratories. Measurement precision is the same in the two countries for DNA fragments of size 1000 base pairs (bp) to 10,000 bp. However, the measurement concordance among the RCMP laboratories is clearly superior to that within the U.S. forensic community. This result is attributable to the use of a single analytical protocol in all RCMP laboratories. Concordance among U.S. laboratories cannot be improved through simple mathematical adjustments. Community-wide efforts focused on improved concordance may be the most efficient mechanism for further reduction of among-laboratory RFLP measurement uncertainty, should the resources required to fully evaluate potential cross-jurisdictional matches become burdensome as the number of RFLP profiles on record increases.

  13. Residual Gas Fluorescence for Profile Measurements at the GSI UNILAC

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P

    2002-01-01

    The high beam currents, delivered at the LINAC at GSI (UNILAC) can destroy intercepting diagnostics within one macro-pulse. As an alternative for a non-destructive profile measurement the methode for residual-gas-fluorescence is investigated. The fluorescence light is emitted by the N2 molecules of the residual gas at the blue wavelength range and can be monitored with a modern CCD-camera. The images are transferred via digital bus (IEEE 1394 'FireWire') and the profiles are generated by analysis of the images with a modern software tool (National Instruments 'LabView'). Due to the short beam pulses (about 0.2 ms) the light intensities emitted by the residual gas are low and require a high amplification (gain >106) which is realized with an image intensifier with double MCP (multi channel plate), connected with a fiber taper to the CCD-chip. The design parameters of the optics and electronics are discussed as well as the advantages of the digital data transmission. Measurements with heavy ion beams of several...

  14. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  15. Lidar Aerosol Profiles Measured From Halifax During Summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L.; Duck, T. J.; Doyle, J.; Harris, R.; Beauchamp, S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere were obtained with a high-power Raman Lidar from Halifax, Nova Scotia (44.63N, 63.58W) on the East Coast of Canada during Summer 2007. Observations throughout the troposphere at high temporal resolution were made possible by using a new dual-receiver setup. The lidar was operated in clear-sky conditions, and several long duration (> 80 hours) data sets were obtained. The measurements reveal the presence of boundary-layer aerosols during episodes of pollution transport from the Eastern US and Canada, and are compared with surface measurements of ozone and other species. Boundary layer development, entrainment and mixing are evident in the data. Structured plumes at higher altitudes are traced back to biomass burning events throughout North America. Aerosols were also observed on two occasions at 15 km in altitude, and are most likely due to pyroconvection. The measurements are being used to help understand transport and mixing processes, and to form a climatology of aerosol export from North America during the summer months.

  16. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  17. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  18. Measurements and modeling of the wind profile up to 600 meters at a flat coastal site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This study shows long-term ABL wind profile features by comparing long-range wind lidar measurements and the output from a mesoscale model. The study is based on one-year pulsed lidar (Wind Cube 70) measurements of wind speed and direction from 100 to 600 meters with vertical resolution of 50...... as function of height. It is found that 1) WRF is generally under predicting both the profiles of the measured wind speed, direction and power density, 2) the scatter of observations to model results of the wind speed does not change significantly with height between 100 and 600 meters, and 3) the scale (A...... meters and time resolution of 10 minutes at a coastal site on the West coast of Denmark and WRF ARW (NCAR) simulations for the same period. The model evaluation is performed based on wind speed, wind direction, as well as statistical parameters of the Weibull distribution of the wind speed time series...

  19. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  20. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob; Zevalkink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

  1. Changes in corneal endothelial cell profile measurements after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salouti, Ramin; Masoumpour, Masoumeh; Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad H; Zamani, Mohammad; Ghoreyshi, Maryam; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate whether postoperative alterations in corneal shape (as reflected by keratometry values) affect endothelial cell profile measurements after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in a group of patients with keratoconus. Secondary objective was to describe the pattern of changes in corneal endothelial cell profile measurements during the first 3 years after DALK. In this prospective interventional case series, we enrolled patients who had significant keratoconus and were scheduled for DALK (Melles technique). Cases with concomitant intraocular surgeries, intra-/postoperative complications, and poor quality of images were excluded. Two hundred one eyes and 45 eyes (of the original 201) were enrolled for evaluating the primary and the secondary objectives, respectively. At 3 months post DALK, the mean endothelial cell density (ECD) had significantly increased and the mean cell area had decreased compared with preoperative measurements (2721 vs. 2823 cells/mm2, P = 0.015; and 378 vs. 362 μm2, P = 0.005, respectively). Regression analysis revealed a weak but significant nonlinear association between changes in mean keratometry and ECD changes at 3 months (R2 = 0.039, P = 0.02). Standard deviation of mean cell area had significantly decreased at 12 months after DALK compared with measurements taken at 3 months after surgery (P = 0.023) and remained stable thereafter. Apparent measurements of ECD may not show a decrease but instead even a slight increase in some cases after uncomplicated DALK (Melles technique) for keratoconus. This finding along with a later decrease in standard deviation of mean cell area suggests that notable postoperative changes in corneal biomechanical forces may affect endothelial cell profile measurements.

  2. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2012-03-22

    Background: Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis.Results: Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC)--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance.Conclusions: As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions. 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  3. Codon Deviation Coefficient: a novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB. Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis. Results Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance. Conclusions As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions.

  4. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles James Morison Polar Science Center, APL-UW 1013 NE 40th St. Seattle, WA 98105 phone: (206) 543 1394 fax...minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water ...of atmospheric properties (Schweiger et al.), in-flight, and inflight laser profiling for ice thickness using the CU Laser Profiler Instrument

  5. Automated grain size measurements from airborne remote sensing for long profile measurements of fluvial grain sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Bergeron, Normand; Lane, Stuart N.

    2005-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that image processing can be applied to derive surficial median grain size data automatically from high-resolution airborne digital imagery in fluvial environments. However, at the present time, automated grain size measurement is limited to the dry exposed bed areas of the channel. This paper shows that the application area of automated grain size mapping can be extended in order to include the shallow wetted areas of the channel. The paper then proceeds to illustrate how automated grain size measurement in both dry and shallow wetted areas can be used to measure grain sizes automatically for long river lengths. For the present study, this results in a median grain size profile covering an 80 km long river which is constructed from over three million automated grain size measurements.

  6. Measurement of neutral-beam deposition profiles at W7-AS and LHD stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, N.; Hartmann, D.; Ott, W.; Speth, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-IPP, Garching (Germany); Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho, Toki, GIFU (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experiments to determine the neutral-beam deposition profiles in a stellarator have now been carried out at W7-AS and recently also at LHD using the same method for data evaluation. While modulating the neutral beam, spatially resolved measurements of the resulting Te modulation amplitudes are carried out. Their evaluation yields the neutral-beam deposition profiles. On W7-AS as compared to the previous modulation experiments the diagnostic was improved during its last experimental campaign. At LHD these modulation experiments have been performed not only on a significantly larger machine, but the neutral beam system at LHD is quite different from that of W7-AS. The LHD system uses a negative-ion beam at a significantly higher acceleration voltage. (orig.)

  7. Untargeted metabolomic profiling plasma samples of patients with lung cancer for searching significant metabolites by HPLC-MS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementeva, N.; Ivanova, K.; Kokova, D.; Kurzina, I.; Ponomaryova, A.; Kzhyshkowska, J.

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer leading to death. Consequently, the search and the identification of the metabolites associated with the risk of developing cancer are very valuable. For the purpose, untargeted metabolic profiling of the plasma samples collected from the patients with lung cancer (n = 100) and the control group (n = 100) was conducted. After sample preparation, the plasma samples were analyzed using LC-MS method. Biostatistics methods were applied to pre-process the data for elicitation of dominating metabolites which responded to the difference between the case and the control groups. At least seven significant metabolites were evaluated and annotated. The most part of identified metabolites are connected with lipid metabolism and their combination could be useful for follow-up studies of lung cancer pathogenesis.

  8. Measurement of inner and/or outer profiles of pipes using ring beam devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, T.; Yoshizawa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and industry. Here we propose a measurement method for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without any contact probe. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In the hitherto-tried experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been highly evaluated and usability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disklike light beam sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated in a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose an improved method for measuring the external profile in addition to the internal profile. In our arrangement, one pair of concaved conical mirrors is used for the external profile measurement. In combination with the inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of the inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of newly proposed principle. Now we are aiming to realize simultaneous measurement of the internal

  9. Multiplex cytological profiling assay to measure diverse cellular states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun M Gustafsdottir

    Full Text Available Computational methods for image-based profiling are under active development, but their success hinges on assays that can capture a wide range of phenotypes. We have developed a multiplex cytological profiling assay that "paints the cell" with as many fluorescent markers as possible without compromising our ability to extract rich, quantitative profiles in high throughput. The assay detects seven major cellular components. In a pilot screen of bioactive compounds, the assay detected a range of cellular phenotypes and it clustered compounds with similar annotated protein targets or chemical structure based on cytological profiles. The results demonstrate that the assay captures subtle patterns in the combination of morphological labels, thereby detecting the effects of chemical compounds even though their targets are not stained directly. This image-based assay provides an unbiased approach to characterize compound- and disease-associated cell states to support future probe discovery.

  10. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  11. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Ghahremanfard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease, as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results: The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5. No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion: Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis.

  12. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  13. Significance of Normalization on Anatomical MRI Measures in Predicting Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes a new approach for combining neuroimaging and neuropsychological measures for an optimal decisional space to classify subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This approach relies on a multivariate feature selection method with different MRI normalization techniques. Subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and surface area measures are obtained using MRIs from 189 participants (129 normal controls and 60 AD patients. Statistically significant variables were selected for each combination model to construct a multidimensional space for classification. Different normalization approaches were explored to gauge the effect on classification performance using a support vector machine classifier. Results indicate that the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE measure is most discriminative among single-measure models, while subcortical volume combined with MMSE is the most effective multivariate model for AD classification. The study demonstrates that subcortical volumes need not be normalized, whereas cortical thickness should be normalized either by intracranial volume or mean thickness, and surface area is a weak indicator of AD with and without normalization. On the significant brain regions, a nearly perfect symmetry is observed for subcortical volumes and cortical thickness, and a significant reduction in thickness is particularly seen in the temporal lobe, which is associated with brain deficits characterizing AD.

  14. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by reference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    A method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profiles of Si lines, photoresist features and advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features in our previous investigations. However, efficiency of 3D-profile measurement using TEM is limited by measurement time including processing of the sample. In this article, we demonstrate a novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB (Focused Ion Beam) slope cut and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope) measuring. Using the method, a few micrometer wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45 degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We apply FIB-to-CDSEM method to CMOS sensor device. 3D-profile and 3D-profile parameters such as top line width and side wall angles of CMOS sensor device are evaluated. The 3D-profile parameters also are measured by TEM images as reference metrology. We compare the 3D-profile parameters by TEM method and FIB-to-CDSEM method. The average values and correlations on the wafer are agreed well between TEM and FIB-to- CDSEM methods.

  15. Evaluation of Laser Profile and Deflection Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LRSERS F, BC TEST 5 20.0 LASER9S fiBC TEST -A-5 PROFILES VITH NO CORRECTIONS ST. LARWENCE ROArO WES LASERS ABCO TEST 6 * 2Q. 4-50.@ DITAC - ET 1 A...LASERS ABCO TEST 3 * .0 1-4~ Lui z 󈧎. 160.0 019𔄁 8 . 0 . DIT*C FEE X L PROFILES HIGH PRSS FILTERED RUNWRY. TY’NDRLL FIR FORCE BASE "LASERS ABCD TEST 3... ABCO TEST 2 40. . V.@.. Cn1RR EFT ED FPRONFLE EPIM ’D-2 PROFILE MEASUFRED ,I-TH RnO AND LEVELRUNWAY AT TYNDALL IR FORCE BAHE LASERS ABCD TEST 3 Il S

  16. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Lipid Profiles in Holstein Dairy Cattle with Displaced Abomasum: Before and After Surgical Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the pattern of changes in clinical findings and lipid metabolism profiles in dairy cattle with displacement of the abomasum (DA from day 0 until day 30 after operation. The study was conducted on DA cattle (n= 25 belonged to dairy farms in Hokkaido area, Japan. Cows were examined and sampled at days 0 (operation, 7 and 30. They were clinically and biochemically examined to estimate BCS and many serum biochemical constituents such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Based on blood BHBA at day 0, DA cows were classified into three categories; DA only (<1.2 mmol/l, DA with subclinical ketosis (DA SCK (1.2-2.4 mmol/l and DA with clinical ketosis (DA CK (≥2.5 mmol/l. The changes in the pattern of serum biochemical constituents throughout this study indicated recovery of diseased cows and significant effect of surgical operation. Serum biochemical constituents returned to their physiological values indicating that these cows were restoring their normal physiological status. This was reflected through a significant (P<0.05 elevation of LCAT, apoB-100, and cholesterol and a significant (P<0.05 reduction in AST, NEFAs and BHBA (Not in DA group, in all DA groups particularly at day 30 when their values compared with those at day 0. The current study also recorded no remarkable changes (P>0.05 between the diseased groups except for NEFA and BHBA (at day 0 between DA group and the other two groups at any of the three sampling days.

  17. Proteomic and ionomic profiling reveals significant alterations of protein expression and calcium homeostasis in cystic fibrosis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; D'Orazio, Melania; Pieroni, Luisa; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Sacchetta, Paolo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Battistoni, Andrea; Urbani, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and defective chloride transport across the epithelial cell membranes. Abnormal epithelial ion transport is the primary cause of persistent airway infections and chronic inflammation in CF patients. In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of epithelial dysfunctions linked to CFTR mutations, we performed and integrated proteomic and ionomic analysis of human bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells and compared them with a CFTR-complemented isogenic cell line (C38). Aside from changes that were consistent with known effects related to CFTR mutations, such as differences in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways and unfolded protein responses, differential proteomics highlighted significant alteration of protein expression and, in particular, of the 14-3-3 signalling pathway that is known to be involved in cellular calcium (Ca) homeostasis. Of note, restoring chloride efflux by acting on Ca cellular homeostasis has been shown to be a promising therapeutic intervention for CF. Ionomic analysis showed significant changes in the IB3-1 element profile compared with C38 cells and in particular we observed an increase of intracellular Ca that significantly correlates with intracellular zinc (Zn) levels, suggesting a synergistic role of Ca and Zn influx. This finding is particularly intriguing because Zn has been reported to be effective in CF treatment increasing Ca influx. Taken together, our proteomic and ionomic data reveal that CFTR mutation sets in motion endogenous mechanisms counteracting impaired chloride transport mainly acting on epithelial ion transport and increasing intracellular Ca, suggesting potential links between protein expression and this response.

  18. 3D profile measurement of large-scale curvature plates using structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, EunChang; Kim, ByoungChang; Lee, Hyunho; Han, JongMan

    2008-08-01

    In heavy industry, especially in the shipbuilding process, 3D profile measurement of large-scale hull pieces is needed for fabrication and assembly. Currently, using many kinds of templates made of wood or plastic still do an important role as a standard ruler. We suggest an efficient method of 3D profile measurement to obtain the xyz-coordinates of curvature plates. The measurement system comprises multiple line structured laser sources and performs profile measurement by projecting structured light source on the object surface. The measurement results show that measurement accuracy is within the boundary of accuracy required in the shipbuilding process.

  19. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  20. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  1. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    Two types of wind lidar’s have recently become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although both types have been build upon recent 1.55 &My telecom fibre technology, there are significant fundamental...... differences between the two lidars temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A review of the two lidar systems special and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer will be discussed....

  2. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  3. Significance of Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for direct measurements of nonlinear wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the upcoming JAXA/ERG satellite mission, Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA will be installed as an onboard software function. We study the statistical significance of the WPIA for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector E and velocity vector v of each electron and computes their inner product W, where W is the time variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. We evaluate the feasibility by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results of whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W using both a wave electric field vector observed at a fixed point in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through this point. By summing up Wi of an individual particle i to give Wint, we obtain significant values of Wint as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. We can discuss the efficiency of the energy exchange through wave-particle interactions by selecting the range of the kinetic energy and pitch angle of the electrons used in the computation of Wint. The statistical significance of the obtained Wint is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σW of Wint. In the results of the analysis, positive or negative Wint is obtained at the different regions of velocity phase space, while at the specific regions the obtained Wint values are significantly greater than σW, indicating efficient wave-particle interactions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using the WPIA, which will be on board the upcoming ERG satellite, for direct measurement of wave-particle interactions.

  4. Nanocrystalline silver dressings significantly influence bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements of fluid volumes in burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Kenworthy, Pippa; Phillips, Michael; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-11-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a tool utilized in health care to investigate body composition and fluid distribution. Limited research has addressed the clinical use of BIS in burns. This study aimed to examine the effects of silver dressings on BIS measurements in burns patients. BIS measurements were collected during two dressing conditions: no dressing (ND), and; Acticoat™ dressing (AD). Wilcoxon sign-ranks tests determined if there were any significant differences in BIS measures between the dressing conditions. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions examined the effect of %TBSA and body mass on BIS variables across the dressing conditions. The mean age of the patients (n=31) was 34.90 years; with a median TBSA of 15%. There was a significant increase in extracellular fluid (ECF) (pdressing condition, %TBSA and body mass, whereby the difference in ECF, ICF and TBW between the ND and AD conditions were increased as %TBSA and body mass increased. Algorithms were developed subsequently to adjust BIS outputs for use when AD is in place. Clinician's may continue to use BIS in real-time using the predictive algorithms established during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Significance of axial length monitoring in children with congenital cataract and update of measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiao; Lin, Haotian; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2013-06-01

    Congenital cataract is the main cause of blindness in children, with significantly varying treatment effects. The development of axial length is an important factor that affects the prognosis of these children. However, when compared with the eyes of normal children, the mechanism of growth of the axial length is so complicated that the reported findings differ significantly in terms of the measuring apparatus, assessment methods, and statistical outcome, making the rule of axial length development still unclear. In this paper, we first review the process of axial length development in normal healthy children and compare different hypotheses about certain factors that could affect the development of axial length. The results of some current research about the characteristics of axial length development in congenital cataract children are then reviewed. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of current axial length measurements methods are compared and analyzed. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the complexity and importance of axial length development and to suggest better use of axial length monitoring measurements in congenital cataract children for pediatric ophthalmologists, with the hope of offering assistance that will enhance long-term therapeutic effects for these children.

  6. Future Challenges for Vection Research: Definitions, Functional Significance, Measures and Neural Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen ePalmisano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses four major challenges facing modern vection research. Challenge 1 (Defining Vection outlines the different ways that vection has been defined in the literature and discusses their theoretical and experimental ramifications. The term vection is most often used to refer to visual illusions of self-motion induced in stationary observers (by moving, or simulating the motion of, the surrounding environment. However, vection is increasingly being used to also refer to non-visual illusions of self-motion, visually-mediated self-motion perceptions, and even general subjective experiences (i.e. feelings of self-motion. The common thread in all of these definitions is the conscious subjective experience of self-motion. Thus, Challenge 2 (Significance of Vection tackles the crucial issue of whether such conscious experiences actually serve functional roles during self-motion (e.g., in terms of controlling or guiding the self-motion. After more than 100 years of vection research there has been surprisingly little investigation into its functional significance. Challenge 3 (Vection Measures discusses the difficulties with existing subjective self-report measures of vection (particularly in the context of contemporary research, and proposes several more objective measures of vection based on recent empirical findings. Finally, Challenge 4 (Neural Basis reviews the recent neuroimaging literature examining the neural basis of vection and discusses the hurdles still facing these investigations.

  7. Hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by vessel attenuation measurement on CT compared with adenosine perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, Martijn A.M. den; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Pundziute, Gabija; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn, E-mail: r.vliegenthart@umcg.nl

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The majority of anatomical coronary stenoses do not cause myocardial ischemia. • cCTA-derived CCO decrease expresses luminal density gradient across stenosis. • CCO decrease differentiates between anatomical stenoses with and without associated myocardial ischemia. • CCO decrease assessment can exclude the majority of stenoses without hemodynamic significance. - Abstract: Purpose: We assessed the association between corrected contrast opacification (CCO) based on coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) and inducible ischemia by adenosine perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (APMR). Methods: Sixty cardiac asymptomatic patients with extra-cardiac arterial disease (mean age 64.4 ± 7.7 years; 78% male) underwent cCTA and APMR. Luminal CT attenuation values (Hounsfield Units) were measured in coronary arteries from proximal to distal, with additional measurements across sites with >50% lumen stenosis. CCO was calculated by dividing coronary CT attenuation by descending aorta CT attenuation. A reversible perfusion defect on APMR was considered as myocardial ischemia. Results: In total, 169 coronary stenoses were found. Seven patients had 8 perfusion defects on APMR, with 11 stenoses in corresponding vessels. CCO decrease across stenoses with hemodynamic significance was 0.144 ± 0.112 compared to 0.047 ± 0.104 across stenoses without hemodynamic significance (P = 0.003). CCO decrease in lesions with and without anatomical stenosis was similar (0.054 ± 0.116 versus 0.052 ± 0.101; P = 0.89). Using 0.20 as preliminary CCO decrease cut-off, hemodynamic significance would be excluded in 82.9% of anatomical stenoses. Conclusions: CCO decrease across coronary stenosis is associated with myocardial ischemia on APMR. CCO based on common cCTA data is a novel method to assess hemodynamic significance of anatomical stenosis.

  8. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  9. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  10. Profiling of MAX-DOAS BrO measurements from Antarctica and NO2 measurements from CINDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Tim; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Bodeker, Greg; Schofield, Robyn; Thomas, Alan; McDonald, Adrian; Martinez-Aviles, Monica

    2010-05-01

    We will present a newly developed algorithm for the retrieval of tropospheric trace gas profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements. A Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is used to calculate the weighting functions and forward model DSCDs (Differential Slant Column Densities). NIMO uses the local estimation technique to substantially speed up the determination of DSCDs for any given set of measurement geometries, enabling use of the model ‘online' rather than using pre-calculated lookup tables. The optimal estimation method is used to retrieve profiles for either single or multiple scan sequences or over prescribed time intervals. This inversion method is used to derive NO2 profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements made during the CINDI campaign at Cabauw, Netherlands, in June/July 2009. BrO profiles retrieved from sea-ice MAX-DOAS measurements, made during two Antarctic springtime campaigns in 2006 and 2007, are also presented.

  11. Functional activity maps based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, F J; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Puntonet, C G; Illán, I A

    2013-07-01

    The use of functional imaging has been proven very helpful for the process of diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In many cases, the analysis of these images is performed by manual reorientation and visual interpretation. Therefore, new statistical techniques to perform a more quantitative analysis are needed. In this work, a new statistical approximation to the analysis of functional images, based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is presented. After the images preprocessing, voxels that allow better separation of the two classes are extracted, using significance measures such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U-Test (MWW) and Relative Entropy (RE). After this feature selection step, the voxels vector is modelled by means of ICA, extracting a few independent components which will be used as an input to the classifier. Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used in this work. The proposed system has been applied to two different databases. A 96-subjects Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) database from the "Virgen de las Nieves" Hospital in Granada, Spain, and a 196-subjects Positron Emission Tomography (PET) database from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Values of accuracy up to 96.9% and 91.3% for SPECT and PET databases are achieved by the proposed system, which has yielded many benefits over methods proposed on recent works. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of propagated wave profiles based on point measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Beom Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the prediction of propagated wave profiles using the wave information at a fixed point. The fixed points can be fixed in either space or time. Wave information based on the linear wave theory can be expressed by Fredholm integral equation of the first kinds. The discretized matrix equation is usually an ill-conditioned system. Tikhonov regularization was applied to the ill-conditioned system to overcome instability of the system. The regularization parameter is calculated by using the L-curve method. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results. The analysis of the numerical computation shows that the Tikhonov regularization method is useful.

  13. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form......-derived friction velocities and roughness lengths were compared to Charnock's sea roughness model. These overage values were found to be close to the model, although the scatter of the individual estimations of sea roughness length was large. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN

    2017-07-20

    The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.

  15. The Zax Information Profile: a measure of college adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D; Zax, M; Clarfield, S P; Pratt, D M

    1977-08-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Zax Information Profile (ZIP), a personality test based on general fund of information, in discriminating between college students who sought mental health services and those who did not, Three successive classes of freshmen students at the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester were administered the ZIP. Help-seeking students were matched with non-help-seeking students for sex, age, and intellectual ability. The hypothesis that ZIP scores would differentiate between these two groups was supported by the data. The potential use of the ZIP as a predictor of college adjustment and as a useful entrance screening device was discussed.

  16. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...

  17. The significance of CBF measurements for precise management of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Usui, Reiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Hirohiko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Severe hemodynamic cerebral ischemia associated with carotid stenosis could be one of the difining characteristics of the high-risk group for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity in patients treated with CEA were analyzed to clarify the significance of preoperative evaluation of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia using CBF-SPECT. Both the resting and acetazolamide-activated rCBF, and the severity of the hemodynamic cerebral ischemia (Stage 0-II) were quantified using the {sup 123}I-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics were compared in both symptomatic patients (n=30) and asymptomatic patients (n=24). Postoperative improvement of resting rCBF was estimated in both groups. Stage II ischemia was quantitatively defined as both a resting rCBF of less than 80% of normal mean CBF and a vascular reserve (VR: (acetazolamide-activated rCBF/Resting rCBF-1) x 100%) of less than 10%. In the other 31 patients treated with CEA, postoperative hyperperfusion was investigated using CBF-SPECT within 24 hours after CEA. Preoperatively, Stage II ischemia (hemodynamically compromised state) was observed in 20% of symptomatic patients and 8% of asymptomatic patients. A significant difference in resting rCBF was indicated between symptomatic patients (31.8{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min) and asymptomatic patients (37.6{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min)(p<0.002, t-test). Severity of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia was generally moderate in symptomatic patients. Postoperatively, a significant increase of resting CBF was observed in symptomatic patients but not in asymptomatic patients. In the other 31 patients treated by CEA, symptomatic hyperperfusion was observed in 3 of 4 patients with Stage II ischemia and asymptomatic hyperperfusion was indicated in 3 of 4 patients with Stage I ischemia with a VR of less than 10%. Preoperative CBF measurements in patients treated with CEA were significant to define severe hemodynamic

  18. Significance of the ionized calcium measurement to assess calcium status in osteopenic/osteoporosis postmenopausal outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiducci, Letizia; Maffei, Silvia; Sabatino, Laura; Zyw, Luc; Battaglia, Debora; Vannucci, Alessandro; Di Cecco, Pietro; Vassalle, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of calcium status is important in the osteoporotic risk assessment. Although guidelines indicate total calcium (tCa) as first-line measurement, directly measured ionized calcium (m-iCa), considered as the gold standard, is more and more often required. Aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement between m-iCa, tCa and iCa calculated from a formula based on total calcium and albumin (c-iCa) in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal outpatients. A total of 140 postmenopausal outpatients, 41 osteopenic (OPN) and 99 osteoporotic (OP) were enrolled. Levels of tCa, m-iCa, c-iCa, total protein and albumin, vitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were also measured. There were no statistically significant differences between OPN and OP groups regarding values of tCa, m-iCa, and c-iCa, 25-OHD and PTH. However, OP women had lower levels of CTX (p calcium status in postmenopausal outpatients, but reflexive calcium testing strategy for m-iCa test is necessary to women presenting the low or high extremes of tCa levels, or in women with suspected PHPT.

  19. Optimized clustering estimators for BAO measurements accounting for significant redshift uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley J.; Banik, Nilanjan; Avila, Santiago; Percival, Will J.; Dodelson, Scott; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Crocce, Martin; Elvin-Poole, Jack; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Manera, Marc; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    We determine an optimized clustering statistic to be used for galaxy samples with significant redshift uncertainty, such as those that rely on photometric redshifts. To do so, we study the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) information content as a function of the orientation of galaxy clustering modes with respect to their angle to the line of sight (LOS). The clustering along the LOS, as observed in a redshift-space with significant redshift uncertainty, has contributions from clustering modes with a range of orientations with respect to the true LOS. For redshift uncertainty σz ≥ 0.02(1 + z), we find that while the BAO information is confined to transverse clustering modes in the true space, it is spread nearly evenly in the observed space. Thus, measuring clustering in terms of the projected separation (regardless of the LOS) is an efficient and nearly lossless compression of the signal for σz ≥ 0.02(1 + z). For reduced redshift uncertainty, a more careful consideration is required. We then use more than 1700 realizations (combining two separate sets) of galaxy simulations mimicking the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) sample to validate our analytic results and optimized analysis procedure. We find that using the correlation function binned in projected separation, we can achieve uncertainties that are within 10 per cent of those predicted by Fisher matrix forecasts. We predict that DES Y1 should achieve a 5 per cent distance measurement using our optimized methods. We expect the results presented here to be important for any future BAO measurements made using photometric redshift data.

  20. Optimized Clustering Estimators for BAO Measurements Accounting for Significant Redshift Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ashley J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Banik, Nilanjan [Fermilab; Avila, Santiago [Madrid, IFT; Percival, Will J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab; Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Madrid, IFT; Crocce, Martin [ICE, Bellaterra; Elvin-Poole, Jack [Jodrell Bank; Giannantonio, Tommaso [Cambridge U., KICC; Manera, Marc [Cambridge U., DAMTP; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT

    2017-05-15

    We determine an optimized clustering statistic to be used for galaxy samples with significant redshift uncertainty, such as those that rely on photometric redshifts. To do so, we study the BAO information content as a function of the orientation of galaxy clustering modes with respect to their angle to the line-of-sight (LOS). The clustering along the LOS, as observed in a redshift-space with significant redshift uncertainty, has contributions from clustering modes with a range of orientations with respect to the true LOS. For redshift uncertainty $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$ we find that while the BAO information is confined to transverse clustering modes in the true space, it is spread nearly evenly in the observed space. Thus, measuring clustering in terms of the projected separation (regardless of the LOS) is an efficient and nearly lossless compression of the signal for $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$. For reduced redshift uncertainty, a more careful consideration is required. We then use more than 1700 realizations of galaxy simulations mimicking the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample to validate our analytic results and optimized analysis procedure. We find that using the correlation function binned in projected separation, we can achieve uncertainties that are within 10 per cent of of those predicted by Fisher matrix forecasts. We predict that DES Y1 should achieve a 5 per cent distance measurement using our optimized methods. We expect the results presented here to be important for any future BAO measurements made using photometric redshift data.

  1. GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.; Huang, G.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown from sensitivity studies that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis ozone band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins ozone bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI (Earth Venture Instrument) TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels ( 290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interferences from surface reflectance and aerosols and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on combining EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) derived from ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra with MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm. The impacts of various types of aerosols and surface BRDF on the retrievals will be investigated. In addition, we will also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We will evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval based on fitting quality and validation against ozonesonde observations.

  2. The influence of the Wind Speed Profile on Wind Turbine Performance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Antoniou, Ioannis; Pedersen, Søren M.

    2009-01-01

    . Assuming a certain turbine hub height, the profiles with hub-height wind speeds between 6 m s-1 and 8 m s-1 are normalized at 7 m s-1 and grouped to a number of mean shear profiles. The energy in the profiles varies considerably for the same hub-height wind speed. These profiles are then used as input......To identify the influence of wind shear and turbulence on wind turbine performance, flat terrain wind profiles are analysed up to a height of 160 m. The profiles' shapes are found to extend from no shear to high wind shear, and on many occasions, local maxima within the profiles are also observed...... to a Blade Element Momentum model that simulates the Siemens 3.6 MW wind turbine. The analysis is carried out as time series simulations where the electrical power is the primary characterization parameter. The results of the simulations indicate that wind speed measurements at different heights over...

  3. Validation of the survey of work styles: a profile measure of the type A behaviour pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A; Jackson, D N; Howard, J H

    1989-01-01

    The present study compares the Type A classification accuracy of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), The Framingham Type A Scale, and a new Type A behaviour pattern (TABP) measure. The Survey of Work Styles (SWS), a self-report measure of the TABP, was developed using a construct approach to scale construction. It consists of six content scales. Impatience, Anger, Work Involvement, Time Urgency, Job Dissatisfaction and Competitiveness. In addition to the six content scales, a seventh scale, Scale A, is comprised of items empirically selected to relate to the Rosenman Structured Interview. In the present study the SWS was found to be significantly related to both the JAS, and the Framingham Type A Scale in a sample of 163 business managers. Median reliability of the SWS subscales was 0.82, and for the total scale 0.90. Discriminant function analysis using cross validational jackknifing procedures resulted in a classification accuracy of 83% of the Type A managers in relation to the Structured Interview. Classification using the SWS was found to correlate significantly higher with the Structured Interview than did either classification with the JAS or with the Framingham Type A Scale. Modal profile analysis yielded three independent bipolar typal dimensions, indicating that a single dimension or classification of the TABP represents an oversimplification of a complex behaviour pattern. These results support the reconceptualization of the TABP in terms of distinct facets and profile patterns.

