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Sample records for profile manipulation technique

  1. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  2. Resonant Wave-Particle Manipulation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmoginov, Andrey I.

    Charged particle dynamics can be altered considerably even by weak electromagnetic waves if some of the particles are in resonance. Depending on the wave parameters, the resonances in the phase space can either be well separated, in which case the particle dynamics is regular almost everywhere, or they can overlap leading to stochastic particle motion in a large volume of the phase space. Although different, both of these regimes allow one to manipulate particle ensembles by arranging resonant interactions with appropriate waves. This thesis is devoted to studying two wave-particle manipulation techniques having potential applications in fusion and laser-plasma interaction research. Specifically, we study the alpha-channeling effect (which relies on stochastic diffusion of resonant particles) and the so-called negative-mass effect (NME) (which involves the conservation of the adiabatic invariant). The alpha-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic alpha particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Recently, the alpha-channeling technique, originally proposed for tokamaks, was shown to be suitable for application in mirror machines as well. In the first part of this thesis, we deepen the understanding of issues and possibilities of the alpha-channeling implementation in open-ended reactors. We verify the feasibility of this technique and identify specific waves and supplementary techniques, which can potentially be used for implementing the alpha-channeling in realistic mirror devices. We also propose a new technique for using the alpha-channeling wave energy to catalyze fusion reaction by employing minority ions as a mediator species. In the second part of this thesis, the NME manifesting itself as an unusual response of a resonant particle to external adiabatic perturbations mimicking the behavior of a particle with a

  3. Manipulation of biological samples using micro and nano techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    The constant interest in handling, integrating and understanding biological systems of interest for the biomedical field, the pharmaceutical industry and the biomaterial researchers demand the use of techniques that allow the manipulation of biological samples causing minimal or no damage...... to their natural structure. Thanks to the advances in micro- and nanofabrication during the last decades several manipulation techniques offer us the possibility to image, characterize and manipulate biological material in a controlled way. Using these techniques the integration of biomaterials with remarkable...

  4. Advances in FACE and manipulation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus; Larsen, Klaus S.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    Experimental techniques to expose plants and ecosystems to elevated CO2 have been around for decades, starting out with branch cuvettes, chambers and green houses and in the 90ies leading to the development of the FACE (Free Air Carbon Enrichment) technique, which has been and still is widely use...

  5. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-Zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled gene expression, protein tagging, gene reintegration, and overexpression. In this review, the main cassettes containing selectable markers used for gene manipulation in C. albicans are summarized; the advantages and limitations of these cassettes are discussed concerning the influences on the target gene expression and the virulence of the mutant strains. PMID:24759671

  6. Interaction techniques for selecting and manipulating subgraphs in network visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, Michael J; Jurisica, Igor

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel and extensible set of interaction techniques for manipulating visualizations of networks by selecting subgraphs and then applying various commands to modify their layout or graphical properties. Our techniques integrate traditional rectangle and lasso selection, and also support selecting a node's neighbourhood by dragging out its radius (in edges) using a novel kind of radial menu. Commands for translation, rotation, scaling, or modifying graphical properties (such as opacity) and layout patterns can be performed by using a hotbox (a transiently popped-up, semi-transparent set of widgets) that has been extended in novel ways to integrate specification of commands with 1D or 2D arguments. Our techniques require only one mouse button and one keyboard key, and are designed for fast, gestural, in-place interaction. We present the design and integration of these interaction techniques, and illustrate their use in interactive graph visualization. Our techniques are implemented in NAViGaTOR, a software package for visualizing and analyzing biological networks. An initial usability study is also reported.

  7. Investigation of Plasma Exhaust Profile Manipulation Using Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, Bryan A.

    Electric propulsion systems are known for having a high specific impulse but very low thrust. In the case of a hypersonic, compressible flow, altering the exhaust profile has the potential to alter the exhaust velocity thus changing the total thrust output. In this research, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) effects of applying a toroidal magnetic field to an ionized exhaust plume were investigated to manipulate the exhaust profile of the plasma jet under near vacuum conditions. The project also endeavored to determine the efficacy of permanent magnets as a replacement for electromagnetic systems in rocket propulsion. Tests for this experiment were conducted using the West Virginia University (WVU) Hypersonic Arc Jet Wind Tunnel, in which a series of N52 grade neodymium magnets were placed in different orientations around a steel toroid mounted around the arc jet plume. Four different magnet orientations which produced different magnetic fields around the plume were tested in this experiment: two of the configurations held the magnetic poles aligned with the flow direction with north or south facing the nozzle; two configurations held the magnetic poles in a tangential orientation to the flow with north or south facing in a clockwise direction. All magnets in each of the magnetized cases were positioned equidistant to one another and equidistant to the toroid's central axis. Two additional configurations were run as control tests without any imposed magnetic fields surrounding the plume. Each test was documented using 12 sets of photographs taken from a fixed position with respect to the flow, and the photographic data was analyzed by comparing images of the exhaust plume taken 10, 20, and 30 seconds after the plasma jet was activated. Analysis of the collected images showed that the tangential configurations where the magnets' north poles were oriented clockwise held the most influence in decreasing the size of the exhaust profile across all time steps. In contrast

  8. Comparison of Three Interactive Techniques for Collaborative Manipulation of Objects in Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Aguerreche, Laurent; Duval, Thierry; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper compares three interactive techniques for two-user collaborative manipulation in virtual environments. The first technique averages positions and orientations provided by users (Mean technique). The second technique (DOF separation) splits degrees of freedom of the manipulated object among users. The third technique is a tangible device grasped simultaneously by the two users.We have conducted an experiment where participants were asked to manipulate and ass...

  9. Influence of two functional complete-denture impression techniques on patient satisfaction: dentist-manipulated versus patient-manipulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Kerstin; Zenginel, Martha; Buchtaleck, Jochen; Rehmann, Peter; Wostmann, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary clinical study aimed to identify the impact of two border-molding techniques (dentist-manipulated and patient-manipulated) on patient satisfaction, the occlusal force at denture dislodgment, and number of pressure sores. Salivary flow rate and residual ridge resorption were analyzed as covariates. Thirty-six edentulous patients in need of a relining of their existing maxillary denture were included. After relining, no significant influence of the border-molding technique on any of the variables investigated could be identified. It can be concluded that the impact of the border-molding technique on patient satisfaction and denture function probably has been overestimated in the past.

  10. Vacuum grasping as a manipulation technique for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, R. H. M.; van Eijk, D. J.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery requires specially designed instruments. Bowel tissue damage is considered one of the most serious forms of lesion, specifically perforation of the bowel. Methods An experimental setting was used to manipulate healthy pig bowel tissue via two vacuum instruments. During the experiments, two simple manipulations were performed for both prototypes by two experienced surgeons. Each manipulation was repeated 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 60 kPa and 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 20 kPa. All the manipulations were macroscopically assessed by two experienced surgeons in terms of damage to the bowel. Results In 160 observations, 63 ecchymoses were observed. All 63 ecchymoses were classified as not relevant and negligible. No serosa or seromuscular damages and no perforations were observed. Conclusion Vacuum instruments such as the tested prototypes have the potential to be used as grasper instruments in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:20195640

  11. Techniques applied in design optimization of parallel manipulators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modungwa, D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There are some key advantages associated with parallel robots, which have warranted their continued research and wide application in both university laboratories and industry. To obtain a parallel manipulator with good properties, as customized...

  12. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  13. [Inheritance and evolution of acupuncture manipulation techniques of Zhejiang acupuncture masters in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daxiong; Ma, Ruijie; Fang, Jianqiao

    2015-05-01

    There are many eminent acupuncture masters in modern times in the regions of Zhejiang province, which has developed the acupuncture schools of numerous characteristics and induces the important impacts at home and abroad. Through the literature collection on the acupuncture schools in Zhejiang and the interviews to the parties involved, it has been discovered that the acupuncture manipulation techniques of acupuncture masters in modern times are specifically featured. Those techniques are developed on the basis of Neijing (Internal Classic), Jinzhenfu (Ode to Gold Needle) and Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). No matter to obey the old maxim or study by himself, every master lays the emphasis on the research and interpretation of classical theories and integrates the traditional with the modern. In the paper, the acupuncture manipulation techniques of Zhejiang acupuncture masters in modern times are stated from four aspects, named needling techniques in Internal Classic, feijingzouqi needling technique, penetrating needling technique and innovation of acupuncture manipulation.

  14. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement-random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement......Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production...... of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves...

  15. Adaptation of manipulation skills in physical contact with the environment to reference force profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Dakka, Fares J.; Nemec, Bojan; Jørgensen, Jimmy A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for learning and adaption of manipulation skills that involve physical contact with the environment. Pure position control is unsuitable for such tasks because even small errors in the desired trajectory can cause significant deviations from the desired forces...... and torques. The proposed algorithm takes a reference Cartesian trajectory and force/torque profile as input and adapts the movement so that the resulting forces and torques match the reference profiles. The learning algorithm is based on dynamic movement primitives and quaternion representation...

  16. A review of microfabrication techniques and dielectrophoretic microdevices for particle manipulation and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Li, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Alici, G.; Wen, W.

    2014-02-01

    The development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices over the past decade has attracted growing interest. LOC devices aim to achieve the miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of biological and chemical assays. One of the applications, the ability to effectively and accurately manipulate and separate micro- and nano-scale particles in an aqueous solution, is particularly appealing in biological, chemical and medical fields. Among the technologies that have been developed and implemented in microfluidic microsystems for particle manipulation and separation (such as mechanical, inertial, hydrodynamic, acoustic, optical, magnetic and electrical methodologies), dielectrophoresis (DEP) may prove to be the most popular because of its label-free nature, ability to manipulate neutral bioparticles, analyse with high selectivity and sensitivity, compatibility with LOC devices, and easy and direct interface with electronics. The required spatial electric non-uniformities for the DEP effect can be generated by patterning microelectrode arrays within microchannels, or placing insulating obstacles within a microchannel and curving the microchannels. A wide variety of electrode- and insulator-based DEP microdevices have been developed, fabricated, and successfully employed to manipulate and separate bioparticles (i.e. DNA, proteins, bacteria, viruses, mammalian and yeast cells). This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of microfabrication techniques and of the structures of dielectrophoretic microdevices aimed towards different applications. The techniques used for particle manipulation and separation based on microfluidics are provided in this paper. In addition, we also present the theoretical background of DEP.

  17. Application of Fascial Manipulation technique in chronic shoulder pain--anatomical basis and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Julie Ann; Stecco, Carla; Stecco, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Classical anatomy still relegates muscular fascia to a role of contention. Nonetheless, different hypotheses concerning the function of this resilient tissue have led to the formulation of numerous soft tissue techniques for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. This paper presents a pilot study concerning the application of one such manual technique, Fascial Manipulation, in 28 subjects suffering from chronic posterior brachial pain. This method involves a deep kneading of muscular fascia at specific points, termed centres of coordination (cc) and centres of fusion (cf), along myofascial sequences, diagonals, and spirals. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement of pain administered prior to the first session, and after the third session was compared with a follow-up evaluation at 3 months. Results suggest that the application of Fascial Manipulation technique may be effective in reducing pain in chronic shoulder dysfunctions. The anatomical substratum of the myofascial continuity has been documented by dissections and the biomechanical model is discussed.

  18. Perception of facial esthetics by native Chinese participants by using manipulated digital imagery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganzini, A L; Tseng, J Y; Epstein, J Z

    2000-10-01

    This investigation utilized a manipulated digital video imaging model to elicit profile facial esthetics preferences in a lay population of native Chinese participants from Beijing. A series of 4 distinct digitized distortions were constructed from an initial lateral cephalogram. These images represented skeletal or dental changes that differed by 2 standard deviations from the normative values for Chinese adults. Video morphing then created soft-tissue profiles. A series of nonparametric tests validated the digitized distortion model. The native Chinese participants in this sample found that the profile distortions most acceptable were the "flatter", or bimaxillary retrusive distortion, in the male stimulus face and the "anterior divergent", or maxillary deficiency, in the female stimulus face.

  19. Suitability of the RGB Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Poljicak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data  hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  20. Manipulation of laser-accelerated proton beam profiles by nanostructured and microstructured targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured and microstructured thin foils have been fabricated and used experimentally as targets to manipulate the spatial profile of proton bunches accelerated through the interaction with high intensity laser pulses (6×10^{19}  W/cm^{2}. Monolayers of polystyrene nanospheres were placed on the rear surfaces of thin plastic targets to improve the spatial homogeneity of the accelerated proton beams. Moreover, thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides were used to modify the proton beam divergence. Experimental results are presented, discussed, and supported by 3D particle-in-cell numerical simulations.

  1. Motivational factors in vision therapy: comparison of computerized vs. manipulative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, S

    1996-06-01

    Vision therapy (VT) is a learning process that requires the patient to be motivated. Various modalities are used by practitioners to stimulate interest. This study compares the motivating effect of computers and manipulatives (i.e., physical objects that are handled). Fifteen subjects were compared on three motivational standards: time on task, negative behaviors and patient choice of procedure; these standards were compared for two computerized VT procedures and two VT procedures using manipulatives. The visual abilities used for therapy were stereopsis and spatial visualization. Although both methods were motivating, the computerized techniques were clearly superior in all three measures for both visual abilities. Computerized vision therapy is an excellent modality for facilitating motivation for vision therapy.

  2. Peyton's four-step approach for teaching complex spinal manipulation techniques - a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl-Dietsch, Gertraud; Lübke, Cavan; Horst, Klemens; Simon, Melanie; Modabber, Ali; Sönmez, Tolga T; Münker, Ralf; Nebelung, Sven; Knobe, Matthias

    2016-11-03

    The objectives of this prospective randomized trial were to assess the impact of Peyton's four-step approach on the acquisition of complex psychomotor skills and to examine the influence of gender on learning outcomes. We randomly assigned 95 third to fifth year medical students to an intervention group which received instructions according to Peyton (PG) or a control group, which received conventional teaching (CG). Both groups attended four sessions on the principles of manual therapy and specific manipulative and diagnostic techniques for the spine. We assessed differences in theoretical knowledge (multiple choice (MC) exam) and practical skills (Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE)) with respect to type of intervention and gender. Participants took a second OSPE 6 months after completion of the course. There were no differences between groups with respect to the MC exam. Students in the PG group scored significantly higher in the OSPE. Gender had no additional impact. Results of the second OSPE showed a significant decline in competency regardless of gender and type of intervention. Peyton's approach is superior to standard instruction for teaching complex spinal manipulation skills regardless of gender. Skills retention was equally low for both techniques.

  3. Technique for using a geometry and visualization system to monitor and manipulate information in other codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to allow the Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS), a geometry and visualization system, to be used as a dynamic real-time geometry monitor, manipulator, and interrogator for other codes. This technique involves the direct connection of AGPS with one or more external codes through the use of Unix pipes. AGPS has several commands that control communication with the external program. The external program uses several special subroutines that allow simple, direct communication with AGPS. The external program creates AGPS command lines and transmits the line over the pipes or communicates on a subroutine level. AGPS executes the commands, displays graphics/geometry information, and transmits the required solutions back to the external program. The basic ideas discussed in this paper could easily be implemented in other graphics/geometry systems currently in use or under development.

  4. Nestmate recognition in social wasps: manipulation of hydrocarbon profiles induces aggression in the European hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Sieben, Stefan; Schricker, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    The influence of individual cuticular hydrocarbons on nestmate recognition in the European hornet, Vespa crabro L., was investigated. We observed the behavioural response of workers towards differently treated dead conspecifics in a bioassay. Dummies were extracted with dichloromethane and extracts were spiked with microgram amounts of synthetic hydrocarbons naturally occurring on the cuticle of V. crabro. These modified extracts were reapplied to extracted workers that were subsequently tested in the bioassay. Non-spiked nestmate dummies (negative control) and untreated non-nestmate dummies (positive control) were tested in control experiments. The addition of only heneicosane or a mixture of heneicosane, tricosane, and ( Z)-9-tricosene to the extracts led to a significant increase of agonistic behaviour in workers leaving the nest for foraging flights. Returning workers reacted much less aggressively than those leaving. This is one of the first behavioural proofs that manipulation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles can be perceived by a social insect species. The results support the hypothesis that colony-specific cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are involved in the phenomenon of nestmate recognition among social insects.

  5. Under-Actuated Robot Manipulator Positioning Control Using Artificial Neural Network Inversion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali T. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to solve the positioning control problem of underactuated robot manipulator. Artificial Neural Networks Inversion technique was used where a network represents the forward dynamics of the system trained to learn the position of the passive joint over the working space of a 2R underactuated robot. The obtained weights from the learning process were fixed, and the network was inverted to represent the inverse dynamics of the system and then used in the estimation phase to estimate the position of the passive joint for a new set of data the network was not previously trained for. Data used in this research are recorded experimentally from sensors fixed on the robot joints in order to overcome whichever uncertainties presence in the real world such as ill-defined linkage parameters, links flexibility, and backlashes in gear trains. Results were verified experimentally to show the success of the proposed control strategy.

  6. Application of the zona-free manipulation technique to porcine somatic nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Holm, P

    2001-01-01

    The recent demonstration of a successful zona-free manipulation technique for bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) that is both simpler and less labor intensive is of considerable benefit to advance the applications of this technology. Here, we describe that this method is also applicable...... to porcine somatic NT. Porcine cumulus oocyte complexes were matured in TCM-199 medium before sequential removal of the cumulus and zonae. Zona-free oocytes were bisected using a microknife, and the halves containing the metaphase plate (as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining) were discarded. Each half...... activated in calcium ionophore A23187 followed by DMAP and were then individually cultured in microwells in NCSU-23 medium. On day 7 after activation, blastocyst yield and total cell numbers were counted. Of 279 attempted reconstructed NT embryos, 85.0 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5 replicates) successfully...

  7. Redundant manipulator techniques for partially decentralized path planning and control of a platoon of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Daniel J; Bishop, Bradley E; Sylvester, Caleb A

    2005-08-01

    An approach to real-time trajectory generation for platoons of autonomous vehicles is developed from well-known control techniques for redundant robotic manipulators. The partially decentralized structure of this approach permits each vehicle to independently compute its trajectory in real-time using only locally generated information and low-bandwidth feedback generated by a system exogenous to the platoon. Our work is motivated by applications for which communications bandwidth is severely limited, such for platoons of autonomous underwater vehicles. The communication requirements for our trajectory generation approach are independent of the number of vehicles in the platoon, enabling platoons composed of a large number of vehicles to be coordinated despite limited communication bandwidth.

  8. SEMI-AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING GEOLOGICAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents semi-automated technique for creating geological profiles. Technique is based on manual geological correlation, and on computer tools which ensure automation of the remaining part of procedure, namely from lithological data storage to creation of graphical presentation of geological profiles. Microsoft (MS Access program was used for lithologic data storage while Visual Basic (VB macros for Excel were used for automated transfer of lithologic data from MS Access data base to Rockworks program. Rockworks was used for creation of work version of geologic profiles, and AutoCAD program for final graphical presentation of geological profiles. Presented concept facilitates automation of technical part of procedure for creating geological profiles and makes it easier and faster (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Methods Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Results Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. Conclusion In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures

  10. Optimum and Controllable Multi-stage Proton Acceleration Manipulated by Double Beam Image Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of ultra-intense laser technology, laser intensity can increase up to the order of 1022 W/cm2 in the laboratory. Ion beams in the MeV range and even the GeV range, driven by terawatt or petawatt lasers, exhibit ultra-short pulse duration, excellent emission, and ultra-high peak current. Thus, they can potentially be applied in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, proton imaging, and pre-accelerators for conventional acceleration devices. However, the generation of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams for realistic applications is still an experimental challenge. Here, the optimum and controllable two-stage proton acceleration is realized for the first time by a novel double beam image (DBI) technique in experiment. Two laser pulses are successfully tuned on two separated foils with both spatial collineation and time synchronizing, resulting in spectrum tailoring and an energy increase at the same time. Such a novel DBI technique can help us to realize the optimum two-stage acceleration in a feasible way, which opens the door for the exact manipulation of multi-stage acceleration to further improve the energy and spectra of particle beams.

  11. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  12. Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Matthew John

    The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

  13. Forensic examination of computer-manipulated documents using image processing techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saini, Komal; Kaur, Shabnampreet

    2016-01-01

    .... Image processing tools have been associated with a variety of crimes, including counterfeiting of currency notes, cheques, as well as manipulation of important government documents, wills, financial...

  14. Effects of spinal manipulation and myofascial techniques on heart rate variability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso Borges, Bruno Luis; Bortolazzo, Gustavo Luiz; Neto, Hugo Pasin

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability is important to the investigation of stimuli from the autonomic nervous system. Osteopathy is a form of treatment that can influence this system in healthy individuals as well as those with a disorder or disease. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature regarding the effect of spinal manipulation and myofascial techniques on heart rate variability. Searches were performed of the Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, PEDro, Ibesco, Cochrane and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of each study selected. A total of 505 articles were retrieved during the initial search. After an analysis of the abstracts, nine studies were selected for the present review. Based on the findings, osteopathy exerts an influence on the autonomic nervous system depending on the stimulation site and type. A greater parasympathetic response was found when stimulation was performed in the cervical and lumbar regions, whereas a greater sympathetic response was found when stimulation was performed in the thoracic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  16. The effect of two manipulative therapy techniques and their outcome in patients with sacroiliac joint syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Fahimeh; Shokri, Esmaeil

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effect of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) manipulation with SIJ and lumbar manipulation for the treatment of SIJ syndrome. Thirty-two women with SIJ syndrome were randomly divided into two groups of 16 subjects. One group received the high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation to the SIJ and the other group received both SIJ and lumbar HVLA manipulation to both the SIJ and lumbar spine in a single session. The outcomes were assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, immediately, 48 h and one month after the treatment for pain and also Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire at baseline, 48 h and one month after the treatment. Analysis revealed a statistically significant improvement immediately, at 48 h and one month after treatment for pain and significant improvement at 48 h and one month after treatment for functional disability in the SIJ manipulated group. A significant improvement immediately, at 48 h and one month after treatment for pain and significant improvement at 48 h and one month after treatment for functional disability in the SIJ and lumbar manipulated group was also found. Furthermore, there were significant differences within groups in ODI and VAS when using Friedman test in both groups. By using Wilcoxon rank sum test no differences were observed in change scores between the two groups immediately, 48 h and one month after the treatment for VAS, or after 48 h and one month after the treatment for the ODI. A single session of SIJ and lumbar manipulation was more effective for improving functional disability than SIJ manipulation alone in patients with SIJ syndrome. Spinal HVLA manipulation may be a beneficial addition to treatment for patients with SIJ syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geometric technique for the kinematic modeling of a 5 DOF redundant manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makondo, N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a geometrical method for solving the inverse kinematic (IK) problem of a 5 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) redundant manipulator. A geometric inverse kinematics solution is desirable as it provides complete and simple solutions...

  18. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... with re-spect to the hiring subsidy. The hiring subsidy raises not only the job destruction rate, but in-creases contrary to the Mortensen-Pissarides model also the duration of unemployment. Like the subsidy, profiling measures, which improve the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd-out the active...

  19. Forensic examination of computer-manipulated documents using image processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Saini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent exponential growth in the use of image processing software applications has been accompanied by a parallel increase in their use in criminal activities. Image processing tools have been associated with a variety of crimes, including counterfeiting of currency notes, cheques, as well as manipulation of important government documents, wills, financial deeds or educational certificates. Thus, it is important for the Document Examiner to keep up to date with latest technological and scientific advances in the field. The present research focuses on the use of image processing tools for the examination of computer-manipulated documents. The altered documents were examined using a suite of currently available image processing tools. The results demonstrate that a number of tools are capable of detecting computer-based manipulations of written documents.

  20. Plate-based transfection and culturing technique for genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of malaria parasites remains an inefficient, time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Presented here is a set of methods for 96-well plate-based transfection and culture that improve the efficiency of genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum. Compared to standard protocols plate-based transfection requires 20-fold less DNA, transient transfection efficiency achieved is approximately seven-fold higher, whilst stable transfection success rate is above 90%. Furthermore the utility of this set of protocols to generate a knockout of the PfRH3 pseudogene, screened by whole-cell PCR, is demonstrated. The methods and tools presented here will facilitate genome-scale genetic manipulation of P. falciparum. PMID:22257490

  1. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  2. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 1, The proposed technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A general framework for solving the dynamic load distribution when two manipulators hold a rigid object is proposed. The underspecified problem of solving for the contact forces and torques based on the object`s equations of motion is transformed into a well specified problem. This is accomplished by augmenting the object`s equations of motion with additional equations which relate a new vector variable quantifying the internal contact force and torque degrees of freedom (DOF) as a linear function of the contact forces and torques. The resulting augmented system yields a well specified solution for the contact forces and torques in which they are separated into their motion inducing and internal components. A particular solution is suggested which enables the designer to conveniently specify what portion of the payload`s mass each manipulator is to bear. It is also shown that the results of the previous work are just a special case of the general load distribution framework described here.

  3. Force-time profile differences in the delivery of simulated toggle-recoil spinal manipulation by students, instructors, and field doctors of chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVocht, James W; Owens, Edward F; Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Strazewski, John; Bhogal, Ramneek; Xia, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the force-time profiles of toggle recoil using an instrumented simulator to objectively measure and evaluate students' skill to determine if they become quicker and use less force during the course of their training and to compare them to course instructors and to field doctors of chiropractic (DCs) who use this specific technique in their practices. A load cell was placed within a toggle recoil training device. The preload, speed, and magnitude of the toggle recoil thrusts were measured from 60 students, 2 instructors, and 77 DCs (ie, who use the toggle recoil technique in their regular practice). Student data were collected 3 times during their toggle course (after first exposure, at midterm, and at course end.) Thrusts showed a dual-peak force-time profile not previously described in other forms of spinal manipulation. There was a wide range of values for each quantity measured within and between all 3 subject groups. The median peak load for students decreased over the course of their class, but they became slower. Field doctors were faster than students or instructors and delivered higher peak loads. Toggle recoil thrusts into a dropping mechanism varied based upon subject and amount of time practicing the task. As students progressed through the class, speed reduced as they increased control to lower peak loads. In the group studies, field DCs applied higher forces and were faster than both students and instructors. There appears to be a unique 2-peak feature of the force-time plot that is unique to toggle recoil manipulation with a drop mechanism. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring nanolayer profiles of various materials by evanescent light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchin, Nina; Apter, Boris; Lapsker, Igor; Fogel, V; Gorodetsky, Uri; Popescu, Simona A; Peled, Aaron; Popescu-Pelin, Gianina; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Duta, Liviu; Popescu, Andrei; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2012-03-01

    The evanescent light photon extraction efficiency of insulator, semiconductor and conductor amorphous nanolayers deposited on glass waveguides was evaluated from Differential Evanescent Light Intensity measurements. The Differential Evanescent Light Intensity technique uses the evanescent field scattered by the deposited nanolayer, enabling nanometer thickness profiling due to the high inherent dark background contrast. The results show that the effective evanescent photon penetration depth increases from metal to semiconductor and then to insulating layers, establishing thus the effective photon-material interaction length for the various materials classes.

  5. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... that under both regimes the equilibrium unemployment rate is increasing with respect to the hiring subsidy. The subsidy like the profiling measures, which improve the effectiveness of the public placement service, crowd-out the active jobseekers among the short- and the long-term unemployed and reduce total...

  6. Application of osteopathic manipulative technique in the treatment of back pain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Wolski, Hubert; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Lipiec, Joanna; Marszałek, Sławomir; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Klejewski, Andrzej; Lisiński, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-01

    Changes in body posture, musculoskeletal disorders and somatic dysfunctions are frequently observed during pregnancy especially ligament, joint and myofascial impairment. The aim of the paper is to present the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for back and pelvic pain in pregnancy on the basis of a review of the available literature. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched in January 2014 for relevant reports, randomized controlled trials, clinical and case studies of OMT use in pregnant women. Each eligible source was verified and analyzed by two independent reviewers. OMT procedures appear to be effective and safe for pelvic and spinal pain management in the lumbosacral area in pregnant women.

  7. Myofascial pain of the jaw muscles: comparison of short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and fascial manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Stecco, Antonio; Stecco, Carla; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and physiatric treatment provided by means of Fascial Manipulation techniques in the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles. Thirty patients with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) diagnosis of myofascial pain were randomized to receive either single-session botulinum toxin injections (Group A) or multiple-session Fascial Manipulation (Group B). Maximum pain levels (VAS ratings) and jaw range of motion in millimeters (maximum mouth opening, protrusion, right and left laterotrusion) were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Both treatment protocols provided significant improvement over time for pain symptoms. The two treatments seem to be almost equally effective, Fascial Manipulation being slightly superior to reduce subjective pain perception, and botulinum toxin injections being slightly superior to increase jaw range of motion. Differences between the two treatment protocols as to changes in the outcome parameters at the three-months follow-up were not relevant clinically. Findings from the present investigation are in line with literature data supporting the effectiveness of a wide spectrum of conservative treatment approaches to myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Future studies on larger samples over a longer follow-up span are needed on the way to identify tailored treatment strategies.