  4. Direct and fast measurement of CT beam filter profiles with simultaneous geometrical calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Li, Xinhua; George Xu, X; Liu, Bob

    2017-01-01

    To accurately measure the beam filter profiles from a variety of CT scanner models and to provide reference data for Monte Carlo simulations of CT scanners. This study proposed a new method to measure CT beam filter profiles using a linear-array x-ray detector (X-Scan 0.8f3-512; Detection Technology Inc., Espoo, Finland) under gantry rotation mode. A robust geometrical calibration approach was developed to determine key geometrical parameters by considering the x-ray focal spot location relative to the linear-array detector and the gantry's angular increment at each acquisition point. CT beam intensity profiles were synthesized from continuously measured data during a 10° gantry rotation range with calibrated detector response and system geometry information. Relative transmission profiles of nineteen sets of beam filters were then derived for nine different CT scanner models from three different manufacturers. Equivalent aluminum thickness profiles of these beam filters were determined by analytical calculation using the Spektr Matlab software package to match the measured transmission profiles. Three experiments were performed to validate the accuracy of the geometrical calibration, detector response modeling, and the derived equivalent aluminum thickness profiles. The beam intensity profiles measured from gantry rotation mode showed very good agreement with those measured with gantry stationary mode, with a maximal difference of 3%. The equivalent aluminum thickness determined by this proposed method agreed well with what was measured by an ion chamber, with a mean difference of 0.4%. The determined HVL profiles matched well with data from a previous study (max difference of 4.7%). An accurate and robust method to directly measure profiles from a broad list of beam filters and CT scanner models was developed, implemented, and validated. Useful reference data was provided for future research on CT system modeling. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in

  5. Transcriptome-wide measurement of translation by ribosome profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlincy, Nicholas J; Ingolia, Nicholas T

    2017-08-15

    Translation is one of the fundamental processes of life. It comprises the assembly of polypeptides whose amino acid sequence corresponds to the codon sequence of an mRNA's ORF. Translation is performed by the ribosome; therefore, in order to understand translation and its regulation we must be able to determine the numbers and locations of ribosomes on mRNAs in vivo. Furthermore, we must be able to examine their redistribution in different physiological contexts and in response to experimental manipulations. The ribosome profiling method provides us with an opportunity to learn these locations, by sequencing a cDNA library derived from the short fragments of mRNA covered by the ribosome. Since its original description, the ribosome profiling method has undergone continuing development; in this article we describe the method's current state. Important improvements include: the incorporation of sample barcodes to enable library multiplexing, the incorporation of unique molecular identifiers to enable to removal of duplicated sequences, and the replacement of a gel-purification step with the enzymatic degradation of unligated linker. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    Vehicles travel at different speeds and, as a consequence, experience a broad spectrum of vibrations. One of the most important source of vehicle vibration is the road profile. Hence the knowledge of the characteristics of a road profile enables engineers to predict the dynamic behavior...... of a vehicle and to test its components in laboratory. In this framework a mechanism to measure road profiles is designed and presented. Such a mechanism is composed of two rolling wheels and two long beams attached to the vehicles by means of four Kardan joints. The wheels are kept in contact to the ground...... profile by means of gravitational and spring forces. Accelerometers are attached above the rolling wheels and the wheels follow the profiles of a rough ground. After integrating the acceleration signal twice and measuring the vehicle displacement the road profiles can be achieved. It is important...

  7. Measurements of density profile evolution during the stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarawneh, Constantine M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539-2999 (United States); Homan, K.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, formerly University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409-0050 (United States)], E-mail: khoman@umr.edu

    2008-08-15

    The stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure produces an interfacial gradient layer which is transported through the enclosure with the bulk flow. The evolution of this interfacial layer is strongly time-dependent and is driven by the nature of the interaction between the internal gravity waves and the inlet-driven interfacial shear. Measurements of density profile evolution have been completed for a rectangular enclosure with a single corner inlet and density variation produced by saline concentration. This system serves as a mass transfer analog to large-scale, thermally-stratified energy storage devices, preserving dynamic similitude in a laboratory-scale system. The experiments covered jet Reynolds numbers of 200-2200 and Froude numbers of 0.06-0.6 in an enclosure with a width 23 times the jet inlet height. The density profiles are seen to be strongly asymmetric and exhibit growth rates significantly different than due to simple one-dimensional molecular diffusion. In addition, shadowgraph and hydrogen bubble visualizations of the density and velocity fields in the gradient layer show the persistence of complex multi-dimensional flow structure even at relatively late stages of the filling process when the gradient layer has been transported well away from the enclosure inlet. The evolution of the vertical density profile has been compared quantitatively to a quasi one-dimensional model based upon empirical diffusivity coefficients.

  8. Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V A; Moosmüller, H

    1994-09-20

    Distortions of particular extinction-coefficient profiles measured with lidar in a two-component (molecular and aerosol) scattering atmosphere are analyzed. The error of the extinction coefficient measured at range r depends on the location of the point r(b), where a boundary value is specified, and the particulate optical depth of the atmosphere between r and r(b); the particulate backscatter-to-extinction ratio; and the ratio of particulate and molecular scattering extinction. If the near-end solution is used, small measurement errors can produce a significant divergence between the actual and the retrieved extinction-coefficient profiles, even if the boundary value and the particulate backscatter-to-extinction ratio are specified accurately. This effect is exacerbated at small values of the particulate scattering coefficient and the backscatter-to-extinction ratio. When reasonable criteria are used, feasible minimum and maximum boundary values can be specified to restrict the range of lidar equation solutions from below and from above.

  9. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Sheridan

    2012-12-01

    scattering Ångström exponent suggest that the fraction of smaller particles in the aerosol is larger near the surface than at high altitudes. The observed dependence of scattering on size, wavelength, angular integration range, and relative humidity, together with the spectral dependence of absorption, show that the aerosol at higher altitudes is larger, less hygroscopic, and more strongly absorbing at shorter wavelengths, suggesting an increased contribution from dust or organic aerosols. The aerosol profiles show significant differences among seasons. The largest amounts of aerosol (as determined by median light extinction profile measurements throughout most of the sampled column were observed during summer, with the lowest amounts in the winter and intermediate values in the spring and fall. The highest three profile levels (3.1, 3.7, 4.6 km, however, showed larger median extinction values in the spring, which could reflect long-range transport of dust or smoke aerosols. The aerosols in the mixed layer were darkest (i.e., lowest single-scattering albedo in the fall, in agreement with surface measurements at Bondville and other continental sites in the US. In situ profiles of aerosol radiative forcing efficiency showed little seasonal or vertical variability. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP

  10. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  11. Effects of diagnostic guidewire catheter presence on translesional hemodynamic measurements across significant coronary artery stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Back, Lloyd H; Back, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    This study gains insight on the nature of flow blockage effects of small guidewire catheter sensors in measuring mean trans-stenotic pressure gradients Deltap across significant coronary artery stenoses. Detailed pulsatile hemodynamic computations were made in conjunction with previously reported clinical data in a group of patients with clinically significant coronary lesions before angioplasty. Results of this study ascertain changes in hemodynamic conditions due to the insertion of a guidewire catheter (di=0.46 mm) across the lesions used to directly determine the mean pressure gradient (Deltap) and fall in distal mean coronary pressure (pr). For the 32 patient group of Wilson et al. [1988] (minimal lesion diameter dm=0.95 mm; 90% mean area stenosis; proximal measured coronary flow reserve (CFR) of 2.3 in the abnormal range) the diameter ratio of guidewire catheter to minimal lesion was 0.48, causing a tighter "artifactual" mean area stenosis of 92.1%. The results of the computations indicated a significant shift in the Deltap-Q relation due to guidewire induced increases in flow resistances (R=Deltap/Q) of 110% for hyperemic flow, a 35% blockage in hyperemic flow (Qh) and a phase shift of the coronary flow waveform to systolic predominance. These alterations in flow resulted in a fall in distal mean coronary pressure (at lower mean flow rates) below the patho-physiological range of prh approximately 55 mmHg, which is known to cause ischemia in the subendocardium (Brown et al. [1984]) and coincides with symptomatic angina. Transient wall shear stress levels in the narrow throat region (with flow blockage) were of the order of levels during hyperemic conditions for patho-physiological flow. In the separated flow region along the distal vessel wall, vortical flow cells formed periodically during the systolic phase when instantaneous Reynolds numbers Ree(t) exceeded about 110. For patho-physiological flow without the presence of the guidewire these vortical flow

  12. Comparison of improved Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer CO2 with HIPPO and SGP aircraft profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared radiances from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES between 10 and 15 μm contain significant carbon dioxide (CO2 information, however the CO2 signal must be separated from radiative interference from temperature, surface and cloud parameters, water, and other trace gases. Validation requires data sources spanning the range of TES CO2 sensitivity, which is approximately 2.5 to 12 km with peak sensitivity at about 5 km and the range of TES observations in latitude (40° S to 40° N and time (2005–2011. We therefore characterize Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES CO2 version 5 biases and errors through comparisons to ocean and land-based aircraft profiles and to the CarbonTracker assimilation system. We compare to ocean profiles from the first three Hiaper Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns between 40° S and 40° N with measurements between the surface and 14 km and find that TES CO2 estimates capture the seasonal and latitudinal gradients observed by HIPPO CO2 measurements. Actual errors range from 0.8–1.8 ppm, depending on the campaign and pressure level, and are approximately 1.6–2 times larger than the predicted errors. The bias of TES versus HIPPO is within 1 ppm for all pressures and datasets; however, several of the sub-tropical TES CO2 estimates are lower than expected based on the calculated errors. Comparisons to land aircraft profiles from the United States Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM between 2005 and 2011 measured from the surface to 5 km to TES CO2 show good agreement with an overall bias of −0.3 ppm to 0.1 ppm and standard deviations of 0.8 to 1.0 ppm at different pressure levels. Extending the SGP aircraft profiles above 5 km using AIRS or CONTRAIL measurements improves comparisons with TES. Comparisons to CarbonTracker (version CT2011 show a persistent spatially dependent bias pattern and comparisons to SGP show a time-dependent bias of −0.2 ppm

  13. Prediction of propagated wave profiles based on point measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-Beom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the prediction of propagated wave profiles using the wave information at a fixed point. The fixed points can be fixed in either space or time. Wave information based on the linear wave theory can be expressed by Fredholm integral equation of the first kinds. The discretized matrix equation is usually an ill-conditioned system. Tikhonov regularization was applied to the ill-conditioned system to overcome instability of the system. The regularization parameter is calculated by using the L-curve method. The numerical results are compared with the expe¬rimental results. The analysis of the numerical computation shows that the Tikhonov regularization method is useful.

  14. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by using FIB as reference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami

    2017-03-01

    A novel method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement and LWR (Line Width Roughness) measurement by using FIB (Focused Ion Beam) processing, and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) images measurement is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. In this article, we apply the methodology to line profile measurements and roughness measurement of advanced FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features. The FinFET features are horizontally sliced as a thin specimen by FIB micro sampling system. Horizontally images of the specimens are obtained then by a planar TEM. LWR is calculated from the edges positions on TEM images. Moreover, we already have demonstrated the novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB slope cut and CD-SEM measuring. Using the method, a few micrometers wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45-degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We applied FIB-to-CDSEM method to a CMOS image sensor feature. The 45-degree slope cut surface is observed using AFM. The surface profile of slope cut surface and line profiles are analyzed for improving the accuracy of FIB-to-CDSEM method.

  15. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P < 0.01) and in patients with skin cancer (P < 0.01), and the lightness (L*) values of sun-exposed skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P < 0.05). Iris colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  17. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  18. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  19. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  20. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  1. Role of turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties of acoutic Doppler current profiler discharge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrab, Leticia; Garcia, Carlos M.; Cantero, Mariano I.; Oberg, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a systematic analysis quantifying the role of the presence of turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties (random errors) of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements from moving platforms. Data sets of three-dimensional flow velocities with high temporal and spatial resolution were generated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow. Dimensionless functions relating parameters quantifying the uncertainty in discharge measurements due to flow turbulence (relative variance and relative maximum random error) to sampling configuration were developed from the DNS simulations and then validated with field-scale discharge measurements. The validated functions were used to evaluate the role of the presence of flow turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties in ADCP discharge measurements. The results of this work indicate that random errors due to the flow turbulence are significant when: (a) a low number of transects is used for a discharge measurement, and (b) measurements are made in shallow rivers using high boat velocity (short time for the boat to cross a flow turbulence structure).

  2. Path Profiles of Cn2 Derived from Radiometer Temperature Measurements and Geometrical Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter Cn2 is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify Cn2 profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time-varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  3. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-09-01

    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  5. Developing a peak performance profile measurement for sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to construct a measuring instrument to assess sportspersons' psychological strengths and weaknesses. With this in mind, various developmental procedures were applied in the construction and development of an instrument over a period of more than seven years. The research was ...

  6. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  7. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  8. Performance of spleen stiffness measurement in prediction of clinical significant portal hypertension: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinzhen; Huang, Jianbo; Huang, He; Liu, Shiyu; Luo, Yan

    2017-12-06

    Our purpose was to evaluate the correlation between spleen stiffness (SS) measured by ultrasound-based elastography and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and assess the accuracy of SS in detecting clinical significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and severe portal hypertension. Nine studies were included from thorough literature research and selection processes. A random model was used to analyze the correlation between HVPG and SS. We adopted the bivariate mixed effects model to assess the diagnostic performance. Regarding to correlation between SS and HVPG, the summary correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.80). In detection of CSPH, the sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR were: 0.88 (0.70-0.96), 0.84 (0.72-0.92), 0.92 (0.89-0.94) and 38 (17-84) for CSPH, respectively; and 0.92 (0.82-0.96), 0.79 (0.72-0.85), 0.87 (0.84-0.90) and 41 (17-100) for severe portal hypertension, respectively. Correlation between SS and HVPG was good. Although SS showed good sensitivity and specificity, the different cut-off values and techniques among studies might limit the impact of our results on clinical practice. Therefore, more high-quality prospective studies are required to evaluate the role of SS in predicting portal hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Refractive-index profile measurement of highly multimode planar waveguides by guided-beam tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctyroký, J; Janta, J; Schröfel, J

    1982-11-01

    A novel method of measuring the refractive-index profile of deep multimode planar waveguides is described. Unlike in mode spectroscopy, several modes are excited simultaneously by a prism coupler. Superposition of the modes forms a guided beam that refracts continuously inside the graded-index waveguide and reflects periodically from the waveguide surface. Measurement of the periodicity as a function of the excitation angle enables one to calculate the refractive-index profile of the waveguide.

  10. Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Ilaria; Curci, Gabriele; Falasca, Serena; Ferrero, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys Ilaria Gandolfi1,2, Gabriele Curci1,2, Serena Falasca1,2, Luca Ferrero3 1 Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 2 Center of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 3 POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy Last decades were characterized by a growing interest in aerosols: mainly for their effect on human health and on the energy balance of solar and planetary radiation, thus their role in climate change. In this study, we analyze the evolution of vertical profile of black carbon (BC) through tethered balloon observations and chemistry-transport modelling. Black carbon is regarded as the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent and its concentration varies significantly depending on the altitude and the sources on the territory. In winter of 2010 University Of Milan Bicocca conducted three intensive measurements campaigns over three Italian basin valleys (Terni, Po Valley, Passiria Valley). The choice of the valleys was made taking into consideration the orography and the river basin structure. The measurement campaign was based on a helium-filled tethered balloon, on which the instrumentation for the analysis has been mounted; the instrumentation consisted on a meteorological station, an OPC, a cascade impactor and a micro-Aethalometer. Subsequently, at University of L'Aquila simulations were produced to help interpretation of these vertical aerosol profiles (mass, composition and distribution) and related optical properties (scattering, absorption) using a chemistry-transport model (WRF-CHIMERE) at high horizontal resolution (1 km). The analysis focused primarily on the calculation of the heating rate and of the Direct Radiative Effect (DRE), and on the analysis of the

  11. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  12. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Perez

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  13. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  14. Prognostic significance and gene expression profiles of p53 mutations in microsatellite-stable stage III colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat R Katkoori

    Full Text Available Although the prognostic value of p53 abnormalities in Stage III microsatellite stable (MSS colorectal cancers (CRCs is known, the gene expression profiles specific to the p53 status in the MSS background are not known. Therefore, the current investigation has focused on identification and validation of the gene expression profiles associated with p53 mutant phenotypes in MSS Stage III CRCs. Genomic DNA extracted from 135 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, was analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI and p53 mutations. Further, mRNA samples extracted from five p53-mutant and five p53-wild-type MSS-CRC snap-frozen tissues were profiled for differential gene expression by Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were further validated by the high-throughput quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA, and confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. A higher incidence of p53 mutations was found in MSS (58% than in MSI (30% phenotypes. Both univariate (log-rank, P = 0.025 and multivariate (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-5.08 analyses have demonstrated that patients with MSS-p53 mutant phenotypes had poor CRC-specific survival when compared to MSS-p53 wild-type phenotypes. Gene expression analyses identified 84 differentially expressed genes. Of 49 down-regulated genes, LPAR6, PDLIM3, and PLAT, and, of 35 up-regulated genes, TRIM29, FUT3, IQGAP3, and SLC6A8 were confirmed by qNPA, qRT-PCR, and IHC platforms. p53 mutations are associated with poor survival of patients with Stage III MSS CRCs and p53-mutant and wild-type phenotypes have distinct gene expression profiles that might be helpful in identifying aggressive subsets.

  15. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  16. Repeatability of in vitro power profile measurements for multifocal contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Marín-Franch, Iván; Esteve-Taboada, Jose Juan; Madrid-Costa, David; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of an optical device (NIMO TR1504, Lambda-X, Belgium) for measuring multifocal contact lens power profiles. The NIMO TR1504 was used to measure power profiles 30 times for each of 10 different contact lenses from 4 major companies. All contact lenses were labelled as -3D for distance vision; half were for high addition and half for low addition. The optical zone in all measurements was set to 3-mm radius. For each lens, the median power profile and the residuals of the 30 measurements were calculated. The 95% confidence bands and two indices that summarize measurement errors were calculated: the repeatability limit and an index of repeatability heterogeneity, quantifying heterogeneity of measurement errors over the optical zone. The repeatability limit was good (from 0.04D to 0.12D), for all multifocal contact lenses. Variability of measurement errors of power profiles was quite homogeneous along the optical zone for all lenses, although for some lenses variability was slightly higher in the centre than peripherally. The repeatability of measured power profiles obtained by the NIMO TR1504 is lower than 0.12D for the multifocal contact lenses. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of neutral density profiles measured using Dα and C5+ in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Scotti, F.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Edge neutral density profiles determined from two different measurements are compared on NSTX-U plasmas. Neutral density measurements were not typical on NSTX plasmas. An array of fibers dedicated to the measurement of passive emission of C5+, used to subtract background emission for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS), can be used to infer deuterium neutral density near the plasma edge. The line emission from C5+ is dominated by charge exchange with neutral deuterium near the plasma edge. An edge neutral density diagnostic consisting of a camera with a Dα filter was installed on NSTX-U. The line-integrated measurements from both diagnostics are inverted to obtain local emissivity profiles. Neutral density is then inferred using atomics rates from ADAS and profile measurements from Thomson scattering and CHERS. Comparing neutral density profiles from the two diagnostic measurements helps determine the utility of using the more routinely available C5+ measurements for neutral density profiles. Initial comparisons show good agreement between the two measurements inside the separatrix. Supported by US DoE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  19. Measurements of the Spatial Variability of Mean Wind Profiles Using Multiple Doppler Lidars over Distances less than 1 Km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, R. M.; Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Iungo, V.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Quelet, P. T.; Wolfe, D. E.; Oncley, S.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A. M.; Delgado, R.; McCaffrey, K.

    2015-12-01

    Small differences in wind speed can translate to large differences in wind energy (WE) revenues, so WE decision making requires accurate measurements of wind profiles through the turbine rotor layer of the lower atmosphere. Advances in understanding and modeling of boundary-layer processes, also needed by WE, requires such measurements through an even deeper layer—at least the lowest few hundreds of meters. An important use for such accurate measured wind-profile data is in the initiation and verification of NWP models. This prospect raises several fundamental questions, such as, what does the modeled profile represent, how was the measured profile determined, and what if the profile had been measured from a different site within the grid cell? To address these questions, two experiments were conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in modestly complex terrain downwind of the mountains. The Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) in June-July 2014 featured 5 Doppler lidars (2 scanning), and XPIA in April-May 2015, 11 Doppler lidars, including 5 scanning systems. Two broad goals of these projects were to assess differences in scanning and other data acquisition procedures on the measurements, addressed in (Pichugina et al.) at this conference, and to evaluate the effects of varying spatial separations on differences in the measured winds, addressed in the present paper. Sonic anemometers every 50 m on the 300-m BAO tower were used as a reference for the wind calculations, as well as another profile location. Lidar scan data indicated terrain-related regions of stronger flow within the scan volume of more than 1 m/s that were at least semi-recurrent. This variability produced significant differences in mean rotor-level winds by 2 identical profiling lidars separated by 500 m. During XPIA, four of the scanning Doppler lidars performed intersecting elevation scans (vertical-slice or "RHI") to create 'virtual towers' at various separation

  20. The Significance of Serum beta2-Microglobulin Measurement in Various Renal Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Oh, Ha Yong; Han, Jin Suk; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-03-15

    To evaluate change of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin concentration (sbeta{sub 2}-MG) and the usefulness of sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sbeta{sub 2}-MG/serum creatinine concentration (sCr) ratio in various renal diseases, sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr were measured in 25 normal controls and 90 patients of various renal diseases (16 cases of glomerulonephritis, 12 cases of acute renal failure, 8 cases of chronic renal failure, 24 cases of nephrotic syndrome, 15 cases of tubulointerstitial diseases and 15 cases of lupus nephritis) using Phadebas beta{sub 2}-Micro Test kits. The results were as follows; 1) In normal control, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 1.65+-0.41 mg/l and the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.14+-0.05. 2) In various renal diseases, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 6.74+-5.47 mg/l. The mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.24+-0.11 and significantly elevated than that of normal contro1. (P<0.05). 3) The correlation between sbeta-2-MG and sCr in glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.90 log sCr-0.48 and its correlation coefficient was 0.78 (P<0.05). 4) In glomerular disease, the correlation between sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.89 log sCr-0.46 (r-0.76) and in tubulointerstitial disease, it was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.95 1og sCr-0.59 (r-0.87). There was no significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). 5) Among 32 cases of glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease patients, whose sCr was within normal range, 17 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG. The mean values of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio in these patients was 0.30+-0.14 and significantly elevated than that of normal control (p<0.05). 6) In 15 cases of lupus nephritis, 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG with normal sCr and 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio. With above results, It was found that the sbeta{sub 2}-MG can be used as an index of glomerular filtration rate as in the case of sCr and thats

  1. Adaptation profiles comprising objective and subjective measures in fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups in terms of adaptation to FM and to test differences in FM severity between these subgroups. The al-Ándalus project made it possible to perform a comprehensive population-based cross-sectional study in 486 FM patients including multiple assessments of modifiable (could be targeted in therapy) resilience and vulnerability factors, measured by objective and subjective assessments, related to psychological and physical function. FM severity was assessed by means of FM impact (total score of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire) and distress (Polysymptomatic Distress Scale of the modified 2011 preliminary criteria for FM). Exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of variance were conducted. Factor analysis yielded eight factors: three included objective measures (declarative memory, active lifestyle and objective physical fitness) and five included subjective measures (fatigue, psychological distress, catastrophizing, resilience and subjective physical fitness). Cluster analysis based on these eight factors identified five profiles: Adapted (16%), Fit (18%), Poor performer (20%), Positive (20%) and Maladapted (26%). Most profile comparisons revealed different levels of FM severity varying from Adapted (the most favourable profile) to Maladapted (the most unfavourable profile) with Fit, Poor performer and Positive obtaining intermediate positions. Heterogeneity of FM was shown by five clinically meaningful profiles of modifiable factors that were associated with FM severity. It is of clinical interest to examine whether these profiles are associated with FM prognosis and the effectiveness of interventions, which would enhance the development of customized interventions based on adaptation profiles in FM.

  2. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Schindfessel, L.; McLelland, S. J.; Creëlle, S.; De Mulder, T.

    2017-07-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2, to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ~3000 to 6000 mg L-1 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver.

  3. Diagnostic Profiles of Patients Differentially Failing Executive Functioning Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin; Ramirez, Gabriela; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limited research exists to explain differential executive functioning impairment in clinical populations, particularly between the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The distribution of clinical diagnoses was examined in patients failing none, one, or both tasks, and executive task performance was compared among dementia-related diagnoses. Two hundred and sixty-six participants received evaluations through an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which included executive tasks. Dementia-related diagnoses were established through consensus. Chi-square analyses indicated that TMT failure, with or without WCST failure, possessed higher associations with dementia diagnoses. Repeated measures analysis of variance similarly indicated that participants with dementia, especially mild and moderate severity, performed worse on TMT. Executive dysfunction was observed in dementia-related diagnoses, and TMT failure was implicated in dementia in higher proportions than WCST impairment. Trail Making Test appears more sensitive than WCST for assessing executive impairment across diagnoses, especially when time and resources are limited in screening and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Role and Significance of Uncertainty in HV Measurement of Porcelain Insulators - a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rahul Raj; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Dayama, Ravindra

    The improved safety margins in complex systems have attained prime importance in the modern scientific environment. The analysis and implementation of complex systems demands the well quantified accuracy and capability of measurements. Careful measurement with properly identified and quantified uncertainties could lead to the actual discovery which further may contribute for social developments. Unfortunately most scientists and students are passively taught to ignore the possibility of definition problems in the field of measurement and are often source of great arguments. Identifying this issue, ISO has initiated the standardisation of methodologies but its Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has yet to be adapted seriously in tertiary education institutions for understanding the concept of uncertainty. The paper has been focused for understanding the concepts of measurement and uncertainty. Further a case study for calculation and quantification of UOM for high voltage electrical testing of ceramic insulators has been explained.

  5. Smoothness of ozone profiles: analysis of 11 years of ozone sonde measurements at Sodankylä

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the smoothness of vertical profiles of ozone concentrations. We describe the smoothness of ozone profiles via a characteristic scale of the profile fluctuations. The characteristic scale was computed for 11-years (1989-1999 ozone sonde data at Sodankylä. Mean values of the characteristic scale were determined. They are ~1km in the troposphere and ~1.4km in the lower stratosphere (up to 25km. Only slight seasonal variations of these parameters are observed. The information about smoothness of ozone profiles is needed both in the instrumental design for defining the vertical resolution requirements and in the development of inversion algorithms from remote sensing measurements, in order to obtain the best accuracy in retrieved ozone profiles and sufficient resolution.

  6. Smoothness of ozone profiles: analysis of 11 years of ozone sonde measurements at Sodankylä

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the smoothness of vertical profiles of ozone concentrations. We describe the smoothness of ozone profiles via a characteristic scale of the profile fluctuations. The characteristic scale was computed for 11-years (1989-1999 ozone sonde data at Sodankylä. Mean values of the characteristic scale were determined. They are ~1km in the troposphere and ~1.4km in the lower stratosphere (up to 25km. Only slight seasonal variations of these parameters are observed.

    The information about smoothness of ozone profiles is needed both in the instrumental design for defining the vertical resolution requirements and in the development of inversion algorithms from remote sensing measurements, in order to obtain the best accuracy in retrieved ozone profiles and sufficient resolution.

  7. Potential of fermentation profiling via rapid measurement of amino acid metabolism by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalluge, Joseph J; Smith, Sean; Sanchez-Riera, Fernando; McGuire, Chris; Hobson, Russell

    2004-07-16

    Monitoring amino acid metabolism during fermentation has significant potential from the standpoint of strain selection, optimizing growth and production in host strains, and profiling microbial metabolism and growth state. A method has been developed based on rapid quantification of underivatized amino acids using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to monitor the metabolism of 20 amino acids during microbial fermentation. The use of a teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry allows complete amino acid analyses in less than 4 min. Quantification is accomplished using five isotopically labeled amino acids as internal standards. Because comprehensive chromatographic separation and derivatization are not required, analysis time is significantly less than traditional reversed- or normal-phase LC-based amino acid assays. Intra-sample precisions for amino acid measurements in fermentation supernatants using this method average 4.9% (R.S.D.). Inter-day (inter-fermentation) precisions for individual amino acid measurements range from 4.2 to 129% (R.S.D.). Calibration curves are linear over the range 0-300 microg/ml, and detection limits are estimated at 50-450 ng/ml. Data visualization techniques for constructing semi-quantitative fermentation profiles of nitrogen source utilization have also been developed and implemented, and demonstrate that amino acid profiles generally correlate with observed growth profiles. Further, cellular growth events, such as lag-time and cell lysis can be detected using this methodology. Correlation coefficients for the time profiles of each amino acid measured illustrate that while several amino acids are differentially metabolized in similar fermentations, a select group of amino acids display strong correlations in these samples, indicating a sub-population of analytes that may be most useful for fermentation profiling.

  8. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, D.J.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests.

  9. [Objective measures for setting the processors of cochlear implant systems : Use of discrimination functions and consideration of electrode profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, S; Herisanu, I; Praetorius, M

    2016-12-01

    When setting the electrical stimulation level of cochlear implants during individual adjustment of the speech processor, especially in children, objective measures such as intracochlearly measured electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAP) and intraoperative observation of electrically elicited stapedial reflexes (eSR) are indispensable. The benefit of these objective measures is based on the correlation between the derived response thresholds and psychometric data. The amplitude growth functions of eCAPs were measured intraoperatively for all electrodes in 30 ears of adult patients. The stimulus-dependent incidence of observable eSRs was recorded for all electrodes in 16 ears of adult patients. For evaluation of the data, new algorithms were applied which allowed the determination of thresholds without intervention of the investigator. Essential features were the conversion of observations into binary variables, and the consideration of logistic discrimination functions and their exceedance of a numeric threshold criterion. Regarding the eCAP data, closer and significant correlations are observed between objective thresholds and psychometric measures in comparison to conventional procedures. Profiles are more efficient than pooled data. Significant correlations are also observed for eSR thresholds, albeit to a lesser extent and without an evident difference between profiles and pooled data. Considering the by no means consistent international literature, the results illustrate the need for a consistent definition of response thresholds and the consideration of electrode profiles.

  10. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  11. Measuring vertical oxygen profiles in the hyporheic zone using planar optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-04-01

    On of the key parameters, controlling biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the distribution of oxygen. A reliable measurement of the vertical oxygen distribution is an important tool to understand the dynamic fluctuations of the aerobic zone within the HZ. With repeated measurements of continuous profiles, mixing of surface water and groundwater as well as the consumption of oxygen can be evaluated. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurements of vertical oxygen distribution in the riverbed using a planar optode. The luminescence based optode measurement enables a non invasive measurement without consumption of oxygen, no creation of preferential flow paths and only minimal disturbance of the flow field. Possible atmospheric contamination by pumping pore water into a vessel can be avoided and the readings are independent of flow velocity. A self manufactured planar optode is wrapped around an acrylic tube and installed in the riverbed. The measurement is performed by vertically moving a profiler-piston inside the acrylic tube. The piston holds a robust polymer optical fibre which emits a modulated light signal through the acrylic glass to the optode-foil and transmits the induced luminescence signal back to a commercially available trace oxygen meter. Temperature compensation is accomplished using a depth-oriented temperature probe nearby and processing the raw data within a Matlab script. Robust and unbiased oxygen profiles are obtained by averaging multiple consecutive measurements. To ensure a constant velocity of the profiler for replicating the exact measuring depths, an electric motor device is used. First results at our test site show a variable oxygen profile down to 40 cm depth which is strongly influenced by stream level and upwelling groundwater conditions. The measured oxygen profiles will serve as input parameter for a 3D solute transport and chemical reaction subsurface model of the HZ.

  12. Molecular Profiling of Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Polycythemia Vera and Related Neoplasms: Identification of Deregulated Genes of Significance for Inflammation and Immune Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Thomassen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are haematopoietic stem cell neoplasms that may be associated with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders. Earlier gene expression profiling studies have demonstrated aberrant expression of genes involved...... in inflammatory responses, mainly being performed on granulocytes or CD34+ cells. Using gene expression profiling of whole blood from patients with ET (n=16), PV (n=36), and PMF (n=9), several genes involved in inflammation and immune regulation were found to be significantly deregulated. Our findings may reflect...

  13. Rapid measurement of charged particle beam profiles using a current flux grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Samit; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, UP (India)

    2015-02-15

    The principle and physics issues of charged particle beam diagnostics using a current flux grating are presented. Unidirectional array of conducting channels with interstitial insulating layers of spacing d is placed in the beam path to capture flux of charge and electronically reproduce an exact beam current profile with density variation. The role of secondary electrons due to the impinging particle beam (both electron and ion) on the probe is addressed and a correction factor is introduced. A 2-dimensional profile of the electron beam is obtained by rotating the probe about the beam axis. Finally, a comparison of measured beam profile with a Gaussian is presented.

  14. Iterative reconstruction of a refractive-index profile from x-ray or neutron reflectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohage, Thorsten; Giewekemeyer, Klaus; Salditt, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of x-ray and neutron reflectivity is usually performed by modeling the density profile of the sample and performing a least square fit to the measured (phaseless) reflectivity data. Here we address the uniqueness of the reflectivity problem as well as its numerical reconstruction. In particular, we derive conditions for uniqueness, which are applicable in the kinematic limit (Born approximation), and for the most relevant case of box model profiles with Gaussian roughness. At the same time we present an iterative method to reconstruct the profile based on regularization methods. The method is successfully implemented and tested both on simulated and real experimental data.

  15. Changes in the cytokine profile of patients blood with premature rupture of amniotic membranes and their pathogenic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov А.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pathogenetic study of new diagnostic and prognostic criteria for evaluation of pregnancy in terms of the cytokine profile of blood. Materials and methods: The analysis of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood of 50 pregnant women with preterm rupture of membranes in gestation of 22-34 weeks, who were treated at the Department of Pathology in pregnancy of Saratov Perinatal Center in 2012, was performed. The method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using test systems «Vector— Best» (Novosibirsk, Russia. Results:.Clinical and laboratory examination revealed an increase levels of IL-1(3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, while reducing the content of IL-4, IL-10 in blood. Conclusion: Manifest signs of possibility of prenatal rupture of membranes and premature labour in 22-34 weeks gestation are combined with increasing of IL-1(3, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-2 and with decreasing of IL-10, IL-4 level in the blood, which indicates the need for monitoring the content of these cytokines in the blood for the diagnosis and prognosis of pregnancy.

  16. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Fang, Z. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1993-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  18. General-purpose configuration of radiometric instruments for measuring concentration profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, P.; Wozniakova, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Ostrava. Ustav Teorie Hutnickych Procesu); Drapala, J. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1981-01-01

    The configuration of radiometric apparatuses for the automatic measuring of the concentration profile of active admixtures along the specimen applying the slot method and its three variants is described. A practical example is given of the adjustment of radiometric apparatuses. An equipment for automatic graphical recording of nuclear radiation spectra measured by a single-channel spectrometer is described.