  8. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  9. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  10. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  11. Peyton’s four-step approach for teaching complex spinal manipulation techniques – a prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertraud Gradl-Dietsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this prospective randomized trial were to assess the impact of Peyton’s four-step approach on the acquisition of complex psychomotor skills and to examine the influence of gender on learning outcomes. Methods We randomly assigned 95 third to fifth year medical students to an intervention group which received instructions according to Peyton (PG or a control group, which received conventional teaching (CG. Both groups attended four sessions on the principles of manual therapy and specific manipulative and diagnostic techniques for the spine. We assessed differences in theoretical knowledge (multiple choice (MC exam and practical skills (Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE with respect to type of intervention and gender. Participants took a second OSPE 6 months after completion of the course. Results There were no differences between groups with respect to the MC exam. Students in the PG group scored significantly higher in the OSPE. Gender had no additional impact. Results of the second OSPE showed a significant decline in competency regardless of gender and type of intervention. Conclusions Peyton’s approach is superior to standard instruction for teaching complex spinal manipulation skills regardless of gender. Skills retention was equally low for both techniques.

  12. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  13. Novel reaction control techniques for redundant space manipulators: Theory and simulated microgravity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Silvio; Pretto, Isacco; Debei, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents two novel redundancy resolution schemes aimed at locally minimizing the reaction torque transferred to the spacecraft during manipulator manoeuvres. The subject is of particular interest in space robotics because reduced reactions result in reduced energy consumption and longer operating life of the attitude control system. The first presented solution is based on a weighted Jacobian pseudoinverse and is derived by using Lagrangian multipliers. The weight matrix is defined by means of the inertia matrix which appears in the spacecraft reaction torque dynamics. The second one is based on a least squares formulation of the minimization problem. In this formulation the linearity of the forward kinematics and of the reaction torque dynamics equations with respect to the joint accelerations is used. A closed-form solution is derived for both the presented methods, and their equivalence is proven analytically. Moreover, the proposed solutions, which are suitable for real-time implementation, are extended in order to take into account the physical limits of the manipulator joints directly inside the solution algorithms. A software simulator has been developed in order to simulate the performance of the presented solutions for the selected test cases. The proposed solutions have then been experimentally tested using a 3D free-flying robot previously tested in an ESA parabolic flight campaign. In the test campaign the 3D robot has been converted in a 2D robot thanks to its modularity in order to perform planar tests, in which the microgravity environment can be simulated without time constraints. Air-bearings are used to sustain the links weight, and a dynamometer is used to measure the reaction torque. The experimental validation of the presented inverse kinematics solutions, with an insight on the effect of joint flexibility on their performance, has been carried out, and the experimental results confirmed the good performance of the proposed methods

  14. Optimal design of a spherical parallel manipulator based on kinetostatic performance using evolutionary techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshmand, Morteza [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Saadatzi, Mohammad Hossein [Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States); Kaloorazi, Mohammad Hadi [École de Technologie Supérieur, Montréal (Canada); Masouleh, Mehdi Tale [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anbarjafari, Gholamreza [Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkmenistan)

    2016-03-15

    This study aims to provide an optimal design for a Spherical parallel manipulator (SPM), namely, the Agile Eye. This aim is approached by investigating kinetostatic performance and workspace and searching for the most promising design. Previously recommended designs are examined to determine whether they provide acceptable kinetostatic performance and workspace. Optimal designs are provided according to different kinetostatic performance indices, especially kinematic sensitivity. The optimization process is launched based on the concept of the genetic algorithm. A single-objective process is implemented in accordance with the guidelines of an evolutionary algorithm called differential evolution. A multi-objective procedure is then provided following the reasoning of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. This process results in several sets of Pareto points for reconciliation between kinetostatic performance indices and workspace. The concept of numerous kinetostatic performance indices and the results of optimization algorithms are elaborated. The conclusions provide hints on the provided set of designs and their credibility to provide a well-conditioned workspace and acceptable kinetostatic performance for the SPM under study, which can be well extended to other types of SPMs.

  15. Simplification of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer by application of a zona-free manipulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Reipurth, R

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods.......8% of cultured oocytes). Subsequent application of the optimized technique for nuclear transfer using nine different granulosa cell primary cultures (cultured in 0.5% serum for 5-12 days) generated 37.6 +/- 3.9% (11 replicates; range, 16.4-58.1 blastocysts per successfully fused and surviving reconstructed...... embryo (after activation), and 33.6 +/- 3.7% blastocysts per attempted reconstructed embryo. Mean day 7 total blastocyst cell numbers from 5 clone families was 128.1 +/- 15.3. The ongoing pregnancy rate of recipients each receiving two nuclear transfer blastocysts is 3/13 (23.1 recipients pregnant at 5...

  16. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Technique Scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: An Analysis of the Skills Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larissa L; Xu, Wei; Sandella, Jeanne M; Dowling, Dennis J

    2016-06-01

    The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners uses the Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) Global Rating Tool to score candidate performance in OMT during standardized patient encounters. To the authors' knowledge, no validity research has been published on the underlying constructs measured by this instrument to date. To evaluate whether the OMT Global Rating Tool measures 1 holistic skill or multiple skill sets. Structural equation models were fit to data from first-time test-takers who took the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) between July 7, 2014, and April 30, 2015. Two theoretical models were evaluated: a model that posited a single underlying skill set, and a model that posited 2 related but distinct skill sets. The 1-factor and 2-factor models were fit to data from 4673 third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical students. Fit statistics indicated that the data were best fit by a model representing 2 factors: pre- and post-OMT technique assessment and OMT technique (r=0.47). The OMT Global Rating Tool seems to measure 2 distinct but related skills. Although the results of this study are applicable to broad populations and cannot be used to provide skill-specific subscores, it might be helpful to remediation efforts to target pre- and post-OMT technique assessments and OMT techniques as distinct areas for intervention.

  17. Efficient Disk-Based Techniques for Manipulating Very Large String Databases

    KAUST Repository

    Allam, Amin

    2017-05-18

    Indexing and processing strings are very important topics in database management. Strings can be database records, DNA sequences, protein sequences, or plain text. Various string operations are required for several application categories, such as bioinformatics and entity resolution. When the string count or sizes become very large, several state-of-the-art techniques for indexing and processing such strings may fail or behave very inefficiently. Modifying an existing technique to overcome these issues is not usually straightforward or even possible. A category of string operations can be facilitated by the suffix tree data structure, which basically indexes a long string to enable efficient finding of any substring of the indexed string, and can be used in other operations as well, such as approximate string matching. In this document, we introduce a novel efficient method to construct the suffix tree index for very long strings using parallel architectures, which is a major challenge in this category. Another category of string operations require clustering similar strings in order to perform application-specific processing on the resulting possibly-overlapping clusters. In this document, based on clustering similar strings, we introduce a novel efficient technique for record linkage and entity resolution, and a novel method for correcting errors in a large number of small strings (read sequences) generated by the DNA sequencing machines.

  18. Influence of technique and manipulation on self-adhesive resin cements used to cement intraradicular posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Fábio Kenji; Valle, Accácio Lins do; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    Resin cements are widely used to cement intraradicular posts, but bond strength is significantly influenced by the technique and material used for cementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of 3 self-adhesive cements used to cement intraradicular glass fiber posts. The cements all required different application and handling techniques. Forty-five human maxillary canines were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups n= 15 by drawing lots: Group BIS - Biscem, Group BRE - Breeze, and Group MAX - Maxcem. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to application and handling techniques: Sub-group A - Automix/Point tip applicator, Sub-group L - Handmix/Lentulo, and Sub-group C - Handmix/Centrix. Cementation of the posts was performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The push-out test was performed with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and bond strength was expressed in megapascals. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). Breeze cement showed the highest average for the subgroups A, L, and C when compared to the Biscem cement and Maxcem Elite (Pinfluence the bond strength of different self-adhesive cements when used for intraradicular post cementation. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Web User Profile Using XUL and Information Retrieval Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of user profile in information retrieval, information filtering and recommender systems using explicit and implicit feedback. A Firefox extension (based on XUL used for gathering data needed to infer a web user profile and an example file with collected data are presented. Also an algorithm for creating and updating the user profile and keeping track of a fixed number k of subjects of interest is presented.

  20. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McSweeney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  1. Classification of protein profiles using fuzzy clustering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Mullick, Jhinuk B.; Sujatha, R.

    2010-01-01

       PCA   mapping   in   classifying   various cancers from healthy spectra with classification rate up to 95 % from  60%.  Methods  are  validated  using  various  clustering indexes   and   shows   promising   improvement   in   developing optical pathology like HPLC-LIF for early detection of various...... Chromatography- Laser   Induced   Fluorescence)   method   developed   in   our laboratory. Study includes 11 chromatogram spectra each from oral,  cervical,  ovarian  cancers  as  well  as  healthy  volunteers. Generally  multivariate  analysis  like  PCA  demands  clear  data that   is   devoid   of   day...... Present  study  has  brought  out  a  comparison  of PCA  and  fuzzy  clustering  techniques  in  classifying  protein profiles  (chromatogram)  of  homogenates  of  different  tissue origins:  Ovarian,  Cervix,  Oral  cancers,  which  were  acquired using HPLC–LIF (High Performance Liquid...

  2. A Proposed Model With Possible Implications for Safety and Technique Adaptations for Chiropractic Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Aurélie M

    2015-01-01

    A literature review of tensile strength of adults and pediatric human spine specimens was performed to gather information about biomechanical forces and spinal differences of adults and children and to synthesize these findings into a scaling model to guide safety and clinical decisions for spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for children and infants. The literature search was performed using PubMed from inception to November 2012 with no filters or language restrictions. The search included terms related to pediatric spine biomechanics and tensile strength. Studies included those in which human tensile strengths necessary to create anatomical damage in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine of pediatric human subjects were recorded. The pediatric population was defined as human subjects from birth to 18 years old. Biomechanical findings were used to propose a scaling model based on specimen age and differences in tensile strengths. A model of care was proposed using the scaling model and the existing literature on pediatric technique adaptations. Nine experimental studies were selected, 5 in the pediatric population (46 specimens) and 4 in the adult population (47 specimens). Mean tensile strengths were estimated, and ratios were used to describe differences between 4 age groups. The preliminary model of care proposed includes maximum loading forces by age group. From these studies, a model showed a nonlinear increase in the cervical spine tensile strengths based on specimen age. The literature showed that tensile strength differences have been observed between pediatric and adult specimens. A preliminary model of care including pediatric SMT technique adaptation based on patient age is proposed, which may possibly contribute to further knowledge of safety and clinical implications for SMT for children and infants. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laviron, C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Manso, M. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance,

  4. Spinal manipulative therapy, Graston technique® and placebo for non-specific thoracic spine pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Amy L; French, Simon D; Hebert, Jeff J; Walker, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Few controlled trials have assessed the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. No high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT), an instrument-assisted soft tissue therapy. The objective of this trial was to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to sham therapy for the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain. People with non-specific thoracic pain were randomly allocated to one of three groups: SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound). Each participant received up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at Murdoch University chiropractic student clinic over a 4 week period. The participants and treatment providers were not blinded to the treatment allocation as it was clear which therapy they were receiving, however outcome assessors were blinded and we attempted to blind the participants allocated to the placebo group. Treatment outcomes were measured at baseline, 1 week, and at one, three, six and 12 months. Primary outcome measures included a modified Oswestry Disability Index, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Treatment effects were estimated with intention to treat analysis and linear mixed models. One hundred and forty three participants were randomly allocated to the three groups (SMT = 36, GT = 63 and Placebo = 44). Baseline data for the three groups did not show any meaningful differences. Results of the intention to treat analyses revealed no time by group interactions, indicating no statistically significant between-group differences in pain or disability at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, or 12 months. There were significant main effects of time (p < 0.01) indicating improvements in pain and disability from baseline among all participants regardless of intervention. No significant adverse events were reported. This study indicates that there is no difference in outcome at any time point for pain or disability when

  5. Short-term effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy versus functional technique in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada C; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Cleland, Joshua; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    2016-03-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition associated with pain, disability, decreased quality of life, and fear of movement. To date, no studies have compared the effectiveness of spinal manipulation and functional technique for the management of this population. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of spinal manipulation and functional technique on pain, disability, kinesiophobia, and quality of life in patients with chronic LBP. A single-blind pragmatic randomized controlled trial conducted in a university research clinic was carried out. Sixty-two patients (62% female, age: 45±7) with chronic LBP comprised the patient sample. Data on disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMQ], Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index [ODI]), pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rate Scale [NPRS]), fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK]), quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36] quality of life questionnaire), isometric resistance of abdominal muscles (McQuade test), and spinal mobility in flexion (finger-to-floor distance) were collected at baseline immediately after the intervention phase and at 1 month postintervention by an assessor blinded to group allocation of the patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the spinal manipulative therapy group or the functional technique group and received three once-weekly sessions. In comparison to patients receiving functional technique, those receiving spinal manipulation experienced statistically, although not clinically, significant greater reductions in terms of RMQ (standardized mean difference in score changes between groups at post-treatment: 0.1; at 1 month: 0.1) and ODI (post-treatment: 2.9; at 1 month: 1.4). Linear longitudinal analysis showed a significant improvement in both groups over time for RMQ (manipulative: F=68.51, ptreatment-by-time interactions were not detected for pain intensity (p=.488), TSK (p=.552), any domains of the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire (p≤.164), Mc

  6. The bumper technique for advancing a large profile microcatheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christopher P; Chartrain, Alexander G; Schwegel, Claire; Oxley, Thomas J; Shoirah, Hazem; Mocco, J

    2017-12-01

    Operators commonly encounter difficulty maneuvering a microcatheter beyond the distal lip of wide neck aneurysms and aneurysms in challenging locations. Few techniques have been described to guide operators in these particular situations. In this case report of a 56-year-old woman with a 16 mm ophthalmic artery aneurysm, the microcatheter continually snagged the distal aneurysm lip, preventing delivery of a flow diverter into the distal parent vessel. In troubleshooting this obstacle, a second microguidewire was introduced alongside the microcatheter and was used to cover the distal lip of the aneurysm to prevent further snagging. The second guidewire successfully deflected the microcatheter into the distal vessel, a technique that we have aptly dubbed the 'bumper technique'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Clustering Techniques in Load Profile Analysis for Distribution Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBRIC, E. C.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand characteristic is the most important one in analyzing customer information. In a distribution network, there is in any moment certain degree of uncertainty about busses loads, and consequently, about load level of network, busses voltage level, and power losses. Therefore, it is very important to estimate first of all the load profiles of buses, using available data (measurements effectuated in distribution stations. The results obtained for various distribution stations demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method in overcoming the difficulties encountered in optimal planning and operation of distribution networks.

  8. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating True Temperature Profiles of Data Obtained from Long Time Constant Thermocouples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical modeling technique is described for estimating true temperature profiles of data obtained from long time constant thermocouples, which were used in fuel fire tests designed to determine...

  9. Submicron Surface Vibration Profiling Using Doppler Self-Mixing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler self-mixing laser probing techniques are often used for vibration measurement with very high accuracy. A novel optoelectronic probe solution is proposed, based on off-the-shelf components, with a direct reflection optical scheme for contactless characterization of the target’s movement. This probe was tested with two test bench apparatus that enhance its precision performance, with a linear actuator at low frequency (35 µm, 5–60 Hz, and its dynamics, with disc shaped transducers for small amplitude and high frequency (0.6 µm, 100–2500 Hz. The results, obtained from well-established signal processing methods for self-mixing Doppler signals, allowed the evaluation of vibration velocity and amplitudes with an average error of less than 10%. The impedance spectrum of piezoelectric (PZ disc target revealed a maximum of impedance (around 1 kHz for minimal Doppler shift. A bidimensional scan over the PZ disc surface allowed the categorization of the vibration mode (0, 1 and explained its deflection directions. The feasibility of a laser vibrometer based on self-mixing principles and supported by tailored electronics able to accurately measure submicron displacements was, thus, successfully demonstrated.

  10. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  11. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Caroline D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility of conducting a full scale study and compared the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and a mind-body therapy called Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain, a common morbidity of pregnancy. Methods Healthy pregnant women with low back pain of insidious onset were eligible to enroll in the study at any point in their pregnancy. Once enrolled, they remained in the study until they had their babies. Women were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups using opaque envelopes. The treatment schedule paralleled the prenatal care schedule and women received individualized intervention. Our null hypothesis was that spinal manipulation and Neuro Emotional Technique would perform no better than exercise in enhancing function and decreasing pain. Our primary outcome measure was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and our secondary outcome measure was the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. For the primary analysis, regression was conducted to compare groups on the outcome measure scores. In a secondary responder analysis, difference in proportions of participants in attaining 30% and 50% improvement were calculated. Feasibility factors for conducting a future larger trial were also evaluated such as recruitment, compliance to study protocols, cost, and adverse events. Results Fifty-seven participants were randomized into the exercise (n = 22, spinal manipulation (n = 15, and Neuro Emotional Technique (n = 20 treatment arms. At least 50% of participants in each treatment group experienced clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. At least 50% of the exercise and spinal manipulation participants also experienced clinically meaningful improvement for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. There were no clinically

  12. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  13. A New Profile Learning Model for Recommendation System based on Machine Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen H. Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems (RSs have been used to successfully address the information overload problem by providing personalized and targeted recommendations to the end users. RSs are software tools and techniques providing suggestions for items to be of use to a user, hence, they typically apply techniques and methodologies from Data Mining. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new user profile learning model to promote the recommendation accuracy of vertical recommendation systems. The proposed profile learning model employs the vertical classifier that has been used in multi classification module of the Intelligent Adaptive Vertical Recommendation (IAVR system to discover the user’s area of interest, and then build the user’s profile accordingly. Experimental results have proven the effectiveness of the proposed profile learning model, which accordingly will promote the recommendation accuracy.

  14. A digital technique for replicating peri-implant soft tissue contours and the emergence profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Jianzhang; Mao, Hong; Tan, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    A digital technique is presented that records peri-implant soft tissue contours and the emergence profile. The architecture of interim restorations and adjacent teeth, the position of the implant, and the emergence profile of interim prostheses are scanned and registered to design a zirconia frame and to form a digital cast. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low Profile Antenna Performance Study Part 2. Broadband Antenna Techniques Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    shaped radiators, presented in the literature [141, [15], and depicted in Figs. 3b and c, resemble the biconical antenna and Alford’s tapered-horn...V Research and Development Technical Report .ECOM-4542 LOW PROFILE ANTENNA PERFORMANCE STUDY PART I1: BROADBAND ANTENNA TECHNIQUES SURVEY C. M...Small antenna , low-profile antenna , broadband matching, folded antennas , multi- element antennas , antenna loading. 90. ABSTRACT (Conlinu en revere, side

  16. Lipopolysaccharide profile typing as a technique for comparative typing of gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucken, H M; Pitt, T L

    1993-05-01

    We have applied the technique of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to the typing of 124 isolates of 12 gram-negative species from suspected outbreaks of infection. LPS was prepared by proteinase K digestion or micro-phenol-water extraction. A total of 11 of the 12 species gave clear ladder band profiles, the exception being Acinetobacter baumannii. When compared with conventional typing for Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, LPS profile type alone was sufficient to allow relatedness or distinguishability of isolates to be established, and this was corroborated by serotype and phage type data. Serologically nontypeable isolates invariably lacked O repeating units and thus could not be classified by their silver stain profile. We conclude that LPS profiling is useful for the epidemiological investigation of small clusters of isolates in order to determine whether or not cross-infection between patients has occurred.

  17. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.alfeld@desy.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Groenenbrogerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Broekaert, José A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed. - Highlights: • All mobile sub-surface and depth-profiling techniques for paintings are reviewed. • The number of techniques available has increased considerably in the last years. • X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography are still the most used techniques. • Scanning macro-XRF and optical coherence tomography begin to establish. • Industrial non destructive testing techniques support the preservation of paintings.

  18. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Broekaert, José A. C.

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed.

  19. Subfertility and assisted reproduction techniques are associated with poorer cardiometabolic profiles in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontesilli, Martina; Painter, Rebecca C.; Grooten, Iris J.; van der Post, Joris A.; Mol, Ben Willem; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Repping, Sjoerd; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of artificial reproductive techniques and subfertility on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles of children aged 5-6 years were investigated using data from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Of the 2577 children, 34 were conceived through ovulation induction, 51

  20. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  1. Overview of the neural network based technique for monitoring of road condition via reconstructed road profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available on the road and driver to assess the integrity of road and vehicle infrastructure. In this paper, vehicle vibration data are applied to an artificial neural network to reconstruct the corresponding road surface profiles. The results show that the technique...

  2. Hydrology and Soil Manipulations of Iron-Rich Ditch Mesocosms Provide Little Evidence of Phosphorus Capture within the Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, David E; Needelman, Brian A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Rabenhorst, Martin C; Momen, Bahram; Wester, David B

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural drainage ditches function as first-order streams and affect nutrient management. Soil mesocosms from a ditch featuring a vertical (increasing upward) gradient in iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) were subjected to hydraulic and soil treatments. These manipulations mimicked aspects of dredging and controlled drainage and inspected the soil release and retention of P. Treatments did not remove P from simulated groundwater. Throughput water either gained in P (lack of dredging, especially under Fe-reducing conditions) or had P concentrations indistinguishable from input water (dredging). Undredged mesocosms, when Fe-reducing, released Fe and P simultaneously. Simultaneous release of P and Fe from our Fe-reducing mesocosms indicates a mechanism whereby P capture occurs by Fe precipitation upon emergence to aerated surficial waters. Upwelling and surficial phases of ditch hydrology and the lowering of the ditch surface on dredging complicate interpretation of traditional means of describing ditch P retention and release. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Free fatty acid profiles in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse: basal serum levels and effects of endocrine manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeff, N; Homo-Delarche, F; Thobie, N; Durant, S; Dardenne, M; Nunez, E A

    1994-08-01

    The non-obese diabetic mouse (NOD) is one of the few available models of spontaneous autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors determined the free fatty acid (FFA) levels and the concentrations and relative percentages of the various classes of FFA before the onset of diabetes in both sexes at 2 and 4 months of age and in diabetic females. A circadian rhythm of FFA concentrations was found in prediabetic mice, with lower values in the evening. Moreover, there was a sex difference in FFA concentrations in the morning, with 2-month-old females having higher concentrations than males. Sex and age-related differences were also observed in the concentrations of the various classes of FFA, with higher polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in 2-month-old females and increases in di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids concentrations in both sexes with age. Hormonal manipulation such as adrenalectomy and/or castration modulated total FFA and the concentrations of the various classes of FFA in 2-month-old mice. These FFA differences between males and females should be taken into account in the onset of type I diabetes.

  4. Low Profile Mesh Plating for Patella Fractures: Video of a Novel Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Diederik O; Hickerson, Lindsay E; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-08-01

    Patella fractures can be challenging to treat particularly in the presence of inferior pole comminution. In this video we present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of patella fractures using a small fragment low profile mesh plate. Key points are the surgical exposure with direct visualization of the articular reduction, the preparation of the mesh plate to accommodate patellar anatomy and the augmentation of the construct using Krackow sutures to address inferior pole comminution. Low profile mesh plating allows for multiplanar fixation of patella fractures while avoiding implant and fixation problems related to tension band fixation. Our early experience with this technique is encouraging and it appears that this technique is useful for the treatment of the majority of patella fractures.

  5. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Bouwman, Freek G; van Otterdijk, Sanne; Wodzig, Will K W H; Andersen, Malene R; van Baak, Marleen A; Rasmussen, Lone G; Martinez, J Alfredo; Jebb, Susan A; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kafatos, Anthony; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P protein and high-GI diet dissociated the positive relationship between the change in LEP concentration and weight regain. CRP increased during the weight-maintenance period only in weight regainers with a high-protein diet (P protein 4, insulin, glucagon, haptoglobin and growth hormone were also affected by the dietary intervention. The blood profile reflects not only the weight change during the maintenance period, but also the macronutrient composition of the dietary intervention, especially the protein level.

  6. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  7. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2......) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  8. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  9. Evaluation of an innovative radiographic technique - parallel profile radiography - to determine the dimensions of dentogingival unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama R Galgali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintenance of gingival health is a key factor for longevity of the teeth as well as of restorations. The physiologic dentogingival unit (DGU, which is composed of the epithelial and connective tissue attachments of the gingiva, functions as a barrier against microbial entry into the periodontium. Invasion of this space triggers inflammation and causes periodontal destruction. Despite the clinical relevance of the determination of the length and width of the DGU, there is no standardized technique. The length of the DGU can be either determined by histologic preparations or by transgingival probing. Although width can also be assessed by transgingival probing or with an ultrasound device, they are either invasive or expensive Aims: This study sought to evaluate an innovative radiographic exploration technique - parallel profile radiography - for measuring the dimensions of the DGU on the labial surfaces of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Two radiographs were made using the long-cone parallel technique in ten individuals, one in frontal projection, while the second radiograph was a parallel profile radiograph obtained from a lateral position. The length and width of the DGU was measured using computer software. Transgingival probing (trans-sulcular was done for these same patients and length of the DGU was measured. The values obtained by the two methods were compared. Pearson product correlation coefficient was calculated to examine the agreement between the values obtained by PPRx and transgingival probing. Results: The mean biologic width by the parallel profile radiography (PPRx technique was 1.72 mm (range 0.94-2.11 mm, while the mean thickness of the gingiva was 1.38 mm (range 0.92-1.77 mm. The mean biologic width by trans-gingival probing was 1.6 mm (range 0.8-2.2mm. Pearson product correlation coefficient (r for the above values was 0.914; thus, a high degree of agreement exists between the PPRx and TGP techniques

  10. Master manipulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamo, S

    2016-01-01

      In her new book, This Is Your Brain on Parasites, Kathleen McAuliffe examines the unusual and often dramatic ways that parasites and microbial manipulators can influence the behavior of their hosts...

  11. Volatile profile of yellow passion fruit juice by static headspace and solid phase microextraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The profile of volatile compounds of yellow passion fruit juice was analyzed by solid phase microextraction headspace (HS-SPME and optimized static headspace (S-HS extraction techniques. Time, temperature, NaCl concentration and sample volume headspace equilibrium parameters was adjusted to the S-HS technique. The gaseous phase in the headspace of samples was collected and injected into a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. In the HS-SPME technique was identified 44 volatile compounds from the yellow passion fruit juice, but with S-HS only 30 compounds were identified. Volatile esters were majority in both techniques, being identified ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (3z-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate and hexyl hexanoate. Aldehydes and ketones were not identified in S-HS, but were in HS-SPME. β-Pinene, p-cymene, limonene, (Z-β-ocimene, (E-β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene and (E -4,8-dimethyl-1, 3,7 - nonatriene terpenes were identified in both techniques. This study showed that the S-HS optimized extraction technique was effective to recovery high concentrations of the major volatile characteristics compounds in the passion fruit, such as ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate, which can be advantageous due to the simplicity of the method.

  12. Clinical Validation of Pain Management Manipulative Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis With the Squeeze-Hold Technique: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this case series was to describe the short-term and long-term clinical effects of a manual technique for treating osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain. This study measured of the immediate effect and long-term effect by using a case series of different groups of subjects. Knee OA and activity restriction in patients were evaluated by using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) Grading Scale and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) index. In the intervention, lower limb muscles were squeezed by hand for 20 seconds. Each squeeze was performed for both lower limbs. Passive range-of-motion (ROM) exercise was performed on the knee joint. In one set of cases, immediate effects were measured after a one-time treatment with pretreatment and posttreatment outcome measures. Eleven people with knee OA participated in the study. On a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, muscle stiffness, and muscular hemodynamics for estimation of muscle blood flow were recorded before and after the squeeze-hold treatment. In another set of cases, the treatment was given to all patients once a week for 6 months, and long-term effects were measured. Data on 5 subjects with knee OA were collected for 6 months after initial treatment. The VAS for pain and JKOM were recorded every month for 6 months. For immediate effects, the VAS was 69 ± 21 mm before treatment and 26 ± 22 mm after treatment. Muscle stiffness was 8.8 ± 3.6 (absolute number) before treatment and 3.5 ± 2.1 after treatment. Tissue (muscle) oxygen saturation was 60.1 ± 5.7% before treatment and 65.3 ± 4.8% after treatment. Total hemoglobin was 24.3 ± 3.3 (absolute number) before treatment and 25 ± 2.3 after treatment. A tendency for reduction in OA knee pain and muscle stiffness was observed, and a tendency for increase was observed in the blood flow in the muscle. For long-term effects in all 5 participants (any K/L grade, any JKOM score), OA knee pain and JKOM score improved gradually through 6 months. The

  13. Mobilization versus manipulations versus sustain apophyseal natural glide techniques and interaction with psychological factors for patients with chronic neck pain: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, A; Alonso Perez, J L; González Gutierez, J L; La Touche, R; Lerma Lara, S; Izquierdo, H; Fernández-Carnero, J

    2015-04-01

    Three different types of manual therapy techniques for patients with neck pain and relationship with psychological factors has not been evaluated. To compare the effectiveness high velocity and low amplitude (HVLA) manipulation vs. posteroanterior mobilization (PA mob) vs. sustain appophyseal natural glide (SNAG) in the management of patients with neck pain and to evaluate the interaction with psychological factors. Randomized clinical trial. Primary Health Care Center. Patients with history of chronic neck pain over the last 3 months were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with HVLA (N.=15), with PA mob (N.=16) or with SNAG (N.=17). One session was applied. Pain intensity of neck pain, pressure pain threshold over processus spinosus of C2 (PPT_C2) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety and kinesiophobia were assessed in baseline. ANOVAs were performed, with main effects, two-way (treatment x time) and three-way interactions (treatment x psychological variable x time) were examined. Fourthy-eight patients (mean±SD age, 36.5±8.7 years; 87.5% female). A significant interaction treatment x time was observed for VAS-rest in HVLA and AP mob groups (P<0.05). With more pain relief to HVLA and AP mob groups than SNAG groups but all groups improve the same in CROM. Also, a significant three-way treatment x anxiety x time interaction for VAS in Flexion/Extension was identified (P<0.01), and a trend toward significance was observed for the three way treatment x anxiety x time interaction, with respect to CROM in Lateral-Flexion movement (P<0.05). The results suggest that an HVLA and PA mob groups relieved pain at rest more than SNAG in patients with Neck pain. Among psychological factors, only trait anxiety seems interact with Manual therapy, mainly high anxiety conditions interact with the Mobilization and SNAG effects but under low anxiety conditions interact with

  14. Information and manipulative techniques as a part of the process of legitimation of political power in Ukraine: an attempt to analyze

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylyuk Svitlana Ivanivna

    2016-01-01

    The author of the article attempts to analyse the impact of information and manipulative technologies in the process of legitimation of the political power in Ukraine. It is proved that implemented information-manipulative technologies are the key factors of political legitimation and influence the political behaviour of citizens. The article analyses relationship between the applied information and manipulative technologies and perception of political reality of citizens, their political beh...