  19. Impact of three-dimensional polarization profiles on spin-dependent measurements in colliding beam experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the polarization-weighted luminosity (figure of merit in single and double spin measurements in colliding beam experiments. Applications to RHIC are discussed.

  20. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  1. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements in coastal and estuarine environments: examples from the Tay Estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewetzer, Silke F. K.; Duck, Robert W.; Anderson, James M.

    1999-08-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provide a means to measure the components of water current velocities in three dimensions. Such instruments have been used widely by the oil industry in deep offshore waters but their application to nearshore coastal and estuarine environments has been principally confined to the USA. Using examples of ADCP datasets acquired from the macrotidal Tay Estuary, eastern Scotland, the principles of field deployment, data acquisition and forms of output are critically summarised. It is shown, for the first time in the Tay Estuary, that vertical current velocities are significant and are particularly so in downwelling zones associated with the development and passage of axially convergent tidal fronts. The improved understanding of three-dimensional water and suspended sediment dynamics in coastal and estuarine waters is crucial to, inter alia, the sustainable management of effluent discharges and, in more general terms, it is predicted on the basis of the Tay case study, that ADCP measurements afford significant opportunities to refine understanding of geomorphological processes in a variety of aquatic environments worldwide.

  2. [Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profile in Troposphere Based on Balloon-Borne TDLAS System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Liu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jian-guo; Kan, Rui-feng; Xu, Zhen-yu; Ruan, Jun; Yuan, Song

    2015-10-01

    The main source and sink of CO2 in the atmosphere are concentrated in the troposphere. It is of great significance to the study of CO2 flux and global climate change to obtain the accurate tropospheric CO2 concentration profile. For the characteristics of high resolution, high sensitivity and fast response of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), a compact balloon-borne system based on direct absorption was developed to detect the CO2 concentration profiles by use of the 2 004. 02 nm, R(16), v1+v3 line without the interfere of H2O absorption and the CO2 density of the number of molecules below 10 km in the troposphere was obtained. Due to the balloon-borne environment, a compact design of one single board integrated with laser driver, signal conditioning, spectra acquiring and concentration retrieving was developed. Limited by the working capability and hardware resources of embedded micro-processor, the spectra processing algorithm was optimized to reduce the time-cost. Compared with the traditional TDLAS sensors with WMS technique, this system was designed based on the direct absorption technique by means of an open-path Herriott cell with 20 m optical-path, which avoided the process of standardization and enhanced the environmental adaptation. The universal design of hardware and software platform achieved diverse gas measuring by changing the laser and adjusting some key parameters in algorithm. The concept of compact design helped to reduce the system's power and volume and balanced the response speed and measure precision. The power consumes below 1.5 W in room temperature and the volume of the single board is 120 mm x 100 mm x 25 mm, and the measurement accuracy is ± 0.6 x 10(-6) at 1.5 s response time. It has been proved that the system can realize high precision detection of CO2 profile at 15 m vertical resolution in troposphere and TDLAS is an available method for balloon-borne detection.

  3. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  4. The atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance:malignant ratio: a proposed performance measure for reporting in The Bethesda System for thyroid cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Jeffrey F; Vanderlaan, Paul A; Faquin, William C; Renshaw, Andrew A

    2012-04-25

    The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting thyroid cytopathology introduced the atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS) category, but did not provide adequate guidance for the appropriate use of this diagnosis. In the current study, the authors sought to identify an appropriate measure for AUS use based on experience to date with TBS. The authors reviewed 8 series, including their own laboratory experiences, with a total of 30,466 thyroid aspirates classified within TBS. The median AUS rate was 9.9% with a range of 3.0% to 18.0%. Use of the individual diagnostic categories within TBS varied up to 12.7-fold. The ratio of "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" plus "suspicious for malignancy" to "malignant" (M) diagnoses varied the least (1.8-fold). The AUS:M ratio provided a suitable measure of assessing AUS use, with a median ratio of 2.0 and a range of 0.5 to 4.9. Based on available studies, an AUS:M ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 is recommended. AUS:M ratios > 3.0 are likely because of overdiagnosis of AUS or underdiagnosis of M. AUS:M ratios expense of sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Investigating PAH relative reactivity using congener profiles, quinone measurements and back trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Stark, C.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-03-01

    Vapour and particle-associated concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 11 PAH quinones have been measured in winter and summer campaigns at the rural site, Weybourne in eastern England. Concentrations of individual PAH are relatively smaller than average concentrations measured previously at urban sites in the UK. The concentrations of PAH of the air masses originating from southern England and mainland UK are significantly larger than those from Eastern Europe and the North Atlantic, while quinone to parent PAH ratios show an inverse behaviour, being highest in the more aged North Atlantic polar air masses. While concentrations of 1,2-naphthoquinone decline from winter to summer, those of 1,4-naphthoquinone and anthraquinone increase suggesting a photochemical formation pathway. A comparison of congener concentration profiles measured at Weybourne with those from an urban source area (Birmingham) reveals differential losses at the rural site, especially evident in fluoranthene : pyrene ratios and consistent with the known rates of vapour phase reactions of 3 and 4 ring compounds with hydroxyl radical. The ratios of quinones to their parent PAH at Weybourne are greater than those in the urban source area indicating either more rapid loss processes for PAH, or formation of quinones during advection of the air mass, or probably both.

  6. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels; Borraccino, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity ...

  7. Reconsidering the Effect of Self-Control and Delinquent Peers: Implications of Measurement for Theoretical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C.; Young, Jacob T. N.; Weerman, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research examining the effect of self-control and delinquent peers on crime suggests that both variables are strong correlates and that controlling for one fails to eliminate the effects of the other. Yet prior research was based on indirect and possibly biased indicators of peer delinquency. Recent research using direct measures of…

  8. The significance of multiple scattering in bubble measurements near the sea surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø; Bjørnø, Irina K.

    1996-01-01

    The acoustic interactions between gas bubbles in bubble plumes formed near the sea surface may significantly change the propagation and attenuation conditions for acoustical signals in the sea. The scattering properties of the bubble plumes have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation...... of the theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. This theory, modified later by others [K. W. Commander and A. Prosperetti, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 732–746 (1989)] fails in the vicinity of individual bubble resonances and for high concentrations of bubbles in the population. A recent...... of bubble plume qualities. Available, but still unconfirmed, experimental data show the significance of multiple scattering in bubble plumes having void fractions >~0.22%. This paper forms an attempt to illuminate and solve the proximity threshold question, forming the basis for the significance...

  9. Measure of significance of holotropic breathwork in the development of self-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a re......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design...

  10. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  11. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

    2017-05-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

  12. Measuring cognitive anxiety through the consultation process for hearing aids: Older adults and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J; Wendel, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of cognitive anxiety experienced by first-time hearing aid adopters and their significant others before, during, and after hearing aid fitting. A total of 16 couples were interviewed at three points: (1) at the initial consultation for hearing aids, (2) during the hearing aid trial, and (3) 1 month following the final clinical appointment in which the hearing aids were formally adopted. Cognitive anxiety was assessed through a content analysis of the interviews using the Cognitive Anxiety Scale. Results of this study show that the levels of cognitive anxiety generally decreased across the entire consultation process for both adults with hearing impairment and their significant others. The results also indicated that couples generally experienced similar levels of cognitive anxiety at initial consultation, but their levels of cognitive anxiety differed throughout the remainder of the study. These findings highlight the importance of inclusion of significant others in the rehabilitation process. The reader will be able to: (1) discuss the relationship between cognitive anxiety and hearing impairment, (2) define cognitive anxiety, (3) discuss the impact of hearing impairment on significant others, (4) describe the experience of cognitive anxiety through the hearing aid consultation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Density profile measurements by amplitude modulation reflectometry on the TJ-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, E. de la; Zhuravlev, V.; Branas, B.; Sanchez, J.; Estrada, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Segovia, J.; Oramas, J.L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Amplitude Modulation (AM) reflectometry has been proposed as an alternative method to the more traditional swept frequency reflectometry systems which can be strongly affected by the presence of plasma density fluctuations. Compared to the time domain systems, the time measurements are replaced in AM reflectometry by much simpler phase delay measurements. In AM reflectometry, the time delay of the microwave beam propagating to the reflecting layer and back is directly obtained through the phase delay of the modulating envelope, which is directly measured in a linear (0-2{pi}) phase meter. This method avoids operation with multifringe counters and is a very attractive alternative for real time determination of the plasma position and density profile. In order to achieve real time density profile monitoring, fast analysis methods are necessary, first results of Neural Networks application to the problem of fast inversion of the density profile are shown. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Investigations on the spatial resolution of autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Buchheim, J.; Höft, T.; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schindler, A.; Arnold, T. [IOM—Leibniz Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-05-11

    During the last decade, autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers like the Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM) at BESSY-II have become standard instrument for the ultra-precise characterization of synchrotron optics with nanometer accuracy. Due to the increasing demand for highest accuracy, which can be provided by these profilers, further investigations are necessary to understand the performance of these instruments. Besides the achievable accuracy, it is of particular interest to characterize the possible spatial resolution of such instrumentation. The performance of the BESSY-NOM was characterized by means of sinusoidal and chirped surface profiles. A dedicated sample was prepared using the Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining technology at the IOM—Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V. We report on our tests on the NOM, the interferometer measurements done for comparison as well as the sample preparation.

  15. Fiber optic picosecond laser pulse transmission line for hydrogen ion beam longitudinal profile measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun; Aleksandrov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for nonintrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H(-)) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multikilowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large-mode-area polarization-maintaining optical fiber to ensure high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter, and pulse width broadening over a 30 m long fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H(-) beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. The experiment is the first demonstration to our knowledge of particle beam profile diagnostics using a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  16. Wind lidar profile measurements in the coastal boundary layer: comparison with WRF modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Vincent, Claire Louise

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from a pulsed wind lidar to study the wind speed profile in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to 600 m above the surface at a coastal site. Due to the high availability and quality of wind lidar data and the high vertical range of the measurements, it is possible to study...... WRF is compared to the wind lidar data combined with measurements from a tall meteorological mast, it is found that the model surface layer fluxes are largely overestimated and that the vertical wind speed profile does not have enough shear in the lower part of the PBL, partly as a consequence...... in the amount of observed low level jet. The wind speed predicted by WRF does not improve when a higher resolution is used. Therefore, both the inhomogeneous (westerly) and homogeneous (easterly) flow contribute to a large negative bias in the mean wind speed profile at heights between 100 and 200 m....

  17. Mutation profiling of 19 candidate genes in acute myeloid leukemia suggests significance of DNMT3A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Yong; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cho, Eun Hae; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Silvia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2016-08-23

    We selected 19 significantly-mutated genes in AMLs, including FLT3, DNMT3A, NPM1, TET2, RUNX1, CEBPA, WT1, IDH1, IDH2, NRAS, ASXL1, SETD2, PTPN11, TP53, KIT, JAK2, KRAS, BRAF and CBL, and performed massively parallel sequencing for 114 patients with acute myeloid leukemias, mainly including those with normal karyotypes (CN-AML). More than 80% of patients had at least one mutation in the genes tested. DNMT3A mutation was significantly associated with adverse outcome in addition to conventional risk stratification such as the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification. We observed clinical usefulness of mutation testing on multiple target genes and the association with disease subgroups, clinical features and prognosis in AMLs.

  18. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  19. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  20. Prevalence and significance of electrocardiographic changes and side effect profile of regadenoson compared with adenosine during myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maliha; Kapila, Aaysha; Eagan, Cecelia E; Yusko, David A; Miller, Edwin D; Missenda, Cheryl D

    2013-03-01

    Significance of electrocardiogram (EKG) changes associated with regadenoson as well as side effects compared to adenosine in a real world, unselected population is unknown. Three hundred ninety six consecutive patients undergoing either adenosine or regadenoson-based single-isotope (Technetium 99c) nuclear images were evaluated. A standard form documenting side effects was filled immediately following administration. The EKGs and nuclear scans were reviewed in a blinded-fashion. Commonest symptoms reported were flushing (64%), chest pain (36%) and dyspnea (36%). Flushing and chest pain were significantly more common with adenosine (73% vs. 57%, P regadenoson (40% vs. 31%, P = 0.05). Sixty (29%) patients carried a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or asthma but only 4 (2 with each) required aminophylline. There was no significant correlation between chest pain induced by either agent or ischemia on nuclear imaging. EKG changes occurred infrequently (16% with regadenoson and 10% with adenosine), and had low sensitivity for detecting ischemia (7% for regadenoson and 11% for adenosine). EKG changes with adenosine and regadenoson occur infrequently and have low sensitivity for detecting ischemia. Chest pain is frequently induced by both, and is not predictive of ischemia on nuclear imaging.

  1. Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Lupus Anticoagulant Measurement in Patients With Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xianming; Wang, Huan; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Tongwei; Cheng, Maoliang; Yuan, Wufeng

    2017-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulants is related to both recurrent thrombosis and cancer. Thrombotic complications occur more frequently in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of lupus anticoagulants with hypercoagulability and thrombotic complications, as well as prognostic significance of lupus anticoagulants for patients with lung cancer. The study comprised 205 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Plasma normalized LAC ratio, D-dimer, fibrinogen, activities of antithrombin, and FVIII before treatment were analyzed by coagulation analyzer, and routine hematologic and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. In patients, normalized LAC ratio, D-dimer, fibrinogen, and procoagulant activity of coagulating factor VIII levels significantly increased, whereas antithrombin activity significantly decreased compared with healthy controls ( P LAC ratio was positively correlated with D-dimer, fibrinogen, and procoagulant activity of coagulating factor VIII, and negatively correlated with antithrombin activity, respectively ( P LAC ratio patients than in normal ones, respectively ( P LAC ratio level in patients with deep venous thrombosis and/or metastasis ( P LAC ratio level and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and metastasis were higher than those in survivors, respectively ( P LAC ratio was independently associated with short survival time in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (hazard regression: 2.871, 95%confidence interval: 1.704-4.835; χ2: 19.130; P lupus anticoagulants is a useful marker to predict thrombotic complications and prognosis in patient with lung cancer.

  2. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  3. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  4. Measurement of the temperature profile of an exothermic autocatalytic reaction front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Rakotomalala, N; Talon, L; Salin, D

    2009-11-01

    Autocatalytic reactions may propagate as solitary waves, namely, at a constant front velocity and with a stationary concentration profile, resulting from a balance between molecular diffusion and chemical reaction. When the reaction is exothermic, a thermal wave is linked to the chemical front. As the thermal diffusivity is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the molecular one, the temperature profile spreads over length scales (mm) two orders of magnitude larger than the concentration one. Using an infrared camera, we measure the temperature profiles for a chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reaction. The profiles are compared quantitatively to lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) numerical simulations. Our analysis also accounts for the lack of observation of the thermal wave for the iodate arsenous acid reaction.

  5. An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: measurement and significance for animal welfare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behavior constantly changing. This is worrisome because previous research linked visitor variables to animal behavioral changes indicative of stress. There are implications for research design: Studies not accounting for visitors' effect on animal welfare risk confounding (visitor) variables distorting their findings. Zoos need methods to measure and minimize effects of visitor behavior and to ensure that there are no hidden variables in research models. This article identifies a previously unreported variable--hourly variation (decrease) in visitor interest--that may impinge on animal welfare and validates a methodology for measuring it. That visitor interest wanes across the course of the day has important implications for animal welfare management; visitor effects on animal welfare are likely to occur, or intensify, during the morning or in earlier visits when visitor interest is greatest. This article discusses this issue and possible solutions to reduce visitor effects on animal well-being.

  6. Measurement of dynamic gas disengagement profile by using an analog output level gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilineni, S.; Koelle, M.; Xu, H.

    The dynamic gas disengagement profile was measured in a 0.14 m diameter and 3.66 m high plexiglas column by using an analog output gauge, which was connected to a data acquisition system. This analog output gauge is a high accuracy continuous measurement level gauge. It is made up of a wave guide, a float, a motion or stress sensing device and a probe housing. The fluid level at any gas velocity is obtained by using the data acquisition system. The dynamic gas disengagement profile produced one slope in the bubble flow and two slopes in the churn turbulent flow representing unimodal and bimodal distributions of bubbles.

  7. Calibration method for accurate optical measurement of thickness profile for the paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeffe, Jussi

    2009-06-01

    Online measurement of paper thickness profile is essential in paper production. For decades paper thickness has been measured online with sensors that are contacting the web on both sides. In 2005 a new optical online paper thickness gauge was introduced which only contacts the web on the other side. The sensor is based on a laser triangulation sensor and a magnetic sensor, and it determines the paper thickness from the difference of the two measurements. For calibration of the two sensors, a robust concept has been developed which utilizes the measured object and takes place in the measuring environment so that the calibration is automatically adjusted to the current measuring circumstances. More importantly, with the presented method the non-linearity of the laser sensor is cancelled enabling the measurement of the thickness profile shape with an accuracy much better than that of the laser sensor. Profile accuracy of 0.5 μm (2σ) has become normal while the measuring range is often several hundreds of microns and the measuring distance to the paper web 1.0-1.5 mm with a laser sensor having linearity of +/-2 μm.

  8. ACCURATE: Greenhouse Gas Profiles Retrieval from Combined IR-Laser and Microwave Occultation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schweitzer, Susanne; Fritzer, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The new climate satellite concept ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the already better studied LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. Resulting occultation events are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 μm for ACCURATE). These signals are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. Profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived from signal transmission measurements. Accurately known temperature, pressure and humidity profiles derived from simultaneously measured LMO signals are essential pre-information for the retrieval of the trace species profiles. These LMO signals lie in the microwave band region from 17-23 GHz and, optionally, 178-195 GHz. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (GHG) (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O), with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction, and scintillation strength. We introduce the methodology to retrieve GHG profiles from quasi-realistic forward-simulated intensities of LIO signals and thermodynamic profiles retrieved in a preceding step from LMO signals. Key of the retrieval methodology is the differencing of two LIO transmission signals, one being GHG sensitive on a target

  9. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...... arteriosclerosis of the legs in non-diabetic patients is generally considered a benign disease from the standpoint of limb survival, the critical level of TPI (systolic toe blood pressure/systolic arm blood pressure) was found to be 0.07 as a TPI below this value was associated with an overall 82% risk...... of amputation. With TPI above 0.07, the chance of successful conservative therapy was about 40%. Diabetics with severe ischaemia must be regarded as a high risk group in respect of amputation (64%) and lethality (64%). A variance analysis was made on the pressure data: In patients with low pressure peripheral...

  10. Assessing clinical significance in measuring oncology patient quality of life: Introduction to the symposium, content overview, and definition of terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloan, Jeff A.; Cella, David; Frost, Marlene; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Sprangers, Mirjam; Symonds, Tara

    2002-01-01

    The Clinical Significance Consensus Meeting Group of the Symposium on the Clinical Significance of Quality-of-Life Measures in Cancer Patients produced 6 articles regarding the clinical significance of quality of life (QOL) assessments in oncology. The 6 articles deal with the methods used to date:

  11. Ozone profile smoothness as a priori information in the inversion of limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss inclusion of a priori information about the smoothness of atmospheric profiles in inversion algorithms. The smoothness requirement can be formulated in the form of Tikhonov-type regularization, where the smoothness of atmospheric profiles is considered as a constraint or in the form of Bayesian optimal estimation (maximum a posteriori method, MAP, where the smoothness of profiles can be included as a priori information. We develop further two recently proposed retrieval methods. One of them - Tikhonov-type regularization according to the target resolution - develops the classical Tikhonov regularization. The second method - maximum a posteriori method with smoothness a priori - effectively combines the ideas of the classical MAP method and Tikhonov-type regularization. We discuss a grid-independent formulation for the proposed inversion methods, thus isolating the choice of calculation grid from the question of how strong the smoothing should be. The discussed approaches are applied to the problem of ozone profile retrieval from stellar occultation measurements by the GOMOS instrument on board the Envisat satellite. Realistic simulations for the typical measurement conditions with smoothness a priori information created from 10-years analysis of ozone sounding at Sodankylä and analysis of the total retrieval error illustrate the advantages of the proposed methods. The proposed methods are equally applicable to other profile retrieval problems from remote sensing measurements.

  12. Ozone profile smoothness as a priori information in the inversion of limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss inclusion of a priori information about the smoothness of atmospheric profiles in inversion algorithms. The smoothness requirement can be formulated in the form of Tikhonov-type regularization, where the smoothness of atmospheric profiles is considered as a constraint or in the form of Bayesian optimal estimation (maximum a posteriori method, MAP, where the smoothness of profiles can be included as a priori information. We develop further two recently proposed retrieval methods. One of them - Tikhonov-type regularization according to the target resolution - develops the classical Tikhonov regularization. The second method - maximum a posteriori method with smoothness a priori - effectively combines the ideas of the classical MAP method and Tikhonov-type regularization. We discuss a grid-independent formulation for the proposed inversion methods, thus isolating the choice of calculation grid from the question of how strong the smoothing should be.

    The discussed approaches are applied to the problem of ozone profile retrieval from stellar occultation measurements by the GOMOS instrument on board the Envisat satellite. Realistic simulations for the typical measurement conditions with smoothness a priori information created from 10-years analysis of ozone sounding at Sodankylä and analysis of the total retrieval error illustrate the advantages of the proposed methods.

    The proposed methods are equally applicable to other profile retrieval problems from remote sensing measurements.

  13. Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements has been applied to airborne observations performed during the Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF, enabling the retrieval of vertical profiles for the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI and single-scattering albedo with a vertical resolution of 200 m over Paris area. The averaged value over the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL for the ACRI is close to 1.51(±0.02–i0.017(±0.003 at 532 nm. The single-scattering albedo of the corresponding aerosols is found to be ~0.9 at the same wavelength. A good agreement is found with previous studies for urban aerosols. A comparison of vertical profiles of ACRI with simulations combining in situ measurements and relative humidity (RH profiles has highlighted a modification in aerosol optical properties linked to their history and the origin of the air mass. The determination of ACRI in the atmospheric column enabled to retrieve vertical profiles of extinction coefficient in accordance with lidar profiles measurements.

  14. A measure of family eating habits: initial psychometric properties using the profile pattern approach (PPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Natalie; Kim, Se-Kang; Wilson, Monique; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Although it seems likely that family characteristics and eating habits are a major factor in the development of eating behaviors, there are no self-report measures that examine how individuals view their family's eating habits. Seventy-one women ages 18-22 were recruited from a private university in a large northeastern city and asked to complete a short questionnaire packet consisting of demographic questions, the newly developed Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ) and the Eating Inventory (EI). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the FEHQ was established. Significant associations were found between the FEHQ and the EI, indicating convergent validity for the FEHQ. Further validation was conducted using a novel statistical technique, the profile pattern approach (PPA). The results of the present study are limited by the restricted sample characteristic of a university setting. However, our findings show that the family eating habits' measure appears psychometrically sound. A future aim will be to continue validating this instrument in other samples, particularly to determine its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  16. [Clinical significance of direct measurement of bone mineral content. 125I photon absorption measurement in 1252 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D

    1983-02-03

    1252 patients were examined by 125I-photonabsorptiometry, a non-invasive method for direct determination of bone mineral content. These patients were divided into 21 groups with different diagnoses including primary skeletal disorders and diseases of internal medicine (endocrine, gastrointestinal, renal) with possible secondary skeletal involvement. The findings are analyzed on the basis of well established own normal ranges, which were obtained from determinations on 1058 healthy people. The well reproducible and quantitative results allow to cover the frequency and severity of deficits in bone mineral mass occurring with the diseases mentioned above. As examples the findings in primary hyperparathyroidism and in chronic renal insufficiency before and during hemodialysis are shown in more detail. While the radiation exposure is practically negligible, control measurements can be performed regularly, which supply a good judgement of the course of disease with and without treatment.

  17. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  18. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  19. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  20. Linear Viscoelastic Property Measurement and Its Significance for Some Nonlinear Viscoelasticity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanidis, G. A.; Liechti, K. M.

    Three linear viscoelastic properties of an Ashland neat urethane adhesive were measured. Dynamic tensile compliance was found using a novel extensometer. The results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio was extracted from strain gage data that was corrected to include gage reinforcement effects. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to Prony series that originated in the time domain. Dynamic shear compliance inferred from dynamic tensile compliance and dynamic Poisson's ratio compared well with measured values. This established the validity of the time temperature shifting and interconversion procedures that were developed for this isotropic material in its linear range. Dynamic tensile compliance and dynamic Poisson's ratio were then used to obtain the dynamic bulk compliance, which was in turn converted to the time domain along with the dynamic shear compliance. The shear and dynamic creep compliance functions thus obtained formed the basis of the nonlinear viscoelastic models. Two nonlinear viscoelastic models based on free volume considerations (modified to include distortional effects) were considered as constitutive models. One was based on the effect of the state of strain on the free volume through the Doolittle equation, while the other incorporated the effect of state of stress via the Tait equation. Ramp loading experiments conducted in tension and shear at strain rates spanning three decades were reasonably well predicted. Contrary to expectations based on previous work with less precise small strain data, the strain-based model proved to be more applicable than the stress-based one. This means that the shear modified free volume model of Popelar and Liechti (2003) has now been shown to be

  1. Urban eddy covariance measurements reveal significant missing NOx emissions in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T; Graus, M; Striednig, M; Lamprecht, C; Hammerle, A; Wohlfahrt, G; Held, A; von der Heyden, L; Deventer, M J; Krismer, A; Haun, C; Feichter, R; Lee, J

    2017-05-30

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health. Here we report simultaneous eddy covariance flux measurements of NOx, CO2, CO and non methane volatile organic compound tracers in a city that might be considered representative for Central Europe and the greater Alpine region. Our data show that NOx fluxes are largely at variance with modelled emission projections, suggesting an appreciable underestimation of the traffic related atmospheric NOx input in Europe, comparable to the weekend-weekday effect, which locally changes ozone production rates by 40%.

  2. Neuropsychological Profile in Early-Onset Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders: Measured With the MATRICS Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Aina; Juuhl-Langseth, Monica; Thormodsen, Rune; Melle, Ingrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairments have been documented in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). There is still inconsistency regarding an average profile, which could be due to the fact that each study uses different tests. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the “Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia” (MATRICS) battery is useful in detecting differences between the patient group and the healthy controls, and to describe the neuropsychological pattern in the EOS group. Method: Neuropsychological functioning was examined in 31 adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 67 healthy controls, using the MATRICS battery. Results: There were significant differences between the patients and the controls on every domain except for social cognition. Patients showed a generalized neurocognitive deficit of 0.8–1.8 SDs compared with controls, with verbal learning, working memory, and visual learning being the most affected areas. Conclusions: The MATRICS battery is sensitive in detecting differences between patients and controls in the adolescent population. However, we question the use of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in this age group. Results document a significant generalized deficit in adolescents with EOS. PMID:19223656

  3. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  4. Clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements for the prevention and management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Elnagar, Noha; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    1. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring (M) provides BP information at many points on any particular day during unrestricted routine daily activities, whereas home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring provides a lot of BP information obtained under fixed times and conditions over a long period of time, thus mean values of HBP provide high reproducibility, and thus an overall superiority compared with ABP.  2. HBP is at least equally or better able than ABP to predict hypertensive target organ damage and prognosis of cardiovascular disease.  3. HBPM allows for ongoing disease monitoring by patients, improves adherence to antihypertensive treatment, and can provide health-care providers with timely clinical data and direct and immediate feedback regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.  4. HBPM provides BP information in relation to time; that is, BP in the morning, in the evening and at night during sleep, and it is an essential tool for the diagnosis of white-coat and masked hypertension.  5. HBPM yields minimal alerting affects and no or minimal placebo effect, and can therefore distinguish small, but significant, serial changes in BP. It is thus the most practical method for monitoring BP in the day-to-day management of hypertension. 6. The superiority of HBPM over ABPM and clinic BPM is apparent from almost all practical and clinical research perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The significance of low substrate concentration measurements for mechanistic interpretation in cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojan, Jure

    2013-03-25

    Cholinesterases do not follow the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the past, many reaction schemes were suggested to explain their complex interactions during the substrate turnover. Covalent catalysis was recognized very early and therefore, double intermediate traditional reaction scheme for the hydrolysis of good substrates at low concentrations was postulated. However, at intermediate and high substrate concentrations homotropic pseudocooperative effects take place in all cholinesterases, due to the nature of their buried active center. In this study, the significance and usefulness of experimental data obtained at low substrate concentrations, where only one substrate molecule accesses the active site at a time, are to be specified for the overall mechanistic evaluations. Indeed, different interpretations are expected when data are processed with equations derived from different reaction schemes. Consequently, the scheme with two substrate binding sites which comprises the structurally evidenced fully occupied active site as ultimate cause for substantially decreased cholinesterase activity at extremely high substrate concentrations is considered here. A special emphasis is put on butyrylcholinesterase, the enzyme with the largest active site among cholinesterases, where the pseudocooperative effects appear at much higher concentrations than in acetylcholinesterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze [Hebei Medical University, Department of Orthopaedics, 3. Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Liu, Huaijun [Hebei Medical University, Deparment of Radiology, 2. Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2009-12-15

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  7. The influence of profiled ceilings on sports hall acoustics : Ground effect predictions and scale model measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattez, Y.C.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Nijs, L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years, reverberation times and sound pressure levels have been measured in many sports halls. Most of these halls, for instance those made from stony materials, perform as predicted. However, sports halls constructed with profiled perforated steel roof panels have an unexpected

  8. Continuous measurements of discharge from a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler in a tidal river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Buschman, F.A.; Vermeulen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can be mounted horizontally at a river bank, yielding single-depth horizontal array observations of velocity across the river. This paper presents a semideterministic, semistochastic method to obtain continuous measurements of discharge from horizontal ADCP

  9. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel (nate) J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  10. Profile grid monitor and first measurement results at the MedAustron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Repovz, M; Kerschbaum, A; Osmic, F; Schwarz, S; Burtin, G

    2013-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based ion beam therapy center located in Wiener Neustadt/Austria. The MedAustron accelerator design is based on CERN’s Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) [1] and is currently in the accelerator installation and beam commissioning phase. One of the basic measurements for commissioning of an accelerator is also beam profile measurement. The beam at the end of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line and in the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line (after the fast deflector) is pulsed. Due to pulsed beam the Wire Scanner Monitor (WSX) cannot be used. To measure a beam profile at these locations a new monitor has been developed – Profile Grid Monitor (PGX). The PGX is also known as harp grid monitor and it contains 64 wires positioned vertically and 64 wires horizontally for measuring the beam profile in both transverse planes. The PGX acquires the current of all 128 wires simultaneously, converts it to voltage, digitizes the values and processes the co...

  11. Subgrouping of Readers Based on Performance Measures: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    By using latent profile analysis eight stable and interpretable subgroups of readers were identified. The basis for subgrouping was different performance measures with four aspects of reading in focus: reading of continuous texts, reading of document texts, word reading and reading speed. Participants were 9-year-old Swedish students included in…

  12. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  13. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals significant down-regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling studies in the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms have revealed significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes that might be of importance for clonal evolution due to defective tumor immune surveillance. Other mechanisms might...... and members of the antigen processing machinery of HLA class I molecules (LMP2, LMP7, TAP1, TAP2 and tapasin). The findings of significant down-regulation of several of these genes may possibly be of major importance for defective tumor immune surveillance. Since up-regulation of HLA genes is recorded during...

  14. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  15. First Experimental Results And Improvements On Profile Measurements With The Vibrating Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Dobrovolski, N M; Mailian, M R; Soghoyan, H E; Vasiniuk, I E

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the first experimental results of transverse profile scans using a wire scanner based on a vibrating wire (vibrating wire scanner - VWS). The measurements were performed at the injector electron beam (6 nA) of the Yerevan synchrotron. The beam profile information is obtained by measuring the wire natural oscillations that depend on the wire temperature. This first experiments on weak electron beam proved this new method as a very sensitive tool, even suitable for tail measurements. Additional, improvements were tested to overcome some problems connected with signal conditioning and signal transfer in the presence of electromagnetic noise. As a result the noises were neatly separated and reduced. A mathematical method for rejection of distorted data was developed. Experiments with the scanner at the PETRA accelerator at DESY are planned for measurements of beam tails.

  16. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  17. Effects of soil amendment on gas depth profiles in soil monoliths using direct mass spectrometric measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S K; Lloyd, D

    2002-08-01

    Land use and agricultural practices are known to influence the source and sink concentrations of various gases, including greenhouse gases (NOx CH4 and CO2). in soils. With everincreasing production of domestic sewage sludge and the prohibition of disposal at sea, pressure on waste disposal increases. Anaerobically digested domestic sewage sludge and/or lime were applied to an upland. Scottish soil and their effects on gas depth profiles monitored as indicators of microbial processes of the soil ecosystem. The concentrations of various gases (Ar, O2. CO2, CH4, N2, NOx) were measured simultaneously at each depth using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS). This technique enables the direct measurement of multiple gas species throughout soil cores with minimal disturbance. Intact soil monoliths were collected from the sample site, following amendment, and maintained in a constant temperature, environmental growth chambers. Statistical analyses (one-way ANOVA and LSD tests) were conducted to identify the depths at which gas concentrations in amended cores were significantly different from those in control (un-amended) cores. Significant effects were observed on the concentration of CO2, CH4, NOx and N2 at certain depths. Average CH4 concentration was consistently higher (>1 microM) in the upper horizon following application of sludge and sludge and lime together. N2 and NOx concentrations were elevated in cores treated with lime by approximately 100 and 32 microM. respectively, in much of the upper horizon. CO2 concentration increased above control mean values, at certain depths, following application of either sludge or lime. Some explanation for the changes in soil gas concentration was provided by reference to the microorganism assemblages and the gases associated with biochemistry of nitrification, denitrification, methane oxidation and methanogenesis.

  18. Does the effectiveness of control measures depend on the influenza pandemic profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although strategies to contain influenza pandemics are well studied, the characterization and the implications of different geographical and temporal diffusion patterns of the pandemic have been given less attention. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Using a well-documented metapopulation model incorporating air travel between 52 major world cities, we identified potential influenza pandemic diffusion profiles and examined how the impact of interventions might be affected by this heterogeneity. Clustering methods applied to a set of pandemic simulations, characterized by seven parameters related to the conditions of emergence that were varied following Latin hypercube sampling, were used to identify six pandemic profiles exhibiting different characteristics notably in terms of global burden (from 415 to >160 million of cases and duration (from 26 to 360 days. A multivariate sensitivity analysis showed that the transmission rate and proportion of susceptibles have a strong impact on the pandemic diffusion. The correlation between interventions and pandemic outcomes were analyzed for two specific profiles: a fast, massive pandemic and a slow building, long-lasting one. In both cases, the date of introduction for five control measures (masks, isolation, prophylactic or therapeutic use of antivirals, vaccination correlated strongly with pandemic outcomes. Conversely, the coverage and efficacy of these interventions only moderately correlated with pandemic outcomes in the case of a massive pandemic. Pre-pandemic vaccination influenced pandemic outcomes in both profiles, while travel restriction was the only measure without any measurable effect in either. CONCLUSIONS: our study highlights: (i the great heterogeneity in possible profiles of a future influenza pandemic; (ii the value of being well prepared in every country since a pandemic may have heavy consequences wherever and whenever it starts; (iii the need to quickly implement control

  19. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  20. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  1. Transverse beam profile measurements with slit scanner and Faraday cup at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2014-01-01

    The transverse profiles for the HIE-ISOLDE beams will be measured using a system composed of a scanning slit and a Faraday cup. A validation test of the proposed device was performed using the REX-ISOLDE stable beam and a prototype diagnostic box designed for HIE-ISOLDE. The slit used for this test was very thin (0.2 mm width), but still fairly good profiles could be obtained for beams with total current of around 20 pA (typical beam intensity during normal set-up procedures for REX-ISOLDE).

  2. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    The wind speed represents the main exogenous signal applied to a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) and determines its behavior. The erratic variation of the wind speed, highly dependent on the given site and on the atmospheric conditions, makes the wind speed quite difficult to model. Moreover......, wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...... and modelling methods based on white noise filtering are presented....

  3. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  4. Nottingham health profile a reliable tool to measure quality of life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to determine if Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) can be a useful tool in the Philippines. Eighty patients undergoing hemodialysis in the dialysis unit of our hospital were enrolled for this study. Sixty-nine patients completed the study. Comparative analysis revealed significant difference in social ...

  5. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  6. Vertical profile measurements of ozone at Lauder, New Zealand, during ASHOE/MAESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Thomas J.; Gross, Michael; Singh, Upendra; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Matthews, Andrew; Bodeker, Gregory; Connor, Brian; Tsou, J. J.; Proffitt, Michael; Margitan, James

    1997-06-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center stratospheric ozone lidar was deployed at the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) facility at Lauder, New Zealand (45°S, 169°E), during all four of the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) flight periods. The site is about 500 km south of Christchurch. Efforts were made to acquire lidar data before dawn and after sunset on the days the ER-2 was flown. A total of 79 measurements were made on 47 individual nights. Each measurement provided vertical profiles of aerosols, temperature, and ozone. Profiles begin at ˜8 km and extend to 35, 50-55, and 75 km for aerosols, ozone, and temperature, respectively. NIWA personnel launched electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes on a number of these occasions. A summary of these data will be presented along with comparisons with data from ER-2 instruments. Average profiles for each of the four ASHOE/MAESA deployments were constructed for use as a climatological profile for model initialization.

  7. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493

  8. Profiling measurements of metal ion distribution in thin polymer inclusion membranes by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedioura, B.; Bendjaballah, N.; Alioui, N.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) composed of a homogeneous mixture of cellulose triacetate matrix, 2-nitro-phenyl-octyl-ether as plasticizer and tri-octyl-phosphine-oxyde as carrier were synthesized by the spin coating method. Synthesized membranes were doped with molybdenum metal ions and then characterized by four experimental techniques: thermo gravimetric and differential analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectrometry using a 3.2 MeV He+ ion beam. The RBS analysis has established both the elemental composition as well as the Mo+ metal profiling of the studied PIMs. The experimental irradiation conditions were optimized in order to determine the ion fluence thresholds resulting in measurable changes in elemental composition of membranes. Changes in physico-chemical properties of the irradiated PIMs vs He+ ion fluence were observed with the ATR-FTIR analysis. Also, the SEM analysis of PIMs surfaces has revealed a porous texture, while the thermal analysis of annealed PIMs at 105°C has showed no significant changes of mass (∼1%) of the studied samples.

  9. Characterization of rheumatoid arthritis subtypes using symptom profiles, clinical chemistry and metabolomics measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A van Wietmarschen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. METHODS: In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. RESULTS: The questionnaire items 'Red joints', 'Swollen joints', 'Warm joints' suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP and rheumatoid factor (RHF levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. CONCLUSION: Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient.

  10. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  11. Atmospheric boundary layer wind profile at a flat coastal site – wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Wind profiles up to 600m height are investigated. Measurements of mean wind speed profiles were obtained from a novel wind lidar and compared to model simulations from a mesoscale model (WRFARW v3.1). It is found that WRF is able to predict the mean wind profile rather well and typically within 1......–2ms−1 to the individual measured values. WRF underpredicts the normalized wind profile, especially for stable conditions. The effect of baroclinicity on the upper part of the wind profile is discussed....

  12. Optical measurement of static temperature and hydroxyl radical profiles in a hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profiles of static temperature and hydroxyl radical concentration were measured in a two-dimensional supersonic combustor test section 22.8 cm downstream of hydrogen injection. A high-pressure gas generator supplied vitiated air to the test section at Mach 2.44, atmospheric pressure, and a total temperature of about 2240 K. Room-temperature hydrogen was injected through a 0.40-cm step slot at Mach 1 and matched pressure. The measurements utilized a noninterfering spectral line absorption technique in which narrow ultraviolet emission lines of the hydroxyl electronic transition are absorbed by the broader absorption lines in the combustion gas. Comparison of the measured temperature profiles with theoretical calculations showed good agreement.

  13. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  15. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Aili K; Mainprize, James G; Yaffe, Martin J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  16. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  18. Measurements of noninterceptive fluorescence profile monitor prototypes using 9 MeV deuterons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Carmona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two types of noninterceptive optical monitors, based on gas fluorescence, have been designed for use on the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc that is currently under development (a 125 mA, 9 MeV, 175 MHz continuous wave deuteron beam. These diagnostics offer a technique to characterize the transverse beam profile for medium to high current hadron beams, without intercepting the beam core. This paper reports on beam tests using the prototype monitors developed for LIPAc. Tests were carried out at an experimental line of the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores cyclotron, using 9 MeV deuterons with beam currents from 0.4 to 40  μA. In addition, transverse beam profile measurements were performed under high background radiation (e.g. gamma dose rate up to 83  mSv/h. Preliminary cross-checks with different profilers, as well as a systematic scan of beam current and vacuum pressures and tests with different injected gases (nitrogen and xenon have been performed. In this work, we present a brief description of the experimental setup and the first measurements obtained with these prototype profilers plus a discussion of the first analysis of the background signal in a detector as a function of radiation background.

  19. Vertical Position and Current Profile Measurements by Faraday-effect Polarimetry On EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weixing; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Brower, D. L.; Qian, J. P.; Zou, Z. Y.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Luo, Z. P.; Xiao, B. J.; Ucla Team; Asipp Team

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal for ITER and prospective fusion power reactors is to achieve controlled long-pulse/steady-state burning plasmas. For elongated divertor plasmas, both the vertical position and current profile have to be precisely controlled to optimize performance and prevent disruptions. An eleven-channel laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system has been developed for measuring the internal magnetic field in the EAST tokamak and can be used to obtain the plasma current profile and vertical position. Current profiles are determined from equilibrium reconstruction including internal magnetic field measurements as internal constraints. Horizontally-viewing chords at/near the mid-plane allow us to determine plasma vertical position non-inductively with subcentimeter spatial resolution and time response up to 1 s. The polarimeter-based position measurement, which does not require equilibrium reconstruction, is benchmarked against conventional flux loop measurements and can be exploited for feedback control. Work supported by US DOE through Grants No. DE-FG02-01ER54615 and No. DC-SC0010469.

  20. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a

  1. GOMOS ozone profile validation using ground-based and balloon sonde measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. E. van Gijsel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The validation of ozone profiles retrieved by satellite instruments through comparison with data from ground-based instruments is important to monitor the evolution of the satellite instrument, to assist algorithm development and to allow multi-mission trend analyses.

    In this study we compare ozone profiles derived from GOMOS night-time observations with measurements from lidar, microwave radiometer and balloon sonde. Collocated pairs are analysed for dependence on several geophysical and instrument observational parameters. Validation results are presented for the operational ESA level 2 data (GOMOS version 5.00 obtained during nearly seven years of observations and a comparison using a smaller dataset from the previous processor (version 4.02 is also included.

    The profiles obtained from dark limb measurements (solar zenith angle >107° when the provided processing flag is properly considered match the ground-based measurements within ±2 percent over the altitude range 20 to 40 km. Outside this range, the pairs start to deviate more and there is a latitudinal dependence: in the polar region where there is a higher amount of straylight contamination, differences start to occur lower in the mesosphere than in the tropics, whereas for the lower part of the stratosphere the opposite happens: the profiles in the tropics reach less far down as the signal reduces faster because of the higher altitude at which the maximum ozone concentration is found compared to the mid and polar latitudes. Also the bias is shifting from mostly negative in the polar region to more positive in the tropics

    Profiles measured under "twilight" conditions are often matching the ground-based measurements very well, but care has to be taken in all cases when dealing with "straylight" contaminated profiles.

    For the selection criteria applied here (data within 800 km, 3 degrees in equivalent latitude, 20 h (5 h above 50 km and a relative

  2. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  3. Comparison of Blood Cholesterol Profiles Before and After The Measurements of Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ar Rasyid Shadiqin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare the blood cholesterol profile, before and after the measurement of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max in the students of Jurusan Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan (JPOK pada Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin.Variables in this study consist of lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG and Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max. The concept of VO2max according to Kent(1994:268: “maximum oxygen volume consumed per minute to show total work capacity, or volume per minute relative to body weight (ml/kg.min”. Operationally, VO2max referred in this study is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed per minute, as measured at progressive run (Bleep Test.The method used in this study is pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. This design implies that a group of subjects are treated for a specific period and the measurements are taken both pre and post.The results: There are changes in blood cholesterol profile after the measurement of maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max, shown by significant decrease of total cholesterol variable, increased HDL, and decreased LDL. Changes in triglyceride variable showed no significant decrease despite the statistic differences. Specific HDL sub-class increasing after exercise is a constructive lipoprotein sub-class whereas LDL is destructive lipoproteins sub-class that might damage the body. Therefore, an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL found in this study appears to be advantageous and consequently might alter the risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Real-time MSE measurements for current profile control on KSTARa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, M. F. M.; Aussems, D.; Huijgen, R.; Scheffer, M.; Chung, J.

    2012-10-01

    To step up from current day fusion experiments to power producing fusion reactors, it is necessary to control long pulse, burning plasmas. Stability and confinement properties of tokamak fusion reactors are determined by the current or q profile. In order to control the q profile, it is necessary to measure it in real-time. A real-time motional Stark effect diagnostic is being developed at Korean Superconducting Tokamak for Advanced Research for this purpose. This paper focuses on 3 topics important for real-time measurements: minimize the use of ad hoc parameters, minimize external influences and a robust and fast analysis algorithm. Specifically, we have looked into extracting the retardance of the photo-elastic modulators from the signal itself, minimizing the influence of overlapping beam spectra by optimizing the optical filter design and a multi-channel, multiharmonic phase locking algorithm.

  5. Ethanol, not detectably metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via action at specific GABA(A) receptors and has measureable metabolic effects at very low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D; Davidson, Joanne E; Maher, Anthony D; Rowlands, Benjamin D; Kashem, Mohammed A; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Cook, James M; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is a known neuromodulatory agent with reported actions at a range of neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we measured the effect of alcohol on metabolism of [3-¹³C]pyruvate in the adult Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice and compared the outcomes to those from a library of ligands active in the GABAergic system as well as studying the metabolic fate of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol. Analyses of metabolic profile clusters suggest that the significant reductions in metabolism induced by ethanol (10, 30 and 60 mM) are via action at neurotransmitter receptors, particularly α4β3δ receptors, whereas very low concentrations of ethanol may produce metabolic responses owing to release of GABA via GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) and the subsequent interaction of this GABA with local α5- or α1-containing GABA(A)R. There was no measureable metabolism of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol with no significant incorporation of ¹³C from [1,2-¹³C]ethanol into any measured metabolite above natural abundance, although there were measurable effects on total metabolite sizes similar to those seen with unlabelled ethanol. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Self-presentation and emotional contagion on Facebook: new experimental measures of profiles' emotional coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzini, Andrea; Guidi, Elisa; Cecchini, Cristina; Milani, Monica; Vilone, Daniele; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Social Networks allow users to self-present by sharing personal contents with others which may add comments. Recent studies highlighted how the emotions expressed in a post affect others' posts, eliciting a congruent emotion. So far, no studies have yet investigated the emotional coherence between wall posts and its comments. This research evaluated posts and comments mood of Facebook profiles, analyzing their linguistic features, and a measure to assess an excessive self-presentation was int...

  7. Measuring Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and Aerosol Profiles Simultaneously with a Camera Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CLidar or camera lidar is a simple, inexpensive technique to measure nighttime tropospheric aerosol profiles. Stars in the raw data images used in the CLidar analysis can also be used to calculate aerosol optical depth simultaneously. A single star can be used with the Langley method or multiple star pairs can be used to reduce the error. The estimated error from data taken under clear sky conditions at Mauna Loa Observatory is approximately +/- 0.01.

  8. Interface profile studies in immiscible and partially miscible binary polymer blends from free volume measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Meghala, D.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    The diffused interface widths in an immiscible and a partially miscible polymer blend namely Polyvinyl chloride/Ethylene vinyl acetate (PVC/EVA) and Polystyrene/Polymethylmethacrylate (PS/PMMA) are experimentally measured and reported here. A new empirical relation found between hydrodynamic interaction parameter α derived from free volume data and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ is used to construct density profile across the interface to derive the interface width in above two binary blends.

  9. Transfer characteristics of optical profilers with respect to rectangular edge and step height measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weichang; Hagemeier, Sebastian; Bischoff, Jörg; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Manske, Eberhard; Lehmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Optical profilers are mature instruments used in research and industry to study surface topography features. Although the corresponding standards are based on simple step height measurements, in practical applications these instruments are often used to study the fidelity of surface topography. In this context it is well-known that in certain situations a surface profile obtained by an optical profiler will differ from the real profile. With respect to practical applications such deviations often occur in the vicinity of steep walls and in cases of high aspect ratio. In this contribution we compare the transfer characteristics of different 3D optical profiler principles, namely white-light interferometry, focus sensing, and confocal microscopy. Experimental results demonstrate that the transfer characteristics do not only depend on the parameters of the optical measurement system (e. g. wavelength and coherence of light, numerical aperture, evaluated signal feature, polarization) but also on the properties of the measuring object such as step height, aspect ratio, material properties and homogeneity, rounding and steepness of the edges, surface roughness. As a result, typical artefacts such as batwings occur for certain parameter combinations, particularly at certain height-to-wavelength ratio (HWR) values. Understanding of the mechanisms behind these phenomena enables to reduce them by an appropriate parameter adaption. However, it is not only the edge artefacts, but also the position of an edge that may be changed due to the properties of the measuring object. In order to investigate the relevant effects theoretically, several models are introduced. These are based on either an extension of Richards-Wolf modeling or rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). Although these models explain the experimental effects quite well they suffer from different limitations, so that a quantitative correspondence of theoretical modeling and experimental results is hard to achieve

  10. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 (Well-Being outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.

  11. Linking Signatures of Accretion with Magnetic Field Measurements–Line Profiles are not Significantly Different in Magnetic and Non-magnetic Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan; Calvet, Nuria; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Kraus, Stefan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Monnier, John; Rubinstein, Adam; Aarnio, Alicia; Harries, Tim J.

    2018-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are young, pre-main-sequence stars that sample the transition in structure and evolution between low- and high-mass stars, providing a key test of accretion processes in higher-mass stars. Few Herbig Ae/Be stars have detected magnetic fields, calling into question whether the magnetospheric accretion paradigm developed for low-mass stars can be scaled to higher masses. We present He I 10830 Å line profiles for 64 Herbig Ae/Be stars with a magnetic field measurement in order to test magnetospheric accretion in the physical regime where its efficacy remains uncertain. Of the five stars with a magnetic field detection, one shows redshifted absorption, indicative of infall, and two show blueshifted absorption, tracing mass outflow. The fraction of redshifted and blueshifted absorption profiles in the non-magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars is remarkably similar, suggesting that the stellar magnetic field does not affect gas kinematics traced by He I 10830 Å. Line profile morphology does not correlate with the luminosity, rotation rate, mass accretion rate, or disk inclination. Only the detection of a magnetic field and a nearly face-on disk inclination show a correlation (albeit for a few sources). This provides further evidence for weaker dipoles and more complex field topologies as stars develop a radiative envelope. The small number of magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars has already called into question whether magnetospheric accretion can be scaled to higher masses; accretion signatures are not substantially different in magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars, casting further doubt that they accrete in the same manner as classical T Tauri stars.

  12. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  13. Profile and Emittance Measurements at the CERN LINAC4 3 MeV test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, F; Duraffourg, M; Focker, GJ; Gerard, D; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F

    2013-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H- Linac named Linac-4 will be built at CERN to replace the old 50 MeV proton Linac. The ion source, the 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line hosting a chopper, have been commissioned in a dedicated test stand. Wire grids and wire scanners were used to measure the transverse beam profile and a slit/grid emittance meter was installed on a temporary test bench plugged at the RFQ and MEBT exit in different stages. The emittance meter slit was also used as a scanning scraper able to reconstruct the transverse profile by measuring the transmission with a downstream current transformer. On the same measurement bench, a spectrometer in conjunction with a wire grid allowed measuring the energy spread of the particles. This paper summarizes the measurement results that allowed characterizing the 3 MeV beam and discusses the present understanding of monitor performance.

  14. Development of a Rapid Beam Emittance Measurement System using a Real-Time Beam Profile Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Keita; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Takane; Morinobu, Shunpei; Nagayama, Keiichi; Tamura, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Yuusuke

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a rapid beam emittance measurement system for the injection beam of the K140 azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP). So far, a conventional emittance monitor has been used in a section of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) system to evaluate the quality of the injected beam to the K400 ring cyclotron. Two kinds of emittance monitors were supplemented in the low energy beam line for evaluation of ion beams from ion sources. One of them is a conventional type consisting of two sets of position-variable slits and a three-wire profile monitor (TPM), similar to the one installed in the MEBT system of the AVF cyclotron. It takes about 30 min to get emittances in both the horizontal and vertical planes. For quick emittance measurements, we have developed a new system equipped with a set of fast moving slits with a fixed gap and a real-time beam profile monitor (BPM83) with a rotating helical wire. With this system the measurement time was considerably reduced to 70 s for both the horizontal and vertical emittances. Moreover the data analysis and graphical processing were completely automated. The overall measurement and analysis time was successfully minimized within 75 s. This rapid emittance measurement system has contributed to improve the beam quality by optimizing parameters of ion sources and the beam transport system.

  15. Non-destructive profile measurement of intensive heavy ion beams; Zerstoerungsfreie Profilmessung intensiver Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Frank

    2010-02-08

    Within the framework of the FAIR-project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI (Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research), high intensity beams from protons to uranium ions with kinetic energies up to 30 AGeV are foreseen. Present GSI-accelerators like the UNILAC and the Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS-18) with a magnetic rigidity of 18 Tm will be used as injectors for the future synchrotron (SIS-100). Their beam current will be increased by up to two orders of magnitude. An accurate beam position and beam profile measurement is mandatory for a safe operation of transport sections, in particular in front of production targets (Fragment Separator (FRS)-target, anti p-production-target and Warm Dense Matter (WDM)-targets). Conventional intercepting profile monitors will not withstand the thermal stress of intensive ion beams, particularly for low energy applications or focused beams. For transverse profile determination a non-intercepting Beam Induced Fluorescence (BIF)-monitor was developed, working with residual gas. The BIF-monitor exploits fluorescence light emitted by residual gas molecules after atomic collisions with beam ions. Fluorescence-images were recorded with an image-intensified camera system, and beam profiles were obtained by projecting these images. Within the scope of this dissertation the following topics have been investigated: The photon yield, profile shape and background contribution were determined for different ion species (H{sup +}, S{sup 6+}, Ar{sup 18+}, K{sup +}, Ni{sup 9+}, Xe{sup 48+}, Ta{sup 24+}, Au{sup 65+}, U{sup 73+}), beam energies (7.7 AkeV-750 AMeV), gas pressures (10{sup -6}-3 mbar) and gas species (N{sub 2}, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). Applying an imaging spectrograph and narrowband 10 nm interference filters, the spectral response was mapped and associated with the corresponding gas transitions. Spectrally resolved beam profiles were also obtained form the spectrographic images. Major results are the light yield showing a

  16. Anxiolytic-like profile of mirtazapine in rat conditioned fear stress model: Functional significance of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor and alpha1-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakui, Nobukazu; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Yamauchi, Miki; Kitamura, Koichi; Imanishi, Taiichiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2009-05-01

    Mirtazapine is an antidepressant with a unique mechanism of action and has been categorized as a Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressant (NaSSA). Although numerous clinical trials suggested the usefulness of mirtazapine for not only major depressive disorders but also a variety of anxiety disorders, efficacy studies in animal anxiety models have been rarely reported. The present study investigated a potential anxiolytic-like profile of mirtazapine in rat conditioned fear stress model. A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor partial agonist, buspirone (1-5 mg/kg) exhibited a significant reduction in freezing time, and its maximal effect was reversed by a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg). Mirtazapine (1-10 mg/kg) also reduced the freezing time in a dose-related fashion, a substantial proportion (approx. 50%) of which was likewise antagonized by WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg). Mianserin (1-30 mg/kg), a structural analogue for mirtazapine, was ineffective. Furthermore, co-administration of alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.03 mg/kg) completely reversed mirtazapine (10 mg/kg)-induced reduction of freezing time. These findings represent the first demonstration that the anxiolytic-like action of mirtazapine involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptor and alpha1 adrenoceptor to different extents, and are compatible with one aspect of mirtazapine's pharmacological profile as NaSSA.

  17. 2-GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated radiofrequency fields have no significant effect on cell proliferation and gene expression profile in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, Masaru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Yasunaga, Katsuaki; Sakuma, Noriko; Hirose, Hideki; Nojima, Toshio; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which radiofrequency (RF) fields exert their activity, and the changes in both cell proliferation and the gene expression profile in the human cell lines, A172 (glioblastoma), H4 (neuroglioma), and IMR-90 (fibroblasts from normal fetal lung) following exposure to 2.1425 GHz continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) RF fields at three field levels. During the incubation phase, cells were exposed at the specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80, 250, or 800 mW/kg with both CW and W-CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h. Heat shock treatment was used as the positive control. No significant differences in cell growth or viability were observed between any test group exposed to W-CDMA or CW radiation and the sham-exposed negative controls. Using the Affymetrix Human Genome Array, only a very small (CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h did not act as an acute cytotoxicant in either cell proliferation or the gene expression profile. These results suggest that RF exposure up to the limit of whole-body average SAR levels as specified in the ICNIRP guidelines is unlikely to elicit a general stress response in the tested cell lines under these conditions.

  18. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  19. Measurement and clinical significance of serum TPO and LDH levels in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Xia; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wei

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the measurement and clinical significance of serum thrombopoietin (TPO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute leukemia (AL). The levels of serum TPO and lactate dehydrogenase in 25 patients with MDS and 40 patients with AL were measured by using sandwich ELISA and velocity methods before chemotherapy, at the stages of bone marrow depression and bone marrow recovery, respectively. The levels of serum TPO and LDH in 15 healthy controls were also measured. The results indicated that the serum TPO and LDH levels in ALL, AML and MDS patients before chemotherapy were significantly higher than those in healthy controls, the differences were statistically significant (q = 7.2943 - 27.4149, p TPO and LDH levels in the patients at the stages of bone marrow depression or bone marrow recovery were significantly lower than those in patients before treatment (q = 7.2943 - 25.9396, p 0.05). It is concluded that there is a strong correlation between serum TPO, LDH levels and the status of patients with hematologic malignancies, suggesting that TPO and LDH levels can be used for evaluation of therapeutic effect in hematologic malignancies.

  20. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links With Measures of Psychopathology and Adult Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003 ) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form (Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007 ), Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991 ), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1983 ). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology, and adult attachment. Overall, health dependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, T E M; Dreschler, W A

    2015-12-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. M. Van Esch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  3. CT false-profile view of the hip: a reproducible method of measuring anterior acetabular coverage using volume CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needell, Steven D.; Borzykowski, Ross M. [Boca Radiology Group, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Carreira, Dominic S.; Kozy, John [Broward Health Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115 through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities. The anterolateral margin of the acetabulum was localized on the CT false-profile view corresponding with the cranial opening of the acetabular roof. Anterior center edge angle (CEA) was measured between a vertical line passing through the center of the femoral head and a line connecting the center of the femoral head with the anterior edge of the condensed line of the acetabulum (sourcil). Anterior CEA values measured on CT false-profile views of 38 symptomatic hips were compared with values obtained on simulated and projection false-profile radiographs. The CT false-profile view produces a cross-sectional image in the same obliquity as false-profile radiographs. Anterior CEA measured on CT false-profile views were statistically similar to values obtained with false-profile radiographs. CT technologists quickly mastered the technique of generating this view. Inter-rater reliability indicated this method to be highly reproducible. The CT false-profile view is simple to generate and anterior CEA measurements derived from it are similar to those obtained using well-positioned false-profile radiographs. Utilization of CT to assess hip geometry enables precise control of pelvic inclination, eliminates projectional errors, and minimizes limitations of image quality inherent to radiography. (orig.)

  4. Experimental estimation of the photons visiting probability profiles in time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, P; Kacprzak, M; Weigl, W; Borowska-Solonynko, A; Krajewski, P; Zolek, N; Ciszek, B; Maniewski, R; Liebert, A

    2012-12-07

    A time-gated intensified CCD camera was applied for time-resolved imaging of light penetrating in an optically turbid medium. Spatial distributions of light penetration probability in the plane perpendicular to the axes of the source and the detector were determined at different source positions. Furthermore, visiting probability profiles of diffuse reflectance measurement were obtained by the convolution of the light penetration distributions recorded at different source positions. Experiments were carried out on homogeneous phantoms, more realistic two-layered tissue phantoms based on the human skull filled with Intralipid-ink solution and on cadavers. It was noted that the photons visiting probability profiles depend strongly on the source-detector separation, the delay between the laser pulse and the photons collection window and the complex tissue composition of the human head.

  5. Measuring discharge with acoustic Doppler current profilers from a moving boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rehmel, Michael S.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Rainville, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) from a moving boat is now a commonly used method for measuring streamflow. The technology and methods for making ADCP-based discharge measurements are different from the technology and methods used to make traditional discharge measurements with mechanical meters. Although the ADCP is a valuable tool for measuring streamflow, it is only accurate when used with appropriate techniques. This report presents guidance on the use of ADCPs for measuring streamflow; this guidance is based on the experience of U.S. Geological Survey employees and published reports, papers, and memorandums of the U.S. Geological Survey. The guidance is presented in a logical progression, from predeployment planning, to field data collection, and finally to post processing of the collected data. Acoustic Doppler technology and the instruments currently (2013) available also are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the technology. More in-depth, technical explanations of how an ADCP measures streamflow and what to do when measuring in moving-bed conditions are presented in the appendixes. ADCP users need to know the proper procedures for measuring discharge from a moving boat and why those procedures are required, so that when the user encounters unusual field conditions, the procedures can be adapted without sacrificing the accuracy of the streamflow-measurement data.

  6. Influence of veneer thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-02-01

    The veneering process of frameworks induces residual stresses and can initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. The stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth is a key factor influencing failure by chipping. This is a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneer thickness on the stress profile in zirconia- and metal-based structures. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples of 20 mm diameter, with a 1 mm thick zirconia or metal framework. Different veneering ceramic thicknesses were performed: 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework, except for the 1.5 mm-veneered zirconia samples which exhibited interior tensile stresses. Stresses in the surface of metal samples were not influenced by veneer thickness. Variation of interior stresses at 1.2 mm from the surface in function of veneer thickness was inverted for metal and zirconia samples. Veneer thickness influences in an opposite way the residual stress profile in metal- and in zirconia-based structures. A three-step approach and the hypothesis of the crystalline transformation are discussed to explain the less favorable residual stress development in zirconia samples. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Budget Profiles measured through the Atmosphere with a Return Glider Radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipona, R.; Kraeuchi, A.; Kivi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Very promising radiation budget profile measurements through the atmosphere were made in 2011 with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. New and improved radiation sensors from Kipp&Zonen are now used in a glider aircraft together with a standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. This new return glider radiosonde (RG-R), is lifted up with double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during the ascent measuring phase. The RG-R is equipped with a release mechanism and an autopilot that flies the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, or to a predefined open space, where it releases a parachute for landing once it is 100 meter above ground. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  8. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  9. Significance of stellar magnetic field measurements obtained with the photographic technique: the spurious magnetic field of the supergiant Canopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stift, M.J.

    1987-09-01

    A number of straightforward statistical tests are proposed, aimed at establishing the significance of stellar magnetic field measurements obtained with the photographic technique of a previous author. The power of these methods is illustrated with three Ap stars for which the presence of a magnetic field can be established at an exceedingly high significance level. Application to the supergiant Canopus on the contrary gives no support to the claims for the detection of a kilogauss surface field. Further investigations involving classical scaling and an error analysis of the MSHIFT correlation method favour the view that instrumental instabilities are at the origin of the apparent magnetic variations in Canopus.

  10. Limitations of Significance Testing in Clinical Research: A Review of Multiple Comparison Corrections and Effect Size Calculations with Correlated Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Morey, Timothy E; Dhatariya, Ketan; Rice, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    Modern clinical research commonly uses complex designs with multiple related outcomes, including repeated-measures designs. While multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations are needed to more accurately assess an intervention's significance and impact, understanding the limitations of these methods in the case of dependency and correlation is important. In this review, we outline methods for multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations and considerations in cases of correlation and summarize relevant simulation studies to illustrate these concepts.

  11. Kinetic equilibrium reconstruction of KSTAR plasmas including internal pitch angle profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanzheng; Sabbagh, Steven; Park, Youngseok; Ahn, Jaeheon; Ko, Jinseok

    2017-10-01

    High fidelity kinetic equilibrium reconstructions are an essential requirement for accurate stability and disruption prediction analyses to support continuous operation of high beta KSTAR tokamak plasmas. The present work significantly expands our past magnetics-only equilibrium reconstruction capability. The present kinetic equilibrium reconstructions include Thomson scattering (TS) data, charge exchange spectroscopy (CES) data, and allowance for fast particle pressure in addition to external magnetics and shaping field current data, and inclusion of vacuum vessel and passive plate currents following a ``partial kinetic'' approach used successfully in other devices. In addition, up to 25 channels of Motional Stark Effect (MSE) data are used to constrain the local magnetic field pitch angle to produce reliable evaluation of the safety factor profile. The ramifications of the inclusion of the kinetic profiles and MSE data are examined in the context of plasma stability evaluation, and parameters and analysis used for disruption event characterization and forecasting (DECAF). Supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0016614.

  12. Use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to Measure Hypersaline Bidirectional Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures the exchange of flow between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, as part of a monitoring program. Turbidity and bidirectional flow through the breach in the causeway that divides the lake into two parts makes it difficult to measure discharge with conventional streamflow techniques. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be used to more accurately define the angles of flow and the location of the interface between the layers of flow. Because of the high salinity levels measured in Great Salt Lake (60-280 parts per thousand), special methods had to be developed to adjust ADCP-computed discharges for the increased speed of sound in hypersaline waters and for water entrained at the interface between flow layers.

  13. O2 density and temperature profiles retrieving from direct solar Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guineva, V.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Werner, R.; Hedin, J.; Neichev, S.; Kirov, B.; Bankov, L.; Gramatikov, P.; Tashev, V.; Popov, M.; Hauglund, K.; Hansen, G.; Ilstad, J.; Wold, H.

    2009-12-01

    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric O2 density and temperature profiles can be calculated thereof. A detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation was manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. A 60 V power supply is applied to the chamber. The produced photoelectric current from the sensor is fed to a two-channel amplifier, providing analog signal. The characteristics of the Lyman-alpha detector were studied. It passed successfully all tests and the results showed that the so-designed instrument could be used in rocket experiments to measure the Lymanalpha flux. From the measurements of the detector, the Lyman-alpha vertical profile can be obtained. Programs are created to compute the O2 density, atmospheric power and temperature profiles based on Lymanalpha data. The detector design appertained to ASLAF project (Attenuation of the Solar Lyman-Alpha Flux), a scientific cooperation between STIL—Bul.Acad.Sci., Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project was part of the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU’s 6th Framework Programme, Andøya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway. The project is partly financed by the Bulgarian Ministry of Science and Education.