  15. Approach dealing with transversely spatial profile of pump laser in Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, S Y; Zhao, P D; Wang, D Y; Liu, M; Zhang, Z D, E-mail: pdzhao@eyou.com, E-mail: pd_zhao@126.com [School of Science, Hebei University of Technology, 300130, Tianjin (China)

    2011-02-01

    The spatial pulse profile makes experimental values of Two-and three photon absorption (TPA and 3PA) coefficient deviate from its true value. We report an approach taking account of the influence of pump laser pulse profile on the nonlinear absorption coefficients (NAC) in Z-scan technique. We developed a new approach in which the factor (f factor) introduced to describe the influence coming from the spatial profile of laser on two and three photon absorption coefficient. The approximation of the approach is also estimated quantitatively. With Gaussian beams the numerically related results show that, compared with NAC based on the way dealing with the pulse in usual Z-scan, the relative differences of 2-photon and 3-photon absorption coefficients obtained based on the traditional one are less than 4.2% and 16.7%. The results suggest that the factor may become useful and simple parameters in dealing with the NAC deviation resulting from the pump laser pulse envelopes for the purpose of shortcutting the Z-scan datum process.

  16. The emergence of molecular profiling and omics techniques in seagrass biology; furthering our understanding of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Peter A; Pernice, Mathieu; Sablok, Gaurav; Larkum, Anthony; Lee, Huey Tyng; Golicz, Agnieszka; Edwards, David; Dolferus, Rudy; Ralph, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Seagrass meadows are disappearing at alarming rates as a result of increasing coastal development and climate change. The emergence of omics and molecular profiling techniques in seagrass research is timely, providing a new opportunity to address such global issues. Whilst these applications have transformed terrestrial plant research, they have only emerged in seagrass research within the past decade; In this time frame we have observed a significant increase in the number of publications in this nascent field, and as of this year the first genome of a seagrass species has been sequenced. In this review, we focus on the development of omics and molecular profiling and the utilization of molecular markers in the field of seagrass biology. We highlight the advances, merits and pitfalls associated with such technology, and importantly we identify and address the knowledge gaps, which to this day prevent us from understanding seagrasses in a holistic manner. By utilizing the powers of omics and molecular profiling technologies in integrated strategies, we will gain a better understanding of how these unique plants function at the molecular level and how they respond to on-going disturbance and climate change events.

  17. Microbial Profiles and Detection Techniques in Peri-Implant Diseases: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Padial-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the microbial profiles of peri-implant diseases and the main detection methods. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed in MEDLINE via PubMed database to identify studies on microbial composition of peri-implant surfaces in humans published in the last 5 years. Studies had to have clear implant status definition for health, peri-implant mucositis and/or peri-implantitis and specifically study microbial composition of the peri-implant sulcus. Results: A total of 194 studies were screened and 47 included. Peri-implant sites are reported to be different microbial ecosystems compared to periodontal sites. However, differences between periodontal and peri-implant health and disease are not consistent across all studies, possibly due to the bias introduced by the microbial detection technique. New methods non species-oriented are being used to find ‘unexpected’ microbiota not previously described in these scenarios. Conclusions: Microbial profile of peri-implant diseases usually includes classic periodontopathogens. However, correlation between studies is difficult, particularly because of the use of different detection methods. New metagenomic techniques should be promoted for future studies to avoid detection bias.

  18. Application possibilities of AFLP fingerprinting technique in maize DNA profiling and plant variety protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to DUS testing within the system of protection of plant breeders' rights (PBR, the AFLP molecular system has been used in this study to produce DNA fingerprinting profiles. DNA polymorphism and genetic distance of nine agronomicaly important maize genotypes has been investigated using the AFLP technique. Two specific adapters, two preselective primers and twenty selective primers were utilized for DNA amplification. The selective primers were GC rich, each having a 3-mer selective sequence at 3' termini. Ten double stranded primer combinations were made out of the twenty primers but only five of them turned out to be reliable. Out of 253 amplified DNA fragments, 177 were polymorphic (70%. The CGA/GAG (B primer combination has proved to be the most polymorphic (44 polymorphic fragments have been recorded revealing the polymorphism rate of 81.5%. Genotypes g1 and g7 were most distinct (GD=55% and GD=79%, respectively and genotypes g1. g4 and g8 were closest (GD=55% in all cases. The paper discusses possible uses of AFLP DNA profiling technique to achieve a unique fingerprinting pattern of agronomicaly important maize genotypes.

  19. Validation of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature trends has become recognized as an important indicator of climate change, because different climate forcing mechanisms exhibit distinct vertical warming and cooling patterns. For example, the cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming. Despite its importance, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. One of the main reason is because stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. This study presents an evaluation of the stratospheric temperature profiles from a newly ground-based microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) which has been built and designed at the University of Bern. The measurements from TEMPERA are compared with the ones from other different techniques such as in-situ (radiosondes), active remote sensing (lidar) and passive remote sensing on board of Aura satellite (MLS) measurements. In addition a statistical analysis of the stratospheric temperature obtained from TEMPERA measurements during four years of data has been performed. This analysis evidenced the capability of TEMPERA radiometer to monitor the temperature in the stratosphere for a long-term. The detection of some singular sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) during the analyzed period shows the necessity of these

  20. Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Amy; Walker, Bruce; French, Simon D

    2008-10-30

    The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique (GT), a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments. The objective of this trial is to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to a placebo for the treatment of non specific thoracic spine pain. Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound). Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects. This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. ACTRN12608000070336.

  1. Time-Domain Techniques for Computation and Reconstruction of One-Dimensional Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain technique to compute the electromagnetic fields and to reconstruct the permittivity profile within a one-dimensional medium of finite length. The medium is characterized by a permittivity as well as conductivity profile which vary only with depth. The discussed scattering problem is thus one-dimensional. The modeling tool is divided into two different schemes which are named as the forward solver and the inverse solver. The task of the forward solver is to compute the internal fields of the specimen which is performed by Green’s function approach. When a known electromagnetic wave is incident normally on the media, the resulting electromagnetic field within the media can be calculated by constructing a Green’s operator. This operator maps the incident field on either side of the medium to the field at an arbitrary observation point. It is nothing but a matrix of integral operators with kernels satisfying known partial differential equations. The reflection and transmission behavior of the medium is also determined from the boundary values of the Green's operator. The inverse solver is responsible for solving an inverse scattering problem by reconstructing the permittivity profile of the medium. Though it is possible to use several algorithms to solve this problem, the invariant embedding method, also known as the layer-stripping method, has been implemented here due to the advantage that it requires a finite time trace of reflection data. Here only one round trip of reflection data is used, where one round trip is defined by the time required by the pulse to propagate through the medium and back again. The inversion process begins by retrieving the reflection kernel from the reflected wave data by simply using a deconvolution technique. The rest of the task can easily be performed by applying a numerical approach to determine different profile parameters. Both the solvers have been found to have the

  2. A New Method for Detecting Goaf Area of Coal Mine :2D Microtremor Profiling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Guo, H.; Shi, W.; Li, S.; Tian, B.

    2012-12-01

    A goaf area is referred to as a cavity where coal has been removed or mined out. These cavities will change the original geostress equilibrium of stratigraphic system and cause local geostress focusing or concentration. Consequently, the surrounding rock of a goaf may be deformed, fractured, displaced and caved resulting from the combined effect of gravity and geostress. In the cases of little or no effective mining control, widespread cracks, fractures and even subsidence of the rock mass above the goaf will not only lead to groundwater depletion, farmland destruction and deterioration of ecological environment, but also present a serious threat to the mining safety, engineering construction, and even people's lives and property. So, it is important to locate the boundary of the goaf and to evaluate its stability in order to provide the basis for comprehensive control in the latter period of mining. This article attempts to explore a new geophysical method - 2D microtremor profiling technique for goaf detection and mapping. 2D microtremor profiling technique is based on the microtremor array theory (Aki, 1957; Ling, 1994; Okada, 2003) utilizing spatial autocorrelation analysis to obtain Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves for apparent S-wave velocity (Vx) calculation (Ling & Miwa, 2006;Xu et al.,2012). A laterally continuous S-wave velocity section can then be obtained through data interpolation. The final result will be used for interpreting lateral changes in lithology and geological structures. Let's take a case study in Henan Province of China as an example. The coal seams in the survey area were about 150 ~ 250m deep. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in 20, 40 and 80m, respectively, and a sampling the interval of 50m. We observed the following characteristics of the goaf area from the microtremor Vx section: (1) obvious low pseudo velocity anomaly corresponding to limestone layer below the goaf; (2

  3. Depth-profiling by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM): data correction by numerical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J Pablo; Eliçabe, Guillermo E; Miguel, María de la Paz; Perez, Claudio J

    2011-03-01

    The data obtained in confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) depth profiling experiments with dry optics are subjected to significant distortions, including an artificial compression of the depth scale, due to the combined influence of diffraction, refraction, and instrumental effects that operate on the measurement. This work explores the use of (1) regularized deconvolution and (2) the application of simple rescaling of the depth scale as methodologies to obtain an improved, more precise, confocal response. The deconvolution scheme is based on a simple predictive model for depth resolution and the use of regularization techniques to minimize the dramatic oscillations in the recovered response typical of problem inversion. That scheme is first evaluated using computer simulations on situations that reproduce smooth and sharp sample transitions between two materials and finally it is applied to correct genuine experimental data, obtained in this case from a sharp transition (planar interface) between two polymeric materials. It is shown that the methodology recovers very well most of the lost profile features in all the analyzed situations. The use of simple rescaling appears to be only useful for correcting smooth transitions, particularly those extended over distances larger than those spanned by the operative depth resolution, which limits the strategy to the study of profiles near the sample surface. However, through computer simulations, it is shown that the use of water immersion objectives may help to reduce optical distortions and to expand the application window of this simple methodology, which could be useful, for instance, to safely monitor Fickean sorption/desorption of penetrants in polymer films/coatings in a nearly noninvasive way.

  4. ERDA. Technique for hydrogen content and depth profile in thin film metal hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, Ankur; Jain, Pragya [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Centre for Non Conventional Energy Resources

    2010-07-01

    The use of thin films for hydrogen storage has become very important as the main process of absorption and desorption of hydrogen takes place on the surface of the material. The incorporation of hydrogen into thin film form is relatively new field of research and provides an opportunity to examine a number of unusual properties, which are not visible in the bulk hydrides. Considerable amount of work has been done in our laboratory to investigate hydrogen absorption mechanism in FeTi, LaNi, and MmNi{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5} thin film metal hydrides. Over the past few decades thin films are analyzed using ion beam analysis techniques where an energetic incident ion provides depth information on the basis of the energy lost by it and the creation of possible secondary particles in the sample. One of the most commonly used such techniques is Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) which makes use of {alpha} particles of few MeV energy and is based on the principle of elastic scattering. One of the main drawbacks of RBS is its poor sensitivity for light elements present in a heavier matrix. Hence hydrogen cannot be detected using RBS as backscattering of ions from hydrogen is not possible. The limitations of RBS are overcome by another technique, Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), in which the yield and energy of particle ejected out of thin film sample under swift heavy ion beam irradiation is detected giving the quantitative information concerning the depth distribution of light elements in a sample. In the present work ERDA technique is being presented with its principle, design, working and application for hydrogen content and depth profile in thin film hydride. (orig.)

  5. Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT, a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments. The objective of this trial is to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to a placebo for the treatment of non specific thoracic spine pain. Methods Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound. Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects. Trial Registration This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. Trial number: ACTRN12608000070336

  6. Information and manipulative techniques as a part of the process of legitimation of political power in Ukraine: an attempt to analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrylyuk Svitlana Ivanivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article attempts to analyse the impact of information and manipulative technologies in the process of legitimation of the political power in Ukraine. It is proved that implemented information-manipulative technologies are the key factors of political legitimation and influence the political behaviour of citizens. The article analyses relationship between the applied information and manipulative technologies and perception of political reality of citizens, their political behaviour, electoral results. The necessity of changing the paradigm of legitimacy achieve of political actors in Ukraine is substantiated because of the refusal of politicians, technologists, media (and their owners from destructive legitimation technologies based on the use of information and manipulation technologies. It revealed the importance of a joint search for the subjects of democratic policy instruments of political consolidation of the Ukrainian society.

  7. I Replicanti: culti abusanti e tecniche di manipolazione mentale / Les Répliquants : cultes destructifs et techniques de manipulation mentale / “Replicants”: destructive cults and mechanisms of mental manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santovecchi P.

    2010-12-01

    cultes qui aspirent au contrôle complet de la personne et de ses ressources et face auxquels nous ne pourrons nous protéger qu’à condition d’avoir une connaissance approfondie des méthodes qu’ils utilisent. Mettre en lumière les mécanismes du conditionnement mental implique donc de chercher les racines les plus profondes de chaque interdépendance individuelle, de remonter aux sources mêmes du « contrat social ». De plus, il s’agit aussi de sonder les frontières entre la rationalité et les émotions, entre les mécanismes cognitifs partagés par tous et les opinions particulières d'un groupe. D'où la nécessité d’avoir des renseignements spécifiques sur la manière dont il est possible d’influencer les gens au travers des « processus de conditionnement ».In theory, we can all be influenced. There is no doubt that we-all are influenced by many factors: for example, the place of birth, the family, the friendships, the school, the life experience, the media and the various fashions and trends. Everything contributes to shape our identity and manipulates who we are, what we think and what we do. There is, however, a more powerful and subtle technique of control, implemented in recent years by cults: scholars and observers call it “destructive”. Some cults aspire to gain the total control of people and their resources. We can protect ourselves from cults only by getting a deep knowledge of them and of their procedures: we must study the mechanisms of mental conditioning, clarify the boundaries between rationality and emotion and provide specific information about the “conditioning processes”.

  8. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  9. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chauhan, Rajinder S; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo), belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S); 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl); α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful results in

  10. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  11. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region, and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Waller, Justin D; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides. Detected lipid mediators appeared unaffected by sampling site, though the forearm was the most consistent source of sweat. Pilocarpine-induced sweat showed increased concentrations of most detected compounds. Moreover, lipid mediator concentrations and profiles were temporally stable over the study duration. Sweat therefore appears to be a consistent and anatomically-stable source of lipid mediators, but care must be taken in comparing results obtained from different stimulation techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Digital implant impressions with the "Individualized Scanbody Technique" for emergence profile support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela; Brägger, Urs

    2014-03-01

    The Short Communication presents a clinical case in which a novel procedure--the "Individualized Scanbody Technique" (IST)--was applied, starting with an intraoral digital impression and using CAD/CAM process for fabrication of ceramic reconstructions in bone level implants. A standardized scanbody was individually modified in accordance with the created emergence profile of the provisional implant-supported restoration. Due to the specific adaptation of the scanbody, the conditioned supra-implant soft tissue complex was stabilized for the intraoral optical scan process. Then, the implant platform position and the supra-implant mucosa outline were transferred into the three-dimensional data set with a digital impression system. Within the technical workflow, the ZrO2 -implant-abutment substructure could be designed virtually with predictable margins of the supra-implant mucosa. After finalization of the 1-piece screw-retained full ceramic implant crown, the restoration demonstrated an appealing treatment outcome with harmonious soft tissue architecture. The IST facilitates a simple and fast approach for a supra-implant mucosal outline transfer in the digital workflow. Moreover, the IST closes the interfaces in the full digital pathway. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Pain profiling of patients with temporomandibular joint arthralgia and osteoarthritis diagnosed with different imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Lars Bolvig; Bang, Niels; Sørensen, Leif Hovgaard; Eskildsen, Helle Wulf; Svensson, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Clinical differentiation between pain mechanisms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia and osteoarthritis (OA) is challenging. The aims were to compare somatosensory function at the TMJs and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effects between TMJ arthralgia and OA patients diagnosed clinically and based on different imaging techniques and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 41). Patients (n = 58) underwent standard clinical examination and three different TMJ imaging modalities. After each examination, they were classified into arthralgia or OA based on the findings. TMJ region somatosensory testing was performed in all participants. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on healthy reference data. CPM was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at TMJ and thenar (control) before, during and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance. Somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in both patient groups. Assessment of somatosensory function at the TMJ revealed that arthralgia patients were less sensitive to warmth, cold and tactile stimuli than OA patients (P painful cold application in all groups (P Pain profiles including somatosensory function differed between TMJ arthralgia and OA patients although CPM effects were similar in patients and controls. Thus, different TMJ pain conditions may share common pain mechanisms but the present study for the first time also indicated that differential pain mechanisms could be involved.

  14. Thermal depth profiling of materials for defect detection using hot disk technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Mihiretie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of the hot disk transient plane source technique is described. The new application yields the thermal conductivity of materials as a function of the thermal penetration depth which opens up opportunities in nondestructive testing of inhomogeneous materials. The system uses the hot disk sensor placed on the material surface to create a time varying temperature field. The thermal conductivity is then deduced from temperature evolution of the sensor, whereas the probing depth (the distance the heat front advanced away from the source is related to the product of measurement time and thermal diffusivity. The presence of inhomogeneity in the structure is manifested in thermal conductivity versus probing depth plot. Such a plot for homogeneous materials provides fairly constant value. The deviation from the homogeneous curve caused by defects in the structure is used for inhomogeneity detection. The size and location of the defect in the structure determines the sensitivity and possibility of detection. In addition, a complementary finite element numerical simulation through COMSOL Multiphysics is employed to solve the heat transfer equation. Temperature field profile of a model material is obtained from these simulations. The average rise in temperature of the heat source is calculated and used to demonstrate the effect of the presence of inhomogeneity in the system.

  15. Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Schranz, Franziska; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Haefele, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this work the stratospheric performance of a relatively new microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) has been evaluated. With this goal in mind, almost 3 years of temperature measurements (January 2014-September 2016) from the TEMPERA radiometer were intercompared with simultaneous measurements from other techniques: radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar. This intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland). In addition, the temperature profiles from TEMPERA were used to validate the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed in general a very good agreement between TEMPERA and the different instruments and the model, with a high correlation (higher than 0.9) in the temperature evolution at different altitudes between TEMPERA and the different data sets. An annual pattern was observed in the stratospheric temperature with generally higher temperatures in summer than in winter and with a higher variability during winter. A clear change in the tendency of the temperature deviations was detected in summer 2015, which was due to the repair of an attenuator in the TEMPERA spectrometer. The mean and the standard deviations of the temperature differences between TEMPERA and the different measurements were calculated for two periods (before and after the repair) in order to quantify the accuracy and precision of this radiometer over the campaign period. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes. In addition, comparisons proved the good performance of TEMPERA in measuring the temperature in the stratosphere.

  16. Evaluation of Remote Collaborative Manipulation for Scientific Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Cédric; Duval, Thierry; Gouranton, Valérie; Steed, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the context of scientific data analysis, we propose to compare a remote collaborative manipulation technique with a single user manipulation technique. The manipulation task consists in positioning a clipping plane in order to perform cross-sections of scientific data which show several points of interest located inside this data. For the remote collaborative manipulation, we have chosen to use the 3-hand manipulation technique proposed by Aguerreche et al. which is...

  17. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  18. Distance based range profile classification techniques for aircraft recognition by radar - a comparison on real radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Groen, F.C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft identification is essential in any air-defence scenario. Without a robust classification capability no effective threat evaluation can be performed. A prominent aircraft recognition technique is based on the exploitation of a one-dimensional image of a target, a range profile. In this

  19. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Y. K. Loyeung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

  20. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  1. [Standardizing the manipulation procedure of acupuncture-moxibustion, reinforcing the training of' clinical skill: learning experience of Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training: Chapter of Commonly Used Needling and Moxibustion Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongfang; Yang, Chao; Tang, Jie; Qin, Qiuguo; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhao, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    The book Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training is one of "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" in novative teaching materials, which is published by People's Medical Publishing House. Through learning the first half of the book commonly used needling and moxibustion techniques, it is realized that the selection of book content is reasonable and much attention is paid to needling and moxibustion techniques; the chapter arrangement is well-organized, and the form is novel, which is concise and intuitive; for every technique, great attention is paid to standardize the manipulation procedure and clarify the technique key, simultaneously the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion is also emphasized. The characteristics of the book, including innovativeness, practicability, are highlighted, and it greatly helps to improve students' clinical skills and examination ability.

  2. Community Profiling: From Technique to Reflective Practice in Community Engagement for Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sonya; Boxelaar, Lucia; O'Donnell, Josette; Francis, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Community profiling is a tool that aims to help practitioners collect and make use of varied data to understand the diversity of stakeholders and issues in communities where they are delivering natural resource management programs. This paper will discuss some of the problems experienced with community profiling and propose a shift in the way in…

  3. A new technique for investigating the induced and profile drag coefficients of a smooth wing and a tubercled wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolzon Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The induced and profile drag coefficients of a wing are typically determined through a complex experimental technique, such as wake surveying. Such a technique requires measurement of all three orthogonal components of the downstream velocity to find the components of drag, which results in the necessary usage of a sophisticated and costly measurement device, such as multi-hole pressure probe. However, in this paper data is presented which demonstrate that the relative changes in the induced and profile drag coefficients can largely be determined through the sole measurement of the downstream, streamwise velocity. To demonstrate this, the induced and profile drags of two NACA 0021 wings, one with a smooth leading edge and the other wing a tubercled leading edge for comparison, are determined through the measurement of the three orthogonal velocities. The downstream, streamwise velocity distribution of each wing is then constructed and relationships can be determined. The wings were surveyed at 3°, 9°, and 12°. It has been found that the relative magnitude of the profile drag coefficient can be found for all considered angles of attack, while the relative magnitude of the induced drag coefficient can be found at 9° and 12°. These findings produce an innovative, simpler, and more cost effective experimental technique in determining the components of drag of a wing, and reduces the burdensome requirement of a sophisticated measurement device for such an experiment. Further investigation is required to determine the induced drag at 3°.

  4. A new technique for investigating the induced and profile drag coefficients of a smooth wing and a tubercled wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzon, Michael; Kelso, Richard; Arjomandi, Maziar

    2016-03-01

    The induced and profile drag coefficients of a wing are typically determined through a complex experimental technique, such as wake surveying. Such a technique requires measurement of all three orthogonal components of the downstream velocity to find the components of drag, which results in the necessary usage of a sophisticated and costly measurement device, such as multi-hole pressure probe. However, in this paper data is presented which demonstrate that the relative changes in the induced and profile drag coefficients can largely be determined through the sole measurement of the downstream, streamwise velocity. To demonstrate this, the induced and profile drags of two NACA 0021 wings, one with a smooth leading edge and the other wing a tubercled leading edge for comparison, are determined through the measurement of the three orthogonal velocities. The downstream, streamwise velocity distribution of each wing is then constructed and relationships can be determined. The wings were surveyed at 3°, 9°, and 12°. It has been found that the relative magnitude of the profile drag coefficient can be found for all considered angles of attack, while the relative magnitude of the induced drag coefficient can be found at 9° and 12°. These findings produce an innovative, simpler, and more cost effective experimental technique in determining the components of drag of a wing, and reduces the burdensome requirement of a sophisticated measurement device for such an experiment. Further investigation is required to determine the induced drag at 3°.

  5. Particle manipulation methods in droplet microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2017-11-30

    This Feature article describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics tool-box to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  6. Using interpolation techniques to determine the optimal profile interval in ground-penetrating radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Refik; Çelik, Ertuğ; Tural, Serhat; Şengönül, Erkan; Özkan, Merve; Damcı, Emre

    2017-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is seeing increasing use for near-surface underground research and applications. To achieve the required depth and accuracy for the GPR measurement of underground structures, the effects of certain data acquisition and interpolation parameters should be considered. These parameters include antenna frequency, sample length, profile interval, trace interval, sampling interval and resolution of the mesh of grid. For example, when the profile interval is large, underground structures may not be identified with sufficient accuracy. By contrast, selecting a narrower profile interval will increase the accuracy but will also increase the acquisition cost and processing time. The main objective of this study is to determine the optimal profile and trace intervals and the optimal mesh of grid by analyzing the interpolation-induced effects of different profile and trace intervals and different meshes of grid on the measured geometry of underground structures. Within the defined objective, an analysis procedure is proposed. This procedure determines the optimal profile and trace intervals to scan the search area by GPR at the data acquisition phase and the optimal mesh of grid to visualize the underground structures with high accuracy at the data processing phase. Proposed procedure was tested on the synthetic and real data. According to the main findings, the users are suggested to use the optimal profile interval 0.25 m and trace interval 0.04 m to acquire the data from the search area and the optimal mesh of grid (0.025 × 0.01) m2 to visualize the underground structures with high accuracy and with optimum acquisition cost and processing time. Obtained results showed that the determined optimal profile and trace intervals and mesh of grid exert positive effects about 5% for similarity and 21% for error when determining and visualizing the geometry of underground structures.

  7. Application of Layered Perforation Profile Control Technique to Low Permeable Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sun

    2018-01-01

    it is difficult to satisfy the demand of profile control of complex well section and multi-layer reservoir by adopting the conventional profile control technology, therefore, a research is conducted on adjusting the injection production profile with layered perforating parameters optimization. i.e. in the case of coproduction for multi-layer, water absorption of each layer is adjusted by adjusting the perforating parameters, thus to balance the injection production profile of the whole well section, and ultimately enhance the oil displacement efficiency of water flooding. By applying the relationship between oil-water phase percolation theory/perforating damage and capacity, a mathematic model of adjusting the injection production profile with layered perforating parameters optimization, besides, perforating parameters optimization software is programmed. Different types of optimization design work are carried out according to different geological conditions and construction purposes by using the perforating optimization design software; furthermore, an application test is done for low permeable reservoir, and the water injection profile tends to be balanced significantly after perforation with optimized parameters, thereby getting a good application effect on site.

  8. a Comparison Between Zero-Offset and Vertical Radar Profiling Gpr Techniques with Emphasis on Problematic Borehole Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are increasingly used to study the unsaturated zone. In particular, cross-hole methods can are able to infer more detailed information about the subsoil than surface measurements. Two borehole Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques are discussed in our contribution: Zero-Offset Profiling (ZOP) and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP). We make a direct comparison of these methods in a field case (Trecate site, Northern Italy), to explore each method's capabilities and limitations. Our analysis is focused on the results in the vadose zone and shows that the dielectric relative permittivity profiles recovered from ZOP and VRP first-break inversions are in strong disagreement, providing very different permittivity profiles. The analysis of synthetic radargrams shows the presence of an electromagnetic (EM) wave established by the joint presence of the air-filled borehole within a higher permittivity surrounding soil. This event has a velocity intermediate between the soil and air speed values, and interferes with the picking of first arrivals in the VRP mode. The numerical simulations are performed with different borehole diameters, confirming that the velocity of the first recorded event depends on the ratio between the wave length in air and the finite dimension of the borehole. Once these arrivals in the simulated VRP radargrams are recognized, their contribution can be removed by picking the "direct" arrivals, that correspond to the waves that directly propagates from source to receiver, through the unsaturated zone. Once the borehole effects are accounted for, the comparison between the ZOP and VRP permittivity profiles is reasonable and reveals the different resolution of these techniques, focusing on the information that can be inferred for hydrological characterizations. Thus, VRP surveys in vadose zone must be accurately interpreted, as the electromagnetic waves may propagate via guided modes along the borehole. Neglecting this

  9. Analysis of Sidestream Smoke VOCs and Characterization of their Odor Profiles by VOC Preconcentrator-GC-O Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various techniques have been employed in the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. However, these techniques are insufficient for the precise analysis of tobacco smoke VOCs because of the complexity of the operating system, system instability, or poor sensitivity. To overcome these problems, a combined system of VOC preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and olfactometer has been developed. The performance of this new system was evaluated in the analysis of VOCs in tobacco smoke and applied to the odor profiling of sidestream smoke (SSS that has not been sufficiently investigated in the past.