  14. Flying spot laser triangulation scanner using lateral synchronization for surface profile precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Ren, Yongjie; Liu, Changjie; Zhu, Jigui

    2014-07-10

    High-speed surface profile measurement with high precision is crucial for target inspection and quality control. In this study, a laser scanner based on a single point laser triangulation displacement sensor and a high-speed rotating polygon mirror is proposed. The autosynchronized scanning scheme is introduced to alleviate the trade-off between the field of view and the range precision, which is the inherent deficiency of the conventional triangulation. The lateral synchronized flying spot technology has excellent characteristics, such as programmable and larger field of view, high immunity to ambient light or secondary reflections, high optical signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum shadow effect. Owing to automatic point-to-point laser power control, high accuracy and superior data quality are possible when measuring objects featuring varying surface characteristics even in demanding applications. The proposed laser triangulation scanner is validated using a laboratory-built prototype and practical considerations for design and implementation of the system are described, including speckle noise reduction method and real-time signal processing. A method for rapid and accurate calibration of the laser triangulation scanner using lookup tables is also devised, and the system calibration accuracy is generally smaller than ±0.025  mm. Experimental results are presented and show a broad application prospect for fast surface profile precision measurement.

  15. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  16. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B.B.; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  17. Measurement of the nTOF beam profile in the second experimental area (EAR2) using a silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Suljik, Fidan

    2017-01-01

    A new beam line and a second experimental area (EAR2) have been recently built at the neutron Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) facility at CERN. The characterization of the neutron beam in terms of spatial profile is a prerequisite for high accuracy cross-sections measurements. A silicon strip detector equipped with a neutron converter has been used to determine the beam profile as a function of incident neutron energy, in particular neutron beam profile has been measured from thermal energy up to 10 eV. Preliminary results have been compared with those collected with a MicroMegas detector also installed during the measurement.

  18. Applying clinical significance methodology to alcoholism treatment trials: determining recovery outcome status with individual- and population-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Ron A; Kowalchuk, Rhonda K; Saunders, Stephen M; Zweben, Allen; Trinh, Hanh Q

    2005-11-01

    The current analysis applies clinical significance methodology to alcoholism treatment outcome research using data available from Project MATCH. Because of its high internal validity and its inclusion of multiple measures assessing multiple outcome dimensions, MATCH was considered an ideal study to explore the utility of this methodology. Data reported here are from a total of 1,726 participants enrolled in either aftercare (n = 774) or outpatient (n = 952) arms of the study. First, a cutoff score was determined differentiating functional versus dysfunctional status on three outcome measures: percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD) and negative consequences of alcohol use. Second, the reliable change in pre- to post-treatment scores on these three measures was calculated. The results reported herein support the importance of distinguishing between statistical and clinical significance of outcomes. During three months post-treatment, approximately one-half of the treated patients were "recovered" (i.e., both functional and reliably changed) with respect to both PDA (i.e., 51%) and negative consequences of drinking (i.e., 47%); however, only about one-third of individuals remained recovered throughout the full one-year follow-up period (i.e., 33% on PDA and 35% on negative consequences). These individual-based change outcomes compared similarly to a population-based indicator of heavy drinking. Alternatively, only about one-quarter of participants were recovered using two distinct criteria for mean DDD (i.e., 23-29%), and even fewer participants remained recovered on mean DDD over the full one-year follow-up period (i.e., about 14-18%). Based on study limitations, more work is required to make clinical significance methodology practically useful to alcoholism treatment trials including more precise definitions of functional status and relative change as well as better interpretation of the inter-relationship between multiple measures

  19. Maximum entropy algorithm and its implementation for the neutral beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Wook; Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A tomography algorithm to maximize the entropy of image using Lagrangian multiplier technique and conjugate gradient method has been designed for the measurement of 2D spatial distribution of intense neutral beams of KSTAR NBI (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research Neutral Beam Injector), which is now being designed. A possible detection system was assumed and a numerical simulation has been implemented to test the reconstruction quality of given beam profiles. This algorithm has the good applicability for sparse projection data and thus, can be used for the neutral beam tomography. 8 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  20. Measurement the Thermal Profile of Steelmaking Ladle with Subsequent Evaluation the Reasons of Lining Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlček J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the operational measurement, of which content was to determine ladle thermal profile, there were analysed causes of possible damage of lining in steel ladles by steel breakout through the ladle shell. There exists connection between thermal state of ladle lining during the operation and its lifetime. There were reached to the conclusion that the cause of failure in the lining of ladle is except for high temperature of bath, also wide interval of temperature change during the tap operation, in consequence with possible insufficient pre-heating of ladle, discontinuous operation of aggregate and damage of insulating lining layer, respectively deformation of ladles shell.

  1. Can pyrene probes be used to measure lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes? Perspective through atomistic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Vattulainen, I.; Ollila, O. H. S.

    2014-01-01

    simulations, since established methods to measure the lateral pressure profile experimentally have not been available. The only experiments that have attempted to gauge the lateral pressure profile have been done by using di-pyrenyl-phosphatidylcholine (di-pyr-PC) probes. In these experiments, the excimer...

  2. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Feofilov, Artem; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature

  3. Measuring molecular abundance profiles from 5 microns ground-based spectroscopy in support of JUNO investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Doriann; Fouchet, Thierry; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Drossart, Pierre; Greathouse, Thomas; Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh

    2017-04-01

    We report on early results of an observational campaign to support the Juno mission. At the beginning of 2015, using TEXES (Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph), mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained data cubes of Jupiter in several spectral ranges between 2100 and 2200 cm-1 (4.5 - 4.7 μm) which probes the atmosphere in the 1-4 bar region, with a spectral resolution of R ≈ 7000 and an angular resolution of ≈ 1.5''. This dataset is analyzed by a code which combines a line-by-line radiative transfer model with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method. The inversion takes into account the abundance profiles of AsH_3, CO, GeH4 and H_2O, as well as clouds contribution, in addtion to the abundance profiles of NH3 and PH_3. We will present the inverted abundance profiles, the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances, their significance for the understanding of Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics, and how this will be useful for the determination of water abundance up to 200 bars, which is one of the main objectives of the instrument MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) mounted on the Juno spacecraft. This work will also be useful to prepare the analysis of the JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) 5-microns data aboard Juno.

  4. Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, A.; Goto, H.; Shintani, T.; Hirose, M.; Suzuki, R.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

  5. No significant impact of prior treatment profile with docetaxel on the efficacy of cabazitaxel in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Aki, Ryota; Matsushita, Yuto; Tamura, Keita; Motoyama, Daisuke; Ito, Toshiki; Otsuka, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the oncological outcomes of Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received cabazitaxel. This study included a total of 63 consecutive Japanese mCRPC patients treated with cabazitaxel following the failure of docetaxel, and assessed the prognostic significance of cabazitaxel therapy in these patients focusing on the association of efficacies between two taxane agents. After treatment with cabazitaxel (median 5 cycles), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline was observed in 39 patients (61.9%), including 13 (27.0%) achieving the response defined by PSA decline ≥50%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) periods after the introduction of cabazitaxel were 4.1 and 14.8 months, respectively. The response rate to cabazitaxel was not significantly different between responders and non-responders to prior docetaxel, and there was no significant correlation between the PFSs with docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Furthermore, univariate analyses of several parameters identified the performance status (PS) and clinical symptoms, but not the cycles of docetaxel therapy, total amount of administered docetaxel or objective response to docetaxel therapy, as significant predictors of OS on cabazitaxel therapy, of which only PS was independently associated with OS on multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that oncological outcomes in Japanese mCRPC patients receiving cabazitaxel are generally satisfactory, irrespective of the profiles related to prior treatment with docetaxel, and that it might be preferable to introduce cabazitaxel to mCRPC patients with a good PS to maximize the prognostic benefit of this agent.

  6. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  7. Measuring the significance of workload on performance of cytotechnologists in gynecologic cytology: a study using rapid prescreening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Majorie; Renshaw, Andrew A; Auger, Manon

    2008-06-25

    Workload is extensively regulated and often used as a measure of quality in gynecologic cytology. Whether workload correlates with the sensitivity of screening in gynecologic cytology is not known. The sensitivity of gynecologic cytology screening was measured over an 8-month period using the result of full screening coupled with the results of rapid prescreening. Sensitivity results were then correlated with daily workload volumes and the experience level of individual cytotechnologists. Rapid prescreening had an average sensitivity of 41.9% for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and above. Full screening had a corrected sensitivity of 82.2% for ASCUS and above. Rapid prescreening increased the sensitivity of the laboratory to 89.9%. The sensitivity of full screening was significantly different between cytotechnologists (79.2% vs 99%, P .05). When sensitivity and workload were examined on a monthly basis, there was no significant difference between sensitivity either as a group or individually at the highest and lowest workloads (P > .40 for all). Screeners sensitivity in gynecologic cytology appears to be unrelated to the experience level of individual cytotechnologists or to their workload at the levels examined. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  8. Prediction of Facial Profile Based on Morphometric Measurements and Profile Characteristics of Permanent Maxillary Central Incisor Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of facial profile from dental morphometrics has been a subject of great interest in forensic odontology. The use of teeth to draw a profile and facial features is valuable in times of mass disasters when body remains are unavailable due to extreme destruction. This study aims to identify and evaluate applicable parameters in the permanent maxillary central incisors and the face of an individual. A correlation of these parameters establishes a mathematical equation that further charts a tooth-facial profile table. Thirty soft and hard tissue landmarks on the face in the frontal and the lateral profiles (using standardized photographs and seven landmarks on the facial/labial surface of the clinical crown of the permanent maxillary central incisor (using casts of the maxilla were identified for the study. Based on these, a set of eight horizontal and seven vertical parameters on the face and four parameters on the tooth were created for the assessment. Internal and external correlations between the two were carried out and statistically analyzed. A logistic regression was made to predict the probability of the parameters most likely to be reproduced in the creation of the facial profile, based on tooth morphometrics. The results indicated a definite correlation between the facial and the tooth parameters. Among the multiple parameters, a definite correlation in the horizontal dimension could be established between the mouth width and the mesiodistal width (MDW of the tooth. In the vertical dimension, a definite relationship existed between the crown height of the tooth and the width of the midface (zygoma-mandible. There exist divergences in the correlation of tooth and facial parameters.

  9. Expressing Cobb Angle as Linear Measurement in Scoliosis and Its Significance: A Clinical and Geometrical Analysis of Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthezhath, Kishore

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an objective clinical and geometric relationship between Cobb angle and the difference between the lengths of convex and concave sides (convexo-concave vertebral difference) of the structural curve in scoliosis. Is it possible to express Cobb angle in such a way that it could be visualized as a length, especially while planning for surgical correction of scoliosis? Thirty consecutive patients below the age of 19 years with a scoliosis of Cobb angle more than 10 degrees were included in the study. Convexo-concave vertebral difference of the structural curve was measured. Its relationship with the measure of Cobb angle was studied. Author obtained a significant linear correlation between the convexo-concave vertebral differences and the Cobb angle. Using the formula Y=2d.Sin (X/2) the convexo-concave vertebral difference could be predicted. The difference thus obtained gives a quantitative measure of the maximum length of correction possible in the structural curve. It is possible to express the Cobb angle as a function of linear measurement. The author proposes that this would aid the surgeons to accurately and predictably achieve the desired scoliosis correction.

  10. Pre-storage centrifugation conditions have significant impact on measured microRNA levels in biobanked EDTA plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2016-01-01

    to be suitable for miRNA analysis. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers and centrifuged to produce platelet-poor-plasma (PPP) and standard biobank plasma. After one week at -80 °C the biobanked EDTA plasma was re-centrifuged by different steps to remove residual...... was significantly higher in the re-centrifuged biobanked plasma compared to PPP, even when the platelet count was reduced to 0-1×109/L. Conclusion: We found, that pre-storage centrifugation conditions have a significant impact on the measured EDTA plasma level of miRNAs known to be present in platelets. Even...... for the miRNAs found to be less effected, we showed that a 1.5-3 fold change in plasma levels may possible be caused by or easily overseen due to sample preparation and/or storage....

  11. Speed profiles in wheelchair court sports; comparison of two methods for measuring wheelchair mobility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Mason, B S; Berger, M A M; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2017-12-08

    Wheelchair mobility performance is an important aspect in most wheelchair court sports, commonly measured with an indoor tracking system or wheelchair bound inertial sensors. Both methods provide key wheelchair mobility performance outcomes regarding speed. In this study, we compared speed profiles of both methods to gain insight into the level of agreement, for recommendations regarding future performance measurement. Data were obtained from 5 male highly trained wheelchair basketball players during match play. Players were equipped simultaneously with a tag on the footplate for the indoor tracking system (∼8 Hz) and inertial sensors on both wheels and frame (199.8 Hz). Being part of a larger study on 3 vs 3 player game formats, data were collected in several matches with varying field sizes, but activity profiles closely resembled regular match play. Both systems provide similar outcomes regarding distance covered and average speed. Due to differences in sampling frequency and sensor location (reference point) on the wheelchair (for speed calculation), minor differences were revealed at low speeds (wheelchair basketball or wheelchair court sports in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactive oxygen species measurement in neat and washed semen: comparative analysis and its significance in male infertility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Shamsi, M B; Dudeja, S; Kumar, R; Dada, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a major concern in idiopathic male infertility as elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the semen is believed to adversely affect sperm functional competence and damage both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Therefore, identifying infertile men with seminal OS may be used as a valuable tool in the assessment of male infertility. Semen is a complex mixture of spermatozoa and seminal plasma which is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, the measurement of ROS in the semen and its application in male infertility assessment is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the significance of ROS measurement in washed and neat semen. The study included 65 infertile men with abnormal semen (SA) parameters, 17 infertile men with normal semen (NS) parameters and 43 fertile controls (FC). ROS levels in both washed and neat semen were measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and the values were expressed as 10(4 )RLU per minute per 20 million spermatozoa. The levels of ROS in both washed and neat semen were found to be significantly higher (P neat semen 0.03, washed semen 0.24), whereas infertile men with SA group had the highest median ROS level (neat semen 3.44, washed semen 27.42). In all subjects, ROS levels were found to be higher in washed semen than in neat semen. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.847, P neat and washed semen was observed. Measurement of ROS in neat semen reflects the original oxidative status in the actual sperm microenvironment and is an easy, simple, inexpensive and rapid method compared with ROS measurement from washed semen. ROS measurement in washed semen is done to assess ROS levels following sperm processing as in cases opting for assisted conception. As both ROS values in neat and washed show a positive correlation, neat semen may be used as a valuable tool for identifying infertile men with seminal OS. ROS levels are elevated in nearly 70% men with

  13. Measurement of a small vertical emittance with a laser wire beam profile monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper a measurement of vertical emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF damping ring at KEK with a laser wire beam profile monitor. This monitor is based on the Compton scattering process of electrons with a laser light target which is produced by injecting a cw laser beam into a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We installed the monitor at a straight section of the damping ring and measured the vertical emittance with three different ring conditions. In all cases, the ATF ring was operated at 1.28 GeV in a single bunch mode. When the ring was tuned for ultralow emittance, the vertical emittance of ε_{y}=(1.18±0.08×10^{-11}   mrad was achieved. This shows that the ATF damping ring has realized its target value also vertically.

  14. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  15. A LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars: average profiles, dispersion measures, flux densities, and spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E. F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Stappers, B. W.; Malofeev, V. M.; Sobey, C.; Breton, R. P.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Karastergiou, A.; Michilli, D.; Osłowski, S.; Sanidas, S.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Zarka, P.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Serylak, M.; Bell, M. E.; Broderick, J. W.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec > 8° and Galactic latitudes |Gb| > 3°, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed for ≥20 min in the contiguous frequency range of 110-188 MHz. Full-Stokes data were recorded. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures (1.5 × 10-3 pc cm-3) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, thechoice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral break, were highly influenced by the spectral coverage of the available flux density measurements. In particular, the inclusion of measurements below 100 MHz appears essential for investigating the low-frequency turnover in the spectra for most of the census pulsars. For several pulsars, we compared the spectral indices from different works and found the typical spread of values to be within 0.5-1.5, suggesting a prevailing underestimation of spectral index errors in the literature. The census observations yielded some unexpected individual source results, as we describe in the paper. Lastly, we will provide this unique sample of wide-band, low-frequency pulse profiles via the European Pulsar Network Database. Tables B.1-B.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A134

  16. Metal sheet thickness profile measurement method based on two-side line triangulation and continuous vibration compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Petri; Miettinen, Jari; Keränen, Heimo; Vaarala, Tapio

    2008-04-01

    Dimension measurements in metal production are getting increasingly important to improve quality and yield. One important measurement is thickness profile, in this case of copper strip. Knowing the strip profile in entrance and exit side of milling line helps optimizing the milling depth and give information about tool wearing. In this study a comparative measurement method was traversing point measurement system. It gives profile as a series of points which take a relatively long time to measure. Now presented method is based on two-side optical triangulation formed by line illuminators and CMOS-cameras and enables instantaneous thickness profile measurement. Results from both sides are fixed together using reference plates on both ends of the measurement area. From 1.3 m stand-off distance, 1.4 m wide measurement area is achieved. This paper presents the measurement method and results of laboratory and on-line tests. Using laser line illumination the accuracy of thickness was 150 μm when measuring 9 mm thick test plate. Accuracy was limited by laser speckle during static calibration. Other illumination method based on white light was therefore tested and the accuracy was 12 μm correspondingly. Measurement time for one profile was 1 second and resolution in cross machine direction 50 mm after averaging. Now presented method enables thickness profile measurement of copper and other metal sheets. Using white light the accuracy is at same level as the present traversing point measurement. Method has also continuous reference measurement to compensate errors caused by vibration; therefore the system can be realized at reasonable cost.

  17. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  18. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010b. According to this study, the SCIAMACHY data, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise, can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns over clean areas. Biases found over areas with strong emissions (Africa, China could be explained by low sensitivity of the instrument in the boundary layer and users are recommended to avoid using the SCIAMACHY data while trying to quantify CO burden and/or retrieve CO emissions in such areas.

  19. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  20. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  1. Efficacy of single-component MTV to measure turbulent wall-flow velocity derivative profiles at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsnab, John R.; Monty, Jason P.; White, Christopher M.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.

    2017-09-01

    Physical interpretations and especially analytical considerations benefit from the ability to accurately estimate derivatives of experimentally measured statistical profiles. Toward this aim, experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of single-component molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV) to measure mean velocity profiles that can be differentiated multiple times. Critical effects here pertain to finite measurement uncertainty in the presence of high spatial resolution. Measurements acquired in fully developed turbulent channel flow over a friction Reynolds number range from 390 to 1800 are used to investigate these issues. Each measured profile contains about 880 equally spaced data points that span from near the edge of the viscous sublayer to the channel centreline. As a result of the high spatial resolution, even very small levels of uncertainty in the data adversely affect the capacity to produce smooth velocity derivative profiles. It is demonstrated that the present 1c-MTV measurements can be differentiated twice, with the resulting profile remaining smooth and accurate. The experimental mean velocity profiles and their wall-normal derivatives up to second order are shown to convincingly agree with existing DNS data, including the apparent variations with Reynolds number.

  2. Direct rockfall measurements in the Northern Alps - spatio-temporal patterns and the significance for long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, O.

    2009-04-01

    The number of field studies dealing with the distribution and quantity of rockfall at alpine rock faces is still comparatively low. In previous investigations, debris falls were quantified by means of more than 60 collectors in six study areas in the northern and central Alps. In all study areas, the weathering rate was strongly influenced by three factors: Firstly, a combination of joint density and porosity of the bedrock; secondly, rockwall orientation with north faces delivering thrice the amount of rockfall than south faces; thirdly, the presence or non-presence of permafrost in the rock. Conversely, no general increase of rockfall with elevation was found. According to the results, the water supply of the rockwalls during freeze-thaw conditions is supposed to be a prominent controlling factor of frost weathering rates. This is confirmed by the observed temporal distribution of rockfalls. Sediment delivery to the collectors was highest in summer periods with "wet" freeze-thaw cycles caused by passing cold fronts. Conversely, strong winter frost turned out to be virtually inefficient without liquid water supply. Talus volumes were derived from geophysical, mainly ground-penetrating radar profiling on more than 30 scree slopes. According to the scree cubature, the weathering rates at north faces are two times higher than at south faces, the rockwalls in which permafrost is present showed the highest retreat rates, and no interrelation between rockwall retreat and elevation could be found. These patterns agree with the recent rockfall measurements. However, the absolute rates of rockwall retreat derived from scree volumes (200-850 mm/ka) are generally much higher than the measured recent removal rates (50-300 mm/ka). The possible reasons for this discrepancy include accelerated weathering during cold phases and the contribution of boulder and block falls to the sediment budget which are not registered by the small collectors. In order to cover an intermediate

  3. Clinical significance of coryneform Gram-positive rods from blood identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and their susceptibility profiles - a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ammara; Chen, Derrick J; Strand, Gregory J; Dylla, Brenda L; Cole, Nicolynn C; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), most Gram-positive rods (GPRs) are readily identified; however, their clinical relevance in blood cultures remains unclear. Herein, we assessed the clinical significance of GPRs isolated from blood and identified in the era of MALDI-TOF MS. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from January 1, 2013, to October 13, 2015, was performed. Any episode of a positive blood culture for a GPR was included. We assessed the number of bottles positive for a given isolate, time to positivity of blood cultures, patient age, medical history, interpretation of culture results by the healthcare team and whether infectious diseases consultation was obtained. We also evaluated the susceptibility profiles of a larger collection of GPRs tested in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from January 1, 2013, to October 31, 2015. There were a total of 246 GPRs isolated from the blood of 181 patients during the study period. 56% (n = 101) were deemed contaminants by the healthcare team and were not treated; 33% (n = 59) were clinically determined to represent true bacteremia and were treated; and 8% (n = 14) were considered of uncertain significance, with patients prescribed treatment regardless. Patient characteristics associated with an isolate being treated on univariate analysis included younger age (P = 0.02), identification to the species level (P = 0.02), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P blood culture sets (P = 0.0005) and lower time to positivity (P = 0.03) were associated with an isolate being treated. 100, 83, 48 and 34% of GPRs were susceptible to vancomycin, meropenem, penicillin and ceftriaxone, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of a Simple Method for Measuring Force-Velocity-Power Profile in Countermovement Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Conceição, Filipe; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan José; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the reliability and validity of a simple computation method to evaluate force (F), velocity (v), and power (P) output during a countermovement jump (CMJ) suitable for use in field conditions and to verify the validity of this computation method to compute the CMJ force-velocity (F-v) profile (including unloaded and loaded jumps) in trained athletes. Sixteen high-level male sprinters and jumpers performed maximal CMJs under 6 different load conditions (0-87 kg). A force plate sampling at 1000 Hz was used to record vertical ground-reaction force and derive vertical-displacement data during CMJ trials. For each condition, mean F, v, and P of the push-off phase were determined from both force-plate data (reference method) and simple computation measures based on body mass, jump height (from flight time), and push-off distance and used to establish the linear F-v relationship for each individual. Mean absolute bias values were 0.9% (± 1.6%), 4.7% (± 6.2%), 3.7% (± 4.8%), and 5% (± 6.8%) for F, v, P, and slope of the F-v relationship (SFv), respectively. Both methods showed high correlations for F-v-profile-related variables (r = .985-.991). Finally, all variables computed from the simple method showed high reliability, with ICC >.980 and CV power, and F-v profiles in athletes and could be used in practice under field conditions when body mass, push-off distance, and jump height are known.

  5. Measuring the Intrinsic Lyman-alpha Profiles of High-Velocity G, K, and M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison

    2017-08-01

    H I Lyman alpha (LyA; 1216 A) is the brightest emission line in the UV spectrum of F-K dwarfs and is as bright as the rest of the entire 1150-3000 A emission from M dwarfs. Stellar LyA emission plays a critical role in the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, energy transport in the stellar chromosphere, and in probing the density structure of the ISM. Thus, accurately characterizing LyA is critically important. However, interstellar H I removes more than 50% of the stellar LyA flux even for the nearest stars, necessitating reconstruction from the observed line profile wings and an assumption concerning the shape of the line core. The Sun (a G2 dwarf) is the only star for which we have high-resolution direct observations of the line core shape, which is self-reversed. Self-reversal in the LyA line core likely depends on spectral type, so incorrect assumptions of the line core shape for stars cooler or more active than the Sun will result in erroneous intrinsic LyA fluxes. We propose to directly measure with high spectral resolution (STIS E140M) the LyA line cores of five high radial velocity stars (G8 V to M4 V). These will be the first measurements of the LyA line with large Doppler shifts and sufficient resolution to probe the LyA line core shape. We will quantify the self-reversal depth, width, and symmetry, and compare amongst the spectral types. STIS E230H spectra will measure the Mg II line core shapes to test whether they are a good proxy for the LyA core shape. This program will create the first publicly available LyA intrinsic profile templates for late-type stars and update widely-used stellar LyA databases like the MUSCLES Treasury Survey.

  6. A system for vertical profile measurements of sensible heat and chemical concentrations near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyppoenen, M.; Walden, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The design, construction and measurements of a computer controlled system applicable to flux measurements of a scalar quantity by the gradient technique are described. Accuracy requirements for the measured variables which are used for flux calculations are considered, together with some practical aspects concerning data storage and control. The construction includes the hardware and the data acquisition, sample intake, and temperature measurement systems. The measurements comprise laboratory tests of the temperature probes and the hardware as well as field tests over wheat and grass land for temperature and wind speed and ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentration profiles. The hardware takes care of most of the operation and only the necessary part is done by the software. The data acquisition system is flexible, accepting the input of either digital and/or analog signals. It also controls the whole system, storing all the data in a single data file. The sample intake unit is designed to take continuous samples in to the monitors as well as grab samples into the canisters. Samples can be selected from one to four levels with no dead volumes in the sampling tubes. The temperature measurement system is constructed using a pair of temperature probes, Pt-100, which are connected to the same signal processing card, in order to remove the offset of the electronic components as well as the bias associated with single probes. This ensures the accuracy of the probes down to 0.005 deg C. According to the field measurements, the relative error limits for the sensible heat fluxes varied from 7 to 20 % in an unstable atmospheric situation. For the ozone flux, the error limits varied from 20 to 100 %, indicating a much poorer accuracy of the monitor compared to the temperature probes. (orig.) 16 refs.

  7. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2017-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  8. Measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a homemade stationary groundbased lidar system will be presented. In addition, information on basic characteristics and performance of the lidar system will be provided. Aerosol/Cloud lidar system in monostatic coaxial configuration uses the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonic (532 nm) of a pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser to provide information on the relative concentration and spatial distribution of aerosol particles and cloud water droplets. Beam expander is used to reduce the laser beam divergence before to be transmitted into the atmosphere. In this study, high-resolution vertical profiles from the near ground up to 15 km altitude are obtained. A Newtonian telescope of diameter 400 mm with an adjustable field of view (FOV) is used to collect the elastic backscattered signal. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used for the 532 nm wavelength detection channel, while an avalanche photodiode (APD) is used for the 1064 nm wavelength detection channel. The optoelectronic detection channels use two similar very high frequency preamplification circuit. Data are acquired with a nominal spatial resolution of 7.5 m using a 12-bit 20 MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for each channel. Many functions, such as, range determination, background subtraction, digitization, and averaging are performed by the receiver subsystem. In addition, spatial resolution and linear dynamic range were optimized during signal processing.

  9. Pressure-driven flow of a micro-polar fluid: measurement of the velocity profile

    CERN Document Server

    François, Peters; Lemaire, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-driven flow of a suspension of spinning particles in a rectangular channel is studied using an acoustic method. The suspension is made of insulating particles (PMMA) dispersed in a slightly conducting oil (Ugilec + Dielec) and is subjected to a DC electric field. In such a case, the particles are polarized in the direction opposite to that of the electric field and begin to rotate in order to flip their dipoles in the field direction. Such a rotation of the particles is known as Quincke rotation and is responsible for an important decrease of the effective viscosity of the suspension. Indeed, due to the electric torque exerted on the particles, the stress tensor in the suspension is not symmetric anymore and a driving effect arises from the anti-symmetric part. When such a suspension flows through a rectangular channel, the velocity profile is expected to deviate from the usual Poiseuille flow. In this paper, the velocity profiles are measured using Pulsed Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry technique...

  10. Measuring psychological change during cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care: a Polish study using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Czachowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological outcome measures are evolving into measures that depict progress over time. Interval measurement during therapy has not previously been reported for a patient-generated measure in primary care. We aimed to determine the sensitivity to change throughout therapy, using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles, and to determine if new problems appearing during therapy diminish overall improvement. METHODS: Responses to PSYCHLOPS, pre-, during- and post-therapy were compared. SETTING: patients offered brief cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care in Poland. RESULTS: 238 patients completed the pre-therapy questionnaire, 194 (81.5% the during-therapy questionnaire and 142 the post-therapy questionnaire (59.7%. For those completing all three questionnaires (n = 135, improvement in total scores produced an overall Effect Size of 3.1 (2.7 to 3.4. We estimated change using three methods for dealing with missing values. Single and multiple imputation did not significantly change the Effect Size; 'Last Value Carried Forward', the most conservative method, produced an overall Effect Size of 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6. New problems during therapy were reported by 81 patients (60.0%: new problem and original problem scores were of similar magnitude and change scores were not significantly different when compared to patients who did not report new problems. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of outcome data is lost when outcome measures depend upon completed end of therapy questionnaires. The use of a during-therapy measure increases data capture. Missing data still produce difficulties in interpreting overall effect sizes for change. We found no evidence that new problems appearing during therapy hampered overall recovery.

  11. Color-Doppler sonographic tissue perfusion measurements reveal significantly diminished renal cortical perfusion in kidneys with vesicoureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Scholbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR and its sequelae may lead to reduced renal perfusion and loss of renal function. Methods to describe and monitor tissue perfusion are needed. We investigated dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM with the PixelFlux-software to measure microvascular changes in the renal cortex in 35 children with VUR and 28 healthy children. DTPM of defined horizontal slices of the renal cortex was carried out. A kidney was assigned to the "low grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade of the voiding cystourethrogram was 1 to 3 and to the "high grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade was 4 to 5. Kidneys with VUR showed a significantly reduced cortical perfusion. Compared to healthy kidneys, this decline reached in low and high grade refluxes within the proximal 50% of the cortex: 3% and 12 %, in the distal 50% of the cortex: 21% and 44 % and in the most distal 20 % of the cortex 41% and 44%. DTPM reveals a perfusion loss in kidneys depending on the degree of VUR, which is most pronounced in the peripheral cortex. Thus, DTPM offers the tool to evaluate microvascular perfusion, to help planning treatment decisions in children with VUR.

  12. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of force and respiratory profiles during chest physiotherapy in ventilated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, R K; Stocks, J; Petley, G W; Shannon, H; Warner, J O; Jagannathan, R; Main, E

    2007-09-01

    There are currently no objective means of quantifying chest wall vibrations during manual physiotherapy. The aims of the study were to (i) develop a method to quantify physiotherapy-applied forces and simultaneous changes in respiratory flow and pressure, (ii) assess the feasibility of using this method in ventilated children and (iii) characterize treatment profiles delivered by physiotherapists in the paediatric intensive care unit. Customized sensing mats were designed and used in combination with a respiratory profile monitor. Software was developed to align force and flow data streams. Force and respiratory data were successfully collected in 55 children (median age 1.6 years (range 0.02-13.7 years)). Physiotherapists demonstrated distinctive variations in the pattern of force applied and manual lung inflations. The maximum applied force ranged from 15 to 172 N, and was correlated with the child's age (r = 0.76). Peak expiratory flow increased significantly during manual inflations both with and without chest wall vibrations (p manual lung inflations as an essential precursor to developing evidence-based practice.

  14. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  15. Effect of H- stripped electrons on the LINAC4 profile measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Duraffourg, M; Focker, GJ; Hessler, C; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Vuitton, C; Zocca, F

    2013-01-01

    At CERN's LINAC4 it is foreseen to measure transverse beam profiles by means of Secondary Emission wire grids (normally referred to as SEM monitors or SEM grids) and Beam Wire Scanners (BWS). Following observations at the SNS linac BWS, that showed cross-talk between wire signals attributed to scattering of H- stripped electrons, it was decided to investigate this effect for the LINAC4 case. The interaction of electron beams with Carbon and Tungsten wires was studied through Monte Carlo simulations (FLUKA code), analytical calculations, particle tracking simulations in EM fields (CST Particle Studio) and a laboratory experiment based on a 70 keV electron beam, well reproducing the case of 128 MeV H- ions.

  16. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...... is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic...

  17. Measurement and Simulation of the Dew Profile in the Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, A.; Kuwagata, T.; Watanabe, T.; Ohba, K.