  10. Use of metabolic profiling to study grape skin polyphenol behavior as a result of canopy microclimate manipulation in a 'Pinot noir' vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad Lemut, Melita; Sivilotti, Paolo; Franceschi, Pietro; Wehrens, Ron; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2013-09-18

    Canopy microclimate manipulation can have a significant effect on grapevine gene expression and can thus affect the yield of many important berry compounds. Focusing on only a few targeted phenolics in the past, advanced multimethod analytical approaches are opening up much wider possibilities to fill in the gaps of missing knowledge about plant secondary metabolism. Different leaf removal timings, leading to different microclimate scenarios, were thus introduced in a 'Pinot noir' vineyard to reveal related alterations of multiple classes of skin phenolics, including some rarely studied to date. Different accumulation trends during cluster development were detected not only between groups but also between individual compounds within groups. Although many significant changes were observed early in the season, these were later often less significant. However, at harvest, 31 of 72 detected compounds showed significant differences in comparison to control for at least one of three leaf removal approaches.

  11. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  12. Effect of destoned olive cake on the aromatic profile of cows’ milk and dairy products: comparison of two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rocchina Caputo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, carried out within the NOVOROD project (PSR Campania 2007-2013 Misura 124 HC, was to evaluate the aromatic profile of milk and dairy products of dairy cows supplemented with destoned olive cake (DOC. Two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis: the thermal desorption by gas chromatography with a mass selective (GC/MS detector and the electronic nose were compared. The trial was performed into a dairy cow farm. Ten dairy cows were allotted into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. Animals received the same diet, while in the experimental group the concentrate supplementation (15% dry matter was replaced with DOC. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were fed with the experimental diet for other 15 days. During the experimental period, the milk was collected and cumulatively processed in Caciotta cheese (a soft cheese, 25 days ripened and in Semicotto cheese (hard cheese, 3 months ripened for 13 times for each group. Milk and cheese volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted and concentrated with dynamic headspace method and determined by GC/MS. Statistical analysis of data, expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.=peak area × 10–6 and allotted in compound classes, was carried out by ANOVA. All data collected of VOCs were processed with principal component analysis (PCA. Milk and cheese samples were comparatively analysed with the electronic nose, fitted with a tenmetal oxide sensors electronic device. PCA has been used for the evaluation of the pattern data. Our results show that the use of DOC, as an unconventional feed for livestock, has no effect on the aromatic profile of both milk and dairy products. In fact, no significant differences were found in both milk and dairy products between the two groups using the GC/MS method. Also the discriminating analysis carried out by electronic nose did not show significant differences between the two groups. The two compared techniques seem to lead to

  13. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne Gm; Thoomes, Erik; Konings, Sophie; Beijer, Michelle; Verkerk, Karin; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the

  14. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G.M. Scholten-Peeters (Gwendolijne); E.J. Thoomes (Erik); S. Konings (Sophie); M. Beijer (Michelle); K. Verkerk (Karin); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to

  15. The role of capillary electrophoresis in metabolic profiling studies employing multiple analytical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.G.M.; Somsen, G.W.; de Jong, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is increasingly used for the targeted and untargeted analysis of metabolites in biological samples. CE-MS is particularly useful for the profiling of highly polar metabolites without the need for derivatization and/or extensive sample preparation.

  16. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  17. Manipulation of local optical properties and structures in molybdenum-disulfide monolayers using electric field-assisted near-field techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Junji Nozaki; Musashi Fukumura; Takaaki Aoki; Yutaka Maniwa; Yohei Yomogida; Kazuhiro Yanagi

    2017-01-01

    Remarkable optical properties, such as quantum light emission and large optical nonlinearity, have been observed in peculiar local sites of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, and the ability to tune such properties is of great importance for their optoelectronic applications. For that purpose, it is crucial to elucidate and tune their local optical properties simultaneously. Here, we develop an electric field-assisted near-field technique. Using this technique we can clarify and tune...

  18. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF THREE SOFT TISSUE MANIPULATION TECHNIQUES ON PAIN RESPONSE AND FLEXIBILITY IN CHRONIC PLANTAR FASCIITIS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanshetty, Renu B.; Amit S.Raikar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder in which patients have pain and tenderness at the sole of the foot. Rest, exercises, orthotics, taping, cryotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrical stimulation, whirlpool bath, and iontophoresis have been widely used to relieve plantar pain. Long term use of manual therapy techniques like myofascial release technique, positional release therapy and passive stretching have been used in the past to reduce pain and imp...

  19. Model-driven redox pathway manipulation for improved isobutanol production in Bacillus subtilis complemented with experimental validation and metabolic profiling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haishan; Li, Shanshan; Zhao, Sumin; Huang, Di; Xia, Menglei; Wen, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    To rationally guide the improvement of isobutanol production, metabolic network and metabolic profiling analysis were performed to provide global and profound insights into cell metabolism of isobutanol-producing Bacillus subtilis. The metabolic flux distribution of strains with different isobutanol production capacity (BSUL03, BSUL04 and BSUL05) drops a hint of the importance of NADPH on isobutanol biosynthesis. Therefore, the redox pathways were redesigned in this study. To increase NADPH concentration, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was inactivated (BSUL06) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was overexpressed (BSUL07) successively. As expected, NADPH pool size in BSUL07 was 4.4-fold higher than that in parental strain BSUL05. However, cell growth, isobutanol yield and production were decreased by 46%, 22%, and 80%, respectively. Metabolic profiling analysis suggested that the severely imbalanced redox status might be the primary reason. To solve this problem, gene udhA of Escherichia coli encoding transhydrogenase was further overexpressed (BSUL08), which not only well balanced the cellular ratio of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, but also increased NADH and ATP concentration. In addition, a straightforward engineering approach for improving NADPH concentrations was employed in BSUL05 by overexpressing exogenous gene pntAB and obtained BSUL09. The performance for isobutanol production by BSUL09 was poorer than BSUL08 but better than other engineered strains. Furthermore, in fed-batch fermentation the isobutanol production and yield of BSUL08 increased by 11% and 19%, up to the value of 6.12 g/L and 0.37 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose (63% of the theoretical value), respectively, compared with parental strain BSUL05. These results demonstrated that model-driven complemented with metabolic profiling analysis could serve as a useful approach in the strain improvement for higher bio-productivity in further application.

  20. Improving electronic customers' profile in recommender systems using data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Julashokri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are tools for realization one to one marketing. Recommender systems are systems, which attract, retain, and develop customers. Recommender systems use several ways to make recommendations. Two ways are using more than the others: collaborative filtering and content-based filtering. In this study, a recommender system model based on collaborative filtering has proposed. Proposed model was endeavored to improve the customer profile in collaborative systems to enhance the recommender system efficiency. This improvement was done using time context and group preferences. Experimental results show that the proposed model has a better recommendation performance than existing models.

  1. Leveraging process mining techniques for up-to-date resource profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Creemers, Mathijs; Jans, Mieke J.

    2017-01-01

    Keeping an up-to-date overview of the knowledge and skills available in an organization is a difficult task. Looking at this problem we propose the use of data, that already exists in the organization’s information systems, as a means to keep user knowledge profiles up to date. To extract the required information from these information systems, we suggest the use of process mining. We illustrate the current state of our research and the end goals we aim to reach with it. We state a general...

  2. The immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint manipulation and suboccipital muscle inhibition technique on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity over latent myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campelo, Natalia M; Rubens-Rebelatto, José; Martí N-Vallejo, Francisco J; Alburquerque-Sendí N, Francisco; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2010-05-01

    A randomized controlled trial. To investigate the immediate effects on pressure pain thresholds over latent trigger points (TrPs) in the masseter and temporalis muscles and active mouth opening following atlanto-occipital joint thrust manipulation or a soft tissue manual intervention targeted to the suboccipital muscles. Previous studies have described hypoalgesic effects of neck manipulative interventions over TrPs in the cervical musculature. There is a lack of studies analyzing these mechanisms over TrPs of muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve. One hundred twenty-two volunteers, 31 men and 91 women, between the ages of 18 and 30 years, with latent TrPs in the masseter muscle, were randomly divided into 3 groups: a manipulative group who received an atlanto-occipital joint thrust, a soft tissue group who received an inhibition technique over the suboccipital muscles, and a control group who did not receive an intervention. Pressure pain thresholds over latent TrPs in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and active mouth opening were assessed pretreatment and 2 minutes posttreatment by a blinded assessor. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the effects of interventions on each outcome, with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable. The primary analysis was the group-by-time interaction. The 2-by-3 mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant group-by-time interaction for changes in pressure pain thresholds over masseter (Platent TrPs and also for active mouth opening (Platent TrPs in the masseter and temporalis muscles and an increase in maximum active mouth opening. Nevertheless, the effects of both interventions were small and future studies are required to elucidate the clinical relevance of these changes. Therapy, level 1b.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):310-317, Epub 12 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3257.

  3. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne GM; Thoomes, Erik; Konings, Sophie; Beijer, Michelle; Verkerk, Karin; Bart W Koes; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PED...

  4. Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China Using a Passive Sampling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectenotoxins (PTXs are a group of lipophilic algal toxins. These toxins have been found in algae and shellfish from Japan, New Zealand, Ireland, Norway and Portugal. PTX profiles vary with geographic location of collection site. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTX profiles from the Yellow Sea, China. The sampling location was within an aquatic farm (N36°12.428´, E120°17.826´ near the coast of Qingdao, China, in the Yellow Sea from 28July to 29August 2006. PTXs in seawater were determined using a solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT method. PTXs were analyzed by HPLC-MSMS. PTX-2, PTX-2 sec acid (PTX-2 SA and 7-epi-PTX-2 SA were found in seawater samples. The highest levels of PTXs (107 ng/g of resin PTX-2, 50 ng/g of resin PTX-2 SA plus 7-epi-PTX-2 SA in seawater were found on 1 August, 2006. From 1 August to 29 August, the levels of PTX-2 and PTX-2 SA decreased. In the same area, the marine algae, Dinophysis acuminata was found in the seawater in the summer months of 2006. This indicated that Dinophysis acuumuta might be the original source of PTXs. PTX-11 and PTX-12a/b were not found in seawater.

  5. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment to Manage Ophthalmic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tatyana; Qureshi, Yasmin; Bach, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Although there is little evidence-based literature regarding osteopathic manipulative treatment for ophthalmic conditions, the general principles and techniques of osteopathic manipulative medicine can be used to manage various ophthalmic pathologic conditions. Additional research to support these treatment options and evaluate the role of OMT as a potential conservative treatment option used by ophthalmologists is needed.

  6. Manipulation of local optical properties and structures in molybdenum-disulfide monolayers using electric field-assisted near-field techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Junji; Fukumura, Musashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Maniwa, Yutaka; Yomogida, Yohei; Yanagi, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-05

    Remarkable optical properties, such as quantum light emission and large optical nonlinearity, have been observed in peculiar local sites of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, and the ability to tune such properties is of great importance for their optoelectronic applications. For that purpose, it is crucial to elucidate and tune their local optical properties simultaneously. Here, we develop an electric field-assisted near-field technique. Using this technique we can clarify and tune the local optical properties simultaneously with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 nm due to the electric field from the cantilever. The photoluminescence at local sites in molybdenum-disulfide (MoS2) monolayers is reversibly modulated, and the inhomogeneity of the charge neutral points and quantum yields is suggested. We successfully etch MoS2 crystals and fabricate nanoribbons using near-field techniques in combination with an electric field. This study creates a way to tune the local optical properties and to freely design the structural shapes of atomic monolayers using near-field optics.

  7. Tritium profiles in tiles from the first wall of fusion machines and techniques for their detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzhorn, R.-D.; Bekris, N.; Hellriegel, W.; Noppel, H.-E.; Naegele, W.; Ziegler, H.; Rolli, R.; Werle, H.; Haigh, A.; Peacock, A

    2000-06-01

    Tritium profiles on a TFTR graphite tile exposed to D-D plasmas and a JET graphite tile from the first tritium campaigns were examined by full combustion, thermogravimetry and thermal desorption. Combustion measurements revealed that >98.9% of the tritium is trapped in a layer <50 {mu}m thick, the remainder being spread throughout the tile. The tritium distribution on the tile surface is not homogeneous. A significant fraction resides in the gaps between tiles. Graphite disks from the plasma-exposed side of JET tiles heated up to 1100 deg. C under a helium stream containing 0.1% hydrogen showed the highest tritium release rate at {approx}850 deg. C. The agreement between tritium measurements by full combustion and thermal release was reasonably good. Tritium on graphite tiles was released to >95% under a stream of moist air at about 400 deg. C. A large fraction of tritium can be removed from the tile surface with adhesive tape.

  8. Depth profiling of residual activity of ^{237}U fragments as a range verification technique for ^{238}U primary ion beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of ^{238}U ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950  MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the ^{237}U isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary ^{238}U ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the ^{237}U isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the ^{238}U primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.

  9. Depth profiling of residual activity of U237 fragments as a range verification technique for U238 primary ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Chetvertkova, V.; Mustafin, E.; Pavlovič, M.; Belousov, A.

    2012-07-01

    Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of U238 ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the U237 isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary U238 ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the U237 isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the U238 primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.

  10. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanimah Simoh

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: It was evident from the results that C. aeruginosa rhizome extracted using two different techniques of solvent extractions (MTBE and M/C contained various chemical classes of compounds including terpenoids, sterols, organic acids, fatty acids and sugars. Different methods of extraction have led to different compounds extraction for C. aeruginosa rhizome. The results also indicated that the plant was a source of phytochemical importance.

  11. Sorption Profile of Phosphorus Ions onto ZnO Nanorods Synthesized via Sonic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area zinc oxide material in nanorod morphological structure was synthesized using an ultrasonic technique in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone as stabilizing agent. The crystallite, morphology, and surface area of the prepared white powder material were identified using XRD, SEM, and BET techniques, respectively. X-ray analysis confirms the high purity of synthesized ZnO. The evaluated specific surface area of prepared ZnO was 16.7 m2/g; this value guarantees high efficiency for water purification. The feasibility of synthesized ZnO nanorods for phosphorus sorption from aqueous solution was established using batch technique. Nano-zinc oxide exhibits high efficiency for phosphorus removal; the equilibrium state was recorded within 90 minutes. The most effective hydrogen ion concentration of the polluted solution was recorded at pH = 1 for phosphorus decontamination. The equilibrium of phosphorus sorption onto ZnO nanorods was well explained using both Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models. The calculated maximum monolayer sorption capacity was 89 mg/g according to Langmuir isotherm at 27°C. In order to explain the phosphorus sorption mechanism onto the prepared ZnO nanorods, three simplified kinetic models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion rate models were tested. Kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second order kinetic model with a contribution of intraparticle diffusion.

  12. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  13. Subliminal manipulation of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, M

    1996-01-01

    Subliminal advertising techniques have increased in usage and are commonly accepted, particularly regarding cigarette smoking. Considering the high cost of such subliminal methods, their use can be justified only by tangible results, measured by an increase in cigarette sales. The results of our studies confirm the physiological and psychological effects of subliminal stimulation that have already been reported in the specialized literature. Our research on smoking prevention led us to study the sophisticated advertising strategies used by the tobacco industry. We have shown that revealing the subliminal stimuli-at least the visual ones-is extremely useful for teenagers. The enlightened teenager becomes able to recognize the subliminal manipulation concealed in advertising, and the risk of becoming its victim. Such educational efforts have their merits, particularly at the school level.

  14. High-Throughput Selection, Enumeration, Electrokinetic Manipulation, and Molecular Profiling of Low-Abundance Circulating Tumor Cells Using a Microfluidic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasiri, Udara; Njoroge, Samuel K.; Witek, Mazgorzata A.; Adebiyi, Morayo G.; Kamande, Joyce W.; Hupert, Mateusz L.; Barany, Francis; Soper, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    A circulating tumor cell (CTC) selection microfluidic device was integrated to an electrokinetic enrichment device for preconcentrating CTCs directly from whole blood to allow for the detection of mutations contained within the genomic DNA of the CTCs. Molecular profiling of CTCs can provide important clinical information that cannot be garnered simply by enumerating the selected CTCs. We evaluated our approach using SW620 and HT29 cells (colorectal cancer cell lines) seeded into whole blood as a model system. Because SW620 and HT29 cells overexpress the integral membrane protein EpCAM, they could be immunospecifically selected using a microfluidic device containing anti-EpCAM antibodies immobilized to the walls of a selection bed. The microfluidic device was operated at an optimized flow rate of 2 mm s−1, which allowed for the ability to process 1 mL of whole blood in <40 min. The selected CTCs were then enzymatically released from the antibody selection surface and hydrodynamically transported through a pair of Pt electrodes for conductivity-based enumeration. The efficiency of CTC selection was found to be 96% ± 4%. Following enumeration, the CTCs were hydrodynamically transported at a flow rate of 1 μL min−1 to an on-chip electromanipulation unit, where they were electrophoretically withdrawn from the bulk hydrodynamic flow and directed into a receiving reservoir. Using an electric field of 100 V cm−1, the negatively charged CTCs were enriched into an anodic receiving reservoir to a final volume of 2 μL, providing an enrichment factor of 500. The collected CTCs could then be searched for point mutations using a PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis assay. The DNA extracted from the CTCs was subjected to a primary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the amplicons used for a ligase detection reaction (LDR) to probe for KRAS oncogenic point mutations. Point mutations in codon 12 of the KRAS gene were successfully detected in the SW620 CTCs for samples

  15. Investigation of surface and subsurface profile, techniques of measurement, and replication of the Chinese Magic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Min, Eden T.; Watt, Sook May; Sreemathy, Parthasarathy; Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese magic mirror is an ancient convex bronze mirror, it reflects parallel light rays to form a unique image within the reflected patch of light by altering the reflected ray paths. Using Phase Measuring Reflectometry (PMR), surface irregularities of a micron range were found to be present on the mirror; these irregularities concentrate and disperse reflected light rays, giving rise to brighter and darker patches on the reflected image, forming a contrast, allowing the unique pattern to be observed. To ascertain location and nature of the surface defects that come in forms of indentations and raised platforms, other measurement techniques were employed. Reverse engineering then facilitated the exploration of reproduction of a very own original Chinese Magic Mirror with the use of optical principles behind the mirror.

  16. Surgical Strategy and Techniques for Low-Profile Dorsal Plating in Treating Dorsally Displaced Unstable Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshitaka; Gotani, Hiroyuki; Hibino, Naohito; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Ryousuke; Sasaki, Kousuke; Kanchanathepsak, Thepparat

    2017-05-01

    Background The low-profile dorsal locking plating (DLP) technique is useful for treating dorsally comminuted intra-articular distal radius fractures; however, due to the complications associated with DLP, the technique is not widely used. Methods A retrospective review of 24 consecutive cases treated with DLP were done. Results All cases were classified into two types by surgical strategy according to the fracture pattern. In type 1, there is a volar fracture line distal to the watershed line in the dorsally displaced fragment, and this type is treated by H-framed DLP. In type 2, the displaced dorsal die-punch fragment is associated with a minimally displaced styloid shearing fracture or a transverse volar fracture line. We found that the die-punch fragment was reduced by the buttress effect of small l-shaped DLP after stabilization of the styloid shearing for the volar segment by cannulated screws from radial styloid processes. At 6 months after surgery, outcomes were good or excellent based on the modified Mayo wrist scores with no serious complications except one case. The mean range of motion of each type was as follows: the palmar flexion was 50, 65 degrees, dorsiflexion was 70, 75 degrees, supination was 85, 85 degrees, and pronation was 80, 80 degrees; in type 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion DLP is a useful technique for the treatment of selected cases of dorsally displaced, comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius with careful soft tissue coverage.

  17. Performance comparison of differential evolution techniques on optimization of feeding profile for an industrial scale baker's yeast fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzgeç, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the novel evolutionary optimization methods used for solving the problems that consist of nondifferentiable, nonlinear and multi-objective functions. In this presented work, the classical DE technique and its various versions, such as opposition based on differential evolution (ODE), adaptive differential evolution (ADE), adaptive opposition based on differential evolution (AODE) which is an advanced version of ODE, are presented to determine the optimal feeding flow profile of an industrial scale fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation process. The main objective in any fed-batch fermentation process optimization is both to maximize the amount of the biomass at the end of the process and to minimize the ethanol formation during the process. Four different cases regarding the initial condition of the fermentation process were considered so as to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms. Besides, two strategies of mutation and crossover operators, which are the most popular in DE's applications, were utilized for performance comparison tests. The influence of initial seed value, initial condition of the process, and both of the mutation and crossover strategies have been investigated for all the different classic, opposition-based, self-adaptive and adaptive opposition-based mechanisms. To demonstrate the performance comparison of the of DE's techniques, the experimental data collected from the fermentor with volume of 100 m(3) are presented with the optimization results obtained by using all the interested DE techniques for the same initial conditions. 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  19. Non-Contact Technique for Determining the Mechanical Stress in thin Films on Wafers by Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuzhev, N. A.; Dedkova, A. A.; E Gusev, E.; Makhiboroda, M. A.; Glagolev, P. Y.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for analysis of relief for the purpose of calculating mechanical stresses in a selected direction on the plate in the form of software package Matlab. The method allows for the measurement sample in the local area. It provides a visual representation of the data and allows to get stress distribution on wafer surface. Automated analysis process reduces the likelihood of errors researcher. Achieved time saving during processing results. In carrying out several measurements possible drawing card plate to predict yield crystals. According to this technique done in measurement of mechanical stresses of thermal silicon oxide film on a silicon substrate. Analysis of the results showed objectivity and reliability calculations. This method can be used for selecting the optimal parameters of the material deposition conditions. In software of device-technological simulation TCAD defined process time, temperature and oxidation of the operation of the sample environment for receiving the set value of the dielectric film thickness. Calculated thermal stresses are in the system silicon-silicon oxide. There is a good correlation between numerical simulations and analytical calculation. It is shown that the nature of occurrence of mechanical stress is not limited to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients of materials.

  20. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  1. Chemical profiles of traditional preparations of four South American Passiflora species by chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geison Modesti Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several species of the genus Passiflora are distributed all over South America, and many of these species are used in popular medicine, mainly as sedatives and tranquilizers. This study analyzes the chemical profile of extracts of four Passiflora species used in folk medicine, focusing on the flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. We employed simple and fast fingerprint analysis methods by high performance liquid chromatography, ultra performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques. The analysis led to the detection and identification of C-glycosylflavonoids in all the plant extracts, these being the main constituents in P. tripartita var. mollissima and P. bogotensis. Saponins were observed only in P. alata and P. quadrangularis, while harmane alkaloids were not detected in any of the analyzed extracts in concentrations higher than 0.0187 ppm, the detection limit determined for the UPLC method.

  2. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Live birth rates and safety profile using dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Ravichandran; Rajesh, Hemashree; Wong, Ker Yi; Faisal, Fazlin; Yu, Su Ling

    2017-06-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) result in a deficient luteal phase, requiring the administration of intramuscular, intravaginal or oral exogenous progesterone. Dydrogesterone, an oral retroprogesterone with good bioavailability, has been used in assisted reproductive cycles with outcomes that are comparable to those of vaginal or intramuscular progesterone. However, there are limited reviews on its use for luteal phase support in ARTs, in terms of pregnancy outcomes and associated fetal anomalies. This study aimed to review the live birth rates and associated fetal anomalies of women who were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive cycles at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. This retrospective descriptive study included 1,050 women who underwent in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection at the Centre for Assisted Reproduction of Singapore General Hospital between 2000 and 2011. The women were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support. The main outcome measures were rates of pregnancy, live birth, miscarriage and fetal anomalies. The pregnancy and live birth rates were 34.7% and 27.7%, respectively. Among those who achieved pregnancy, 17.0% miscarried, 0.8% had ectopic pregnancies and 0.3% had molar pregnancies. Fetal anomalies were detected in 1.9% of pregnancies, all of which were terminated by choice. Since the outcomes of dydrogesterone are comparable to those of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone, it is a reasonable option to provide luteal phase support for women who are uncomfortable with injections or vaginal insertions. Randomised controlled studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage of dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in ARTs.

  4. Across-plane thermal characterization of films based on amplitude-frequency profile in photothermal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work develops an amplitude method for the photothermal (PT technique to analyze the amplitude of the thermal radiation signal from the surface of a multilayered film sample. The thermal conductivity of any individual layer in the sample can be thereby determined. Chemical vapor deposited SiC film samples (sample 1 to 3: 2.5 to 3.5 μm thickness with different ratios of Si to C and thermally oxidized SiO2 film (500 nm thickness on silicon substrates are studied using the amplitude method. The determined thermal conductivity based on the amplitude method is 3.58, 3.59, and 2.59 W/m⋅K for sample 1 to 3 with ±10% uncertainty. These results are verified by the phase shift method, and sound agreement is obtained. The measured thermal conductivity (k of SiC is much lower than the value of bulk SiC. The large k reduction is caused by the structure difference revealed by Raman spectroscopy. For the SiO2 film, the thermal conductivity is measured to be 1.68 ± 0.17 W/m⋅K, a little higher than that obtained by the phase shift method: 1.31 ± 0.06 W/m⋅K. Sensitivity analysis of thermal conductivity and interfacial resistance is conducted for the amplitude method. Its weak-sensitivity to the thermal contact resistance, enables the amplitude method to determine the thermal conductivity of a film sample with little effect from the interface thermal resistance between the film and substrate. The normalized amplitude ratio at a high frequency to that at a low frequency provides a reliable way to evaluate the effusivity ratio of the film to that of the substrate.

  5. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

    2015-07-01

    The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

  6. Difference between bulk and thin film densities of metal oxide and fluoride films studied by NRA depth profiling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coban, A; Durrani, S A

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis techniques have been used to study the difference between bulk and thin film densities of different dielectric (WO sub 3 , MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4) thin films. Thicknesses of the films were measured by optical methods. The sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction was used at 730 keV to profile WO sub 3 prepared with different thicknesses on a tantalum backing by thermal evaporation of natural WO sub 3. We have also successfully tested the sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction at the 629 keV (GAMMA=2.1 keV) resonance for the same purpose. Excitation function measurement of the reaction was performed around the resonant energy at a detection angle of 150 deg. . In order to obtain the oxygen profiles of the thin films non-resonant part of the excitation function was deconvoluted using the known cross-section data of the reaction. Also, we studied different films of MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4 using the 483.85 keV resonance in the ...

  7. Genetic Manipulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    The sexually-transmitted pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, undergoes natural transformation at high frequency. This property has led to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers and to the panmictic structure of the gonococcal population. However, high frequency transformation also makes N. gonorrhoeae one of the easiest bacterial species to manipulate genetically in the laboratory. Techniques have been developed that result in transformation frequencies >50%, allowing the ident...

  8. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  9. A study of nanoparticle manipulation using ultrasonic standing waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Rasidovic, A.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the noninvasive manipulation of particles in dispersions during the last 15 years. The manipulation techniques based on acoustic radiation forces are particularly interesting as they allow for the manipulation of particles based on their density,

  10. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  11. WORKSPACE DRAWING FROM A MANIPULATOR ARM WITH 6 DOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIDIN Gigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and simulation is an important aspect in robotic field. Knowing of the workspace is very important to the operation of manipulators arm. This paper investigates operational performance of space manipulator arm destined for industrial manufacturing, by defining and analyzing their workspace and manipulability measure. The authors show that manipulator arm developing requires the consideration of more efficient dynamic models and use of dedicated processing techniques such as Autodesk-Inventor 9, MATLAB, WorkSpace software.

  12. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...

  13. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics…

  14. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...

  15. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  16. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  17. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  18. It's not just average faces that are attractive: computer-manipulated averageness makes birds, fish, and automobiles attractive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halberstadt, Jamin; Rhodes, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    .... In three experiments, we examined the attractiveness of birds, fish, and automobiles whose averageness had been manipulated using digital image manipulation techniques common in research on facial attractiveness...

  19. Comparative analysis on resistance profiling along tapered semiconductor nanowires: multi-tip technique versus transmission line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägelein, Andreas; Liborius, Lisa; Steidl, Matthias; Blumberg, Christian; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Poloczek, Artur; Hannappel, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The detection of doping dependent values like contact- and path resistances along nanowires (NWs) still proves to be rather challenging compared to planar structures. Unfortunately, the usually used and well established TLM (transmission line measurement) setup exhibits some drawbacks. Complex preliminary preparation steps and the necessity of ohmic contacts limit the investigation to certain semiconductor materials. The simultaneous determination of contact- and path resistances with an unknown distribution makes an analysis on complex structures like tapered nanowires very challenging. Our approach is the utilization of a multi-tip scanning tunneling microscope (MT-STM) as a four point prober, which allows the investigation of freestanding nanowires with an increased spatial resolution. Here, the used measurement setup allows a local separation of current injection and potential measurement and thus a highly precise determination of path resistances. Tapered p-doped GaAs-NWs were used to compare both techniques. Whereas the evaluation of the axial doping profile by MT-STM was rather simple, correction factors had to be introduced for the TLM measurement to calculate the specific resistances and transfer length. By comparing the results of both methods for the very same NW-sample, the precision and accuracy of MT-STM measurements was demonstrated. We found an agreement, which allows the conclusion that both methods exhibit advantages; however the MT-STM was determined as the more precise setup, which enables additional characterization capabilities, such as surface, temperature or light dependent measurements.

  20. Comparative analysis on resistance profiling along tapered semiconductor nanowires: multi-tip technique versus transmission line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägelein, Andreas; Liborius, Lisa; Steidl, Matthias; Blumberg, Christian; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Poloczek, Artur; Hannappel, Thomas

    2017-10-04

    The detection of doping dependent values like contact- and path resistances along nanowires (NWs) still proves to be rather challenging compared to planar structures. Unfortunately, the usually used and well established TLM (transmission line measurement) setup exhibits some drawbacks. Complex preliminary preparation steps and the necessity of ohmic contacts limit the investigation to certain semiconductor materials. The simultaneous determination of contact- and path resistances with an unknown distribution makes an analysis on complex structures like tapered nanowires very challenging. Our approach is the utilization of a multi-tip scanning tunneling microscope (MT-STM) as a four point prober, which allows the investigation of freestanding nanowires with an increased spatial resolution. Here, the used measurement setup allows a local separation of current injection and potential measurement and thus a highly precise determination of path resistances. Tapered p-doped GaAs-NWs were used to compare both techniques. Whereas the evaluation of the axial doping profile by MT-STM was rather simple, correction factors had to be introduced for the TLM measurement to calculate the specific resistances and transfer length. By comparing the results of both methods for the very same NW-sample, the precision and accuracy of MT-STM measurements was demonstrated. We found an agreement, which allows the conclusion that both methods exhibit advantages; however the MT-STM was determined as the more precise setup, which enables additional characterization capabilities, such as surface, temperature or light dependent measurements.

  1. Development of a data collection tool to profile osteopathic practice: use of a nominal group technique to enhance clinician involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, C A; Leach, C M J; Mathias, S; Moore, A P

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the profile of osteopathic care in the United Kingdom (UK). To address this, a standardised data collection (SDC) tool was developed to record patient-based data within private practice. The development of the SDC tool took place within a national network of research groups (hubs) created by the National Council for Osteopathic Research (NCOR); nominal groups were created from the hub network. A Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used to promote maximum involvement by clinicians and increase ownership of the process: this approach encouraged generation of ideas around specific topics. Following several rounds of iteration, a draft tool was created, followed by a three stage testing process to identify omissions, unnecessary jargon, ambiguities, and any regional differences. The tool developed for a national use by UK osteopaths consisted of 65 items. These were divided into specific sections for patient or clinician completion. The section for patient completion collected data concerning demographic and symptom data. Clinicians provided data concerning treatment provided, advice to promote self-management and avoidance of symptom recurrence, outcome information, service data concerned with waiting times, the number of treatments delivered, and the necessity for referral. The tool development process produced a data collection tool aimed to collect snapshot data across the osteopathic profession. The national pilot of the tool will identify changes required, and any barriers to its use by busy professionals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  3. Vibration suppression during input tracking of a flexible manipulator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the hybrid controller for end-point vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator, while it is tracking a desired input profile. Due to large structural vibrations, precise control of flexible manipulators is a challenging task. A hybrid controller is used to track large ...

  4. Time-resolved OCT-μPIV: a new microscopic PIV technique for noninvasive depth-resolved pulsatile flow profile acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    In vivo acquisition of endothelial wall shear stress requires instantaneous depth-resolved whole-field pulsatile flow profile measurements in microcirculation. High-accuracy, quantitative and non- invasive velocimetry techniques are essential for emerging real-time mechano-genomic investigations. To address these research needs, a novel biological flow quantification technique, OCT-μPIV, was developed utilizing high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with microscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). This technique offers the unique advantage of simultaneously acquiring blood flow profiles and vessel anatomy along arbitrarily oriented sagittal planes. The process is instantaneous and enables real-time 3D flow reconstruction without the need for computationally intensive image processing compared to state-of-the-art velocimetry techniques. To evaluate the line-scanning direction and speed, four sets of parametric synthetic OCT-μPIV data were generated using an in-house code. Based on this investigation, an in vitro experiment was designed at the fastest scan speed while preserving the region of interest providing the depth-resolved velocity profiles spanning across the width of a micro-fabricated channel. High-agreement with the analytical flow profiles was achieved for different flow rates and seed particle types and sizes. Finally, by employing blood cells as non-invasive seeding particles, in vivo embryonic vascular velocity profiles in multiple vessels were measured in the early chick embryo. The pulsatile flow frequency and peak velocity measurements were also acquired with OCT-μPIV, which agreed well with previous reported values. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this technique to conduct practical microfluidic and non-invasive in vivo studies for embryonic blood flows.

  5. Minimal manipulability and interjacency for two-person social choice functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Keiding, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the number of profiles at which a social choice function is manipulable. It is found that there is a lower bound on this number when the social choice function is assumed non-dictatorial. Also, any number between this lower bound and the maximal number of profiles may...... be obtained as the number of manipulable profiles of some social choice function...

  6. [Analysis of the demographic profile of patients treated for infertility using assisted reproductive techniques in 2005-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Milewska, Anna Justyna; Czerniecki, Jan; Leśniewska, Monika; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of the demographic profile of patients, causes for infertility and effectiveness of infertility treatment methods in the years 2005-2010. Retrospective research was conducted to analyze data of 1705 randomly selected couples who underwent in vitro fertilization procedure at the Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology Medical University of Bialystok, between 2005 and 2010. The analyzed data included mainly causes for infertility age of the female and male subjects, place of residence and final treatment results. The percentage of pregnancy rate increased significantly to approximately 40% in 2007. The contribution of male and female infertility factors remained at a similar level, but the idiopathic factor continued to steadily increase (to 20% in the last years of the study). We observed a greater prevalence of the male factor among couples living in cities compared to inhabitants of rural areas (42.3% vs. 34.3%, p = 0.004), whereas the tubal factor dominated among couples living in the countryside when compared to city dwellers (29.7% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.001). The average age of women entering treatment was significantly higher in cities than the countryside (p assisted reproductive techniques led to an increase in the efficacy of infertility treatment. Environmental factors, availability of treatment and level of awareness about womens health proved to have the strongest effect on the distribution of infertility causes between urban and rural areas. Significant efforts should be made, especially in cities, to decrease the average age of women's reproductive decisions and also to shorten the time to the first contact with the specialist after unsuccessful attempts at conception. It is also crucial to initiate the reimbursement of infertility treatment using ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology).

  7. AN AMERICAN-BASED STUDY EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPANTS’ DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES AND ATTITUDES REGARDING BUSINESS OUTSOURCING TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Parmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is a global marketplace, however much inquiry has been created regarding American-based companies relocating departmental operations offshore to foreign territories. Keating (2012 indicated that popular areas for companies to reposition operations include customer service, information technology, and sales services. The main reason for moving offshore is to cut costs and to maximize on cheaper labor pools in the host country. There are cultural and language barriers that complicate matters, as well as, the media, as reported by Dobbs (2004 in the United States (U.S. brings supposition by broadcasting the jobs lost by U.S. employees, as well as, home country power diminishing by stronger global players rising and thriving, such as, Brazil, The Philippines, and Mexico. This study quantifiably examined the relationship between participants’ demographic profiles and attitudes regarding business outsourcing techniques and strategies utilizing the Chi-Square and Fisher’s Exact tests, to gain a greater understanding of what these American-based beliefs truly are, in relation to, the sample confined within this study. Areas of concern examined attitudes towards managers, as well as, the U.S. government, regarding engaging in business outsourcing endeavors, enforcing policies to keep jobs in America, operating with a global mindset, helping people in both the home and host countries, competence factors associated with the capabilities to head outsourcing efforts based upon gender, and the training needed to successfully move operations offshore, for example. Significant differences were found in all of the demographic variables of ethnicity, gender, number of children (e.g. family size, age, education level, marital status, and annual household income.

  8. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  9. Combined use of a double-lumen remodeling balloon and a low-profile stent in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms ('remostent' technique): a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadziolka, Krzysztof; Tomas, Catherine; Robin, Georges; Pierot, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    Remodeling technique and stenting represent important options for intracranial aneurysm treatment, and they sometimes need to be combined. The technology of remodeling balloons and stents has recently evolved with the development of the double-lumen remodeling balloon (Scepter and Ascent) and the low-profile stent (LVIS Jr). This report describes our initial experience with and feasibility of the deployment of the low-profile stent through the balloon's internal guidewire lumen, thereby reducing the number of manoeuvres by combining remodeling and stenting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  11. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  12. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  13. Compliant manipulators on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Stefan; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a modeling method for generic serial-chain compliant robotic manipulators. It is based on graph theory and port-Hamiltonian systems, which allows a modular approach to the interconnection of rigid bodies with compliant actuators by means of kinematic pairs. This modularity allows

  14. Analysis of Phenolic and Cyclic Compounds in Plants Using Derivatization Techniques in Combination with GC-MS-Based Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Rohloff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite profiling has been established as a modern technology platform for the description of complex chemical matrices and compound identification in biological samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS in particular is a fast and accurate method widely applied in diagnostics, functional genomics and for screening purposes. Following solvent extraction and derivatization, hundreds of metabolites from different chemical groups can be characterized in one analytical run. Besides sugars, acids, and polyols, diverse phenolic and other cyclic metabolites can be efficiently detected by metabolite profiling. The review describes own results from plant research to exemplify the applicability of GC-MS profiling and concurrent detection and identification of phenolics and other cyclic structures.

  15. A quality profile and techniques for eCommerce application assessment: D 2 ProducEbility-U

    OpenAIRE

    Punter, T.; Steffens, P.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the deliverables of the Work packages WP2.1 and WP2.2 of the Fraunhofer IESE 2002 internal project ProducEbility-U. It provides the definition of a quality profile for eCommerce applications and an overview of assessment criteria. This chapter provides a characterisation of eCommerce applications, compare the assessment of eCommerce applications with other FhG/IESE-assessments, and motivates the development of quality profile for eCommerce assessment. An eCommerce appli...

  16. A COMPARISON BETWEEN ZERO-OFFSET AND VERTICAL RADAR PROFILING GPR TECHNIQUES WITH EMPHASIS ON PROBLEMATIC BOREHOLE EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Vignoli, Giulio; Cassiani, Giorgio

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are increasingly used to study the unsaturated zone. In particular, cross-hole methods can are able to infer more detailed information about the subsoil than surface measurements. Two borehole Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques are discussed in our...

  17. Momentum limiting velocity controls for robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.; Bryan, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Robotic tasks in space require manipulating massive objects capable of attaining large momentum. The momentum can pose hazardous conditions and introduce destabilizing effects on a space platform. Consequently, a technique for limiting the momentum applied to objects under manipulation subject to arbitrary velocity input commands is proposed. The algorithm does not require mass position or inertia information about the object, and it takes actuator limitations into account in forming the momentum limits. To evaluate the probability that a velocity trajectory will fall within the momentum bounds, reliability theory is employed. This enables autonomously generated trajectories to be validated for compliance with momentum limits.

  18. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Webber

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

  19. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Novel Application to Dermatological Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Shannon M; Winkelmann, Richard R.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include h...

  20. Using the Barrel Technique with the LVIS Jr (Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support) Stent to Treat a Wide Neck MCA Bifurcation Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darflinger, Robert J; Chao, Kuo

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of wide-neck bifurcation cerebral aneurysms is challenging especially if at least one of the arteries arise from an obtuse angle. These wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms are difficult to treat with the usual balloon and stent assisted coiling, including Y stenting or double-barrel stent techniques [1, 2]. Other available options include using current devices with the waffle cone or double waffle cone techniques [3, 4]. Novel devices that are in development include intrasaccular devices and the barrel bifurcation vascular reconstruction device (Covidien) [5, 6, 7]. We report the use of a novel barrel technique using the LVIS (low-profile visualized intraluminal support) Jr stent for the treatment of a wide-neck bifurcation aneurysm.

  1. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  2. Manipulating gene expression in projection-specific neuronal populations using combinatorial viral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Bryan B; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian brain contains tremendous structural and genetic complexity that is vital for its function. The elucidation of gene expression profiles in the brain, coupled with the development of large-scale connectivity maps and emerging viral vector-based approaches for target-selective gene manipulation, now allow for detailed dissection of gene-circuit interfaces. This protocol details how to perform combinatorial viral injections to manipulate gene expression in subsets of neurons interconnecting two brain regions. This method utilizes stereotaxic injection of a retrograde transducing CAV2-Cre virus into one brain region, combined with injection of a locally transducing Cre-dependent AAV virus into another brain region. This technique is widely applicable to the genetic dissection of neural circuitry, as it enables selective expression of candidate genes, dominant-negatives, fluorescent reporters, or genetic tools within heterogeneous populations of neurons based upon their projection targets.

  3. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  4. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  5. Possibilities of LA-ICP-MS technique for the spatial elemental analysis of the recent fish scales: Line scan vs. depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kalvoda, Jiri, E-mail: jkalvoda@centrum.cz [Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University of Brno, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novakova, Hana [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Skoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University of Brno, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS in combination with electron microprobe are presented as a method for the determination of the elemental spatial distribution in fish scales which represent an example of a heterogeneous layered bone structure. Two different LA-ICP-MS techniques were tested on recent common carp (Cyprinus carpio) scales: (a)A line scan through the whole fish scale perpendicular to the growth rings. The ablation crater of 55 {mu}m width and 50 {mu}m depth allowed analysis of the elemental distribution in the external layer. Suitable ablation conditions providing a deeper ablation crater gave average values from the external HAP layer and the collagen basal plate. (b)Depth profiling using spot analysis was tested in fish scales for the first time. Spot analysis allows information to be obtained about the depth profile of the elements at the selected position on the sample. The combination of all mentioned laser ablation techniques provides complete information about the elemental distribution in the fish scale samples. The results were compared with the solution based ICP-MS and EMP analyses. The fact that the results of depth profiling are in a good agreement both with EMP and PIXE results and, with the assumed ways of incorporation of the studied elements in the HAP structure, suggests a very good potential for this method.

  6. Possibilities of LA-ICP-MS technique for the spatial elemental analysis of the recent fish scales: Line scan vs. depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holá, Markéta; Kalvoda, Jiří; Nováková, Hana; Škoda, Radek; Kanický, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS in combination with electron microprobe are presented as a method for the determination of the elemental spatial distribution in fish scales which represent an example of a heterogeneous layered bone structure. Two different LA-ICP-MS techniques were tested on recent common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) scales: A line scan through the whole fish scale perpendicular to the growth rings. The ablation crater of 55 μm width and 50 μm depth allowed analysis of the elemental distribution in the external layer. Suitable ablation conditions providing a deeper ablation crater gave average values from the external HAP layer and the collagen basal plate. Depth profiling using spot analysis was tested in fish scales for the first time. Spot analysis allows information to be obtained about the depth profile of the elements at the selected position on the sample. The combination of all mentioned laser ablation techniques provides complete information about the elemental distribution in the fish scale samples. The results were compared with the solution based ICP-MS and EMP analyses. The fact that the results of depth profiling are in a good agreement both with EMP and PIXE results and, with the assumed ways of incorporation of the studied elements in the HAP structure, suggests a very good potential for this method.

  7. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program...... properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises...... four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...

  8. OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY PLANNING OF MANIPULATORS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATEF A. ATA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal motion planning is very important to the operation of robot manipulators. Its main target is the generation of a trajectory from start to goal that satisfies objectives, such as minimizing path traveling distance or time interval, lowest energy consumption or obstacle avoidance and satisfying the robot’s kinematics and dynamics. Review, discussion and analysis of optimization techniques to find the optimal trajectory either in Cartesian space or joint space are presented and investigated. Optimal trajectory selection approaches such as kinematics and dynamics techniques with various constraints are presented and explained. Although the kinematics approach is simple and straight forward, it will experience some problems in implementation because of lack of Inertia and torque constraints. The application of Genetic Algorithms to find the optimal trajectory of manipulators especially in the obstacle avoidance is also highlighted. Combining the Genetic Algorithms with other classical optimization methods proves to have better performance as a hybrid optimization technique.

  9. Error Modeling and Design Optimization of Parallel Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei

    theory and virtual spring approach, a general kinetostatic model of the spherical parallel manipulators is developed and validated with Finite Element approach. This model is applied to the stiness analysis of a special spherical parallel manipulator with unlimited rolling motion and the obtained stiness......Parallel mechanism based robotic manipulators feature higher performance in terms of accuracy, rigidity, speed and payload over the serial manipulators and they have found the industrial applications in many elds. Nevertheless, the design and application of parallel manipulators face many...... technique in the design procedure is a suitable approach to handle these complex tasks. As there is no unied design guideline for the parallel manipulators, the study described in this thesis aims to provide a systematic analysis for this type of mechanisms in the early design stage, focusing on accuracy...

  10. Insider dealing and market manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Crha, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    The issue of capital market protection, especially from manipulation with financial instruments' prices and abuse of inside information, forms the content of this diploma thesis. After the legal introduction of market manipulation in EU directives and regulations, which gives manipulation relevant context, there follows the analysis of particular forms of manipulation, which can be used to influence prices of investment instruments. Then, analysis of impact of investment recommendation to sel...

  11. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  12. Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; Rogers, Carolyn M; Combs, Sarah; Potts, David; Sorrels, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Randomized, controlled study. Chiropractic college. Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was quantified at the beginning, middle, and end of a trimester with a manipulation table imbedded with an AMTI force plate. Loads acting passing through the L5/S1 functional spinal unit were estimated by inverse dynamics. Participating students rehearsed the mamillary push, diversified procedure following either the standard curriculum alone or a modified curriculum adding a training aid as assigned on a randomized basis. Student's t and chi(2) tests were used to explore and describe biomechanical parameter changes over time as the semester progressed. Significant changes in performance between the standard curriculum and modified curriculum were observed in several biomechanical parameters. The reported project used a rehearsal program defined empirically and was self-administered in practice by the student. Results demonstrated significant changes in performance of spinal manipulation by students using the training aid instrument versus those who did not. With quantitative training aids and biomechanical measurement systems, future training programs may be optimized and tested.

  13. Vision, touch and object manipulation in Senegal parrots Poicephalus senegalus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoe P. Demery; Jackie Chappell; Graham R. Martin

    2011-01-01

    ... tip organ during object manipulation. We measured the visual fields of Senegal parrots Poicephalus senegalus using the ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and also report some preliminary observations on the bill tip organ in this species...

  14. Redundancy analysis of cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Freddi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the redundancy analysis of two cooperative manipulators, showing how they can be considered as a single redundant manipulator through the use of the relative Jacobian matrix. In this way, the kinematic redundancy can be resolved by applying the principal local optimization techniques used in the single manipulator case. We resolve the redundancy by using the Jacobian null space technique, which permits us to perform several tasks with different execution priority levels at the same time; this is a useful feature, especially when the manipulators are to be mounted on and cooperate with a mobile platform. As an illustrative example, we present a case study consisting of two planar manipulators mounted on a smart wheelchair, whose degrees of redundancy are employed to move an object along a pre-defined path, while avoiding an obstacle in the manipulator’s workspace at the same time.

  15. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: novel application to dermatological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Winkelmann, Richard R; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-10-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value.

  16. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Devadas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  17. How Well do State-of-the-Art Techniques Measuring the Vertical Profile of Tropospheric Aerosol Extinction Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R.; Flynn, C.; Elleman, R.; Covert, D.; Strawa, A.; Welton, E.; Turner, D.; Jonsson, H.; Redemann, J.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The recent Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (AIOP, May 2003) yielded one of the best measurement sets obtained to date to assess our ability to measure the vertical profile of ambient aerosol extinction sigma(ep)(lambda) in the lower troposphere. During one month, a heavily instrumented aircraft with well-characterized aerosol sampling ability carrying well-proven and new aerosol instrumentation devoted most of the 60 available flight hours to flying vertical profiles over the heavily instrumented ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF). This allowed us to compare vertical extinction profiles obtained from six different instruments: airborne Sun photometer (AATS-14), airborne nephelometer/absorption photometer, airborne cavity ring-down system, groundbased Raman lidar, and two ground-based elastic backscatter lidars. We find the in situ measured sigma(ep)(lambda) to be lower than the AATS-14 derived values. Bias differences are 0.002-0.004 Km!1 equivalent to 13-17% in the visible, or 45% in the near-infrared. On the other hand, we find that with respect to AATS-14, the lidar sigma(ep)(lambda) are higher: Bias differences are 0.004 Km(-1) (13%) and 0.007 Km(-1) (24%) for the two elastic backscatter lidars (MPLNET and MPLARM, lambda = 523 nm) and 0.029 Km(-1) (54%) for the Raman lidar (lambda = 355 nm). An unnoticed loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar had occurred leading up to AIOP, and we expect better agreement from the recently restored system. Looking at the collective results from six field campaigns conducted since 1996, airborne in situ measurements of sigma(ep)(lambda) tend to be biased slightly low (17% at visible wavelengths) when compared to airborne Sun photometer sigma(ep)(lambda). On the other hand, sigma(ep)(lambda) values derived from lidars tend to have no or positive biases. From the bias differences we conclude that the typical systematic error associated

  18. GC profiles of volatile constituents from human urine obtained by closed loop stripping, purge and trap technique and simultaneous stem distillation-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, H J; Haberkorn, K; Vostrowsky, O; Ferstl, R; Eggert, F

    1996-01-01

    Different techniques like "closed loop stripping" [CLSA], "purge and trap" [PTI], and continuous steam distillation extraction [SDE] were used to establish GC profiles of major histocompatibility complex-associated volatile constituents of human urine and statistically evaluated for reliability. Of the three methods investigated, PTI appeared to be superior for the detection of very volatile substances, whereas SDE was the most efficient one with respect to yield. A number of short to medium-chain ketones, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-styrene, menthol and nicotine were identified in preliminary analyses.

  19. Cell Signaling Experiments Driven by Optical Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cojoc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling involves complex transduction mechanisms in which information released by nearby cells or extracellular cues are transmitted to the cell, regulating fundamental cellular activities. Understanding such mechanisms requires cell stimulation with precise control of low numbers of active molecules at high spatial and temporal resolution under physiological conditions. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optical tweezing, mechanical stress probing or nano-ablation, allow handling of probes and sub-cellular elements with nanometric and millisecond resolution. PicoNewton forces, such as those involved in cell motility or intracellular activity, can be measured with femtoNewton sensitivity while controlling the biochemical environment. Recent technical achievements in optical manipulation have new potentials, such as exploring the actions of individual molecules within living cells. Here, we review the progress in optical manipulation techniques for single-cell experiments, with a focus on force probing, cell mechanical stimulation and the local delivery of active molecules using optically manipulated micro-vectors and laser dissection.

  20. Manipulating structured light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4579 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10/10/2016 1 Manipulating Structured... The City College of New York, New York, USA 5 July 2016 We are tied together by Structured Light Classical Quantum Resonators TweezingFibres Structured Light 10/10/2016 2 Bright Dark Reference beam Hologram Object Light reflected from object Conventional...

  1. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  2. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications.

  3. Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics - opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Williams, Stuart J. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chuang, Han-sheng [University of Pennsylvania; Green, Nicolas [University of Southampton, England; Wereley, Steven G. [Purdue University

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of technologies that employ both optical and electrical forces to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro and nano scale. These technologies, which have emerged primarily over the last decade, have provided a revolutionary and fresh perspective at fundamental electrokinetic processes, as well as have engendered a novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimeter-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.

  4. Understanding of CO{sub 2} interaction with thermally grown SiO{sub 2} on Si using IBA depth profiling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokar, Geetanjali; D’Angelo, Marie; Briand, Emrick [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Deville Cavellin, Catherine, E-mail: deville@univ-paris12.fr [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Faculté des Sciences et Technologie UPEC, 61 Av., De Gaulle, Créteil F-94010 (France)

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between CO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} films thermally grown on Si have been studied using {sup 18}O and {sup 13}C as isotopic tracers associated with ion beam analysis (IBA) depth profiling techniques. From secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements no carbon from CO{sub 2} is detected in the silica while it is found in Si. These results suggest that CO{sub 2} diffuses through the silica. Exchanges of oxygen between CO{sub 2} and silica can be observed from {sup 18}O to {sup 16}O SIMS signals variation. The oxygen concentration depth profiles were determined quantitatively using the narrow resonance near 151 keV in the {sup 18}O(p,α){sup 15}N nuclear reaction (Narrow Resonance Profiling, NRP). We demonstrate that two distinct oxygen exchanges processes co-exist and we determine the diffusion coefficient of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the silica at 1100 °C.

  5. Observations of particle extinction, PM2.5 mass concentration profile and flux in north China based on mobile lidar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lihui; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianshu; Chen, Zhenyi; Dong, Yunsheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Xiang, Yan; Yao, Yawei; Yang, Nan; Chu, Baolin; Teng, Man; Shu, Xiaowen

    2017-09-01

    Fine particle with diameter pollution levels in Beijing were presented to evaluate the contribution of regional transport. A vehicle-based mobile lidar system was used to obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of particle extinction in the measurement route. Fixed point lidar and a particulate matter sampler were operated next to each other at the University of Chinese Academy of Science (UCAS) in Beijing to determine the relationship between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2) between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration was found to be over 0.8 when relative humidity (RH) was less than 90%. A mesoscale meteorological model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, was used to obtain profiles of the horizontal wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity. A vehicle-based mobile lidar technique was applied to estimate transport flux based on the PM2.5 profile and vertical profile of wind data. This method was applicable when hygroscopic growth can be neglected (relatively humidityBeijing during the experiments.

  6. Solar photocatalysis as disinfection technique: Inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae in sewage and investigation of changes in antibiotic resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Gounaki, Iosifina; Bikouvaraki, Maria; Binas, Vassilios; Zachopoulos, Apostolos; Kiriakidis, George; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-06-15

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater and their resistant nature to antibiotics impose effective disinfection treatment for public health and environmental protection. In this work, photocatalysis with metal-doped titania under artificial and natural sunlight, chlorination and UV-C irradiation were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Klebsiella pneumoniae in real wastewater. Their overall effect on antibiotic resistance profile and target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated. In particular, Mn-, Co- and binary Mn/Co-TiO 2 were tested resulting in bacterial decrease from 4 to 6 Logs upon 90 min of exposure to simulated solar irradiation. The response of catalysts under natural solar light was insufficient, as only a 2 Log reduction was recorded even after 60 min of treatment. The relative activity of the applied methods for K. pneumoniae inactivation was decreased in the order: photocatalysis with the binary Co/Mn-TiO 2 under artificial light > chlorination with dose of 5 mg/L of free chlorine > UV-C irradiation, at an initial bacterial concentration of 10 7  CFU/mL. The applied methods showed various effects on antibiotic resistance profile in residual cells. Among the tested antibiotics (ampicillin, cefaclor, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline), considerable changes in MIC values were recorded for cefaclor and tetracycline. Resistance of surviving cells after treatment remained in high levels, reflecting the abundance of the corresponding target ARGs, namely tetA, tetM, sul1, blaTEM and ampC. The notable presence of target ARGs post disinfection raises concerns and makes wastewater effluent a carrier of antibiotic resistance elements into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent advances and future prospects of phyto-phospholipid complexation technique for improving pharmacokinetic profile of plant actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-05-28

    The phyto-phospholipid complexation technique has emerged as one of the leading methods of improving bioavailability of phytopharmaceuticals having poor competency of solubilizing and crossing the biological membranes. Several plant actives in spite having potent in vitro pharmacological activities have failed to demonstrate similar in vivo response. Such plant actives have been made more effective systemically by incorporating them with dietary phospholipids forming new cellular structures which are amphipathic in nature. In the last few years phospholipids have been extensively explored for improved bioavailability and efficacy of plant drugs. Further, it is also much relevant to mention that phospholipids show unique compatibility with biological membranes and have inherent hepatoprotective activity. Different methods have been adopted to formulate phospholipid complexes of plant extractives utilizing varying solvent systems, molar ratios of drug/phospholipids and different drying techniques. Some methods of formulating such drug-phospholipid complexes have been patented as well. However, the stability of phyto-phospholipid complexes is still a matter of concern which needs attention. But still a number of products exploiting this technique are under clinical trials and some of them are now in market. The current review highlights key findings of recent years with our own viewpoints which can give the new directions to this strategy and also includes advancements in the technical aspects of phyto-phospholipid formulations which have been done in the recent past with future challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone manipulation procedures in dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Yuvika; Jindal, Govind; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants for the rehabilitation of missing teeth has broadened the treatment options for patients and clinicians equally. As a result of advances in research in implant design, materials, and techniques, the use of dental implants has increased dramatically in the past two decades and is expected to expand further in the future. Success of dental implants depends largely on the quality and quantity of the available bone in the recipient site. This however may be compromised or unavailable due to tumor, trauma, periodontal disease, etc., which in turn necessitates the need for additional bone manipulation. This review outlines the various bone manipulation techniques that are used to achieve a predictable long-term success of dental implants.