    2005-12-01

    Dew on the leaves of the plant plays an important role not only on nocturnal local climate but also on the evapotranspiration on next daytime and the outbreaks of plant diseases. Most of disease germs colonize at particular sites of the plant, so that the dew distribution in the plant canopy is important factor that affect the germ development. We measured vertical variation of the dew in the rice plant canopy on summer season under warm temperate climate, and simulate it by using mechanistic micrometeorological model to study the relationship between dew formation and canopy structure. Dew on the leaves and panicles were measured with two hours intervals during the nighttime at clear sky days on mid-stage (August 19, 21 and 24) and late-stage (October 1) of 2005 rice growing season in Kumamoto plain, Japan. Vertical one-dimensional Double Source Model (DSM) and Multi Layer Model (MLM) were used as the simulation model, which based on the radiation transfer, heat budget and mass diffusion theories on soil-plant-atmosphere. DSM separates the land surface for soil layer and plant layer, and solves the heat budget equations of both layers to calculate the dew formation flux. MLM additionally separates the plant layer for vertical multi layer, and solves the heat budget equations to calculate the dew formation flux on each layer. Maximum values of measured total weight of the dew in the plant on unit ground area were 0.14 kg m-2 on August 19, 0.09 kg m-2 on August 21, 0.18 kg m-2 on August 24 and 0.38 kg m-2 on October 1. These maximum values were observed at 6:00 am on every case. Simulated values of total dew weight using DSM were smaller than measured values, whereas that using MLM showed good agreement with measured values. The reason could be comes from the difference between two models that MLM calculate the temperature and humidity profile of the atmosphere in the canopy that was not calculated in DSM. Since the atmospheric humidity in the canopy was higher than

  18. The relationship, structure and profiles of schizophrenia measurements: a post-hoc analysis of the baseline measures from a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background To fully assess the various dimensions affected by schizophrenia, clinical trials often include multiple scales measuring various symptom profiles, cognition, quality of life, subjective well-being, and functional impairment. In this exploratory study, we characterized the relationships among six clinical, functional, cognitive, and quality-of-life measures, identifying a parsimonious set of measurements. Methods We used baseline data from a randomized, multicenter study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder who were experiencing an acute symptom exacerbation (n = 628 to examine the relationship among several outcome measures. These measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding Test, Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptics Scale Short Form (SWN-K, Schizophrenia Objective Functioning Instrument (SOFI, and Quality of Life Scale (QLS. Three analytic approaches were used: 1 path analysis; 2 factor analysis; and 3 categorical latent variable analysis. In the optimal path model, the SWN-K was selected as the final outcome, while the SOFI mediated the effect of the exogenous variables (PANSS, MADRS on the QLS. Results The overall model explained 47% of variance in QLS and 17% of the variance in SOFI, but only 15% in SWN-K. Factor analysis suggested four factors: "Functioning," "Daily Living," "Depression," and "Psychopathology." A strong positive correlation was observed between the SOFI and QLS (r = 0.669, and both the QLS and SOFI loaded on the "Functioning" factor, suggesting redundancy between these scales. The measurement profiles from the categorical latent variable analysis showed significant variation in functioning and quality of life despite similar levels of psychopathology. Conclusions Researchers should consider collecting PANSS, SOFI, and

  19. Relating gas chromatographic profiles to sensory measurements describing the end products of the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, I; Boucon, C; Walczak, B

    2011-01-30

    Often in analytical practice, a set of samples is described by different types of measurements in the hope that a comprehensive characterisation of samples will provide a more complete picture and will help in determining the similarities among samples. The main focus is then on how to combine the information described by different measurement variables and how to analyse it simultaneously. In other words, the main goal is to find a common representation of samples that emphasises the individual and common properties of the different blocks of variables. Several methods can be adopted for the simultaneous analysis of multiblock data with a common object mode. These are: consensus principal component analysis (CPCA), SUM-PCA, multiple factor analysis (MFA) and structuration des tableaux à trois indices de la statistique (STATIS).In this article we present a comparison of the performances of these methods for data describing the chemistry and sensory profiles of the Maillard reaction products. The aroma compounds formed during the reaction of thermal heating between one or two selected amino acids and one or two reducing sugars have been analysed by head space gas chromatography and the intensity and nature of the odour of the resulting products has been evaluated according to selected descriptors by a panel of sensory experts.The results showed that using the information of the chromatographic and sensory data in conjunction enhanced the interpretability of the data. SUM-PCA and more specifically multiple factor analysis, MFA, allowed for a detailed study of the similarities of mixtures in terms of reaction products and sensory profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  1. Non-contact automatic measurement of free-form surface profiles on CNC machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a non-contact type automatic measurement system for any free-form surfaces on a CNC machine tool or a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and its CAD/CAM integration. A laser probe made by Keyence Co. model LC-2220 was integrated into the CNC machine as the non-contact sensor. A measurement software has been developed for automatic surface tracing of any free-form profile. Data transfer to any commercially available CAD/CAM system for reverse engineering is also available via proper DXF file. Extensive calibration work has been carried out on the systematic accuracy of the laser probe with respect to the color material surface slope and edge detection of the workpiece by the use of a HP5528 laser interferometer system. Having employed the surface painting technique the shape error of the copied object relative to its master piece was found within 30 micrometers which is deemed adequate enough to the mold industry.

  2. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  3. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  4. Overview of laserwire beam profile and emittance measurements for high power proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; Bosco, A; Gabor, C; Pozimski, J; Savage, P; Hofmann, T

    2013-01-01

    Laserwires were originally developed to measure micron-sized electron beams via Compton scattering, where traditional wire scanners are at the limit of their resolution. Laserwires have since been applied to larger beamsize, high power H$^-$ ion beams, where the non-invasive method can probe beam densities that would damage traditional diagnostics. While photo-detachment of H$^-$ ions is now routine to measure beam profiles, extending the technique to transverse and longitudinal emittance measurements is a key aim of the laserwire emittance scanner under construction at the Front End Test Stand (FETS) at the RAL. A pulsed, 30 kHz, 8kW peak power laser is fibrecoupled to motorized collimating optics, which controls the position and thickness of the laserwire delivered to the H- interaction chamber. The laserwire slices out a beamlet of neutralized particles, which propagate to a downstream scintillator and camera. The emittance is reconstructed from 2D images as the laserwire position is scanned. Results from ...

  5. Field measurements of temperature profile for floatovoltaic dryer in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, F. A.; Ya'acob, M. E.; Iskandar, A. Noor

    2017-09-01

    Most of the equator region in a tropical climate zone experiences hot and humid weather but sometimes heavy rain and thunderstorms which occur stochastically in monsoon season. Sunlight which is the energy source can be harvested approximately 8 hours (on average basis) daily throughout the year which leads to the promotion of Solar PV technologies. This works projects the field performance for a new Floatovoltaic Dryer prototype with flexible PV roofing structures covering the top of the dryer system. The field measurements are collected on the lake of Engineering Faculty, UPM supported with 4-parameter weather station. Temperature profile with RH measurements inside the Floatovoltaic Dryer compartments as compared to direct-sun drying mechanism are the main contributions of this work and it projects more than 12 W of convection heat energy could be harvested by using the clean system. The field measurements imply various points of thermocouple and humidity sensor throughout the experiment. Temperature and humidity will be the main elements recorded to analyze the differences under monocrystalline PV panel as compared to natural drying.

  6. Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH: an ecometric assessment of measures of the community environment based on individual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Corsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health research has turned towards examining upstream, community-level determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective measures of the environment, such as those derived from direct observation, and perception-based measures by residents have both been associated with health behaviours. However, current methods are generally limited to objective measures, often derived from administrative data, and few instruments have been evaluated for use in rural areas or in low-income countries. We evaluate the reliability of a quantitative tool designed to capture perceptions of community tobacco, nutrition, and social environments obtained from interviews with residents in communities in 5 countries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen measures of the community environment were developed from responses to questionnaire items from 2,360 individuals residing in 84 urban and rural communities in 5 countries (China, India, Brazil, Colombia, and Canada in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH study. Reliability and other properties of the community-level measures were assessed using multilevel models. High reliability (>0.80 was demonstrated for all community-level measures at the mean number of survey respondents per community (n = 28 respondents. Questionnaire items included in each scale were found to represent a common latent factor at the community level in multilevel factor analysis models. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Reliable measures which represent aspects of communities potentially related to cardiovascular disease (CVD/risk factors can be obtained using feasible sample sizes. The EPOCH instrument is suitable for use in different settings to explore upstream determinants of CVD/risk factors.

  7. ProVal : First data from a new Argo profiler dedicated to high quality radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organelli, E.; Leymarie, E.; Penkerc'h, C.; Claustre, H.; Antoine, D.; Marty, S.

    2016-02-01

    Following the recommendation of the International Ocean Color Coordinating Group in 2011 (IOCCG report #11), the Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche (LOV) has developed a new profiling float dedicated to the validation of satellite ocean color remote sensing data. Taking advantage of our experience in both Argo floats and radiometric measurements, we have developed the ProVal float. This new float has a two-arm design that allows sensor redundancy and mitigation of shading by the float through using the radiometer best placed with respect to the sun. ProVal measures downward irradiance and upwelling radiance at seven wavelengths with the highest quality currently achievable with this type of radiometer. It also measures the downward Photosynthetically Available Radiation, the fluorescence of Chlorophyll-a and of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter and finally the backscattering at 700nm. ProVal is able to monitor all year round these apparent and inherent optical properties of the water column simultaneously with ocean color satellite observations. After a description of the original concept of our platform based on a new float designed by NKE (PROVOR CTS5) combined with a new acquisition board developed on our specifications, we present initial data from this float taken during several deployments in the Mediterranean Sea. Together with results on sensor aging over deployments, ProVal data are compared with those acquired by other platforms dedicated to Ocean Color measurements (buoy measurements from the BOUSSOLE site and satellite ocean color observations). Perspective of future deployments will be also presented.

  8. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  9. 2D spatial profile measurements of potential fluctuation with heavy ion beam probe on the Large Helical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A; Ido, T; Nishiura, M; Kato, S; Ogawa, K; Takahashi, H; Igami, H; Yoshimura, Y; Kubo, S; Shimozuma, T

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced. By using this method, the 2D spatial profile of potential fluctuation profile was successfully obtained.

  10. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  11. Prognostic significance of the complex "Visceral Adiposity Index" vs. simple anthropometric measures: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadreza, Bozorgmanesh; Farzad, Hadaegh; Davoud, Khalili; Fereidoun Prof, Azizi Fereidoun

    2012-03-07

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been suggested to be used as a surrogate of visceral adiposity. We examined if VAI could improve predictive performances for CVD of the Framingham's general CVD algorithm (a multivariate model incorporating established CVD risk factors). We compared the predictive abilities of the VAI with those of simple anthropometric measures i.e. BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR). In a nine-year population-based follow-up, 6,407 (2,778 men) participants, free of CVD at baseline, aged≥30 years were eligible for the current analysis. The risk of CVD was estimated by incorporating VAI, BMI, WHpR, and WHtR, one at a time, into multivariate accelerated failure time models. We documented 534 CVD events with the annual incidence rate (95%CIs) being 7.3 (6.4-8.3) among women and 13.0 (11.7-14.6) among men. Risk of future CVD increased with increasing levels of VAI among both men and women. VAI was associated with multivariate-adjusted increased risk of incident CVD among women. However, the magnitude of risk conferred by VAI was not significantly higher than those conferred by BMI, WHpR, or WHtR. Among men, after adjustment for established CVD risk factors, VAI was no longer associated with increased risk of CVD. VAI failed to add to the predictive ability of the Framingham general CVD algorithm. Using VAI instead of simple anthropometric measures may lead to loss of much information needed for predicting incident CVD.

  12. Prognostic significance of metabolic tumor volume measured by {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in operable primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jahae; Yoo, Su Woong; Kang, Sae Ryung; Cho, Sang Geon; Oh, Jong Ryool; Chong, Ari; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung; Yoon, Jung Han; Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    We investigated whether PET indices measured by {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer. We reviewed 53 patients with operable primary breast cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. PET indices, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), were measured in the primary breast tumor (P), metastatic lymph nodes (N) and total tumor (T). The cox proportional hazards model was used with age, tumor size, clinical lymph node status, method od of surgery, presence or absence of neoadjuvant chemo therapy, histological type, histological grade, hormone grade, hormone receptors and HER2 status to predict disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow up period was 50 months (range, 17 73 months), during which 17 patients had recurrent disease and nine of whom died. The univariate analysis showed that high SUV of N (N{sup SUV,} =0.011), MTV of N (N{sup MTV,} =0.011) and MTV of T (T{sup MTV,} =0.045) as well as high histological grade (=0.008), negative estrogen ( =0.045) and negative progesterone ( =0.029) receptor status were associated with shorter DFS. High N{sup SUV(}=0.035) and N{sup MTV(} =0.035) and T{sup MTV(}=0.035)as well as high histological grade (=0.012) and negative estrogen receptor status ( =0.009)were associated with shorted OS. N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTw}ere found to be significantly associated with high histological grade ( =0.005). However, those failed to be statistically significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis PET indices seem to be useful in the preoperative evaluation of prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer, N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTVm}ight be considerable factors associated with patient outcome in operable breast cancer.

  13. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Suda, M.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Endo, S.; Hamano, T.; Arai, S.; Higashimata, A.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  14. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, M., E-mail: m_takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Suda, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M. [Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., 3-5-7 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0063 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, H. [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2, Ami Ami-Cho, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Endo, S. [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Hamano, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Arai, S.; Higashimata, A. [Sanki Industry Co., 318-6, Sannoh, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0002 (Japan)

    2012-10-11

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  15. The paleoenvironmental significance of δ13C of Kulishu stalagmite, Beijing, China, during Younger Dryas intervals: inferred from the grey level profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    duan, W.; Tan, M.; Ma, Z.; Cheng, H.

    2012-12-01

    A previous research on the δ18O profile of a stalagmite from Kulishu cave, Beijing, China, has discussed the timing and structure of the Younger Dryas event (YD) (Ma et al., 2012). However, the stalagmite δ13C has not been utilized in interpreting paleoenvironment. To explore the significance of δ13C profile, here, we also present the grey level of the same stalagmite for comparisons. The vegetation above Kulishu cave is mainly dominated by C3 plants, secondary-growth deciduous broadleaf trees and shrubs (Ma et al., 2012), inferring that Kulishu speleothem δ13C may primarily reflect changes in the vegetative cover and biomass rather than vegetation C3/C4 ratio (Baldini et al., 2005; Cosford et al., 2009). During periods of less precipitation and lower temperature, plant cover and biological activity decrease, which lowers soil pCO2 and raise δ13C values of soil CO2 (Hou et al., 2003). In turn, worse vegetative cover results in higher stalagmite δ13C as less biogenic CO2 is dissolved in the seepage water, and vice verse. (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Drysdale et al., 2004; Cosford et al., 2009). Additionally, inorganic processes that respond to climatic conditions also contribute to the δ13C record of stalagmite. Under cooler and drier conditions, reduced drip rates result in higher stalagmite δ13C values owing to longer CO2 degassing time on both the stalagmite surface (Bar-Matthews et al., 1996; Mickler et al., 2004, 2006; Cosford et al., 2009) and the unsaturated zone of karstic aquifer (Baker et al., 1997). As the biological activities and inorganic processes drive stalagmite δ13C in the same "direction", lower δ13C value of stalagmite reflects relatively increased precipitation and higher temperature, and vice verse (Cosford et al., 2009). The grey level, to some extent, supports the idea that the δ13C time series of Kulishu stalagmite can be interpreted as the variation of precipitation and temperature. The two proxies representative of the YD and

  16. Ground-Based Remote or In Situ Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Wind in the Lower Troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Knowledge of winds in the lower troposphere is essential for a range of applications, including weather forecasting, transportation, natural hazards, and wind energy. This presentation focuses on the measurement of vertical profiles of wind in the lower troposphere for wind energy applications. This presentation introduces the information that wind energy site development and operations require, how it used, and the benefits and problems of current measurements from in-situ measurements and remote sensing. The development of commercial Doppler wind lidar systems over the last 10 years are shown, along with the lessons learned from this experience. Finally, potential developments in wind profiling aimed at reducing uncertainty and increasing data availability are introduced.

  17. High-Resolution Vertical Profile Measurements for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Concentrations Within and Above Crop Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Patrizia; Graf, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We present a portable elevator-based facility for measuring CO2 , water vapour, temperature and wind-speed profiles between the soil surface and the atmospheric surface layer above crop canopies. The end of a tube connected to a closed-path gas analyzer is continuously moved up and down over the profile range (in our case, approximately 2 m) while concentrations are logged at a frequency of 20 s^{-1} . Using campaign measurements in winter wheat, winter barley and a catch crop mixture (spring 2015 to autumn 2016) during different stages of crop development and different times of the day, we demonstrate a simple approach to correct for time lags, and the resulting profiles of 30-min mean mole fractions of CO2 and H2O over height increments of 0.025 m. The profiles clearly show the effects of soil respiration and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, varying both during the diurnal cycle and during the growing season. Profiles of temperature and wind speed are based on a ventilated finewire thermocouple and a hot-wire anemometer, respectively. Measurements over bare soil and a short plant canopy were analyzed in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to check the validity of the measurements and raw-data-processing approach. Derived fluxes of CO2 , latent and sensible heat and momentum show good agreement with eddy-covariance measurements.

  18. Expression Profiles of Bovine Adeno-Associated Virus and Avian Adeno-Associated Virus Display Significant Similarity to That of Adeno-Associated Virus Type 5

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Pintel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first detailed expression profiles of nonprimate-derived adeno-associated viruses, namely, bovine adeno-associated virus (B-AAV) and avian adeno-associated virus (A-AAV), which were obtained after the infection of cell lines derived from their natural hosts. In general, the profiles of B-AAV and A-AAV were quite similar to that of AAV5; however, both exhibited features found for AAV2 as well. Like adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5), B-AAV and A-AAV utilized an internal polyad...

  19. Tropospheric profiles of wet refractivity and humidity from the combination of remote sensing data sets and measurements on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hurter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We reconstruct atmospheric wet refractivity profiles for the western part of Switzerland with a least-squares collocation approach from data sets of (a zenith path delays that are a byproduct of the GPS (global positioning system processing, (b ground meteorological measurements, (c wet refractivity profiles from radio occultations whose tangent points lie within the study area, and (d radiosonde measurements. Wet refractivity is a parameter partly describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves and depends on the atmospheric parameters temperature and water vapour pressure. In addition, we have measurements of a lower V-band microwave radiometer at Payerne. It delivers temperature profiles at high temporal resolution, especially in the range from ground to 3000 m a.g.l., though vertical information content decreases with height. The temperature profiles together with the collocated wet refractivity profiles provide near-continuous dew point temperature or relative humidity profiles at Payerne for the study period from 2009 to 2011. In the validation of the humidity profiles, we adopt a two-step procedure. We first investigate the reconstruction quality of the wet refractivity profiles at the location of Payerne by comparing them to wet refractivity profiles computed from radiosonde profiles available for that location. We also assess the individual contributions of the data sets to the reconstruction quality and demonstrate a clear benefit from the data combination. Secondly, the accuracy of the conversion from wet refractivity to dew point temperature and relative humidity profiles with the radiometer temperature profiles is examined, comparing them also to radiosonde profiles. For the least-squares collocation solution combining GPS and ground meteorological measurements, we achieve the following error figures with respect to the radiosonde reference: maximum median offset of relative refractivity error is −16% and quartiles are 5% to

  20. Stratospheric Profiling of HDO from Far InfraRed Limb Measurements by TELIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Water vapour is the dominant greenhouse gas in the troposphere and has been increasing in the stratosphere as well. It is generally believed that stratospheric water vapor affects ozone chemistry in the stratosphere. HDO, one of the rare isotopologues, has been recently monitored by several operational satellite instruments by detecting thermal emission in the infrared and microwave range.The balloon-borne TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder) instrument has been cooperatively developed by a consortium of European institutes, i.e. DLR (German Aerospace Center), SRON (Netherlands Institute for Space Research), and RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory). Together with MIPAS-B and mini-DOAS operated by KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) and Heidelberg University, respectively, TELIS was installed on a stratospheric balloon gondola and has participated in four scientific campaigns since 2009. The high spectral resolution spectrometer TELIS allows the vertical information of the rare isotopologues between about 10 and 40 km by resolving power of individual lines. The concentration profile of HDO in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere can be observed by both the 1.8 THz (far infrared) channel and the 480-650 GHz (submillimeter) channel. For the far infrared frequency channel, the HDO product is retrieved from the 1818.50 GHz transition. We make use of the retrieval code PILS (Profile Inversion for Limb Sounding) to carry out the inversion and to assess the accuracy of the retrieval product.In this work, we present the HDO retrievals from the 2009-2011 winter polar campaigns. The outcome of this comparison helps us to better understand the measurement capabilities of the TELIS instrument and to make contribution to cross-validation of these spaceborne sensors.

  1. Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084531; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-02-23

    The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c) and intensity (10^2 to 10^8 particles per second). The profile, position, and intensity of these beams are measured utilising particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of this kind of monitoring. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the best detector technology that could replace the existing monitors and build a first prototype of it. A review of the existing detection techniques has led to the choice of Scintillating Fibres (SciFi) read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). This detection technology has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured, and active area size. In addition, it has particle counting capabilities, which could extend its application to momentum spectrometry or Time...

  2. A Quantum Gas Jet for Non-Invasive Beam Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Lefevre, T; Tzoganis, V; Welsch, C; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    A novel instrument for accelerator beam diagnostics is being developed by using De Broglie-wave focusing to create an ultra-thin neutral gas jet. Scanning the gas jet across a particle beam while measuring the interaction products, the beam profile can be measured. Such a jet scanner will provide an invaluable diagnostic tool in beams which are too intense for the use of wire scanners, such as the proposed CLIC Drive Beam. In order to create a sufficiently thin jet, a focusing element working on the de Broglie wavelength of the Helium atom has been designed. Following the principles of the Photon Sieve, we have constructed an Atomic Sieve consisting of 5230 nano-holes etched into a thin film of silicon nitride. When a quasi-monochromatic Helium jet is incident on the sieve, an interference pattern with a single central maximum is created. The stream of Helium atoms passing through this central maximum is much narrower than a conventional gas jet. The first experiences with this device are presented here, alon...

  3. A Spinning Mirror for Fast Angular Scans of EBW Emission for Magnetic Pitch Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12,000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  4. Airborne DOAS limb measurements of tropospheric trace gas profiles: case studies on the profile retrieval of O4 and BrO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Theys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel limb scanning mini-DOAS spectrometer for the detection of UV/vis absorbing radicals (e.g., O3, BrO, IO, HONO was deployed on the DLR-Falcon (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt aircraft and tested during the ASTAR 2007 campaign (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation that took place at Svalbard (78° N in spring 2007. Our main objectives during this campaign were to test the instrument, and to perform spectral and profile retrievals of tropospheric trace gases, with particular interest on investigating the distribution of halogen compounds (e.g., BrO during the so-called ozone depletion events (ODEs. In the present work, a new method for the retrieval of vertical profiles of tropospheric trace gases from tropospheric DOAS limb observations is presented. Major challenges arise from modeling the radiative transfer in an aerosol and cloud particle loaded atmosphere, and from overcoming the lack of a priori knowledge of the targeted trace gas vertical distribution (e.g., unknown tropospheric BrO vertical distribution. Here, those challenges are tackled by a mathematical inversion of tropospheric trace gas profiles using a regularization approach constrained by a retrieved vertical profile of the aerosols extinction coefficient EM. The validity and limitations of the algorithm are tested with in situ measured EM, and with an absorber of known vertical profile (O4. The method is then used for retrieving vertical profiles of tropospheric BrO. Results indicate that, for aircraft ascent/descent observations, the limit for the BrO detection is roughly 1.5 pptv (pmol mol−1, and the BrO profiles inferred from the boundary layer up to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere have around 10 degrees of freedom. For the ASTAR 2007 deployments during ODEs, the retrieved BrO vertical profiles consistently indicate high BrO mixing ratios (∼15 pptv within the boundary layer, low BrO mixing ratios (≤1.5 pptv in the free

  5. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.-L.; Liu, H.-N.; Tan, P.-H.

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  6. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-L; Liu, H-N; Tan, P-H

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Metabolic profile of visual cortex in diabetic rats measured with in vivo proton MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinghua; Yang, Junjie; Lei, Hao; Wang, Xuxia; Xiang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the metabolic profile of the visual cortex in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats by means of in vivo proton MRS. Several metabolite concentration ratios in the visual cortex were calculated. In addition, postmortem histologic analyses for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve injury and visual cortex alterations were monitored. The results showed that diabetes induced several changes in visual cortex metabolites, such as reduced N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine and choline-containing compound levels. Nevertheless, myo-inositol levels increased significantly as compared with controls. Remarkable RGC loss and optic nerve degeneration were observed by morphological analysis. Moreover, the results showed significant neuronal loss and glial activation in the visual cortex. These findings indicated that, besides vascular abnormalities, neuronal loss and degeneration in the visual pathway were induced due to disrupted glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Metabolic or functional abnormalities were induced in cerebral neurons of the visual cortex by diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  9. Gamma-ray-based measurement of concentration distribution in pipe flow of settling slurry: vertical profiles and tomographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupička Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principles of gamma-ray-based measurement are summarized and their application is demonstrated on an operation of the radiometric facility installed in the test loop for slurry flows at the Institute of Hydrodynamics. The facility is able to measure vertical profiles of chord-averaged concentrations and concentration maps in the pipe cross section. A methodology of measurement is proposed including detection and quantification of random and systematic errors. Experimental results are discussed in the light of the proposed methodology. Experimentally determined vertical profiles of concentration are presented for slurry flows of four different fractions of glass beads. The tomographic application of the radiometric device is demonstrated on a measured concentration map and a suitable image reconstruction method is tested. High reliability of measured concentration distributions is proved except for regions near the pipe wall. The radiometric method is shown to be a useful tool for measurement of concentration distribution in slurry flow through a pipe.

  10. Measuring the Ultimate Halo Mass of Galaxy Clusters: Redshifts and Mass Profiles from the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 noise spectra for ~200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a ΛCDM universe) is on average (1.99 ± 0.11)M 200, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in LX demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  11. Vertical profiles of black carbon measured by a micro-aethalometer in summer in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Liang; Deng, Zhaoze; Xu, Xiaobin; Yan, Peng; Lin, Weili; Wang, Ying; Tian, Ping; Wang, Pucai; Pan, Weilin; Lu, Daren

    2016-08-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a dominant absorber in the visible spectrum and a potent factor in climatic effects. Vertical profiles of BC were measured using a micro-aethalometer attached to a tethered balloon during the Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols (VOGA) field campaign, in summer 2014 at a semirural site in the North China Plain (NCP). The diurnal cycle of BC vertical distributions following the evolution of the mixing layer (ML) was investigated for the first time in the NCP region. Statistical parameters including identified mixing height (Hm) and average BC mass concentrations within the ML (Cm) and in the free troposphere (Cf) were obtained for a selected dataset of 67 vertical profiles. Hm was usually lower than 0.2 km in the early morning and rapidly rose thereafter due to strengthened turbulence. The maximum height of the ML was reached in the late afternoon. The top of a full developed ML exceeded 1 km on sunny days in summer, while it stayed much lower on cloudy days. The sunset triggered the collapse of the ML, and a stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) gradually formed. Accordingly, the highest level Cm was found in the early morning and the lowest was found in the afternoon. In the daytime, BC was almost uniformly distributed within the ML and significantly decreased above the ML. During the field campaign, Cm averaged about 5.16 ± 2.49 µg m-3, with a range of 1.12 to 14.49 µg m-3, comparable with observational results in many polluted urban areas such as Milan in Italy and Shanghai in China. As evening approached, BC gradually built up near the surface and exponentially declined with height. In contrast to the large variability found both in Hm and Cm, Cf stayed relatively unaffected through the day. Cf was less than 10 % of the ground level under clean conditions, while it amounted to half of the ground level in some polluted cases. In situ measurements of BC vertical profiles would hopefully have an important implication for

  12. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  13. Validation of MIPAS IMK-IAA Temperature, Water Vapor, and Ozone Profiles with MOHAVE-2009 Campaign Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Gabrielle; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kellmann, S.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Leblanc, T.; Fetzer, E.; Froidevaux, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204), no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203) is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause), but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202) has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution. No further

  14. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204, no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203 is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause, but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202 has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution

  15. Cytokine and chemokine profiles of aqueous humor and serum in horses with uveitis measured using multiplex bead immunoassay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Elizabeth; Messenger, Kristen M; Salmon, Jacklyn H; Gilger, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether horses with clinically diagnosed Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) and those with Leptospirosis infection have a specific cytokine profile in their aqueous humor (AH) and serum that differs from horses with uveitis secondary to other ocular inflammatory processes and from horses with normal eyes. Twenty-five client-owned horses with uveitis that were presented to the North Carolina State University Ophthalmology Service, and four University-owned horses without history or clinical signs of ocular disease. Samples of AH and serum were obtained from horses with ERU (n=13), acute or non-recurrent uveitis (UV; n=7), uveitis secondary to infectious keratitis (IK; n=5), and normal eyes (N; n=4). Cytokine levels in AH and serum were quantified using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Leptospiral antibody titers in serum and AH and PCR for Leptospiral DNA in AH were performed. In the AH of horses with ERU, increased levels of IL-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, FGF-2, G-CSF, and RANTES were measured compared to UV, IK and N eyes, but the differences were not significant. However, IL-10 was significantly higher in ERU eyes compared to IK and N (P=0.029; 0.013), and IP-10 in ERU eyes was significantly higher than in UV and N (P=0.004). Furthermore, MCP-1 was significantly higher in ERU than N (P=0.04). In the serum, increased levels of IL-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, fractalkine, and G-CSF were measured in horses with ERU, but the levels were not significantly higher than those observed in UV, IK, or N horses. However, serum IP-10 levels in horses with ERU were significantly higher than in UV and N horses (P=0.005) and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in ERU than N (P=0.03). Horses with marked ocular inflammation had significantly higher serum levels of G-CSF, IL-1a, fractalkine, IL-13, IL-4, IL-17a, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and MCP-1. Elevated IL-10 in AH was significantly associated with disease chronicity, both overall and in ERU eyes (P=0.049), and in

  16. Psychomotor speed in chronic low-back pain patients and healthy controls: construct validity and clinical significance of the measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, S; Taimela, S; Alaranta, H; Hurri, H

    1998-12-01

    The effect of ethanol on reaction times was studied in 5 healthy men to test the construct validity of the measure. Reaction times were studied among 61 healthy controls and 99 patients with chronic low-back pain (68 moderate and 31 severe) to evaluate the diagnostic value of reaction time measurements. Analysis of receiver operating characteristics was used to calculate the discriminative power of the reaction time measurements. The severity of low-back pain was associated with slow reaction times but the diagnostic value of a single reaction time measurement was low due to insufficient sensitivity. In conclusion, even though many patients with low-back pain suffer from central impairment of motor function, a single reaction time measurement is not usable in evaluation of the severity of low-back pain.

  17. Technical Development of Profile Measurement for the Soft X-Ray Via Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Taku; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hidume, Kentaro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, Shuichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Ueyama, Daisuke; Urakawa, Junji; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    A compact X-ray source is called for such various fields as material development, biological science, and medical treatment. At Waseda University, we have already succeeded to generate the soft X-ray of the wavelength within so-called water window region (250-500eV) via Compton backward scattering between 1047nm Nd:YLF laser and 4.2MeV high quality electron beam. Although this method equips some useful characters, e.g. high intensity, short pulse, energy variableness, etc, the X-ray generating system is compact enough to fit in tabletop size. In the next step, there rises two principal tasks, that is, to make the soft X-ray intensity higher, and to progress X-ray profile measurement techniques as preliminary experiments for biomicroscopy. Specifically, we utilize two-pass amp for the former, and irradiate X-ray to a resist film which is previously exposed by UV lamp or get images with X-ray CCD for the latter. In this conference, we will show the experimental results and some future plans.

  18. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  19. Principles of epistemological accountability with methodological implications for measuring, assessing, and profiling human resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astier M. Almedom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose two fundamental principles of epistemological accountability with critical methodological implications for studies designed to measure, assess, and/or profile human psychosocial resilience. Firstly, researchers involved in human psychosocial resilience studies owe it to the individuals and communities that they engage to disclose their motives and possible misreadings of the situations they enter, albeit with good intentions. Secondly, researchers and those individuals researched need to share a language of colearning and coproduction, and utilization of knowledge that is mutually intelligible. Again, the onus is on researchers and their funders to respect the researched and their particular epistemological sovereignties. As the number of published examples of authentic community- and/or needs-driven research and action to strengthen human psychosocial resilience increases, the sustainability of human social well-being and harmony may also be expected to rise. Psychosocial resilience encompasses a dynamic multidimensional set of personal capabilities as well as social and material assets/resources that individuals, families, and communities mobilize to mentally and emotionally embrace "turbulent" change and transformation while maintaining routine functioning without loss of identity, integrity, or core purpose in life that defines them as who they are individually as well as collectively. These proposed informed predictions are yet to be widely adopted and applied in the new paradigm for advancing this century of human psychosocial resilience, well-being, and sustainability.

  20. Improvements in body composition, anthropometric measurements and lipid profile following discontinuation of clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Adam; Sobów, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia) is a well-known adverse effect of most antipsychotics. It is particularly common in patients treated with olanzapine and clozapine. Currently, the mechanisms underlying its development are not completely understood. We present a case of improved body composition (reduced amount of total body fat and visceral adipose tissue), anthropometric measurements (body weight, waist, abdominal and hip circumferences) and lipid profile in a 31-year-old man with schizophrenia following discontinuation of clozapine. During a combined treatment with clozapine, flupentixol and ziprasidone, a routine laboratory test revealed a severe dyslipidaemia (triglycerides > 1800 mg/dL; > 20.3 mmol/L), despite previous lipid-lowering therapy. This abnormality completely recovered after clozapine has been discontinued. Clozapine may cause severe, but reversible metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. Atypical antipsychotic-related lipid abnormalities may have a very rapid onset, occur in relatively young patients, with severe lipid derangements and have potential serious complications. This case confirms how important is to monitor metabolic parameters in patients taking antipsychotics. Discontinuation or switching to another antipsychotic medication may improve components of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Lunar magnetic field measurements, electrical conductivity calculations and thermal profile inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Steady magnetic field measurements of magnitude 30 to 100 gamma on the lunar surface impose problems of interpretation when coupled with the nondetectability of a lunar field at 0.4 lunar radius altitude and the limb induced perturbations of the solar wind at the Explorer orbit. The lunar time-varying magnetic field clearly indicates the presence of eddy currents in the lunar interior and permits calculation of an electrical conductivity profile. The problem is complicated by the day-night asymmetry of the moon's electromagnetic environment, the possible presence of the transverse magnetic mode, and the variable wave directions of the driving function. The electrical conductivity is calculated to be low near the surface, rising to a peak of .006/ohm meter at 250 km, dropping steeply inwards to a value of about .00005/ohm meter, and then rising toward the interior. A transition at 250 km depth from a high conductivity to a low conductivity material is inferred, suggesting an olivine-like core at approximately 800 C, although other models are possible.

  2. Direct measurements of the effect of biomass burning over the Amazon on the atmospheric temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Remer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols suspended in the atmosphere interact with solar radiation and clouds, thus change the radiation energy fluxes in the atmospheric column. In this paper we measure changes in the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of the smoke loading and the cloudiness, over the Amazon basin, during the dry seasons (August and September of 2005–2008. We show that as the aerosol optical depth (AOD increases from 0.02 to a value of ~0.6, there is a decrease of ~4°C at 1000 hPa, and an increase of ~1.5°C at 850 hPa. The warming of the aerosol layer at 850 hPa is likely due to aerosol absorption when the particles are exposed to direct illumination by the sun. The large values of cooling in the lower layers could be explained by a combination of aerosol extinction of the solar flux in the layers aloft together with an aerosol-induced increase of cloud cover which shade the lower atmosphere. We estimate that the increase in cloud fraction due to aerosol contributes about half of the observed cooling in the lower layers.