  9. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  10. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  11. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  12. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  13. Gel performance in rheology and profile control under low-frequency vibration: coupling application of physical and chemical EOR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Ming; Pu, Chun Sheng; Liu, Jing; Ma, Bo; Khan, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Flowing gel plugging and low-frequency vibration oil extraction technology have been widely applied in low-permeability formation. High probability of overlapping in action spheres of two technologies might lead to poor operating efficiency during gel injection. Study on flowing gel rheological properties under low-frequency vibration was essential, which was carried out indoor with viscosity measurement. Potential dynamic mechanisms were analyzed for the rheological variation. Under low-frequency vibration, gel rheological properties were found to be obviously influenced, with vibration delaying gel cross-linking in induction period, causing a two-stage gel viscosity change in acceleration period, and decreasing gel strength in stable period. Surface of gel system under vibration presented different fluctuating phenomenon from initial harmonic vibrating to heterogeneous fluctuating (droplet separation might appear) to final harmonic vibrating again. Dynamic displacement in unconsolidated sand pack revealed that low-frequency vibration during gel injection might be a measure to achieve deep profile control, with the gel injection depth increased by 65.8 % compared with the vibration-free sample. At last, suggestions for field test were given in the paper to achieve lower injection friction and better gel plugging efficiency.

  14. Profiling and Distribution of Metabolites of Procyanidin B2 in Mice by UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite profiles and distributions of procyanidin B2 were qualitatively described using UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn without help of reference standards, and a possible metabolic pathway was proposed in the present study. Summarily, 53 metabolites (24 new metabolites were detected as metabolites of procyanidin B2, and 45 of them were tentatively identified. Twenty seven metabolites were assigned as similar metabolites of (−-epicatechin by scission of the flavanol interflavanic bond C4–C8, including 16 aromatic metabolites, 5 conjugated metabolites, 3 ring-cleavage metabolites, and 2 phenylvalerolactone metabolites. Additionally, 14 metabolites were conjugates of free procyanidin B2, comprising 9 methylation metabolites, 8 sulfation metabolites, 5 hydration metabolites, 2 hydroxylation metabolites, 1 hydrogenation metabolites, and 1 glucuronidation metabolites. The results of metabolite distributions in organs indicated that the conjugated reaction of free procyanidin B2 mainly occurred in liver and diversified metabolites forms were observed in small intestine. The metabolic components of procyanidin B2 identified in mice provided useful information for further study of the bioactivity and mechanism of its action.

  15. A history of manipulative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice.

  16. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  17. Embryo manipulation and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M A

    1991-09-01

    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might

  18. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Brugmann University Hospital]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  19. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  20. Profiling of Compositions of Essential Oils and Volatiles of Salvia limbata Using Traditional and Advanced Techniques and Evaluation for Biological Activities of Their Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Flamini, Guido

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, the essential oils and volatiles from flowers, leaves, and stems of Salvia limbata obtained using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, solvent-free microwave extraction, headspace-assisted analysis, and headspace-solid phase microextraction have been characterized for the first time. The results have been also compared with those from traditional separation techniques involving hydrodistillation and steam distillation. Regardless of some common compounds in all of the profiles, some dissimilarities were noted due to the use of different extracting approaches. Taking into account the chemical categories, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found as the most represented group of natural compounds contributing to the chemical profiles. It was also noted that the methanol extracts obtained from the flowers of Sal. limbata showed a desirable antioxidant activity, comparable to the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Furthermore, using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, all the tested bacteria demonstrated weak to moderate and moderate to strong sensibilities to the MeOH extracts obtained from different plant parts of Sal. limbata. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Typology of delivery quality: latent profile analysis of teacher engagement and delivery techniques in a school-based prevention intervention, keepin’ it REAL curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungJu; Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the delivery quality of school-based, evidence-based prevention programs is one key to ensuring uniform program effects on student outcomes. Program evaluations often focus on content dosage when implementing prevention curricula, however, less is known about implementation quality of prevention content, especially among teachers who may or may not have a prevention background. The goal of the current study is to add to the scholarly literature on implementation quality for a school-based substance use prevention intervention. Twenty-five schools in Ohio and Pennsylvania implemented the original keepin’ REAL (kiR) substance use prevention curriculum. Each of the 10, 40–45 min lessons of the kiR curriculum was video recorded. Coders observed and rated a random sample of 276 videos reflecting 78 classes taught by 31 teachers. Codes included teachers’ delivery techniques (e.g. lecture, discussion, demonstration and role play) and engagement with students (e.g. attentiveness, enthusiasm and positivity). Based on the video ratings, a latent profile analysis was run to identify typology of delivery quality. Five profiles were identified: holistic approach, attentive teacher-orientated approach, enthusiastic lecture approach, engaged interactive learning approach and skill practice-only approach. This study provides a descriptive typology of delivery quality while implementing a school-based substance use prevention intervention. PMID:25274721

  2. Typology of delivery quality: latent profile analysis of teacher engagement and delivery techniques in a school-based prevention intervention, keepin' it REAL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungJu; Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L

    2014-12-01

    Enhancing the delivery quality of school-based, evidence-based prevention programs is one key to ensuring uniform program effects on student outcomes. Program evaluations often focus on content dosage when implementing prevention curricula, however, less is known about implementation quality of prevention content, especially among teachers who may or may not have a prevention background. The goal of the current study is to add to the scholarly literature on implementation quality for a school-based substance use prevention intervention. Twenty-five schools in Ohio and Pennsylvania implemented the original keepin' REAL (kiR) substance use prevention curriculum. Each of the 10, 40-45 min lessons of the kiR curriculum was video recorded. Coders observed and rated a random sample of 276 videos reflecting 78 classes taught by 31 teachers. Codes included teachers' delivery techniques (e.g., lecture, discussion, demonstration and role play) and engagement with students (e.g. attentiveness, enthusiasm and positivity). Based on the video ratings, a latent profile analysis was run to identify typology of delivery quality. Five profiles were identified: holistic approach, attentive teacher-orientated approach, enthusiastic lecture approach, engaged interactive learning approach and skill practice-only approach. This study provides a descriptive typology of delivery quality while implementing a school-based substance use prevention intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Is 3D technique superior to 2D in Down syndrome screening? Evaluation of six second and third trimester fetal profile markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, F I; Bakker, M; de Jong-Pleij, E A P; Ribbert, L S M; Tromp, E; Bilardo, C M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate whether in the clinical setting of second trimester ultrasound (US) investigations, 3D multiplanar correction prior to the measurement of Down syndrome (DS) facial markers (nasal bone length, prenasal thickness, fetal profile line, maxilla-nasion-mandible angle, prenasal thickness to nasal bone length ratio, and prefrontal space ratio) is superior to subjective judgment of a correct midsagittal plane by 2D technique. Measurements were performed on 2D images and 3D volumes (corrected to the midsagittal plane), acquired during the same scanning session. All six markers were measured in 105 datasets (75 of euploid fetuses and 30 of DS fetuses). The maxilla-nasion-mandible angle measured on 2D images was significantly larger than on 3D volumes (p < 0.01). In all other markers, there was no significant difference between measurements performed on 2D images or 3D volumes. No statistical difference was found for any marker between measurements performed on images acquired by either 2D or 3D US in their ability to discriminate between normal and DS fetuses. Nasal bone length, prenasal thickness, fetal profile line, prenasal thickness to nasal bone length ratio, and prefrontal space ratio can be confidently used as DS markers in second trimester US examinations performed by 2D US. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Operation training and 24-type simplex manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    Operation training is the basic training of acupuncture, which includes practicing finger force and finger feeling. During practicing, it is essential to comprehend that needle is the carrier of force, and the force should be exerted through the needle, meaning the finger force should be put into the needle. There are four basic skills, including practicing qi, practicing finger, practicing spirit and practicing technique. Besides, there are three combinations, which are combination of spirit and finger, combination of force and qi and combination of qi and spirit. It is required to seek movement from peace and achieve fast from stable, also it needs to be swift through being steady, be dynamic through being static and be ingenious through being subtle. The techniques in the 24-type simplex manipulation are recorded in the ancient literature, and some arrangement and supplement is added and then summarized to classify this manipulation into six groups, including (1) search and pinch acupoint, activate meridian by finger and by nail; (2) swing, hover, twist and rub the needle; (3) insert, withdraw, lift and thrust the needle; (4) scrape, flip, fly and rub needle handle; (5) pull, push, vibrate and bend the needle; (6) press meridian and acupoint, seek meridian qi and stir the needle. It could provide positive effect on distinguishing and comprehending the manipulation.

  5. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  6. Cerebrovascular complications of neck manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The safety of spinal manipulation is an issue that demands regular and rigorous assessment, as manipulation of the upper spine has been associated with serious adverse events such as cerebrovascular accidents due to cervical artery dissection. A correlation between stroke and cervical manipulation has been reported with increasing frequency, and each new report seems to reignite debate between neurologists and manual therapists. Specific risk factors for cerebrovascular complications related to spinal manipulation have not been identified yet; for this reason, any patient may be at risk, particularly those below 45 years of age. Patients undergoing spinal manipulative therapy need to consent to the possible risk of stroke or vascular injury from the procedure. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. An inverse kinematic solution for kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S.-Y.; Bach, M.; Orin, D.

    The computation of the sequence of joint motion on the basis of the Cartesian motion of an interested member is addressed by an inverse kinematic analysis that is based on a Newton-Raphson numerical procedure. This procedure may be applied to the solution of the inverse kinematic problem for a manipulator of any mechanical configuration without having to derive a closed form solution beforehand. The technique is applicable to redundant manipulators, since additional constraints on other members, as well as on the end effector, may be imposed. The approach is presently applied to a seven-degree-of-freedom manipulator, and its obstacle-avoidance capability is demonstrated.

  8. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne Gm; Thoomes, Erik; Konings, Sophie; Beijer, Michelle; Verkerk, Karin; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2013-10-02

    Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Central) along with a hand search of selected bibliographies were searched from inception up to April 2012. In total 965 references were screened for eligibility and 19 RCTs (n = 1080) met the selection criteria. Eight studies were considered of low risk of bias. There is moderate level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD] - 0.68, 95% confidence interval (-1.06 to -0.31). There is low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief (SMD - 0.37, -0.69 to -0.04) at short- term follow-up. In patients with musculoskeletal disorders, we found moderate level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.73, -1.21 to -0.25) immediate after treatment and low level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.52, -0.87 to -0.17) at short term-follow-up. We found very low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has no statistically significant effect on disability and perceived (asthma) recovery. Sensitivity analyses did not change the main findings. No serious adverse events were reported in the manipulative therapy or sham group. Manipulative therapy has a clinical relevant effect on pain, but not on disability or perceived (asthma) recovery. Clinicians can refer patients for manipulative therapy to reduce pain.

  9. Treating patellar tendinopathy with Fascial Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Alessandro; Stecco, Carla; Day, Julie Ann

    2009-01-01

    According to Fascial Manipulation theory, patellar tendon pain is often due to uncoordinated quadriceps contraction caused by anomalous fascial tension in the thigh. Therefore, the focus of treatment is not the patellar tendon itself, but involves localizing the cause of this incoordination, considered to be within the muscular fascia of the thigh region. Eighteen patients suffering from patellar tendon pain were treated with the Fascial Manipulation technique. Pain was assessed (in VAS) before (VAS 67.8/100) and after (VAS 26.5/100) treatment, plus a follow-up evaluation at 1 month (VAS 17.2/100). Results showed a substantial decrease in pain immediately after treatment (p<0.0001) and remained unchanged or improved in the short term. The results show that the patellar tendon may be only the zone of perceived pain and that interesting results can be obtained by treating the muscular fascia of the quadriceps muscle, whose alteration may cause motor incoordination and subsequent pathology.

  10. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Metaoptics for Spectral and Spatial Beam Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi

    Laser beam combining and beam shaping are two important areas with applications in optical communications, high power lasers, and atmospheric propagation studies. In this dissertation, metaoptical elements have been developed for spectral and spatial beam shaping, and multiplexing. Beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), referred to as optical vortices, have unique propagation properties. Optical vortex beams carrying different topological charges are orthogonal to each other and have low inter-modal crosstalk which allows for them to be (de)multiplexed. Efficient spatial (de)multiplexing of these beams have been carried out by using diffractive optical geometrical coordinate transformation elements. The spatial beam combining technique shown here is advantageous because the efficiency of the system is not dependent on the number of OAM states being combined. The system is capable of generating coaxially propagating beams in the far-field and the beams generated can either be incoherently or coherently multiplexed with applications in power scaling and dynamic intensity profile manipulations. Spectral beam combining can also be achieved with the coordinate transformation elements. The different wavelengths emitted by fiber sources can be spatially overlapped in the far-field plane and the generated beams are Bessel-Gauss in nature with enhanced depth of focus properties. Unique system responses and beam shapes in the far-field can be realized by controlling amplitude, phase, and polarization at the micro-scale. This has been achieved by spatially varying the structural parameters at the subwavelength scale and is analogous to local modification of material properties. With advancements in fabrication technology, it is possible to control not just the lithographic process, but also the deposition process. In this work, a unique combination of spatial structure variations in conjunction with the conformal coating properties of an atomic layer deposition tool

  12. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  13. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  14. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Marchese, Andrew D; Rus, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities.

  15. Droplet Manipulations in Two Phase Flow Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen M. Pit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though droplet microfluidics has been developed since the early 1980s, the number of applications that have resulted in commercial products is still relatively small. This is partly due to an ongoing maturation and integration of existing methods, but possibly also because of the emergence of new techniques, whose potential has not been fully realized. This review summarizes the currently existing techniques for manipulating droplets in two-phase flow microfluidics. Specifically, very recent developments like the use of acoustic waves, magnetic fields, surface energy wells, and electrostatic traps and rails are discussed. The physical principles are explained, and (potential advantages and drawbacks of different methods in the sense of versatility, flexibility, tunability and durability are discussed, where possible, per technique and per droplet operation: generation, transport, sorting, coalescence and splitting.

  16. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  17. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  18. Manipulating the Media for Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heckman, Scot

    2000-01-01

    .... There are historical examples where the military has manipulated the media for this purpose. Current joint military doctrine does not prohibit manipulation of the media to deceive the enemy but does prohibit propaganda and manipulation of public opinion...

  19. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  20. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  1. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald; Awschalom, David D

    2008-06-19

    During the past few years, researchers have gained unprecedented control over spins in the solid state. What was considered almost impossible a decade ago, in both conceptual and practical terms, is now a reality: single spins can be isolated, initialized, coherently manipulated and read out using both electrical and optical techniques. Progress has been made towards full control of the quantum states of single and coupled spins in a variety of semiconductors and nanostructures, and towards understanding the mechanisms through which spins lose coherence in these systems. These abilities will allow pioneering investigations of fundamental quantum-mechanical processes and provide pathways towards applications in quantum information processing.

  2. Optimizing Motion Planning for Hyper Dynamic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Souhila; Omari, Abdelhafid; Meguenni, Kadda Zemalache

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal motion planning for an hyper dynamic manipulator. As case study, we consider a golf swing robot which is consisting with two actuated joint and a mechanical stoppers. Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is proposed to solve the optimal golf swing motion which is generated by Fourier series approximation. The objective function for GA approach is to minimizing the intermediate and final state, minimizing the robot's energy consummation and maximizing the robot's speed. Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  3. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  4. Investigation of the combined effect of MgO and PEG on the release profile of mefenamic acid prepared via hot-melt extrusion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Sultan M; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alsulays, Bader B; Ashour, Eman A; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Almutairy, Bjad; Park, Jun-Bom; Morott, Joseph; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Repka, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of magnesium oxide (MgO) as an alkalizer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticizer and wetting agent in the presence of Kollidon® 12 PF and 17 PF polymer carriers on the release profile of mefenamic acid (MA), which was prepared via hot-melt extrusion technique. Various drug loads of MA and various ratios of the polymers, PEG 3350 and MgO were blended using a V-shell blender and extruded using a twin-screw extruder (16-mm Prism EuroLab, ThermoFisher Scientific, Carlsbad, CA) at different screw speeds and temperatures to prepare a solid dispersion system. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data of the extruded material confirmed that the drug existed in the amorphous form, as evidenced by the absence of corresponding peaks. MgO and PEG altered the micro-environmental pH to be more alkaline (pH 9) and increased the hydrophilicity and dispersibility of the extrudates to enhance MA solubility and release, respectively. The in vitro release study demonstrated an immediate release for 2 h with more than 80% drug release within 45 min in matrices containing MgO and PEG in combination with polyvinylpyrrolidone when compared to the binary mixture, physical mixture and pure drug.

  5. Control algorithm implementation for a redundant degree of freedom manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Steve

    1991-01-01

    This project's purpose is to develop and implement control algorithms for a kinematically redundant robotic manipulator. The manipulator is being developed concurrently by Odetics Inc., under internal research and development funding. This SBIR contract supports algorithm conception, development, and simulation, as well as software implementation and integration with the manipulator hardware. The Odetics Dexterous Manipulator is a lightweight, high strength, modular manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. It has seven fully active degrees of freedom, is electrically powered, and is fully operational in 1 G. The manipulator consists of five self-contained modules. These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly/disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. Each joint incorporates a unique drive train design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. The sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. Although the initial prototype is not space qualified, the design is well-suited to meeting space qualification requirements. The control algorithm design approach is to develop a hierarchical system with well defined access and interfaces at each level. The high level endpoint/configuration control algorithm transforms manipulator endpoint position/orientation commands to joint angle commands, providing task space motion. At the same time, the kinematic redundancy is resolved by controlling the configuration (pose) of the manipulator, using several different optimizing criteria. The center level of the hierarchy servos the joints to their commanded trajectories using both linear feedback and model-based nonlinear control techniques. The lowest control level uses sensed joint torque to close torque servo loops, with the goal of improving the manipulator dynamic behavior

  6. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Central) along with a hand search of selected bibliographies were searched from inception up to April 2012. Two reviewers independently selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated manipulative therapy compared to sham manipulative therapy in adults, assessed risk of bias and extracted data concerning participants, intervention, kind of sham, outcome measures, duration of follow-up, profession, data on efficacy and adverse events. Pooled (standardized) mean differences or risk differences were calculated were possible using a random effects model. The primary outcomes were pain, disability, and perceived recovery. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results In total 965 references were screened for eligibility and 19 RCTs (n = 1080) met the selection criteria. Eight studies were considered of low risk of bias. There is moderate level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD] - 0.68, 95% confidence interval (-1.06 to -0.31). There is low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief (SMD - 0.37, -0.69 to -0.04) at short- term follow-up. In patients with musculoskeletal disorders, we found moderate level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.73, -1.21 to -0.25) immediate after treatment and low level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.52, -0.87 to -0.17) at short term

  7. Manipulation of volumetric solids with applications to sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2002-01-01

    are, of course, of theoretical interest, but not exclusively: A technique for constructive manipulation which maintains the properties of openness and closedness has been developed. A technique for fast volume visualization is an essential part of a sculpting system. Two techniques for interactive...... visualization have been implemented: A novel technique based on point rendering and the well-known Marching Cubes Method. The point rendering technique is compared to marching cubes and to texture based visualization. A ray casting method has also been implemented for the generation of high quality images...

  8. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  9. Diffraction manipulation by four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Itay; Ron, Amiram; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2015-03-09

    We suggest a scheme to manipulate paraxial diffraction by utilizing the dependency of a four-wave mixing process on the relative angle between the light fields. A microscopic model for four-wave mixing in a Λ-type level structure is introduced and compared to recent experimental data. We show that images with feature size as low as 10 μm can propagate with very little or even negative diffraction. The mechanism is completely different from that conserving the shape of spatial solitons in nonlinear media, as here diffraction is suppressed for arbitrary spatial profiles. At the same time, the gain inherent to the nonlinear process prevents loss and allows for operating at high optical depths. Our scheme does not rely on atomic motion and is thus applicable to both gaseous and solid media.

  10. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  11. Virtual Manipulatives in the K-12 Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Bolyard, Johnna J.; Spikell, Mark A.

    Innovations in technology, along with the growing prevalence of the Internet and its increasing availability in classrooms and homes throughout the world, have created a new class of manipulatives, virtual manipulatives. These "virtual manipulatives" offer a new, enhanced approach for teaching and learning mathematics using manipulatives and…

  12. Optimal continuous-path control for manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Egeland

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available A control system for macro-mini manipulators is presented. A position transformation from the end-effector reference to joint coordinates is found using kinematic optimization. Decoupling and optimal control is used to coordinate the motion of the macro and micro part. The redundant manipulator will then have the speed of the micro manipulator and the large workspace of the macro manipulator. When optimal control is used, the redundant manipulator may be even faster than the micro manipulator provided that a suitable performance index is used. The performance of the manipulator is optimized over the whole reference, and this will give better results than the purely kinematic instantaneous optimization which is the dominating technique in research literature.

  13. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  14. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Tuomo TAKALA

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  15. Nonlinear Control of Hydraulic Manipulator for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Lee, Sung-Uk; Kim, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Robot technique is need to decommission nuclear reactor because of high radiation environment. Especially, Manipulator systems are useful for dismantling complex structure in a nuclear facility. In addition, Hydraulic system is applied to handle heavy duty object. Since hydraulic system can demonstrate high power. The manipulator with hydraulic power is already developed. To solve this problem, various nonlinear control method includes acceleration control. But, it is difficult because acceleration value is highly noisy. In this paper, the nonlinear control algorithm without acceleration control is studied. To verify, the hydraulic manipulator model had been developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out. The nonlinear control without acceleration parameter method is developed for hydraulic manipulator. To verify control algorithm, the manipulator is modeled by MBD and the hydraulic servo system is also derived. In addition, the numerical simulation is also carried out. Especially, PID gain is determined though TDC algorithm. In the result of numerical simulation, tracking performance is good without acceleration control. Thus, the PID though TDC with SMC is good for hydraulic manipulator control.

  16. Acoustic Devices for Particle and Cell Manipulation and Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An emerging demand for the precise manipulation of cells and particles for applications in cell biology and analytical chemistry has driven rapid development of ultrasonic manipulation technology. Compared to the other manipulation technologies, such as magnetic tweezing, dielectrophoresis and optical tweezing, ultrasonic manipulation has shown potential in a variety of applications, with its advantages of versatile, inexpensive and easy integration into microfluidic systems, maintenance of cell viability, and generation of sufficient forces to handle particles, cells and their agglomerates. This article briefly reviews current practice and reports our development of various ultrasonic standing wave manipulation devices, including simple devices integrated with high frequency (>20 MHz ultrasonic transducers for the investigation of biological cells and complex ultrasonic transducer array systems to explore the feasibility of electronically controlled 2-D and 3-D manipulation. Piezoelectric and passive materials, fabrication techniques, characterization methods and possible applications are discussed. The behavior and performance of the devices have been investigated and predicted with computer simulations, and verified experimentally. Issues met during development are highlighted and discussed. To assist long term practical adoption, approaches to low-cost, wafer level batch-production and commercialization potential are also addressed.

  17. Detecting Fraudulent Manipulation of Accounting Ratios in Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with the audit committee. It is also recommended that quality assessment report that would add credibility to financial information for users should therefore be included in the statutory auditor's report. Keywords: Computer Assisted Audit Technique, Data Mining, Relative Size Factor, Benford Law, Fraudulent Manipulation.

  18. Controlled Manipulation of Individual Vortices in a Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straver, E.W.J.

    2010-04-05

    We report controlled local manipulation of single vortices by low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) in a thin film of superconducting Nb. We are able to position the vortices in arbitrary configurations and to measure the distribution of local depinning forces. This technique opens up new possibilities for the characterization and use of vortices in superconductors.

  19. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ...

  20. Imaging and manipulation of single viruses by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Roos, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    The recent developments in virus research and the application of functional viral particles in nanotechnology and medicine rely on sophisticated imaging and manipulation techniques at nanometre resolution in liquid, air and vacuum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a tool that combines these

  1. Dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, S L

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation is a detailed study of dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using secondary electrons. The technique has been applied to a wide variety of doped silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride semiconductor test structures as well as a metal-oxide field effect transistor and several light emitting diodes. A concise set of guide-lines are provided for users of this technique, including the optimum SEM operating conditions that should be used for maximum contrast, an image manipulation procedure, and the resolution and sensitivity limits that can be expected. Dopant contrast observed with the SEM has been studied over the past few years by a number of researchers, and a theory for the contrast has evolved. This theory considers the patch fields outside the specimen to be the dominant factor determining the secondary electron intensity. In this dissertation the contrast mechanism has been further investigated by examining the contrast at different temperatures and after su...

  2. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...

  3. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  4. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  5. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Cognition, action, and object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A; Chapman, Kate M; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-09-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, little attention has been paid to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain in which links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including 1-hand grasps, 2-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in which the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. The tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' law, naturalistic observation, and the teaching of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  8. How to manipulate the microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth;

  9. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  10. Spinal manipulation and spinal mobilization influence different axial sensory beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Philip S; Budgell, Brian S

    2006-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilization are two forms of manual therapy commonly employed in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Spinal manipulation and mobilization are often distinguished from one another by reference to certain biomechanical parameters such as peak force, duration and magnitude of translation. However, as of yet, there is relatively little research which distinguishes between them in terms of neurological mechanisms or clinical effectiveness. Theories concerning the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of manipulation and mobilization commonly make reference to mechanical events such as the release of entrapped tissue or the disruption of intra-articular adhesions. Relatively less attention is given to neural effects. In this paper, we hypothesize that, at least in part, spinal manipulation preferentially influences a sensory bed which, in terms of anatomical location and function, is different from the sensory bed influenced by spinal mobilization techniques. More specifically, we hypothesize that manipulation may particularly stimulate receptors within deep intervertebral muscles, while mobilization techniques most likely affect more superficial axial muscles. In part, our rationale for this hypothesis is based on differences in mechanical advantage of the respective manual procedures on multi-segmental versus short intervertebral muscles.

  11. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  12. Overview of Phase Space Manipulations of Relativistic Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Phase space manipulation is a process to rearrange beam's distribution in 6-D phase space. In this paper, we give an overview of the techniques for tailoring beam distribution in 2D, 4D, and 6D phase space to meet the requirements of various applications. These techniques become a new focus of accelerator physics R&D and very likely these advanced concepts will open up new opportunities in advanced accelerators and the science enabled by them.

  13. Single-molecule manipulation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deyu; Liu, Siyun; Gao, Ying

    2018-01-25

    Compared to conventional ensemble methods, studying macromolecules at single-molecule level can reveal extraordinary clear and even surprising views for a biological reaction. In the past 20 years, single-molecule techniques have been undergoing a very rapid development, and these cutting edge technologies have revolutionized the biological research by facilitating single-molecule manipulation and detection. Here we give a brief review about these advanced techniques, including optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy (AFM), hydrodynamic flow-stretching assay, and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET). We are trying to describe their basic principles and provide a few examples of applications for each technique. This review aims to give a rather introductory survey of single-molecule techniques for audiences with biological or biophysical background. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Manipulating Cellular Activities Using an Ultrasound-Chemical Hybrid Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Yao-Shen; Huang, Wei-En; Lee, Albert Alexander; Ho, Sheng-Yang; Kao, Yu-Lin; Wang, Cuei-Ling; Lian, Yen-Ling; Ueno, Tasuku; Andrew Wang, Tsung-Shing; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Chun

    2017-11-17

    We developed an ultrasound-chemical hybrid tool to precisely manipulate cellular activities. A focused ultrasound coupled with gas-filled microbubbles was used to rapidly trigger the influx of membrane-impermeable chemical dimerizers into living cells to regulate protein dimerization and location without inducing noticeable toxicity. With this system, we demonstrated the successful modulation of phospholipid metabolism triggered by a short pulse of ultrasound exposure. Our technique offers a powerful and versatile tool for using ultrasound to spatiotemporally manipulate the cellular physiology in living cells.

  15. Intelligent manipulation technique for multi-branch robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander Y. K.; Chen, Eugene Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    New analytical development in kinematics planning is reported. The INtelligent KInematics Planner (INKIP) consists of the kinematics spline theory and the adaptive logic annealing process. Also, a novel framework of robot learning mechanism is introduced. The FUzzy LOgic Self Organized Neural Networks (FULOSONN) integrates fuzzy logic in commands, control, searching, and reasoning, the embedded expert system for nominal robotics knowledge implementation, and the self organized neural networks for the dynamic knowledge evolutionary process. Progress on the mechanical construction of SRA Advanced Robotic System (SRAARS) and the real time robot vision system is also reported. A decision was made to incorporate the Local Area Network (LAN) technology in the overall communication system.

  16. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  17. Virtual manipulatives for learning algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Janja

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my diploma thesis I define what teaching aids are and classify them. Then I present two research articles about the efficiency of virtual manipulatives in learning mathematics. This is followed by a presentation of Bruner's classification of representations, which is very helpful in teaching new concepts. I also explain various methods of solving linear equations in accordance with the most recent curriculum for mathematics in elementary schools. In the empirical...

  18. Robust Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators Using Only Joint Position Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the tracking control of a robot manipulator with unknown uncertainties and disturbances. It presents a new control method that uses only joint position measurements to design a tracking controller. The controller has two parts. One is based on a feedback linearization technique; it makes the nominal model of a manipulator asymptotically track a desired trajectory. The other is based on the idea of equivalent input disturbance (EID; it compensates for uncertainties and disturbances. Together they enable a robot manipulator to precisely track the desired trajectory. The new control algorithm is applied to a two-link robot manipulator, and simulation results demonstrate the validity of this method.

  19. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  20. Engineered cell manipulation for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Misturu; Matsusaki, Michiya

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first to summarize new technologies for engineered cell manipulation. The contents focus on control of cellular functions by nanomaterials and control of three-dimensional cell-cell interactions. Control of cellular functions is important for cell differentiation, maturation, and activation, which generally are controlled by the addition of soluble cytokines or growth factors into cell culture dishes. Target antigen molecules can be efficiently delivered to the cytosol of the dendritic cells using the nanoparticle technique described here, and cellular functions such as dendritic cell maturation can be controlled easily and with precision. This book describes basic preparation of the nanoparticles, activation control of dendritic cells, immune function control, and in vivo application for various vaccination systems. The second type of control,that of cell-cell interaction, is important for tissue engineering in order to develop three-dimensional cellular constructs. To achieve in vitro engin...

  1. The risk associated with spinal manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina Mai; Tarp, Simon; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with SMT. METHODS: We...... searched five electronic databases from inception to December 8, 2015. We included reviews on any type of studies, patients, and SMT technique. Our primary outcome was SAEs. Quality of the included reviews was assessed using a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR). Since there were......; however, the types of SAEs reported can indeed be significant, sustaining that some risk is present. High quality research and consistent reporting of AEs and SAEs are needed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015030068 ....

  2. Approaches to probabilistic model learning for mobile manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile manipulation robots are envisioned to provide many useful services both in domestic environments as well as in the industrial context. Examples include domestic service robots that implement large parts of the housework, and versatile industrial assistants that provide automation, transportation, inspection, and monitoring services. The challenge in these applications is that the robots have to function under changing, real-world conditions, be able to deal with considerable amounts of noise and uncertainty, and operate without the supervision of an expert. This book presents novel learning techniques that enable mobile manipulation robots, i.e., mobile platforms with one or more robotic manipulators, to autonomously adapt to new or changing situations. The approaches presented in this book cover the following topics: (1) learning the robot's kinematic structure and properties using actuation and visual feedback, (2) learning about articulated objects in the environment in which the robot is operating,...

  3. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  4. Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Liu, Tingting; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a hybrid electrokinetic technique for label-free manipulation of pathogenic bacteria in biological samples toward medical diagnostic applications. While most electrokinetic techniques only function in low-conductivity buffers, hybrid electrokinetics enables effective operation in high-conductivity samples, such as physiological fluids (~1 S m−1). The hybrid electrokinetic technique combines short-range electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, and long-range AC electrothermal flow to improve its effectiveness. The major technical hurdle of electrode instability for manipulating high conductivity samples is tackled by using a Ti–Au–Ti sandwich electrode and a 3-parallel-electrode configuration is designed for continuous isolation of bacteria. The device operates directly with biological samples including urine and buffy coats. We show that pathogenic bacteria and biowarfare agents can be concentrated for over 3 orders of magnitude using hybrid electrokinetics. PMID:21487576

  5. Genetic manipulation in plant breeding: somatic versus generative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J

    1983-09-01

    A comparison is made between molecular/ in vitro/somatic and plant-level/generative approaches in the reconstruction of genotypes and reproductive systems. Although classical methods will remain the basis of plant breeding, a number of new somatic as well as generative genetic manipulation techniques are definitely applicable in several special situations. The first are technically more demanding, the latter are often conceptually more difficult, and both are laborious. Choice of approach is determined by the plant species, the stage of development of the techniques, the amount of background genetic information and the genetic diversity available, and the capacity of the institution involved. In the final stages of the program traditional selection and testing procedures remain indispensable. Whether any particular breeding program will profit from the incorporation of sophisticated genetic manipulation techniques must be carefully analysed. This discussion is intended to provide a basis for this analysis.

  6. Tools for Manipulation and Characterisation of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    grippers, which were then successfully used for pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires. For increased gripping force and control over the manipulation process, microfabricated grippers with integrated force-feedback were also demonstrated. Environmental electron beam deposition (EEBD...

  7. Manipulation in the enrollment of research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Amulya; Millum, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Researchers can design recruitment and consent processes so that potential participants are more likely to decide to enroll. These strategies work by subtly manipulating the participants. But how much manipulation is acceptable?

  8. A novel DNA profiling application for the monitoring of cross-contamination in autologous chondrocyte implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseti, L; Bassi, A; Fornasari, P M; Serra, M; Canella, F; Maso, A; Dallari, D; Bini, C; Pelotti, S

    2013-03-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a cell-based treatment that can be used to regenerate chondral defects. European legislation specifically classifies such produced chondrocytes as "medicinal for advanced cell therapy" that have to be manufactured in pharmaceutical factories according to specific rules, named Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). One main requirement of cell manipulation in advanced therapy is to prevent the risk of any contamination. The aim of this study was to verify if chondrocyte cultures suitable for ACI were free of cross-contamination by means of DNA profiling techniques. Cell cultures were carried on in a Hospital Cell Factory in compliance with European current Good Manufacturing Practices. DNA profiling, by means of Short Tandem Repeats and miniShort Tandem Repeats analyses, was performed on expanded chondrocytes and their related control blood samples. Mitochondrial DNA was analysed to further confirm the results and to evaluate possible mutations occurred in the samples. Our findings demonstrated the absence of cross-contamination between chondrocyte cultures and, thus, their identity maintenance until the end of the manipulation. DNA profiling technique can be a suitable test for quality control not only for chondrocyte manipulation, but for cell therapy in general.

  9. Manipulative therapies for infantile colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Dawn; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Miller, Joyce J; Vlieger, Arine M; Prescott, Philip; Lewith, George

    2012-12-12

    Infantile colic is a common disorder, affecting around one in six families, and in 2001 was reported to cost the UK National Health Service in excess of £65 million per year (Morris 2001). Although it usually remits by six months of age, there is some evidence of longer-term sequelae for both children and parents.Manipulative therapies, such as chiropractic and osteopathy, have been suggested as interventions to reduce the severity of symptoms. To evaluate the results of studies designed to address efficacy or effectiveness of manipulative therapies (specifically, chiropractic, osteopathy and cranial manipulation) for infantile colic in infants less than six months of age. We searched following databases: CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to April Week 3 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 17), CINAHL (1938 to April 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to April 2012), Science Citation Index (1970 to April 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to April 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to April 2012) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1970 to April 2012). We also searched all available years of LILACS, PEDro, ZETOC, WorldCat, TROVE, DART-Europe, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP (May 2012), and contacted over 90 chiropractic and osteopathic institutions around the world. In addition, we searched CentreWatch, NRR Archive and UKCRN in December 2010. Randomised trials evaluating the effect of chiropractic, osteopathy or cranial osteopathy alone or in conjunction with other interventions for the treatment of infantile colic. In pairs, five of the review authors (a) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, (b) extracted data from the included studies and (c) assessed the risk of bias for all included studies. Each article or study was assessed independently by two review authors. One review author entered the data into Review Manager software and the team's statistician (PP) reviewed the

  10. Optoelectrofluidic Manipulation of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundoo Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optoelectrofluidic technologies for manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules. Optoelectrofluidics provides an elegant scheme for the programmable manipulation of particles or fluids in microenvironments based on optically induced electrokinetics. Recent progress on the optoelectrofluidic manipulation of nanoobjects, which include nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, and biomolecules, is introduced. Some potential applications of the optoelectrofluidic nanoparticle manipulation, such as nanoparticles separation, nanostructures manufacturing, molecular physics, and clinical diagnostics, and their future directions are also discussed.

  11. Manipulative therapy (Feldenkrais, massage, chiropractic manipulation) for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastaras, Christopher; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan

    2013-07-01

    Neck pain is an extremely common symptom with many possible etiologies. A substantial number of patients are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Low-quality evidence supports the beneficial effects of CAM. Feldenkrais, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation are discussed in detail. Complications are generally benign and self-limited, although occasional catastrophic consequences have been documented. Despite the favorable opinion many rheumatologists have of some CAM therapy, many patients are not disclosing CAM use to their medical providers. By expressing interest, asking questions, and taking a shared-decision-making approach, providers can encourage disclosure and provide valuable input.

  12. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. PERSONALITY QUALITIES ENHANCING ITS SECURITY AGAINST MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Sheinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the extent of the problem of an individual being unprotected from the manipulation and its harm. No one is fully immune to manipulation and everyone can become a victim of manipulative actions. It is demonstrated that manipulative relationships have taken roots in modern society and there is a tendency for a wider spread. 92-95% respondents who have had negative state of mind resulting from being manipulated would like to learn how to protect themselves from manipulation. It is established that if individuals are focussed on themselves, they are less prone to being manipulated; if individuals are focussed on relationship they are more likely to be subject to manipulation. The personal characteristics helping to be immune to manipulation are shown, i.e. a rather high social intellect of an individual, their independence from people’s opinions, low levels of trust and inquisitive minds. It is shown that 1 females are better protected from manipulation than males; 2 the degree of protection against manipulation does not depend on the person’s age and the degree of machiavellism of their personality; 3 the individuals’ assertiveness helps to protect themselves from manipulation. The representation level of this research and its results are guaranted by the number of participants (552 respondents and the wide social representation: firemen, university teachers and students, military cadets, psychologists, retail employees.

  14. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensorimotor Learning of Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Using Visual Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Mo Jung

    Full Text Available Humans can acquire a wide variety of motor skills using sensory feedback pertaining to discrepancies between intended and actual movements. Acupuncture needle manipulation involves sophisticated hand movements and represents a fundamental skill for acupuncturists. We investigated whether untrained students could improve their motor performance during acupuncture needle manipulation using visual feedback (VF.Twenty-one untrained medical students were included, randomly divided into concurrent (n = 10 and post-trial (n = 11 VF groups. Both groups were trained in simple lift/thrusting techniques during session 1, and in complicated lift/thrusting techniques in session 2 (eight training trials per session. We compared the motion patterns and error magnitudes of pre- and post-training tests.During motion pattern analysis, both the concurrent and post-trial VF groups exhibited greater improvements in motion patterns during the complicated lifting/thrusting session. In the magnitude error analysis, both groups also exhibited reduced error magnitudes during the simple lifting/thrusting session. For the training period, the concurrent VF group exhibited reduced error magnitudes across all training trials, whereas the post-trial VF group was characterized by greater error magnitudes during initial trials, which gradually reduced during later trials.Our findings suggest that novices can improve the sophisticated hand movements required for acupuncture needle manipulation using sensorimotor learning with VF. Use of two types of VF can be beneficial for untrained students in terms of learning how to manipulate acupuncture needles, using either automatic or cognitive processes.

  16. Rapid and selective manipulation of milk fatty acid composition in mice through the maternal diet during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition in early postnatal life can modulate growth and development and later metabolic health. Investigating programming effects of early dietary FA manipulations in rodents may be stressful and complicated due to the need of artificial feeding techniques. It is largely unknown to what extent breast milk (BM) FA composition can be directly manipulated by the diet. We exposed dams to different dietary FA compositions from postnatal day (PN) 2 until PN28. Dams with litters were randomly assigned to control (CTRL), high-medium-chain FA (MCFA), low-linoleic acid (LowLA), high-n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3LCP) or high-n-3LCP and MCFA (n-3LCP/MCFA) diets, and diets were continued after weaning until PN28. FA compositions were determined in feeds, milk and in erythrocytes. BM MCFA content was independent from dietary MCFA intake. In contrast, the LowLA diet reduced BM LA content by about 50 % compared with the CTRL diet at PN7. BM of dams fed the n-3LCP or n-3LCP/MCFA diet contained about 6-fold more n-3 LCP than BM of the dams fed the CTRL diet at PN7. These changes in milk FA composition established after 5 d of dietary exposure did not further change over the lactation period. At PN28, the erythrocyte FA composition of the male pups correlated with analysed milk FA profiles. In conclusion, manipulation of the diet of lactating mice can strongly and rapidly affect BM FA composition, in particular of n-6 LA and n-3 LCP. Our present findings will facilitate mechanistic studies on the programming of adult metabolic health by dietary FA in the early postnatal period via direct and selective manipulation of the maternal diet.

  17. Evaluation of feasible machine learning techniques for predicting the time to fly and aircraft speed profile on final approach : Predictive dynamic support tool on final approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, F.F.; Treve, V; Curran, R.; Visser, H.G.; Lovell, D.; Fricke, H.

    2016-01-01

    currently, at many airports, the runway throughput is the limiting factor for the overall capacity. Among the most important constraining parameters is the separation minima expressed in distance. On the top of these minima, the difference of the leader and follower aircraft speed profiles imposes

  18. Is 3D technique superior to 2D in Down syndrome screening? Evaluation of six second and third trimester fetal profile markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F. I.; Bakker, M.; de Jong-Pleij, E. A. P.; Ribbert, L. S. M.; Tromp, E.; Bilardo, C. M.

    ObjectiveThe objective of this article is to investigate whether in the clinical setting of second trimester ultrasound (US) investigations, 3D multiplanar correction prior to the measurement of Down syndrome (DS) facial markers (nasal bone length, prenasal thickness, fetal profile line,

  19. A high-resolution measurement technique for vertical CO2 and H2O profiles within and above crop canopies and its use for flux partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Patrizia; Schmidt, Marius; Klosterhalfen, Anne; Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    We present a portable elevator-based setup for measuring CO2, water vapor, temperature and wind profiles from the soil surface to the surface layer above crop canopies. The end of a tube connected to a closed-path gas analyzer is continuously moved up and down over the profile height (currently 2 m), while concentrations are logged at a frequency of 20 Hz. Temperature and wind speed are measured at the same frequency by a ventilated finewire thermocouple and a hotwire, respectively, and all measurements are duplicated as a continuous fixed-height measurement at the top of the profile. Test measurements were carried out at the TERENO research site of Selhausen (50°52'09"N, 06°27'01"E, 104.5 m MSL, Germany, ICOS site DE-RuS) in winter wheat, winter barley and a catch crop mixture during different stages of crop development and different times of the day (spring 2015 to autumn 2016). We demonstrate a simple approach to correct for time lags, and the resulting half-hourly mean profiles of CO2 and H2O over height increments of 2.5 cm. These results clearly show the effects of soil respiration and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, varying both during the daily cycle and during the growing season. Post-harvest measurements over bare soil and short intercrop canopy (theory to check the validity of the measurement and raw data processing approach. Derived CO2 and latent heat fluxes show a good agreement to eddy-covariance measurements. In a next step, we applied a dispersion matrix inversion (modified after Warland and Thurtell 2000, Santos et al. 2011) to the concentration profiles to estimate the vertical source and sink distribution of CO2 and H2O. First results showed reasonable values for evaporation, transpiration and aboveground net primary production, but a likely overestimation of soil respiration. We discuss possible causes associated with exchange processes near the soil surface below a dense canopy, and the potential use of the wind and temperature profiles

  20. Characterisation of optically driven microstructures for manipulating single DNA molecules under a fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kyohei; Masuda, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryo; Gel, Murat; Oana, Hidehiro; Washizu, Masao; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Shimokawa, Fusao; Oohira, Fumikazu

    2016-06-01

    Optical tweezers are powerful tools for manipulating single DNA molecules using fluorescence microscopy, particularly in nanotechnology-based DNA analysis. We previously proposed a manipulation technique using microstructures driven by optical tweezers that allows the handling of single giant DNA molecules of millimetre length that cannot be manipulated by conventional techniques. To further develop this technique, the authors characterised the microstructures quantitatively from the view point of fabrication and efficiency of DNA manipulation under a fluorescence microscope. The success rate and precision of the fabrications were evaluated. The results indicate that the microstructures are obtained in an aqueous solution with a precision ∼50 nm at concentrations in the order of 10(6) particles/ml. The visibility of these microstructures under a fluorescence microscope was also characterised, along with the elucidation of the fabrication parameters needed to fine tune visibility. Manipulating yeast chromosomal DNA molecules with the microstructures illustrated the relationship between the efficiency of manipulation and the geometrical shape of the microstructure. This report provides the guidelines for designing microstructures used in single DNA molecule analysis based on on-site DNA manipulation, and is expected to broaden the applications of this technique in the future.

  1. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  2. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  3. Electrokinetic Phenomena in Chemically Manipulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo

    diffusiophoretic velocity in zwitterions scales with the square of the intercharge distance. Finally, I demonstrate further applications of our hydrogel membrane-integrated devices by showcasing several case studies of unique experiments using our technique. I show diffusiophoresis under previously untested solutes such as butanol, acids, glycerol, and sucrose. I demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for colloidal tagging in microfluidic devices and for the study of chemotaxis. Lastly, I examine AC electrophoresis in chemically manipulated environments and I show the ability of our device to perform electrophoretic measurements in spatially homogeneous and time-evolving systems.

  4. Scanning-aperture trapping and manipulation of single charged nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Kim, Ji; Spindler, Susann; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2014-03-01

    Although trapping and manipulation of small objects have been of interest for a range of applications and many clever techniques have been devised, new methods are still in great demand for handling different materials and geometries. Here, we report on an electrostatic trap that is created in an aqueous medium between the aperture of a nanopipette and a glass substrate without the need for external potentials. After a thorough characterization of the trapping conditions, we show that we can displace or release a particle at will. Furthermore, we demonstrate trapping and manipulation of nanoparticles and lipid vesicles attached to lipid bilayers, paving the way for controlled studies of forces and diffusion associated with biological membranes. We expect the technique to find interesting applications also in other areas such as optonanofluidics and plasmonics.

  5. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  6. Hybrid modeling method for a DEP based particle manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miled, Mohamed Amine; Gagne, Antoine; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-01-30

    In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  7. Digital Microfluidics for Manipulation and Analysis of a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Long He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic structural and functional unit of a living organism is a single cell. To understand the variability and to improve the biomedical requirement of a single cell, its analysis has become a key technique in biological and biomedical research. With a physical boundary of microchannels and microstructures, single cells are efficiently captured and analyzed, whereas electric forces sort and position single cells. Various microfluidic techniques have been exploited to manipulate single cells through hydrodynamic and electric forces. Digital microfluidics (DMF, the manipulation of individual droplets holding minute reagents and cells of interest by electric forces, has received more attention recently. Because of ease of fabrication, compactness and prospective automation, DMF has become a powerful approach for biological application. We review recent developments of various microfluidic chips for analysis of a single cell and for efficient genetic screening. In addition, perspectives to develop analysis of single cells based on DMF and emerging functionality with high throughput are discussed.

  8. Quantitative feedback versus standard training for cervical and thoracic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; Rogers, Carolyn M; Combs, Sarah; Potts, David; Sorrels, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development for cervical and thoracic manipulative procedures. Randomized, controlled study. Chiropractic college. Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course. Student performance of cervical and thoracic spinal manipulation therapies were quantified at the beginning, middle, and end of a trimester using a Leader 900 Z series manipulation table (Leader International, Port Orchard, Wash) embedded with an AMTI force plate. Passive loads acting through the targeted (C2 or T7) functional spinal units were estimated using inverse dynamics. Participating students rehearsed the index transverse (C2) and single pisiform-transverse (T7) procedures following either the standard curriculum alone or a modified curriculum adding the Dynadjust Instrument training aid (Labarge, Inc.), as assigned on a randomized basis. Student t and chi-square tests were used to explore and describe biomechanical parameter changes over time as the semester progressed. Significant changes in performance between the standard curriculum and modified curriculum (with the Dynadjust) were observed for several, but different, biomechanical parameters of cervical and thoracic procedures. This project used a rehearsal program that provided quantitative feedback on an empirically defined schedule that was self-administered by the student. Results demonstrated significant changes in performance of spinal manipulation by students using the Dynadjust Instrument versus those who did not. Using quantitative feedback provided from training aids and biomechanical measurement systems, future training programs may be optimized and tested.

  9. Using the Barrel Technique with the LVIS Jr (Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support) Stent to Treat a Wide Neck MCA Bifurcation Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Darflinger, Robert J; Chao, Kuo

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of wide-neck bifurcation cerebral aneurysms is challenging especially if at least one of the arteries arise from an obtuse angle. These wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms are difficult to treat with the usual balloon and stent assisted coiling, including Y stenting or double-barrel stent techniques [1, 2]. Other available options include using current devices with the waffle cone or double waffle cone techniques [3, 4]. Novel devices that are in development include intrasaccular de...

  10. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Meloncelli; S. A. M. Windsor; P. Brooks

    2015-01-01

    The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown i...

  11. Beliefs in the population about cracking sounds produced during spinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Baeri, Damien; Toussaint, Geoffrey; Cagnie, Barbara; Beernaert, Axel; Kaux, Jean-François; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2017-04-26

    To examine beliefs about cracking sounds heard during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust spinal manipulation in individuals with and without personal experience of this technique. We included 100 individuals. Among them, 60 had no history of spinal manipulation, including 40 who were asymptomatic with or without a past history of spinal pain and 20 who had nonspecific spinal pain. The remaining 40 patients had a history of spinal manipulation; among them, 20 were asymptomatic and 20 had spinal pain. Participants attended a one-on-one interview during which they completed a questionnaire about their history of spinal manipulation and their beliefs regarding sounds heard during spinal manipulation. Mean age was 43.5±15.4years. The sounds were ascribed to vertebral repositioning by 49% of participants and to friction between two vertebras by 23% of participants; only 9% of participants correctly ascribed the sound to the formation of a gas bubble in the joint. The sound was mistakenly considered to indicate successful spinal manipulation by 40% of participants. No differences in beliefs were found between the groups with and without a history of spinal manipulation. Certain beliefs have documented adverse effects. This study showed a high prevalence of unfounded beliefs regarding spinal manipulation. These beliefs deserve greater attention from healthcare providers, particularly those who practice spinal manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  13. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  14. Microbiota manipulation for weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Tal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Dubourg, Grégory; Paul, Mical

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota has been linked to weight changes and obesity. To explore the influence of specific agents that alter the intestinal flora on weight in different patient groups we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics on weight. We searched the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases for trials on adults, children, and infants evaluating the effects of these substances on weight. Our primary outcome was weight change from baseline. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We identified and included 13 adult, 17 children, and 23 infant RCTs. Effects were opposite among adults and children, showing weight loss among adults (SMD -0.54 [-0.83, -0.25)) and minor weight gains among children (SMD 0.20 [0.04, 0.36]) and infants (SMD 0.30 [-0.01, 0.62]) taking mainly Lactobacillus probiotic supplements. Heterogeneity was substantial in the adult and infant analyses and could not be explained by intervention or patient characteristics. Azithromycin administration in children with pulmonary disease was associated with weight gain (SMD 0.39 [0.24, 0.54]), without heterogeneity. A high risk of selective reporting and attrition bias was detected across the studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that there may be a role for probiotics in promoting weight loss in adults and weight gain in children, however additional studies are needed. Though we cannot recommend antibiotic administration for weight manipulation, its use provides advantageous weight gain in children with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraspecific variability in host manipulation by parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F; Brodeur, J; Maure, F.; De Franceschi, N.; Blanchet, S.; Rigaud, T.

    2011-01-01

    Manipulative parasites have the capacity to alter a broad range of phenotypic traits in their hosts, extending from colour, morphology and behaviour. While significant attention has been devoted to describing the diversity of host manipulation among parasite clades, and testing the adaptive value of phenotypic traits that can be manipulated, there is increasing evidence that variation exists in the frequency and intensity of the changes displayed by parasitized individuals within single host-...

  16. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Meloncelli,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown in New Zealand. The Tasmanian honeys can be distinguished by the higher concentration of 3-phenyllactic acid in Manuka compared to Leatherwood floral sources.

  17. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...... level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience...

  18. Mobile Parallel Manipulators, Modelling and Data-Driven Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Khoukhi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a kinematic and dynamic analysis of mobile parallel manipulators (MPM. The study is conducted on a composed multi-degree of freedom (DOF parallel robot carried by a wheeled mobile platform. Both positional and differential kinematics problems for the hybrid structure are solved, and the redundancy problem is solved using joint limit secondary criterion-based generalized-pseudo-inverse. A minimum time trajectory parameterization is obtained via cycloidal profile to initialize multi-objective trajectory planning of the MPM. Considered objectives include time energy minimization redundancy resolution and singularity avoidance. Simulation results illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach are presented and discussed.

  19. Microbiorobots for Manipulation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Number 150 250 18 10 Constraint elements for obstacle avoidance using BPMs 3. Distorted electric field around obstacles o COMSOL Simulation...1. Distorted electric field around dynamic obstacles : undesired control result • COMSOL simulation results • Distorted electric field • Profile of...Distorted electric field o COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation Setup : Moving mesh, 10 μm/s with –x-direction. Electric field with 10 V/cm

  20. Modern extraction techniques and their impact on the pharmacological profile of Serenoa repens extracts for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Celeste; Carradori, Simone; Granese, Arianna; Di Pierro, Giovanni Battista; Leonardo, Costantino; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-08-11

    Bioactive compounds from plants (i.e., Serenoa repens) are often used in medicine in the treatment of several pathologies, among which benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There are different techniques of extraction, also used in combination, with the aim of enhancing the amount of the target molecules, gaining time and reducing waste of solvents. However, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the bioactives depends on the extractive process, and so the brands of the recovered products from the same plant are different in terms of clinical efficacy (no product interchangeability among different commercial brands). In this review, we report on several and recent extraction techniques and their impact on the composition/biological activity of S. repens-based available products.

  1. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours...... undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions...... chocolates were characterised as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. Despite differences in the volatile aroma profile, the inoculated chocolates could not be distinguished from a spontaneously fermented control in a triangle test by a panel of un-trained judges. Arguably...

  2. Methane uptake in soils of Southern Spain estimated by two different techniques: Static chamber and 222radon flux and soil air concentration profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    Measurements of methane fluxes from four differing soils in the surroundings of Málaga (Spain) were carried out by two methods: a direct method using a static accumulation chamber at the soil surface and an indirect method obtained from simultaneously measured 222Rn flux from the soil surface in parallel with the concentration profile measurements of 222Rn and CH 4 in the air of soil. The directly measured methane flux at all the investigated soils was higher than the methane fluxes derived from the indirect method. Atmospheric methane was consumed by all the soils and mean direct flux to the atmosphere were 3.25 μmol m -2 h -1. The study showed no correlation between methane uptake and soil temperature, which might be due to the dry conditions prevailing during the study period.

  3. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using trans-illumination technique with different curing profiles of LED light-curing unit in posterior teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Heravi, Farzin; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Ghaffari, Negin; Jalayer, Javad; Bozorgnia, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Background Although using light-cured composites for bonding orthodontic brackets has become increasingly popular, curing light cannot penetrate the metallic bulk of brackets and polymerization of composites is limited to the edges. Limited access and poor direct sight may be a problem in the posterior teeth. Meanwhile, effectiveness of the trans-illumination technique is questionable due to increased bucco-lingual thickness of the posterior teeth. Light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit...

  4. Manipulative practice in the cervical spine: a survey of IFOMPT member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso, Lisa; Rivett, Darren

    2011-05-01

    The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (IFOMPT) aims to achieve worldwide promotion of excellence and unity in clinical and academic standards for manual and musculoskeletal physical therapists. To this end, IFOMPT has sponsored several conference panel sessions and a survey of Member Organizations (MOs) and Registered Interest Groups (RIGs) regarding current cervical spine manipulation and pre-manipulative screening practice in each country. The purpose of this study was to determine common elements of cervical spine manipulative practice and pre-manipulative screening between countries. In late 2007, a questionnaire investigating recommended pre-manipulative screening protocol/guideline use, informed consent regarding risks, screening procedures, and treatment/manipulation technique was sent to all twenty MOs and five RIGs. The response rate was 88%. The main findings of the survey included: 77% of respondent organizations use pre-manipulative guidelines, with Australian guidelines the most frequently adopted internationally (36%); recommendations concerning the provision of information about the possibility of serious adverse events is not standard practice in all countries (50%); positional tests for vertebrobasilar insufficiency are used by all respondent organizations; craniovertebral ligament testing is sometimes taught as a pre-manipulative screening tool (36%); the use of upper cervical spine manipulation has declined in some countries (41%); and of the respondent organizations that continue to teach upper cervical manipulation, most (70%) minimize the rotation component. The findings of this research will inform an IFOMPT international standard for screening the cervical region prior to orthopaedic manual therapy intervention. The development of an IFOMPT endorsed document will be of assistance to manual therapy clinicians worldwide in safely managing disorders of the cervical spine.