  3. Estimates of boundary layer parameters using measured wind and temperature profile near the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Z.; Rajkovic, B.

    2009-09-01

    In almost every application related to planetary boundary layer, PBL, two parameters are of the most relevance, "friction" velocity and PBL height. The first is connected to near surface processes, while the second one appears in the problems related to the whole BL or its substantial portions. One of the most famous parametrizations of the of the PBL height is h ~u*o- f. This paper looks into this formulation for different stability classes and mean daily variation of wind and these parameters, using the approach made by Holstlag (1984), to estimate diabatic wind profile where zo is independent of stability, but depends on wind direction. The second procedure used here is the one suggested by Kramm (1989), where zo is a function of stability and u*o depends on zo and L, the Monin-Obukhov length scale, and all of them, u_*o, zo and L, are simultaneously calculated through the least square method. From these parameters two methods for wind extrapolations with height are analyzed, Beljaars and Holstlag (1990), and Grining amd Batchvarova (2007). The wind data came form the Caubauw wind mast 1987, while the second set is wind and temperature gradient from the Panonian region, synoptic weather station 13168 near the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. Finally we analyze the difference between extrapolated and measured wind speed at Caubauw mast for different values of friction velocity, roughness length and Obukhov length.

  4. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  5. Measurement of Rapid Variations in Lower-Tropospheric Humidity Profiles Using Ground-Based Scanning Compact Microwave Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Reising, S. C.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the troposphere, particularly water vapor content and temperature, change in response to physical mechanisms, including frictional drag, evaporation, transpiration, heat transfer, pollutant emission and flow modification due to terrain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is characterized by a greater rate of change in the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere than at higher altitudes in the troposphere. Measurement of these changes, such as large horizontal gradients in water vapor and vertical profiles, provides very important data for improved weather prediction. Sensitivity studies for severe storm prediction indicate that a lack of accurate observations of water vapor densities throughout the lower troposphere limits the forecasting of severe storms. Therefore, measurements of water vapor density using microwave radiometers may help to improve accuracy of severe weather prediction. The HUMidity EXperiment 2011 (HUMEX11) was conducted to validate remote sensing of tropospheric humidity using ground-based scanning Compact Microwave Radiometers for Humidity profiling (CMR-H). Two microwave radiometers were scanned to sample an atmospheric volume at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility. Scientific objectives of HUMEX11 were to measure water vapor profiles in the lower troposphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and to track rapid variations in water vapor in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. The principal reason for conducting the campaign at the SGP Climate Research Facility was the ability to compare the water vapor profile results with other measurements like ARM microwave radiometers and Raman lidar. The Raman lidar water vapor profiles were used as truth for comparison with the retrieved profiles. The study also focuses on optimizing the size of the background data set to minimize retrieval error as well as varying the

  6. Measurements and Mesoscale Modeling of Autumnal Vertical Ozone Profiles in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical measurements of ozone were made using a tethered balloon at the Linyuan site in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan. Ozone was monitored at altitudes of 0, 100, 300, 500, and 1000 m from November 23 to 25 in 2005. The potential temperature profiles revealed a stable atmosphere during the study period, largely because of the dominance of the high-pressure system and nocturnal radiation cooling close to the surface. The mixing height was low (50 - 300 m, particularly in the late night and early morning. The surface ozone concentrations that were predicted using TAPM (The Air Pollution Model were high (33.7 - 119 ppbv in the daytime (10:00 - 16:00 and were low (10 - 40 ppbv at other times; the predictions of which were consistent with the observations. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reveal that costal lands typically had higher ozone concentrations than those inland, because most industrial parks are located in or close to the boundaries of Kaohsiung City. Both measurements and simulations indicate that daytime ozone concentrations decreased quickly with increasing height at altitudes below 300 m; while nighttime ozone concentrations were lower at low altitudes (50 to 300 m than at higher altitudes, partly because of dry deposition and titration of surface ozone by the near-surface nitrogen oxides (NOx and partly because of the existence of the residual layer above the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The simulations show a good correlation between the maximum daytime surface ozone concentration and average nighttime ozone concentration above the nocturnal boundary layer.

  7. In situ measurements of X-ray peak profile asymmetry from individual grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Lienert, U.; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Two copper samples, pre-deformed in tension to 5% plastic strain, are subjected to an in situ tensile deformation of 1% plastic strain while X-ray peak profiles from individual bulk grains are obtained. One sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis parallel to the pre-deformation axis......, and peak profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to this direction. The profiles show the expected asymmetry explained by the composite model as caused by intra-grain stresses. The other sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis perpendicular to the pre-deformation axis, and peak...... profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to the in situ tensile axis. In this case the profiles initially show an opposite asymmetry, but during the in situ deformation the asymmetry reverses sign as the deformation under new loading conditions leads to changes in the intra-grain stresses....

  8. Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles are Related to Sleep Measures from Polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Mary Fran; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Owens, Jane; Consens, Flavia; Hall, Martica

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. Design: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. Conclusions: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). Citation: Sowers MF; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Matthews K; Bromberger JT; Gold EB; Owens J; Consens F; Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures From polysomnography and the pittsburgh sleep quality

  9. Three-dimensional profile measurement of micro-electro-mechanical systems structures based on infrared light reflection interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Han, Bingchen

    2017-11-01

    A new method of measuring the three-dimensional (3D) profile of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures based on infrared light reflection interference is developed in this paper. The application of reflection interference technology in a 3D profile reconstruction is extended from white light to infrared light. The measurement system comprised an infrared light source, an interference microscope, an infrared light charge-coupled device, a ceramic piezo and a data acquisition system. The 3D profile of the MEMS device structures was obtained by vertical scanning interferometry and it is consistent with the scanning electron microscope image. The results indicate that the lateral resolution is 0.18 um and the vertical resolution is 1 nm.

  10. a Compact Dial LIDAR for Ground-Based Ozone Atmospheric Profiling Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R.; Carrion, W.; Pliutau, D.; Ganoe, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    ozone profiles from 100 to 200-m above ground. To obtain an ozone atmospheric measurement, the transmitter sends a laser pulse into the atmosphere at alternating on-line and off-line wavelengths (500Hz each line). The 527-nm green laser output is always transmitted giving a return from atmospheric aerosols. Examples of ozone profiles in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia will be presented. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer which is environmentally controlled, and is towed with a truck to sites that are equipped with power. The objective is to make the system mobile such that it can be setup at remote sites to support major air quality field campaigns.

  11. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T. E. M.; Dreschler, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test

  12. What's in a name? Context-dependent significance of 'global' methylation measures in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryer, Regan; Saffery, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The study of DNA methylation in development and disease has 'exploded' as a field in recent years, with three major classes of measurement now routine. These encompass (i) locus-specific, (ii) genome-scale/wide and (iii) 'global' methylation approaches. Measures of global methylation refer to the level of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in a sample relative to total cytosine. Despite this, several other measures are often referred to as 'global', with the underlying assumption that they accurately reflect 5mC content. The two most common surrogate, or proxy, measures include generating a mean or median methylation value from (i) the average measure in thousands of highly repetitive genomic elements and (ii) many thousands to several million primarily unique CpG sites throughout the genome. Numerous lines of evidence suggest the underlying assumption of equivalence of these measures is flawed, with considerable variation in the regulation of different 'flavours' of DNA methylation throughout the genome depending on cell type, differentiation and disease state. As such, the regulation of methylation 'types' is often uncoupled. The emerging picture suggests that no approach can accurately detect all biologically important differences in 5mC variation and distribution in all instances, with this needing to be ascertained on a case-by-case basis. Thus, it is important to clearly elaborate the genomic context and content of DNA methylation being analysed, the sample and developmental stage in which it is being examined and to remember that in most instances, the most common measures are not a true representation of 'global' 5mC content as orginally defined.

  13. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Esch, T.E.M. van; Dreschler, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germa...

  14. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A quantitative measure of the structure of gamma-ray burst time profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrade, John P.; Fishman, G.; Horack, J.; Meegan, C.; Moore, P.; Paciesas, W.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    A cursory examination of cosmic gamma-ray burst time profiles indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of structure. In the first approximation, there seem to be two types of profiles; smooth ones with little structure and highly variable ones with lots of structure. To put this observation to the test, we have examined the statistical nature of the profile derivative to choose which parameter might best be called the burst 'spikiness'. We have found that a good estimator is given by a count of the number of 'spikes' (defined by a specific numerical recipe) and not by the rms deviations from either a pre-burst background or any type of moving average background. The application of this parameter to 30 burst time histories shows it to be consistent over a wide range of profile types. The analysis also reveals a preferred average time between spikes of approximately 1.5 seconds.

  16. Do Students with Dyslexia Have a Different Personality Profile as Measured with the Big Five?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tops, Wim; Verguts, Ellen; Callens, Maaike; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    ...(s): To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Methods...

  17. Predicting clinical concussion measures at baseline based on motivation and academic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Katrina J; Schmidt, Julianne D; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Groff, Diane; Goto, Shiho; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict baseline neurocognitive and postural control performance using a measure of motivation, high school grade point average (hsGPA), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score. Cross-sectional. Clinical research center. Eighty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I incoming student-athletes (freshman and transfers). Participants completed baseline clinical concussion measures, including a neurocognitive test battery (CNS Vital Signs), a balance assessment [Sensory Organization Test (SOT)], and motivation testing (Rey Dot Counting). Participants granted permission to access hsGPA and SAT total score. Standard scores for each CNS Vital Signs domain and SOT composite score. Baseline motivation, hsGPA, and SAT explained a small percentage of the variance of complex attention (11%), processing speed (12%), and composite SOT score (20%). Motivation, hsGPA, and total SAT score do not explain a significant amount of the variance in neurocognitive and postural control measures but may still be valuable to consider when interpreting neurocognitive and postural control measures.

  18. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of index velocity measurements made with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The State of Illinois' annual withdrawal from Lake Michigan is limited by a U.S. Supreme Court decree, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics is convened to review the U.S. Geological Survey's streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee raised a number of questions concerning the flows and streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont and this report provides answers to many of those questions. In addition, it is the purpose of this report to examine the index velocity meters in use at Lemont and determine whether the acoustic velocity meter (AVM), which is now the primary index velocity meter, can be replaced by the horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP), which is currently the backup meter. Application of the AVM and H-ADCP to index velocity measurements in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois, has produced good ratings to date. The site is well suited to index velocity measurements in spite of the large range of velocities and highly unsteady flows at the site. Flow variability arises from a range of sources: operation of the waterway through control structures, lockage-generated disturbances, commercial and recreational traffic, industrial withdrawals and discharges, natural inflows, seiches, and storm events. The influences of these factors on the index velocity measurements at Lemont is examined in detail in this report. Results of detailed data comparisons and flow analyses show that use of bank-mounted instrumentation such as the AVM and H-ADCP appears to be the best option for index velocity measurement in the CSSC near Lemont. Comparison of the rating curves for the AVM and H-ADCP demonstrates

  20. KSHV oral shedding and plasma viremia result in significant changes in the extracellular tumorigenic miRNA expression profile in individuals infected with the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Minako; Gantt, Soren; Casper, Corey; Ogata, Yuko; Zhang, Qing; Basom, Ryan; Dyen, Michael R; Rose, Timothy M; Barcy, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx. We observed increased levels of cellular oncogenic miRNAs and decreased levels of tumor-suppressor miRNAs in plasma of infected individuals exhibiting oral KSHV shedding. These changes in host oncomiRs were exacerbated in people co-infected with HIV, and partially reversed after 2 years of anti-retroviral therapy. We also detected KSHV miRNAs in plasma of KSHV infected individuals and determined that their expression levels correlated with KSHV plasma viremia. Deep sequencing revealed an expected profile of small cellular RNAs in plasma, with miRNAs constituting the major RNA biotype. In contrast, the composition of small RNAs in exosomes was highly atypical with high levels of YRNA and low levels of miRNAs. Mass spectrometry analysis of the exosomes revealed eleven different peptides derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and small RNA sequencing confirmed widespread plasmodium co-infections in the Ugandan cohorts. Proteome analysis indicated an exosomal protein profile consistent with erythrocyte and keratinocyte origins for the plasma exosomes. A strong correlation was observed between the abundance of Plasmodium proteins and cellular markers of malaria. As Plasmodium falciparum is an endemic pathogen in Uganda, our study shows that co-infection with other pathogens, such as KSHV, can severely impact the small

  1. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  2. Soil Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurements with Automated and Manual Static Chambers, Forced Diffusion Chamber, and Concentration Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, L.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Géli, M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Knox, S. H.; Nickerson, N.; McArthur, G.; Creelman, C.; Saad, N.; Alstad, K. P.; Arata, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil greenhouse gas fluxes are critical for determining the role of ecosystem dynamics, both natural and managed, in climate change. We compared concentration profile methods with static, forced diffusion, and automated flux chambers using a combination of infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), gas chromatography, and cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy (Picarro G2508) during field campaigns in managed ecosystems in California. At a drained peatland pasture site, we observed large differences between methods (fluxes ranged between 2-15 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). However, low temporal/high spatial replication measurements (manual LI6400 chamber measurements; n=6 collars) encompassed the full range of CO2 fluxes observed across all other methods. This suggests that the majority of variability in CO2 emissions was due to high spatial variation in soil respiration and not due to methodological differences across measurement systems. At a dry upland pasture site, water, nitrate solution and manure were applied during the experimental period to expand the range of greenhouse fluxes. Preliminary results showed good agreement of gas fluxes between static and automatic chamber sampling. We observed large CO2 and N2O fluxes after manure application with both methods. The two chamber types were highly significantly correlated for N2O (slope=0.74, r2=0.94). Mean CH4 fluxes measured by static chambers was -0.36 μg cm-2 h-1, similar to the -0.57 μg cm-2 h-1 measured by the automatic chamber and Picarro analyzer during the study period. Overall, our results suggest that both automated and static chamber methods are in good agreement, but automated chambers are advantageous for capturing diel dynamics and pulse responses to experimental treatments. Our results also highlight the importance of spatial replication, which can be difficult to achieve using expensive automated chambers. We suggest future research efforts to seek a combination of high spatially

  3. Toward an integrated profile of emotional intelligence: introducing a brief measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; Cooper, Nicholas J; Hermens, Gerard; Gordon, Evian; Bryant, Richard; Williams, Leanne M

    2005-03-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of research studies have focused on the construct of Emotional Intelligence (EI), which may be broadly defined as the capacity to perceive and regulate emotions in oneself as well as those of others. Researchers have generally adopted an organizational or management focus to the study of EI, however studies which adopt a more integrated perspective by combining psychological with biological measures, may help in further elucidating this relatively abstract construct. The first objective of this paper was to report on the psychometric properties of a brief, self-report measure of EI (Brain Resource Inventory for Emotional intelligence Factors or BRIEF), comprising internal emotional capacity (IEC), external emotional capacity (EEC) and self concept (SELF). Second, we further explored the validity of the measure by assessing the relationships between the BRIEF and variables considered relevant to the understanding of EI (including gender, age, personality, cognitive intelligence and resting state electroencephalography, EEG). The BRIEF possessed sound psychometric properties (internal consistency, r=0.68-0.81; test-retest reliability, r=0.92; construct validity with the Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, r=0.70). As hypothesized, females were found to score higher than males on EI. EI was associated more with personality than with cognitive ability, and EEG was found to explain a significant portion of the variance in EI scores. The finding that low EI is related to underarousal of the left-frontal cortex (increased theta EEG) is consistent with research on patients with depression, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although EI did not display age-related increases, this might relate to the exclusion of adolescents from our sample. In conclusion, examination of the way in which EI measures relate to a complementary range of psychological and biological measures may help to further elucidate this

  4. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  5. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    -IgG) and Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) were used for measurement of Pa-antibodies in sera from 791 Scandinavian CF patients. RESULTS: 381 patients were cultured negative for Pa in the year before study start, 129 patients were intermittently colonized and 281 patients were chronically infected....... The sensitivity of the investigated assays was 96%, 93% and 97%, specificity 89%, 89% and 83% for CIE, ExoA and CF-IgG respectively. The negative predictive value was for CIE 97%, for ExoA 95% and for CF-IgG 98% and positive predictive values 87%, 86% and 80%. Out of the 381 patients cultured negative for Pa, 11...

  6. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  7. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. O. Reges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1; 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2. Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  8. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  9. Meiofaunal emergence from intertidal sediment measured in the field: significant contribution to nocturnal planktonic biomass in shallow waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armonies, W.

    1989-03-01

    Field studies on the occurrence of meiobenthos in the water column above intertidal sandflats have been performed near the Island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. Swimming meiobenthos was strongly dominated by harpacticoid copepods. Many of them have a semiplanktonic life-style. They rest in superficial sediment layers at low tide and swin in the water column at high tide. Swimming activity correlated negatively with light. The abundance in the water column was one order of magnitude higher during the night. Strong currents caused by storm tides significantly decreased meiobenthic abundance in the water column. Light and flow being constant, no significant changes of meiobenthic abundance per unit area occurred over a tidal cycle. Since holoplankton and meroplankton abundances correlated positively with the height of the water column, semiplanktonic meiobenthos may dominate the mesozooplankton in shallow waters. On an average, emergence of meiobenthos increased the mesozooplanktonic biomass by about 2% during diurnal high tides over the entire tidal cycle, and by about 50% during nocturnal high tides. Because of seasonal cycles of the dominant harpacticoids, this high contribution to planktonic biomass may be a summer phenomenon.

  10. A pilot study of the prognostic significance of metabolic tumor size measurements in PET/CT imaging of lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Botsivali, Maria; Politis, Nikolaos; Menychtas, Dimitrios; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Chatziioannou, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    This study explores changes in metabolic tumor volume, metabolic tumor diameter, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), for earlier and more accurate identification of lymphomas' response to treatment using 18F- FDG PET/CT. Pre- and post-treatment PET/CT studies of 20 patients with Hodgkin disease (HL) and 7 patients with non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were retrospectively selected for this study. The diameter and volume of the metabolic tumor was determined by an in-house developed adaptive local thresholding technique based on a 50% threshold of the maximum pixel value within a region. Statistical analysis aimed at exploring associations between metabolic size measurements and SUVmax and the ability of the three biomarkers to predict the patients' response to treatment as defined by the four classes in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) guidelines. Results indicated moderate correlations between % change in metabolic tumor volume and % change in metabolic tumor maximum diameter (R=0.51) and between % change in maximum diameter and % change in SUVmax (R=0.52). The correlation between % change in tumor volume and % change in SUVmax was weak (R=0.24). The % change in metabolic tumor size, either volume or diameter, was a "very strong" predictor of response to treatment (R=0.89), stronger than SUVmax (R=0.63). In conclusion, metabolic tumor volume could have important prognostic value, possibly higher than maximum metabolic diameter or SUVmax that are currently the standard of practice. Volume measurements, however, should be based on robust and standardized segmentation methodologies to avoid variability. In addition, SUV-peak or lean body mass corrected SUV-peak may be a better PET biomarker than SUVmax when SUV-volume combinations are considered.

  11. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode

  12. Measurements of the vertical profile of water vapor abundance in the Martian atmosphere from Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, J. T.; Mccleese, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) capabilities along with how the vertical profiles of water vapor will be obtained. The PMIRR will employ filter and pressure modulation radiometry using nine spectral channels, in both limb scanning and nadir sounding modes, to obtain daily, global maps of temperature, dust extinction, condensate extinction, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles as a function of pressure to half scale height or 5 km vertical resolution. Surface thermal properties will also be mapped, and the polar radiactive balance will be monitored.

  13. Investigation of Flux-Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched-Reluctance Motors and Permanent-Magnet Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of actual flux linkage versus current profiles plays an important role in design verification and performance prediction for switched reluctance motors (SRM's) and permanent magnet motors (PMM's). Various measurement methods have been proposed and discussed so far but each method has its...... the described AC method on an SRM and on a PM motor. For these two motors, the measured flux-linkage-current curves are compared to those measured using other methods. The comparison results show good effectiveness of the proposed AC method for both the SRM and the PM motor....

  14. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-23

    installation on their tokamak. Instead, after a no-cost extension, the apparatus was moved to the University of Washington-Seattle and successfully tested on the HIT-SI3 spheromak experiment. As a result of this project, TALIF measurements of the absolutely calibrated neutral density hydrogen and deuterium were obtained in a helicon source and in a spheromak, designs were developed for installation of a TALIF system on a tokamak, and a new, xenon-based calibration scheme was proposed and demonstrated. The xenon-calibration scheme eliminates significant problems that were identified with the standard krypton calibration scheme.

  15. H2 vertical profiles in the continental boundary layer: measurements at the Cabauw tall tower in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zahorowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In-situ, quasi-continuous measurements of atmospheric hydrogen (H2 have been performed since October 2007 at the Cabauw tall tower station in the Netherlands. Mole fractions of H2, CO and several greenhouse gases are determined simultaneously in air sampled successively at four heights, between 20 and 200 m above ground level. 222Rn measurements are performed in air sampled at 20 and 200 m. This H2 dataset represents the first in-situ, quasi-continuous long-term measurement series of vertical profiles of H2 in the lower continental boundary layer. Seasonal cycles are present at all heights in both H2 and CO, and their amplitude varies with the sampling height. The seasonality is evident in both the "baseline" values and in the short term (diurnal to synoptic time scales variability, the latter being significantly larger during winter. The observed H2 short term signals and vertical gradients are in many cases well correlated to other species, especially to CO. On the other hand, H2 has at times a unique behaviour, due to its particular distribution of sources and sinks. Our estimation for the regional H2 soil uptake flux, using the radon tracer method, is (−1.89 ± 0.26 × 10−5 g/(m2 h, significantly smaller than other recent results from Europe. H2/CO ratios of the traffic emissions computed from our data, with an average of 0.54 ± 0.07 mol:mol, are larger and more variable than estimated in some of the previous studies in Europe. This difference can be explained by a different driving regime, due to the frequent traffic jams in the influence area of Cabauw. The H2/CO ratios of the large scale pollution events have an average of 0.36 ± 0.05 mol:mol; these ratios were observed to slightly increase with sampling height, possibly due to a stronger influence of soil uptake at the lower sampling heights.

  16. Gem Detectors For the Transverse Profile Measurement of Low Energy Antiprotons and High Energy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Spanggaard, J; Duarte Pinto, S; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are finding more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication is a very similar physical phenomenon to that which occurs in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), but for small profile monitors GEMs are much more cost effective to produce and maintain. \

  17. Methods and Systems for Use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler for Measurement of Compact Jets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    ... an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The ADCP is a four-beam, Janus-type ADCP having beams aligned so that each of the beams is at an angle of about 200 to 300 to vertical and at 450 to the fore and aft axis of the vessel, such that two...

  18. One Year of Vertical Wind Profiles Measurements at a Mediterranean Coastal Site of South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Gullì, Daniel; Avolio, Elenio

    2015-01-01

    To exploit wind energy both onshore and offshore in coastal area the effect of the coastal discontinuity is important. The shape of the vertical wind profiles and the related c parameter of the Weibull distribution are impacted by the atmospheric internal boundary layers developing from the coast...

  19. Density profile evolution and nonequilibrium effects in partial and full spreading measurements of surface diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikunen, P.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2001-01-01

    (theta) to determine the locations of phase boundaries and find such data to be clearly time dependent during full spreading. We conclude that nonequilibrium effects seem to be an inherent feature in profile evolution studies of surface diffusion in all cases where ordering plays a prominent role. This warrants...

  20. MEASURING QUALITY-OF-LIFE WITH THE SICKNESS IMPACT PROFILE - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HULSEBOS, RG; BELTMAN, FW; MIRANDA, DD; SPANGENBERG, JFA

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-study was done to investigate the applicability of the sickness impact profile (SIP) in ex-ICU patients. For this study 221 consecutively admitted patients were reviewed retrospectively after excluding children, deceased patients and readmissions. SIP was assessed in these patients by either

  1. Methodology for extraction of space charge density profiles at nanoscale from Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Boudou, L.; Makasheva, K.; Teyssedre, G.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the physical phenomena occurring at metal/dielectric interfaces, determination of the charge density profile at nanoscale is crucial. To deal with this issue, charges were injected applying a DC voltage on lateral Al-electrodes embedded in a SiN x thin dielectric layer. The surface potential induced by the injected charges was probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). It was found that the KPFM frequency mode is a better adapted method to probe accurately the charge profile. To extract the charge density profile from the surface potential two numerical approaches based on the solution to Poisson’s equation for electrostatics were investigated: the second derivative model method, already reported in the literature, and a new 2D method based on the finite element method (FEM). Results highlight that the FEM is more robust to noise or artifacts in the case of a non-flat initial surface potential. Moreover, according to theoretical study the FEM appears to be a good candidate for determining charge density in dielectric films with thicknesses in the range from 10 nm to 10 μm. By applying this method, the charge density profile was determined at nanoscale, highlighting that the charge cloud remains close to the interface.

  2. Methodology for extraction of space charge density profiles at nanoscale from Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C; Boudou, L; Makasheva, K; Teyssedre, G

    2017-12-15

    To understand the physical phenomena occurring at metal/dielectric interfaces, determination of the charge density profile at nanoscale is crucial. To deal with this issue, charges were injected applying a DC voltage on lateral Al-electrodes embedded in a SiN x thin dielectric layer. The surface potential induced by the injected charges was probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). It was found that the KPFM frequency mode is a better adapted method to probe accurately the charge profile. To extract the charge density profile from the surface potential two numerical approaches based on the solution to Poisson's equation for electrostatics were investigated: the second derivative model method, already reported in the literature, and a new 2D method based on the finite element method (FEM). Results highlight that the FEM is more robust to noise or artifacts in the case of a non-flat initial surface potential. Moreover, according to theoretical study the FEM appears to be a good candidate for determining charge density in dielectric films with thicknesses in the range from 10 nm to 10 μm. By applying this method, the charge density profile was determined at nanoscale, highlighting that the charge cloud remains close to the interface.

  3. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez DT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Taira Juarez, Kendra M Demaris, Roy Goo, Christina Louise Mnatzaganian, Helen Wong SmithDaniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47 in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, glycosylated hemoglobin, USA

  4. Measurement of radius of curvature of spherical optical surfaces with small curvature and aperture by optical profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Yi, Shengzhen; Chen, Shenghao; Wang, Zhanshan

    2014-11-01

    Monochromatic energy multilayer Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope is one of key diagnostic tools for researches on inertial confinement fusion. It is composed by two orthogonal concave spherical mirrors with small curvature and aperture, and produce the image of an object by collecting X-rays in each orthogonal direction, independently. Accurate measurement of radius of curvature of concave spherical mirrors is very important to achieve its design optical properties including imaging quality, optical throughput and energy resolution. However, it is difficult to measure the radius of curvature of spherical optical surfaces with small curvature and aperture by conventional methods, for the produced reflective intensity of glass is too low to correctly test. In this paper, we propose an improved measuring method of optical profiler to accomplish accurate measurement of radius of curvature of spherical optical surfaces with small curvature and aperture used in the monochromatic energy multilayer Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope. Firstly, we use a standard super-smooth optical flat to calibrate reference mirror before each experiment. Following, deviation of central position between measurement area and interference pattern is corrected by the theory of Newton's rings, and the zero-order fringe position is derived from the principle of interference in which surface roughness has minimum values in the position of zero light path difference. Measured results by optical profiler show the low relative errors and high repeatability. Eventually, an imaging experiment of monochromatic energy multilayer Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope determines the measurement accuracy of radius of curvature.

  5. Direct Detection 1.6?m DIAL / Doppler Lidar for Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler wind lidar with the range resolution is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles and wind profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a scanning 1.6 μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system for simultaneously measuring CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd: YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope [1] [2]. We had developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system for 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL[3]. To achieve continuous tuning of the resonant OPO output without mode hopping, it is necessary to vary the OPO cavity length synchronously with the seed-frequency. On the other hand, the OPG does not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The CO2-DIAL was operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. Vertical CO2 concentration profiles and wind profiles were also measured simultaneously. The elevation angle was fixed at 52 deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m height resolution. Vertical

  6. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, M., E-mail: mbeall@trialphaenergy.com; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  7. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  8. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauchecorne Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  9. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M; Deng, B H; Gota, H

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  10. Quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model of acute kidney injury at 3T: testing inter- and intramethodical significance of ASL and DCE-MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmer, Fabian; Zöllner, Frank G; Hoeger, Simone; Klotz, Sarah; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Krämer, Bernhard K; Schad, Lothar R

    2013-01-01

    To establish arterial spin labelling (ASL) for quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model at 3 Tesla and to test the diagnostic significance of ASL and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI...

  11. GIS-measured walkability, transit, and recreation environments in relation to older Adults' physical activity: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Michael; Adams, Marc A; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Buman, Matthew P; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    An infrequently studied question is how diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features relate to physical activity (PA) for older adults. We derived patterns of geographic information systems- (GIS) measured BE features and explored how they accounted for differences in objective and self-reported PA, sedentary time, and BMI in a sample of older adults. Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=714, aged 66-97years, 52.1% women, 29.7% racial/ethnic minority) were sampled in 2005-2008 from the Seattle-King County, WA and Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC regions. Participants' home addresses were geocoded, and net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit density, and public park and private recreation facility density measures for 1-km network buffers were derived. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these GIS-based measures. In multilevel regression models, profiles were compared on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. LPAs yielded three profiles: low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). Three PA outcomes were more favorable in the HHH than the LLL profile group (difference of 7.2min/day for MVPA, 97.8min/week for walking for errands, and 79.2min/week for walking for exercise; all pswalkability index, suggesting that diverse BE features are important for healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The origin of the chemical profiles of fungal symbionts and their significance for nestmate recognition in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Hefetz, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    with less aggression when they are later introduced into that colony. It appears, therefore, that fungus gardens are an independent and significant source of chemical compounds, potentially contributing a richer and more abundant blend of recognition cues to the colony ¿gestalt¿ than the innate chemical...

  13. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  14. Desorption/Ionization Fluence Thresholds and Improved Mass Spectral Consistency Measured Using a Flattop Laser Profile in the Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry of Single Bacillus Endospores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P T; Srivastava, A; Pitesky, M E; Fergenson, D P; Tobias, H J; Gard, E E; Frank, M

    2004-11-30

    Bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) is being developed to analyze and identify biological aerosols in real-time. Mass spectra of individual Bacillus endospores were measured here with a bipolar aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer in which molecular desorption and ionization were produced using a single laser pulse from a Q-switched, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser that was modified to have an approximately flattop profile. The flattened laser profile allowed the minimum fluence required to desorb and ionize significant numbers of ions from single aerosol particles to be determined. For Bacillus spores this threshold had a mean value of approximately 1 nJ/{micro}m{sup 2} (0.1 J/cm{sup 2}). Thresholds for individual spores, however, could apparently deviate by 20% or more from the mean. Threshold distributions for clumps of MS2 bacteriophage and bovine serum albumin were subsequently determined. Finally, the flattened profile was observed to increase the reproducibility of single spore mass spectra. This is consistent with the general conclusions of our earlier paper on the fluence dependence of single spore mass spectra and is particularly significant because it is expected to enable more robust differentiation and identification of single bioaerosol particles.

  15. Balloon-borne radiometer measurements of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude stratospheric HNO3 profiles spanning 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Walker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-resolution atmospheric thermal emission spectra collected by balloon-borne radiometers over the time span of 1990–2002 are used to retrieve vertical profiles of HNO3, CFC-11 and CFC-12 volume mixing ratios between approximately 10 and 35 km altitude. All of the data analyzed have been collected from launches from a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude site, during late summer, when stratospheric dynamic variability is at a minimum. The retrieval technique incorporates detailed forward modeling of the instrument and the radiative properties of the atmosphere, and obtains a best fit between modeled and measured spectra through a combination of onion-peeling and optimization steps. The retrieved HNO3 profiles are consistent over the 12-year period, and are consistent with recent measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer satellite instrument. We therefore find no evidence of long-term changes in the HNO3 summer mid-latitude profile, although the uncertainty of our measurements precludes a conclusive trend analysis.

  16. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of wind speed profiles at two sites using Doppler sodars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Polytechnics, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan); Suda, K. [Sato Kogyo, 47-3 Sanda, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan); Sasaki, A. [Nishimatsu Construction, 4054 Nakatsu, Aikawa, Aiko-gun, Kanagawa (Japan); Iwatani, Y. [Nihon University, 2-11-1 Shin-ei, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, K. [Wind Engineering Institute, 3-29 Kandajinbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, R. [Urban Development Corporation, 2683 Ishikawa, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Hibi, K. [Shimizu Corporation, 3-4-17 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    In the wind-resistant design of buildings and structures, it is very important to accurately assess the design wind speed at a particular site, considering the variation in wind speed with terrain roughness. The authors attempt to find a reasonable method for estimating design wind speed for given terrain roughness, through simultaneous wind observations at altitudes up to 420m at sites with different roughnesses using two sets of Doppler sodars. In this paper, the characteristics of the mean wind speed profiles evaluated for each distinguished wind speed in each wind direction were presented. The longitudinal mean wind speed profiles in the same storms were also compared for two pairs of sites to study the variation in longitudinal mean wind speed as it is affected by inland terrain roughness.

  18. Do students with dyslexia have a different personality profile as measured with the big five?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. AIMS AND SAMPLES: To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. METHODS: The NEO-PI-R based on the Big Five in personality research was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed no differences in the personality between both groups. This agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009, suggesting that students with dyslexia do not perceive themselves differently than their non-dyslexic peers. Practical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  19. Measuring Dark Matter Profiles Non-Parametrically in Dwarf Spheroidals: An Application to Draco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, John R.; Gebhardt, Karl; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Drory, Niv; Williams, Michael J.

    2013-02-01

    We introduce a novel implementation of orbit-based (or Schwarzschild) modeling that allows dark matter density profiles to be calculated non-parametrically in nearby galaxies. Our models require no assumptions to be made about velocity anisotropy or the dark matter profile. The technique can be applied to any dispersion-supported stellar system, and we demonstrate its use by studying the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Draco. We use existing kinematic data at larger radii and also present 12 new radial velocities within the central 13 pc obtained with the VIRUS-W integral field spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Our non-parametric Schwarzschild models find strong evidence that the dark matter profile in Draco is cuspy for 20 = 20 pc is well fit by a power law with slope α = -1.0 ± 0.2, consistent with predictions from cold dark matter simulations. Our models confirm that, despite its low baryon content relative to other dSphs, Draco lives in a massive halo.

  20. Assessment of implicit motives with a research version of the TAT: picture profiles, gender differences, and relations to other personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, O C; Brunstein, J C

    2001-08-01

    Four hundred twenty-eight participants wrote imaginative stories in response to 6 picture cues of a research version of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Morgan & Murray, 1935). Story protocols were coded for n (need) Power, n Achievement, and n Affiliation using Winter's (1991) integrated scoring system that provided detailed information about the motive profiles of individual picture cues. In general, picture cues differed strongly from each other with regard to how many scorable instances of power, achievement, or affiliation imagery they elicited. The n Affiliation, but not n Power, n Achievement, or activity inhibition--a measure of impulse control--was found to be higher in (a) women than in men and (b) individuals tested in a group than in individuals tested individually. TAT motive measures showed no significant overlap with questionnaire measures of motivational orientation (German Personality Research Form; Stumpf, Angleitner, Wieck, Jackson, & Beloch-Till, 1985) or traits (German NEO-Five-Factor Inventory; Borkenau & Ostendorf, 1993).

  1. Use of In Situ Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Extinction, and Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements to Test a Method for Retrieving Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profiles From Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Stephen J.; Rissman, Tracey A.; Ellman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Flynn, Connor; Wang, Jian; Ogren, John; Hudson, James; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    If the aerosol composition and size distribution below cloud are uniform, the vertical profile of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be retrieved entirely from surface measurements of CCN concentration and particle humidification function and surface-based retrievals of relative humidity and aerosol extinction or backscatter. This provides the potential for long-term measurements of CCN concentrations near cloud base. We have used a combination of aircraft, surface in situ, and surface remote sensing measurements to test various aspects of the retrieval scheme. Our analysis leads us to the following conclusions. The retrieval works better for supersaturations of 0.1% than for 1% because CCN concentrations at 0.1% are controlled by the same particles that control extinction and backscatter. If in situ measurements of extinction are used, the retrieval explains a majority of the CCN variance at high supersaturation for at least two and perhaps five of the eight flights examined. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the humidification factor is not the major limitation of the CCN retrieval scheme. Vertical structure in the aerosol size distribution and composition is the dominant source of error in the CCN retrieval, but this vertical structure is difficult to measure from remote sensing at visible wavelengths.

  2. Mutational profile and prognostic significance of TP53 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Wu, Lin; Visco, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    -CHOP-treated patients with either the germinal center B-cell or activated B-cell DLBCL subtypes. Furthermore, we identified the loop-sheet-helix and L3 motifs in the DNA-binding domain to be the most critical structures for maintaining p53 function. In contrast, TP53 deletion and loss of heterozygosity did not confer...... worse survival. If gene mutation data are not available, immunohistochemical analysis showing > 50% cells expressing p53 protein is a useful surrogate and was able to stratify patients with significantly different prognoses. We conclude that assessment of TP53 mutation status is important...

  3. Influence of zirconia framework thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-04-01

    Framework design is reported to influence chipping in zirconia-based restorations, which is an important cause of failure of such restorations. Residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic after the manufacturing process is an important predictive factor of the mechanical behavior of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of framework thickness on the stress profile measured in zirconia-based structures. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 1.5 mm thick veneering ceramic layer. Six different framework thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 3 mm were studied. Two different cooling procedures were also investigated. Compressive stresses were observed in the surface, and tensile stresses in the depth of most of the samples. The slow cooling procedure was found to promote the development of interior tensile stresses, except for the sample with a 3mm thick framework. With the tempering procedure, samples with a 1.5 mm thick framework exhibited the most favorable stress profile, while thicker and thinner frameworks exhibited respectively in surface or interior tensile stresses. The measurements performed highlight the importance of framework thickness, which determine the nature of stresses and can explain clinical failures encountered, especially with thin frameworks. The adequate ratio between veneering ceramic and zirconia is hard to define, restricting the range of indications of zirconia-based restorations until a better understanding of such a delicate veneering process is achieved. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ TDLAS measurement of absolute acetylene concentration profiles in a non-premixed laminar counter-flow flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Klein, M.; Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Kissel, T.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2012-06-01

    Acetylene (C2H2), as an important precursor for chemiluminescence species, is a key to understand, simulate and model the chemiluminescence and the related reaction paths. Hence we developed a high resolution spectrometer based on direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allowing the first quantitative, calibration-free and spatially resolved in situ C2H2 measurement in an atmospheric non-premixed counter-flow flame supported on a Tsuji burner. A fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode laser near 1535 nm was used to measure several absolute C2H2 concentration profiles (peak concentrations up to 9700 ppm) in a laminar non-premixed CH4/air flame ( T up to 1950 K) supported on a modified Tsuji counter-flow burner with N2 purge slots to minimize end flames. We achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 5×10-5 OD (1 σ) in the flame, resulting in temperature-dependent acetylene detection limits for the P17e line at 6513 cm-1 of up to 2.1 ppmṡm. Absolute C2H2 concentration profiles were obtained by translating the burner through the laser beam using a DC motor with 100 μm step widths. Intercomparisons of the experimental C2H2 profiles with simulations using our new hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms show excellent agreement in position, shape and in the absolute C2H2 values.

  5. Shipboard Measurements of Surface Flux and Near Surface Profiles and Surface Flux Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    overall project. Mr. Richard J. Lind worked on instrument preparation, calibration, and data sampling. Dr. John Kalogiros, an external research...temperature measured at the same time as the SST measurements where the multiple spike in the measurements are likely results of the ship plumes

  6. Haemoglobin variants may cause significant differences in haemoglobin A1c as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods in diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hitomi; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Soejima, Eri; Tajiri, Yuji; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether the discrepancy between haemoglobin A1c values determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic haemoglobin A1c measurements in diabetic patients was clinically relevant. Methods We randomly recruited 1421 outpatients undergoing diabetic treatment and follow-up who underwent at least three haemoglobin A1c measurements between April 2014 and March 2015 at our clinic. In 6369 samples, haemoglobin A1c was simultaneously measured by HA-8160 and MetaboLead (enzymatic assay), and the values were compared. Results haemoglobin A1c measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic assay were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient: 0.9828, linear approximation curve y = 0.9986x - 0.2507). Mean haemoglobin A1c (6.8 ± 1.0%) measured by high-performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher than that measured by enzymatic assay (6.5 ± 1.0%, P high-performance liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay. Of these, three had Hb Toranomon [β112 (G14) Cys→Trp]. The fourth had Hb Ube-2 [α68 (E17) Asn→Asp]. One other subject presented consistently higher haemoglobin A1c values (>1%) by high-performance liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay and was diagnosed with a -77 (T > C) mutation in the δ-globin gene. These unrelated asymptomatic subjects had normal erythrocyte profiles, without anaemia. Conclusions We showed that haemoglobin A1c values measured by high-performance liquid chromatography were significantly higher than those measured by enzymatic assay in diabetic subjects. However, when an oversized deviation (>0.7%) between glycaemic control status and haemoglobin A1c is apparent, clinicians should check the methods used to measure haemoglobin A1c and consider the possible presence of a haemoglobin variant.

  7. How Well do State-of-the-Art Techniques Measuring the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R.; Flynn, C.; Elleman, R.; Covert, D.; Strawa, A.; Welton, E.; Turner, D.; Jonsson, H.; Redemann, J.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The recent Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (AIOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction sigma(ep)(lambda) in the lower troposphere. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well-characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well-proven and new aerosol instrumentation devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from six different instruments: airborne Sun photometer (AATS-14), airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, groundbased Raman lidar, and two ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in situ measured sigma(ep)(lambda) to be lower than the AATS-14 derived values. Bias differences are 0.002-0.004 Km!1 equivalent to 13-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar sigma(ep)(lambda) are higher: Bias differences are 0.004 Km(-1) (13%) and 0.007 Km(-1) (24%) for the two elastic backscatter lidars (MPLNET and MPLARM, lambda = 523 nm) and 0.029 Km(-1) (54%) for the Raman lidar (lambda = 355 nm). An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP, and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system. Looking at the collective results from six field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of sigma(ep)(lambda) tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne Sun photometer sigma(ep)(lambda). On the other hand, sigma(ep)(lambda) values derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. From the bias differences we conclude that the typical systematic error associated

  8. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  9. Characterization of Rockwell hardness indenter Tip using image processing and optical profiler and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moona G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to be penetrated and eroded by sharp projections of other materials such as diamond. The process of creating sharp projections on any test surface is known as indentation. Hardness measurement of any material is the result of a complex process of deformation during indentation. The indenter tip geometry, which includes radius of curvature at the tip and tip angle, affects the hardness measurement by influencing the nature of the penetration process on the test surface, because every indenter deforms the specimen surface with a different geometry. The controlled indenter geometry can improve the consistency of hardness measurement. In this paper we report the estimation of two important geometrical parameters, radius of curvature and tip angle of a Rockwell indenter by using a simple method of image processing and compare the results with those obtained with a traceable 3D optical profiler. Evaluation of uncertainty in measuremts is carried out as per ISO guidelines (ISO-GUM and a detailed uncertainty budget is presented. The tip angle estimted is 119.95 degree. The radius of curvature is estimted to be 199.96 ± 0.80μm by image analysis which agrees well with the value estimated by using optical profiler i.e. 199.12 μm.

  10. Dealloying evidence on corroded brass by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping and depth profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, R.; Casal, A.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2017-04-01

    The dealloying phenomenon, also called demetalification, is a; consequence of a corrosion problem found in binary alloys where an enrichment of one of the two main elements of the alloy is produced at the expense of the leaching of the other element. In the present work, the ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection and characterization of dealloying films formed on metal has been tested. For this purpose, specific areas of brass specimens have been subjected to a chemical attack of the surface in order to produce a selective leaching of zinc or dezincification. For the lateral and in-depth characterization of the dealloyed areas by LIBS, depth profiles, 2D and 3D maps have been generated from the treated samples and from a reference non-treated sample. The differences in the maps and depth profiles between the corroded and non-corroded regions have allowed to reveal the localization and extension of the dealloying process along the brass sample surface and to estimate the thickness of the dezincification layers, demonstrating the capability of LIBS technique for the characterization of dealloying phenomena.

  11. In-situ NO and NO2 profiles measured onboard passenger aircraft over Frankfurt airport in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Florian; Houben, Norbert; Blomel, Torben; Tappertzhofen, Marlon; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    NOx (sum of NO and NO2) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone and oxidation capacity (OH and NO3 radicals). The most important sources of NOx in the upper troposphere are lightning, and transport from the boundary layer (combustion processes, from biomass burning, agriculture, and industry/transport/aircraft emissions). In-situ measurements of NOx from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) down to the surface are rare, but important for understanding the local photochemistry and for the assessment of the impact of aviation on the budgets of greenhouse gases such as ozone. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) operates a global-scale monitoring system for atmospheric temperature, trace gases, aerosols and clouds at high spatial resolution by passenger aircraft. The IAGOS NOx instrument is designed for the autonomous measurement of nitrogen oxides over serval months. The measurement principle is based on the well-established chemiluminescence technique, using one channel with sequential measurements of NO and NOx every 50 s. Here, we present vertical profiles of nitrogen oxides from the UTLS down to the surface for day and night time conditions obtained over 12 months in 2015 and 2016. The analysis focuses mainly on Europe, the region with the largest amount of profiles. Other regions (North America, South America and East Asia) will also be discussed. Typically, NO and NO2 varies in the low ppt range in the UT, slightly increasing towards the pressure altitude of 200 hPa. Down to the surface, the values of NO and of NO2 increase up to several ppb. These profiles combined with in-situ water vapor and cloud parameters will be valuable for validation of model and of satellite data in the future.

  12. A study of the surface roughness lengths of a high-altitude topical glacier using profile and eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J.; Litt, M.

    2012-12-01

    The turbulent fluxes remain poorly understood on tropical glaciers. Studies based on the bulk method have shown that sublimation can be high during the dry season, reducing the energy available for melting. However, uncertainties on the bulk method are large, especially when katabatic flows cause a wind speed maximum at low height. Wind and temperature data from an 8-level 6-m mast positioned at 5060 m asl in the ablation area of the Zongo Glacier, Bolivia (16°S), were collected during a one-month period in the dry season of 2007. Concomitant measurements of radiation fluxes and eddy covariance turbulent fluxes were conducted. The surface roughness lengths for temperature and momentum were calculated using the profile and the eddy covariance methods at the hourly time scale. The measurement period was characterized by low synoptic forcing conditions and katabatic wind prevailed at night and most of the day. Katabatic flows were often associated with a wind speed maximum at a height of about 2-3 m and with a strong temperature inversion. Near-neutral profiles were selected to avoid the presence of the katabatic wind speed maximum. Results indicate z0 values of about 3 mm and zT values of about 0.2 mm, in rough agreement with terrain observations. However the scatter in the zT values is large indicating large random errors. The relation between the ratio zT/z0 and the roughness Reynolds number is in rough agreement with the surface renewal model. However, this relation turns out to be mostly due to spurious self-correlation because of the shared variable z0 in zT/z0 and Re*. Finally, the random and systematic errors on the roughness lengths derived from the profile measurements were briefly investigated. The results emphasize the need of accurate measurements of the sensor heights to obtain unbiased roughness lengths.

  13. A study of the surface roughness lengths of a high-altitude tropical glacier using profile and eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Litt, Maxime; Ben Tahar, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    The turbulent fluxes remain poorly understood on tropical glaciers. Studies based on the bulk method have shown that sublimation can be high during the dry season, reducing the energy available for melting. However, uncertainties on the bulk method are large, especially when katabatic flows cause a wind speed maximum at low height. Wind and temperature data from an 8-level 6-m mast positioned at 5060 m a.s.l. in the ablation area of the Zongo Glacier, Bolivia (16°S), were collected during a one-month period in the dry season of 2007. Concomitant measurements of radiation fluxes and eddy covariance turbulent fluxes were conducted. The surface roughness lengths for temperature (zT) and momentum (z0) were calculated using the profile and the eddy covariance methods at the hourly timescale. The measurement period was characterized by low synoptic forcing conditions and katabatic wind prevailed at night and most of the day. Katabatic flows were often associated with a wind speed maximum at a height of about 2-3 m and with a strong temperature inversion. Near-neutral profiles were selected to avoid the presence of the katabatic wind speed maximum. Results indicate z0 values of about 3 mm and zT values of about 0.2 mm, in rough agreement with terrain observations. However the scatter in the zT values is large indicating large random errors. The relation between the ratio zT/z0 and the roughness Reynolds number (Re*) is in rough agreement with the surface renewal model. However, this relation turns out to be mostly due to spurious self-correlation because of the shared variable z0 in zT/z0 and Re*. Finally, the random and systematic errors on the roughness lengths derived from the profile measurements were briefly investigated. The results emphasize the need of accurate measurements of the sensor heights to obtain unbiased roughness lengths.

  14. Comparison of acoustic doppler current profiler and Price AA mechanical current meter measurements made during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Patrick; Mueller, David; Pratt, Thad

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River and Tributaries project performed as designed during the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood, with many of the operational decisions based on discharge targets as opposed to stage. Measurement of discharge at the Tarbert Landing, Mississippi range provides critical information used in operational decisions for the floodways located in Louisiana. Historically, discharge measurements have been made using a Price AA current meter and the mid-section method, and a long record exists based on these types of measurements, including historical peak discharges. Discharge measurements made using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat have been incorporated into the record since the mid 1990's, and are used along with the Price AA mid-section measurements. During the 2011 flood event, both methods were used and appeared to provide different results at times. The apparent differences between the measurement techniques are due to complex hydrodynamics at this location that created large spatial and temporal fluctuations in the flow. The data and analysis presented herein show the difference between the two methods to be within the expected accuracy of the measurements when the measurements are made concurrently. The observed fluctuations prevent valid comparisons of data collected sequentially or even with different observation durations.

  15. Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children: prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures, and refractive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Lisa; McClelland, Julie F; Logan, Nicola S; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Chris G; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2013-01-21

    We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. χ(2) tests were used to assess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5% male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6% male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia ≥1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-13.1) and 12- to 13-year-old (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.9-12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism ≥1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (7.7%; 95% CI, 4.3-11.2) and 12- to 13-year-old (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.5-8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12- to 13-year-old children with hyperopia ≥+2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without aniso-astigmatism. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations.

  16. Measuring Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation: The Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nelis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to validate a new instrument aimed to assess emotion regulation: the Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R. Exploratory factor analyses yielded two theoretically meaningful factors: down-regulation of negative emotions and up-regulation of positive emotions. Internal reliability scores of the two factors were good. Findings showed evidence of convergent/discriminant validity, with ERP-R scores being independent of non verbal reasoning and verbal skills while positively related to emotional intelligence and to relevant personality dimensions. There was also preliminary evidence of criterion validity. ERP-R scores also demonstrated incremental validity to predict a number of criteria over and above emotional intelligence and emotional stability. Overall, the results show a clear 2 factors solution for the ERP-R and high correlations with convergent and divergent scales as well as good criterion and incremental validities.

  17. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  18. Measurement of the n{sub T}OF beam profile with a micromegas detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J. E-mail: jpancin@cea.fr; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Bacri, C.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Beer, H.; Benlliure, J.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Boffi, S.; Borcea, C.; Boscolo-Marchi, E.; Bustreo, N.; Calvino, F.; Cano-ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carlson, P.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortina, D.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dababneh, S.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Delbart, A.; Derre, J.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo, C.; Duran-Escribano, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Lourenco, L.; Ferreiramarques, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Furman, W.; Giomataris, Y.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Ioannides, K.; Janeva, N.; Jeanneau, F.; Jericha, E.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Kelic, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Kitis, G.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Lacoste, V.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Markov, S.; Marrone, S.; Martinez-Val, J.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.; Minguez, E.; Molina-Coballes, A.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' brien, S.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papavengelou, T.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Parra, A.; Perlado, J.; Peskov, V.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Policarpo, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Radici, M.; Raman, S.; Rapp, W.; Reifarth, R.; Rejmund, F.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Savvidis, E.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.; Tapia, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Terrani, M.; Tsangas, N.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin-Fernandez, D.; Vincente-Vincente, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; Zanini, L

    2004-05-21

    A Micromegas detector was used in the neutron Time-Of-Flight (n{sub T}OF) facility at CERN to evaluate the spatial distribution of the neutron beam as a function of its kinetic energy. This was achieved over a large range of neutron energies by using two complementary processes: at low energy by capture of a neutron via the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})t reaction, and at high energy by elastic scattering of neutrons on gas nuclei (argon+isobutane or helium+isobutane). Data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and an analytic function fitting the beam profile has been calculated with a sufficient precision to use in neutron capture experiments at the n{sub T}OF facility.

  19. Measurement of the nTOF beam profile with a micromegas detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pancin, J; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Assimakopoulos, P A; Bacri, C O; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Berthoumieux, E; Boffi, S; Borcea, C; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, Per J; Cennini, P; Chepel, V Yu; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Delbart, A; Derré, J; Dolfini, R; Domingo, C; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Lourenço, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Ioannides, K G; Janeva, N; Jeanneau, F; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F K; Kadi, Y; Karamanis, D; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Lacoste, V; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Markov, S; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Papadopoulos, I M; Papavengelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Parra, A; Perlado, J; Perrot, L; Peskov, Vladimir; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Radici, M; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Savvidis, E; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Terrani, M; Tsangas, N; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín-Fernández, D; Vincente-Vincente, M; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L

    2004-01-01

    A Micromegas detector was used in the neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN to evaluate the spatial distribution of the neutron beam as a function of its kinetic energy. This was achieved over a large range of neutron energies by using two complementary processes: at low energy by capture of a neutron via the **6Li(n, alpha)t reaction, and at high energy by elastic scattering of neutrons on gas nuclei (argon+isobutane or helium+isobutane). Data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and an analytic function fitting the beam profile has been calculated with a sufficient precision to use in neutron capture experiments at the n_TOF facility.

  20. An evaluation method of the profile of plasma-induced defects based on capacitance-voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukimasa; Ono, Kouichi; Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    Aggressive shrinkage and geometrical transition to three-dimensional structures in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) lead to potentially serious problems regarding plasma processing such as plasma-induced physical damage (PPD). For the precise control of material processing and future device designs, it is extremely important to clarify the depth and energy profiles of PPD. Conventional methods to estimate the PPD profile (e.g., wet etching) are time-consuming. In this study, we propose an advanced method using a simple capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. The method first assumes the depth and energy profiles of defects in Si substrates, and then optimizes the C-V curves. We applied this methodology to evaluate the defect generation in (100), (111), and (110) Si substrates. No orientation dependence was found regarding the surface-oxide layers, whereas a large number of defects was assigned in the case of (110). The damaged layer thickness and areal density were estimated. This method provides the highly sensitive PPD prediction indispensable for designing future low-damage plasma processes.

  1. Whispering Gallery Modes in Standard Optical Fibres for Fibre Profiling Measurements and Sensing of Unlabelled Chemical Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boleininger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Whispering gallery mode resonances in liquid droplets and microspheres have attracted considerable attention due to their potential uses in a range of sensing and technological applications. We describe a whispering gallery mode sensor in which standard optical fibre is used as the whispering gallery mode resonator. The sensor is characterised in terms of the response of the whispering gallery mode spectrum to changes in resonator size, refractive index of the surrounding medium, and temperature, and its measurement capabilities are demonstrated through application to high-precision fibre geometry profiling and the detection of unlabelled biochemical species. The prototype sensor is capable of detecting unlabelled biomolecular species in attomole quantities.

  2. Whispering Gallery Modes in Standard Optical Fibres for Fibre Profiling Measurements and Sensing of Unlabelled Chemical Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleininger, Anna; Lake, Thomas; Hami, Sophia; Vallance, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonances in liquid droplets and microspheres have attracted considerable attention due to their potential uses in a range of sensing and technological applications. We describe a whispering gallery mode sensor in which standard optical fibre is used as the whispering gallery mode resonator. The sensor is characterised in terms of the response of the whispering gallery mode spectrum to changes in resonator size, refractive index of the surrounding medium, and temperature, and its measurement capabilities are demonstrated through application to high-precision fibre geometry profiling and the detection of unlabelled biochemical species. The prototype sensor is capable of detecting unlabelled biomolecular species in attomole quantities. PMID:22294898

  3. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  4. Measuring the stratospheric aerosol size distribution profile following the next big volcanic eruption. What is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, T.

    2015-12-01

    Two of the key missing features of fresh and evolving volcanic plumes are the particle size distribution and its partitioning into non-volatile ash and volatile sulfate particles. Such information would allow more refined estimates of the evolution and dispersal of the aerosol, of the impacts of the aerosol on radiation and on stratospheric chemistry, and of the overall amount of sulfur injected into the stratosphere. To provide this information aerosol measurements must be sensitive to particles in the 0.1 - 10 μm radius range, with concentration detection thresholds > 0.001 cm-3, and to the total aerosol population. An added bonus would be a size resolved measurement of the non-volatile fraction of the aerosol. The measurements must span the lower and mid stratosphere up to about 30 km. There are no remote measurements which can provide this information. In situ measurements using aerosol and condensation nuclei counters are required. Aircraft platforms are available for measurements up to 20 km, but beyond that requires balloon platforms. Measurements above 20 km would be required for a large volcanic eruption. There are balloon-borne instruments capable of fulfilling all of the measurement requirements; however such instruments are reasonably large and not expendable. The difficulty is deploying the instruments, obtaining the flight permissions from air traffic control, and recovering the instruments after flight. Such difficulties are compounded in the tropics. This talk will detail some previous experience in this area and suggest ways forward to be ready for the next big eruption.

  5. Profile measurements and data from the 2011 Optics, Acoustics, and Stress In Situ (OASIS) project at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Coastal Model Applications and Field Measurements project under the auspices of the U.S. Navy Office of Naval Research Optics, Acoustics, and Stress In Situ (OASIS) Project. The objective of the measurements was to relate optical and acoustic properties of suspended particles to changes in particle size, concentration, and vertical distribution in the bottom boundary layer near the seafloor caused by wave- and current-induced stresses. This information on the physics of particle resuspension and aggregation and light penetration and water clarity will help improve models of sediment transport, benthic primary productivity, and underwater visibility. There is well-established technology for acoustic profiling, but optical profiles are more difficult to obtain because of the rapid attenuation of light in water. A specially modified tripod with a moving arm was designed to solve this problem by moving instruments vertically in the bottom boundary layer, between the bottom and about 2 meters above the seafloor. The profiling arm was designed, built, and tested during spring and summer 2011 by a team of USGS scientists, engineers, and technicians. To accommodate power requirements and the large data files recorded by some of the optical instruments, the tripod was connected via underwater cable to the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). This afforded real-time Internet communication with the embedded computers aboard the tripod. Instruments were mounted on the profiling arm, and additional instruments were mounted elsewhere on the tripod and nearby on the seafloor. The tripod and a small mooring for a profiling current meter were deployed on September 17, 2011, at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory 12-meter-deep underwater node about 2 kilometers south of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Divers assisted in the

  6. Development of a low-cost autofocusing probe for profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Chu, Chih-Liang; Mou, Jong-I.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, a low-cost and precision autofocus laser probe system was developed. Modified from the pickup head of a commercially available DVD as a basis, it can detect the focus error signal (FES) of the object with a built-in four-quadrant photodiode. The FES will feed back to the developed controller, through which the objective lens can be adjusted in position automatically to remain in focus, driven by a voice coil motor (VCM). The driving current (converted from servo-FES) of the VCM and the objective lens displacement are one to one linearly related within several hundred micrometres. Because of this relationship, the surface profile and the surface roughness of the tested object can be realized. Calibrated results showed that the designed probe has 200 µm linearity range, 0.2 µm accuracy, 0.1 µm resolution and standard deviation of 0.2 µm on average. Some examples are given to show the applicability of this probe system.

  7. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    images are distributed around a bright early-type galaxy at redshift 0.683, surrounded by several smaller galaxies at similar photometric redshifts. We use available optical and X-ray data to constrain the deflector total, stellar and hot gas mass through, respectively, strong lensing, stellar population...... analysis and plasma modelling. We derive a total mass projected within the Einstein radius R-Ein = 70 kpc of (40 +/- 1) x 10(12) M-circle dot, and a central logarithmic slope of -1.7 +/- 0.2 for the total mass density. Despite a very high stellar mass and velocity dispersion of the central galaxy of (3...... +/- 1) x 10(12) M-circle dot and (450 +/- 80) km s(-1), respectively, the cumulative stellar-to-total mass profile of the deflector implies a remarkably low stellar mass fraction of 20 per cent (3-6 per cent) in projection within the central galaxy effective radius R-e = 25 kpc (R = 100 kpc). We also...

  8. Cardiac output measurement in ventilated lambs with a significant left-to-right shunt using the modified carbon dioxide fick method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boode, Willem P; Hopman, Jeroen C W; Wijnen, Marc H W A; Tanke, Ronald B; van der Hoeven, Hans G; Liem, K Djien

    2010-01-01

    It remains a great challenge to measure systemic blood flow in critically ill newborns. In a former study we validated the modified carbon dioxide Fick (mCO(2)F) method for measurement of cardiac output in a newborn lamb model. In this new study we studied the influence of a left-to-right shunt on the accuracy of the mCO(2)F method. To analyze the influence of a left-to-right shunt on the agreement between cardiac output measurement with the mCO(2)F method and ultrasonic transit time pulmonary blood flow in a lamb model. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee on Animal Research of the Radboud University Nijmegen and performed in 8 random-bred lambs. A Gore-Tex shunt was placed between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. This aortopulmonary shunt was intermittently opened and closed, while cardiac output was manipulated by creating hemorrhagic hypotension. Cardiac output measurement with the mCO(2)F method (Q(mCO2F)) was compared with pulmonary blood flow obtained by a transit time ultrasonic flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery (Q(APC)). Bias, defined as Q(mCO2F) - Q(APC), was calculated for each measurement. With an open shunt there was a significant left-to-right shunt (mean Qp/Qs ratio 2.26; range 1.56-3.69). Mean bias (SD) was -12.3 (50.4) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and -12.3 (42.7) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) for measurements with a closed and open shunt, respectively (no statistical significant difference). Cardiac output measurement with the mCO(2)F method is reliable and easily applicable in ventilated newborn lambs, also in the presence of a significant left-to-right shunt. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Development of multi-purpose 2-dimensional detectors for radiation beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myungkook; Chio, Younghyun; Kim, Hyunok; Lim, Changhwy; Park, Jeehyun

    2013-08-15

    In recent years, accelerators for radiation generation of variety purposes have been developed and used. The most important part of the radiation emitting device is the accuracy and consistency of the generated radiation dose rate and the dose distribution. In this study, we developed the position sensitive MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber) and THGEM (Thick-Gas Electron Multiplier) for measurement of the 2-dimensional radiation dose distribution and measured the radiation dose distribution using them. And we developed devices for conversion, transmission and amplification of radiation signal as the low noise preamplifier and the TDC (Time to Digital Convertor). Through to develop the new high-speed data transmission system, we installed the system that can transfer a stable signal. The developed radiation dose distribution measurement system is expected to be used the measurement of the dose distribution beam of accelerator, as well as measurement of the low energy X-ray dose distribution as the SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering)

  10. Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James M.; Bodhaine, Barry A.; Boatman, Joe F.; Deluisi, John J.; Post, M. J.; Kim, Young; Schnell, Russell C.; Sheridan, Patrick J.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous measurements of the physical and optical properties of mixed layer and free tropospheric aerosols near Boulder, Colorado, were made on several occasions using aircraft, balloon, and ground-based sensors. This effort (Front Range Lidar, Aircraft, and Balloon experiment (FRLAB)) was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a diverse, self-consistent data set that could be used for testing optical model calculations based on measured physical characteristics such as apparent size distribution, composition, and shape. It was found that even with the uncertainties involved, the model predictions are in good agreement with the measurements in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions. At CO2 lidar wavelengths there is considerably more uncertainty in both the calculated and measured values; however, within the estimated errors there appears to be satisfactory agreement except for the highest free tropospheric layer studied. The results also indicate that during FRLAB the aerosol in the boundary layer and free troposphere behaved as spherical particles for optical modeling purposes. The utility of the observations for determining the extinction-to-backscatter ratio relevant to aerosols in the boundary layer and free troposphere is described with typical measured values being in the 20 to 30 sr range.

  11. Temperature profile measurement of graphite material using a CO{sub 2} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Payal; Sarma, Arun [Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Raisan, Gandhinagar-382007, Gujarat (India); Ghosh, Joydeep; Pandya, Shwetang; Pandya, Santosh; Choudhuri, Paritosh; Govindarajan, J [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Schrittwieser, C Ionita; Schrittwieser, Roman, E-mail: arun.sarma@spt.pdpu.ac.i [Institute for Ion Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Emissive probes have been used for the direct measurement of plasma potential in many plasma devices and different approaches have been introduced to measure plasma potential using emissive probes. But the biggest disadvantage of the emissive probe is its short lifespan due to its self-arrangement and different plasma environment. For example, filament emissive probes cannot be used in high-temperature plasma devices. A few initiatives have begun to measure the plasma potential by using a laser-heated emissive probe. In these cases, mostly graphite and LaB{sub 6} are being used as a probe tip to emit electrons by heating them with a laser light. However, very few studies aiming to understand the mechanism of the heating process of the graphite material have been performed. The heating dynamics of the graphite material heated by a CW CO{sub 2} laser with a maximum power of 30 W have been investigated in this study. The in situ temperature of the probe tip has been measured by using an infrared camera. Complete theoretical and simulation models have been developed to understand the experimentally measured data. Further, the experimental results are compared with ANSYS simulations.

  12. Measuring Effective Leaf Area Index, Foliage Profile, and Stand Height in New England Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Schull, Mithcell A.; Roman-Colon, Miguel O.; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Zhang, Qingling; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius; hide

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaf area index (LAI) retrievals from a scanning, ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) lidar that digitizes the full return waveform, the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), are in good agreement with those obtained from both hemispherical photography and the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. We conducted trials at 28 plots within six stands of hardwoods and conifers of varying height and stocking densities at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, and Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, in July 2007. Effective LAI values retrieved by four methods, which ranged from 3.42 to 5.25 depending on the site and method, were not significantly different ( b0.1 among four methods). The LAI values also matched published values well. Foliage profiles (leaf area with height) retrieved from the lidar scans, although not independently validated, were consistent with stand structure as observed and as measured by conventional methods. Canopy mean top height, as determined from the foliage profiles, deviated from mean RH100 values obtained from the Lidar Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) airborne large-footprint lidar system at 27 plots by .0.91 m with RMSE=2.04 m, documenting the ability of the EVI to retrieve stand height. The Echidna Validation Instrument is the first realization of the Echidna lidar concept, devised by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), for measuring forest structure using full-waveform, ground-based, scanning lidar.

  13. Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements from CTD, XBT, and bottle samplers received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 0054093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department as a...

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1900 - 1940 (NODC Accession 0002118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other measurements were collected using bottle casts from the SOTRA in the Barents Sea and other locations from 16 May 1900 to 20 October...

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970 through 1975 (NODC Accession 0002125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970...

  16. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976 through 1982 (NODC Accession 0002126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976...