  5. Genetic manipulation system in propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2002-01-01

    Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid as well as in probiotic and cheese industries. Shuttle vectors were developed in propionibacteria using replicons from endogenous plasmids in Propionibacterium and Escherichia coli and an appropriate selection marker. The efficient transformation was achieved using the shuttle vector prepared from Propionibacterium freudenreichii to overcome the high restriction modification system in propionibacteria. Expression vectors with native promoters for use in propionibacteria were also developed. Using this system, cholesterol oxidase, which is used as a diagnostic enzyme, was produced in P. freudenreichii. Genes involved in 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and vitamin B12 biosynthesis in propionibacteria were isolated. ALA in propionibacteria could be synthesized via both the C4 pathway (condensation of glycine and succinyl CoA) and the C5 pathway (from glutamate). The hemA gene encoding ALA synthase from Rhodobacter spheroides, was overexpressed and ALA accumulated in P. freudenreichii. Thus, the genetic manipulation systems in propionibacteria will facilitate genetic studies of probiotics and the vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway.

  6. Nanoscale Manipulators: Review of Conceptual Designs Through Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekid, Samir; Bashmal, Salem; Ouakad, Hassen M

    2016-01-01

    Nanomanipulation techniques have gone through several phases to be used in scientific explorations not only to reveal more characteristics of nano, micro and mesoscopic phenomena but also to build functional nano-devices useful for specific applications. The nano-manipulator becomes a key instrument for technology bridging between sub-nano and mesoscale. The recent patents have exhibited integration of various functions in the nano-devices requiring sub-nanometer precision and highly stable manipulator with substantial pulling/pushing forces. This work reviews patents and works on conceptual designs of existing nanomanipulators with specific features. This includes design analysis leading to ultra-precision motion and stability with discussion of enabling technology. A novel integrated and numerically controlled instrument for nanomanipulation, visualization and inspection/characterization of materials at sub-nanoscale will be presented with a feature to keep the same datum for all operation and hence improve accuracy of samples. This paper has undertaken a review search in a structured examination of bibliographic databases for published and issued patents using a focused review keyword of nano-manipulation. The quality of selected patents was appraised using standard tools. The characteristics of screened patents were described, and a deductive qualitative content analysis methodology was applied to understand the modeling and testing of nanomachining process, the exact construction of nanostructure arrays and the inspection of devices with complex features. The paper encompassed forty patents. Fourteen patents exhibited the manipulation at the micro scale (MEMS manipulations), others outlined systems with sub-micron resolution and workspace range in mesoscale. Standard scale manipulation were described in 13 patents assuming only systems comprising positioning stages, arms and end-effectors where positioners are a few centimeters in size with workspace higher

  7. Single-molecule manipulation experiments to explore friction and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, R.; Kawai, S.; Meier, T.; Glatzel, T.; Baratoff, A.; Meyer, E.

    2017-03-01

    Friction forces, which arise when two bodies that are in contact are moved with respect to one another, are ubiquitous phenomena. Although various measurement tools have been developed to study these phenomena at all length scales, such investigations are highly challenging when tackling the scale of single molecules in motion on a surface. This work reviews the recent advances in single-molecule manipulation experiments performed at low temperature with the aim of understanding the fundamental frictional response of single molecules. Following the advent of ‘nanotribology’ in the field based on the atomic force microscopy technique, we will show the technical requirements to direct those studies at the single-molecule level. We will also discuss the experimental prerequisites needed to obtain and interpret the phenomena, such as the implementation of single-molecule manipulation techniques, the processing of the experimental data or their comparison with appropriate numerical models. Finally, we will report examples of the controlled vertical and lateral manipulation of long polymeric chains, graphene nanoribbons or single porphyrin molecules that systematically reveal friction-like characteristics while sliding over atomically clean surfaces.

  8. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  9. Manipulation performance in interactive virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.; Groen, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied manipulation performance in virtual environments using two types of controllers: virtual hand control and 3D mouse-cursor control. These manipulation methods were tested under monoscopic and stereoscopic viewing conditions. Participants were asked to discriminate, grasp, pitch, roll

  10. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  11. Design of an environmentally interactive continuum manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.L.; Matsuura, D.; Takeda, Y; Herder, J.L.; Chang, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Continuum manipulators are high degree of freedom structures that can use their increased degrees of freedom to navigate through an environment with obstacles. This type of manipulator is underactuated, which make them promising for adapting to their environments. However, current research is mainly

  12. Spinal manipulative therapy in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, S

    1986-04-01

    Spinal manipulation or manual therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating athletes with spinal problems. The primary theoretic basis for the claimed beneficial results of manipulation is the restoration of motion with subsequent effect on ligamentous adhesions, muscle spasm, disk nutrition, and central nervous system endorphin systems. The concept of joint barriers has been developed to differentiate among exercise therapy, mobilization, and manipulation. Research trials suggest that spinal manipulation is beneficial in relieving or reducing the duration of acute low back pain and acute neck pain but has much less effect on chronic low back pain and neck pain. There is evidence that manipulation increases certain parameters of motion of the spine but this evidence is not yet conclusive. There are a wide variety of manipulative procedures that are utilized to manipulate the spine to increase range of motion, and the selection of the procedures is based on manual diagnostic skills. Manipulation, however, is not a benign procedure and has been implicated in the aggravation of disk herniation or bony fractures as well as the precipitation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion.

  13. Recursive Linearization Of Dynamical Models Of Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriquez, Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    Report shows how spatial-operator algebra developed by authors used to derive linearized mathematical models of dynamics of robotic manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator algebra also described in "Robot Control Based On Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918), "Unified Formulation Of Dynamics Of Robot Arms" (NPO-18040), and "Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators" (NPO-17770).

  14. Outcome manipulation in corporate prediction markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for applying prediction markets to corporate decision-making. The analysis is motivated by the recent surge of interest in markets as information aggregation devices and their potential use within firms. We characterize the amount of outcome manipulation that results...... in equilibrium and the impact of this manipulation on market prices...

  15. Manipulation of BCG vaccine: a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from M. bovis, is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against TB in children, the protective efficacy in pulmonary TB is variable in adolescents and adults. In spite of the current knowledge of molecular biology, immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS are still challenges for the scientific community. Genetic manipulation facilitates the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine that can be used as a highly immunogenic vaccine against TB with an improved safety profile, but, still, the manipulation of BCG vaccine to improve efficacy should be carefully considered, as it can bring in both favourable and unfavourable effects. The purpose of this review is not to comprehensively review the interaction between microorganisms and host cells in order to use rBCG expressing M. tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens that are available in the public domain, but, rather, to also discuss the limitations of rBCG vaccine, expressing heterologous antigens, during manipulation that pave the way for a promising new vaccine approach.

  16. Kinematics and control algorithm development and simulation for a redundant two-arm robotic manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael P.; Huang, Paul C.; Bunnell, Charles T.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient approach to cartesian motion and force control of a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator is presented. It is based on extending the active stiffness controller to the 7 DOF case in general and use of an efficient version of the gradient projection technique for solving the inverse kinematics problem. Cooperative control is achieved through appropriate configuration of individual manipulator controllers. In addition, other aspects of trajectory generation using standard techniques are integrated into the controller. The method is then applied to a specific manipulator of interest (Robotics Research T-710). Simulation of the kinematics, dynamics, and control are provided in the context of several scenarios: one pertaining to a noncontact pick and place operation; one relating to contour following where contact is made between the manipulator and environment; and one pertaining to cooperative control.

  17. The detection and prevention of manipulations in the balance sheet and the cash flow statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Dimitrijevic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial statements which consist of objective, real and reliable information represent the key basis for making many business decisions. If, when writing financial statements, certain manipulation techniques are used for displaying the best possible results of transactions, the quality of financial reports will be endangered. Many financial frauds have led to a great mistrust in the system of financial reporting and the profession of accounting and auditing, which are often accused of the emergence of fraud and losing trust in the reliability of financial information by many users and economic decision makers. These are the reasons why the paper discusses the techniques of manipulation in financial statements, especially in balance sheets and cash flow statements, since these forms of manipulation are harder to detect and prevent when compared to manipulations of revenues and expenses in the income statement.

  18. MEMS-based platforms for mechanical manipulation and characterization of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peng; Wang, Wenhui; Ru, Changhai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Xinyu

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical manipulation and characterization of single cells are important experimental techniques in biological and medical research. Because of the microscale sizes and highly fragile structures of cells, conventional cell manipulation and characterization techniques are not accurate and/or efficient enough or even cannot meet the more and more demanding needs in different types of cell-based studies. To this end, novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based technologies have been developed to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and consistency of various cell manipulation and characterization tasks, and enable new types of cell research. This article summarizes existing MEMS-based platforms developed for cell mechanical manipulation and characterization, highlights their specific design considerations making them suitable for their designated tasks, and discuss their advantages and limitations. In closing, an outlook into future trends is also provided.

  19. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether lumbosacral manipulations have an effect on growing pain symptoms. Methods: Thirty participants with growing pains between the ages of 4 and 12 years were recruited. The participants were placed into two groups of 15 participants each. Group 1 received lumbosacral manipulations to restricted joints as determined by motion palpation, while Group 2 never received any professional intervention. Often parent(s/guardian(s of children who suffer from growing pains will rub the child's legs and offer verbal reassurance in an attempt to console their children. Parent(s/guardian(s of both groups were encouraged to continue to do this throughout the duration of the trial. Instructions were given to the parents so that the same rubbing technique and rubbing cream (aqueous cream were used. Subjective changes were tracked using a pain diary that the parent(s/guardian(s were asked to complete, a six-week post-study follow-up question regarding children's growing pains and the Oucher self-report pain scale. Objective measures consisted of pressure algometer readings of the tibialis anterior muscle belly. Results: The statistical data was analysed using the Friedman test, Manne—Whitney test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results demonstrated that both groups responded favourably to their specific treatment over time. However, the group that received lumbosacral manipulations proved to show a quicker response to treatment; and the post study follow-up of this same group showed markedly more positive feedback than the group that did not receive the treatment. These results highlighted the positive effects of chiropractic manipulation on growing pain symptoms. Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing

  20. A Study of Distance of Manipulation on the Responsive Workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Paljic, Alexis; Coquillart, Sabine; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Richard, Paul

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Virtual environments such as the Responsive Workbench allow the close manipulation of virtual objects. We define close manipulation as either direct manipulation or manipulation at a relatively small distance. This paper reports on two studies on close manipulation using the Responsive Workbench. The first study investigates the influence of manipulation distance on performance in a 3D location task. The results indicate that direct manipulation and 20 cm distance mani...

  1. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques; Controle du profil de densite dans le plasma de Tore Supra. Comparaison de differentes methodes d'alimentation en particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commaux, N

    2007-09-15

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the {nabla}B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the {nabla}B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the {nabla

  2. Applications of optical manipulation in plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, Charles S.

    Measuring small forces in biology is important for determining basic physiological parameters of a cell. The plant cell wall provides a primary defense and presents a barrier to research. Magnitudes of small forces are impossible to measure with mechanical transducers, glass needles, atomic force microscopy, or micropipet-based force transduction due to the cell wall. Therefore, a noninvasive method of breaching the plant cell wall to access the symplastic region of the cell is required. Laser light provides sub-micrometer positioning, particle manipulation without mechanical contact, and piconewton force determination. Consequently, the extension of laser microsurgery to expand an experimental tool for plant biology encompassed the overall objective. A protocol was developed for precisely inserting microscopic objects into the periplasmic region of plant callus cells using laser microsurgery. Ginkgo biloba and Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used as the model system for developing the optical tweezers and scalpel techniques. Better than 95% survival was achieved after plasmolyzing G. biloba cells, ablating a 2-4 μm hole through the cell wall using a pulsed UV laser beam, trapping and manipulating bacteria into the periplasmic region, and deplasmolyzing the cells. Optical trapping experiments implied a difference existed between the bacteria models. Determining the optical trapping efficiency of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens strains indicated the A. rhizogenes strain, ATCC 11325, was significantly less efficiently trapped than strains A4 and ATCC 15834 and the A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Differences were also found in capsule generation, growth media viscosity, and transmission electron microscopy negative staining implying that a difference in surface structure exists. Calcofluor fluorescence suggests the difference involves an exopolysaccharide. Callus cell plasmolysis revealed Hechtian strands interconnecting the plasma membrane and the cell wall

  3. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  4. Fabrication and manipulation of polymeric magnetic particles with magnetorheological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Jaime [Centro de Acustica Aplicada y Evaluacion No Destructivos (CAEND), CSIC-UPM, C/Serrano 144, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Shum, Ho Cheung, E-mail: ashum@hku.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, 7/F Haking Wong Building, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco [Centro de Acustica Aplicada y Evaluacion No Destructivos (CAEND), CSIC-UPM, C/Serrano 144, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Weitz, David A., E-mail: weitz@seas.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 and 15 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Polymeric magnetic microparticles have been created using a microfluidic device via ultraviolet (UV) polymerization of double emulsions, resulting in cores of magnetorheological (MR) fluids surrounded by polymeric shells. We demonstrate that the resultant particles can be manipulated magnetically to achieve triggered rupture of the capsules. This illustrates the great potential of our capsules for triggered release of active ingredients encapsulated in the polymeric magnetic microparticles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymeric microparticles encapsulating MR fluids have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A double-emulsion-templated approach using microfluidic techniques has been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The monodisperse microparticles obtained are easily manipulated under magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These microparticles have great potential for encapsulation-and-release applications.

  5. Imaging and manipulation of a polar molecule on Ag(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Braun, K.F.; Tang, H.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was applied to image and laterally manipulate isolated phosphangulene molecules on Ag(111) at 6 K. Atomic-resolution images clearly revealed three characteristic types of appearances (three-lobed, fish and bump shape) for the adsorbed molecules, which could...... correspond to three distinct binding configurations. From a detailed analysis of the relative distance between neighboring three-lobed molecules we determine the adsorption site. Applying the lateral manipulation technique ws demonstrate that the molecule can be pulled, slid or pushed by the tip...... on the surface. Accompanying with the reposition, molecular rotation and/or changing of binding configurations can also be induced. It is found that the dipole moment of the molecule has minor effects on its lateral movement. The results demonstrate that due to many degrees of freedom for large molecules...

  6. Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liufei

    This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically

  7. The Use of 2D Plastic Grating for Surface Profile and Dimension Manufacture Product Measurements by Using NDT Moiré Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Wigajatri Purnamaningsih

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of measuring the shape and dimension of object using the moiré technique have been done. Measurement have been made by observing the moiré space as a result of interaction between grating and its shadow casted on the object's surface caused by the projector lamp with CCD camera. The acquired data was further processed by way of off-line. By successive phase shifts that is π/2, π dan 3π/2 towards the table tennis ball at the distance of 48 cm from the light source and CCD camera, with the distance between CCD Camera and light source 13,5 cm and grating space 0,5 mm. It was obtained that convex shape can be identified by resolution of 0,24 mm. It was also shown that the biggest difference between the results of using moiré technique and the use of CMM contact measurements (Coordinate Measuring Machine was 0,3 mm

  8. Design and realization of functional metamaterial basis structures through optical phase manipulation based interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Saraswati; Joseph, Joby

    2017-10-01

    Functional metamaterials are of interest to research due to their exotic response to electromagnetic field, leading to interesting properties and wide applications that are unachievable in nature. Most of the study in this field is limited to theory and currently there are certain multi-step experimental studies reported. However, there is not much exploration of an interference lithography technique that is rapid and cost effective to realize such structures over a large area and in bulk (3D) for real world applications. We present the design of 2D and 3D periodic functional metamaterial basis structures arranged in a square and hexagonal lattice using the interference of multiple phase manipulated plane beams. The designed structures are realized in a single step using a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) assisted Fourier filtering experimental setup in a few seconds. The phase and amplitude of the individual interfering beams are manipulated computationally using MATLAB to generate an irradiance profile for metamaterial structures of different basis features and orientations. The designed structures are: a linearly packed rectangular array, a hexagonally packed rectangular array, ta riangular lattice array, a star, U, V, C, dual-symmetric and dual-asymmetric shaped structures. Three dimensional stacks of such structures can also be realized involving an axial beam into the plane of interference. Templates of some of the microstructures are realized on a positive photoresist that have a spatial periodicity of 6.5 μm. The transfer of the realized patterns to a suitable metallodielectric medium may find interesting applications reported so far in the literature or may lead to some interesting applications.

  9. Hydrogen in oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper - Charging techniques, hydrogen contents and modelling of hydrogen diffusion and depth profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Aasa [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Sandstroem, Rolf [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Div. of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lilja, Christina [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    In Sweden spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of by encapsulating in cast iron inserts protected by a copper shell. The copper can be exposed to hydrogen released during corrosion processes in the inserts. If the hydrogen is taken up by the copper, it could lead to hydrogen embrittlement. Specimens from oxygen-free copper have been hydrogen charged using two different methods. The purpose was to investigate how hydrogen could be introduced into copper in a controlled way. The thermal charging method resulted in a reduction of the initial hydrogen content. After electrochemical charging of cylindrical specimens, the measured hydrogen content was 2.6 wt. ppm which should compared with 0.6 wt. ppm before charging. The retained hydrogen after two weeks was reduced by nearly 40%. Recently the paper 'Hydrogen depth profile in phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper after cathodic charging' (Martinsson and Sandstrom, 2012) has been published. The paper describes experimental results for bulk specimens as well as presenting a model. Almost all the hydrogen is found to be located less than 100 {mu}m from the surface. This model is used to interpret the experimental results on foils in the present report. Since the model is fully based on fundamental equations, it can be used to analyse what happens in new situations. In this report the effect of the charging intensity, the grain size, the critical nucleus size for hydrogen bubble formation as well as the charging time are analysed.

  10. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de Las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Quasi-experimental study. Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pcavitation was significantly (pcavitations per manipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect multiple

  11. Técnicas de análise do perfil de execução e otimização de programas em química computacional Techniques for the execution profile analysis and optimization of computational chemistry programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S. P. Gomes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the basic techniques of performance analysis within the UNIX environment that are relevant in computational chemistry, with particular emphasis on the execution profile using the gprof tool. Two case studies (in ab initio and molecular dynamics calculations are presented in order to illustrate how execution profiling can be used to effectively identify bottlenecks and to guide source code optimization. Using these profiling and optimization techniques it was possible to obtain significant speedups (of up to 30% in both cases.

  12. In search of the entrepreneurial profile(s) in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Dimaria, Charles-Henri; Ries, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This article tries to characterize the profiles of entrepreneurs in Luxembourg. First, theoretical benchmark definitions of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship are surveyed and descriptive statistics are computed to define an average profile of the entrepreneur using a new and original dataset for Luxembourg. Then, using the Factors of Business Success survey (FoBS), clustering techniques are used to determine potential entrepreneurial profiles in Luxembourg.

  13. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using trans-illumination technique with different curing profiles of LED light-curing unit in posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Ghaffari, Negin; Jalayer, Javad; Bozorgnia, Yasaman

    2013-11-21

    Although using light-cured composites for bonding orthodontic brackets has become increasingly popular, curing light cannot penetrate the metallic bulk of brackets and polymerization of composites is limited to the edges. Limited access and poor direct sight may be a problem in the posterior teeth. Meanwhile, effectiveness of the trans-illumination technique is questionable due to increased bucco-lingual thickness of the posterior teeth. Light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units cause less temperature rise and lower risk to the pulpal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of trans-illumination technique in bonding metallic brackets to premolars, using different light intensities and curing times of an LED light-curing unit. Sixty premolars were randomly divided into six groups. Bonding of brackets was done with 40- and 80-s light curing from the buccal or lingual aspect with different intensities. Shear bond strengths of brackets were measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test and Duncan's post hoc test. The highest shear bond belonged to group 2 (high intensity, 40 s, buccal) and the lowest belonged to group 3 (low intensity, 40 s, lingual). Bond strength means in control groups were significantly higher than those in experimental groups. In all experimental groups except group 6 (80 s, high intensity, lingual), shear bond strength was below the clinically accepted values. In clinical limitations where light curing from the same side of the bracket is not possible, doubling the curing time and increasing the light intensity during trans-illumination are recommended for achieving acceptable bond strengths.

  14. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  15. Virtual Manipulative Materials in Secondary Mathematics: A Theoretical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukasa, Immacukate K.; Stanley, Darren; Tuchtie, Martin

    2009-01-01

    With the increased use of computer manipulatives in teaching there is need for theoretical discussions on the role of manipulatives. This paper reviews theoretical rationales for using manipulatives and illustrates how earlier distinctions of manipulative materials are broadened to include new forms of materials such as virtual manipulatives.…

  16. Subcrestal Iliac-Screw: A Technical Note Describing a Free Hand, In-line, Low Profile Iliac Screw Insertion Technique to Avoid Side-connector Use and Reduce Implant Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gabriel; Hasan, Muhammed Y; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2018-01-15

    Case-series. To report our modified iliac-screw insertion technique and its clinical outcomes. Iliac-screws are one of the preferred methods for modern spinopelvic-fixation. However, the technique is not without complications, predominantly because of iliac-screw head prominence, leading to pain and revisions. Conventional iliac-screw entry point is sited superficially at the posterior-superior-iliac-spine (PSIS) contributing to screw-head prominence. We propose a more low-profile, subcrestal entry point that is more medial and inferior to the PSIS at the medial wall of the iliac crest, lying underneath the crest but above the sacroiliac joint. This position keeps the screw-head low profile and in-line with proximal instrumentation to ease rod engagement. Ten consecutive patients who underwent spinal deformity correction surgery using the modified iliac-screw entry point fixations were enrolled. Clinical, radiological, and surgical parameters were reviewed. Five males and five females with average age of 66 years and average follow up of 29 months were reviewed. Mean preoperative Cobb angle and C7-SVA were 32.1° and 10.3 cm, respectively. Surgical indication was progressive deformity and neurogenic claudication in eight cases and fracture in two cases. Twenty noncannulated, polyaxial iliac-screws with median dimension of 7.5 x 75 mm were inserted free hand. Bilateral S1 screws were used in all except two cases. Only five out of 16 iliac-screws with concomitant S1 screws needed side-connectors. At the last follow up only one iliac-screw head was felt to be prominent but without pain in a Parkinson's patient. None of the 10 patients had cases of revision, breakages, or sacroiliac pain. Subcrestal iliac-screw insertion is feasible, safe, and has the potential to reduce screw-head complications and avoid the use of side-connectors, lowering construct complexity and cost. The technique has the advantage of both the low-profile S2 alar iliac screw and the ease

  17. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A.

    2017-01-01

    Background No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. Purpose The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Study Design Quasi-experimental study Methods Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Result Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pmanipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Discussion Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect

  18. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Gilbert; Jaffe, J Douglas; Rafique, Maryum; Weinik, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 1 of the most common peripheral nerve entrapment disorders. Osteopathic manipulative medicine can be invaluable in diagnosing and managing CTS. Combined with a patient's history and a standard physical examination, an osteopathic structural examination can facilitate localizing the nerve entrapment, diagnosing CTS, and monitoring the disease process. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is noninvasive and can be used to supplement traditional CTS treatment methods. The authors also review the relevant anatomy involving CTS and the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative medicine in the management of this disorder.

  19. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...

  20. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  1. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C: Shear wave elastography and colour Doppler velocity profile technique versus liver biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ehab F; Makhlouf, Nahed; Hassany, Sahar M; Helmy, Ahmed; Nasr, Ahmed; Othman, Moustafa; Seif, Hany; Darwish, Manal; Hassan, Howayda; Hessen, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Determination of the presence and degree of liver fibrosis is essential for the prognosis and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Non-invasive methods of assessing fibrosis have been developed to reduce the need for biopsy. We determined the efficacy of shear wave elastography (SWE) and colour Doppler velocity as non-invasive methods for the assessment of liver fibrosis compared to liver biopsy among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In total, 117 patients with chronic HCV infection and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included. For each patient and control, abdominal ultrasonography, Doppler ultrasonography of the right portal vein (PV), and SWE were performed, whereas liver biopsy was performed for patients. The mean value of the right PV maximum velocity was lower in patients with different stages of fibrosis than in controls (pliver stiffness determined by SWE was significantly higher in patients with different stages of fibrosis than in controls. Cutoff values for liver stiffness determined by SWE for assessing fibrosis stages were F2⩾4.815, F3⩾6.335, and F4=7.540 with a sensitivity of 84.6%, 96.2%, and 100.0%; specificity of 88.5%, 93.8%, and 100.0%; positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.6%, 98.0%, and 100.0%; negative predictive value (NPV) of 74.2%, 88.2%, and 100.0%; and overall accuracy of 85.9%, 95.6%, and 100.0% [area under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89, 0.96, and 1.0], respectively. Cutoff values for the right PV maximum velocity for assessing fibrosis stages were F2liver fibrosis in patients with HCV infection. SWE provides a more accurate correlation with liver fibrosis stage than colour Doppler velocity profile for the assessment of liver fibrosis, especially in advanced stages (F3 and F4). Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selecting an appropriate placebo for a trial of spinal manipulative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Mark J; Maher, Christopher G; Latimer, Jane; McAuley, James H

    2006-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate control group or placebo for randomised controlled trials of spinal manipulative therapy is essential to the final interpretation and usefulness of these studies. Prior to starting a randomised controlled trial of spinal manipulative therapy for acute low back pain we wanted to ensure that the placebo selected would be considered appropriate by experts in the field thereby making the results more likely to be accepted and more likely to influence clinical practice. We developed ten placebo techniques that aimed to mimic spinal manipulative therapy as closely as possible which, while not including the active component of spinal manipulative therapy, were still credible. This list of placebo techniques with detailed descriptions was sent to 25 experts in the field from Australia and New Zealand including both clinicians and academics. We asked the experts to rate whether they believed each technique was appropriate for use as a placebo in a trial of spinal manipulative therapy. Sixteen (64%) of the experts responded. There were extremely low levels of agreement between the experts on which placebos were appropriate (kappa = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10). For nine of the ten placebos at least one expert considered the placebo to include the active component of spinal manipulative therapy while at least one other expert believed the same placebo was not only not active but also not credible. The results of this study demonstrate the different views of experts on what constitutes an appropriate placebo for trials of spinal manipulative therapy. Different beliefs about what is the active component of spinal manipulative therapy appear to be responsible for much of the disagreement.

  3. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell; Laboratoire a tres haute activite de Saclay. Equipement et techniques radiometallurgiques du laboratoire a haute activite de Saclay. Description de cellules pour manipulation de sels de plutonium. Amenagement d'une cellule du laboratoire de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  4. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  6. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 58(4):180–186. Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, et al. Comparison of general exercise, motor ... 1-2):31–37. Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, et al. Efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy ...

  7. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  8. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  9. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  10. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  11. Materials Centered Science and Manipulative Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of experience with two physical science units adapted for use by the visually impaired on the manipulative skills of 14 visually impaired low income students from 9 to 19 years of age. (DB)

  12. 75 FR 67657 - Prohibition of Market Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... WL 3326624 (2d Cir. 2009), Comm. Fut. L. Rep. ] 31,434 (noting evolution of analytical framework and... Commission to protect against fraud-based manipulation. I thank Senator Cantwell for her leadership in...

  13. Image manipulation: Fraudulence in digital dental records: Study and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, Aman; Sircar, Keya; Popli, Deepika Bablani; Tandon, Ankita

    2014-01-01

    In present-day times, freely available software allows dentists to tweak their digital records as never before. But, there is a fine line between acceptable enhancements and scientific delinquency. To manipulate digital images (used in forensic dentistry) of casts, lip prints, and bite marks in order to highlight tampering techniques and methods of detecting and preventing manipulation of digital images. Digital image records of forensic data (casts, lip prints, and bite marks photographed using Samsung Techwin L77 digital camera) were manipulated using freely available software. Fake digital images can be created either by merging two or more digital images, or by altering an existing image. Retouched digital images can be used for fraudulent purposes in forensic investigations. However, tools are available to detect such digital frauds, which are extremely difficult to assess visually. Thus, all digital content should mandatorily have attached metadata and preferably watermarking in order to avert their malicious re-use. Also, computer alertness, especially about imaging software's, should be promoted among forensic odontologists/dental professionals.

  14. Manipulatives Implementation For Supporting Learning Of Mathematics For Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyaningsih, D.; Mawarsari, V. D.; Hidayah, I.; Dwijanto

    2017-04-01

    Manipulatives are needed by teachers to facilitate students understand of mathematics which is abstract. As a prospective mathematics teacher, the student must have good skills in making manipulatives. Aims of this study is to describe the implementation of learning courses of manipulative workshop in mathematics education courses by lecturer at Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang which includes the preparation of learning, general professional ability, the professional capacity specifically, ability of self-development, development class managing, planning and implementation of learning, a way of delivering the material, and evaluation of learning outcomes. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires, interviews, and observation. The research instrument consisted of a questionnaire sheet, sheet observation and interview guides. Validity is determined using data triangulation and triangulation methods. Data were analyzed using an interactive model. The results showed that the average value of activities in preparation for learning, fosters capabilities of general professional, specialized professional, self-development, manage the classroom, implementing the learning, how to deliver the material, and how to evaluate learning outcomes are 79%, 73%, 67%, 75%, 83%, 72%, 64%, and 54%, respectively

  15. Embedded Optimal Control of Robot Manipulators with Passive Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal control problem for planar underactuated robot manipulators with two revolute joints and brakes at the unactuated joints in the presence of gravity. The presence of a brake at an unactuated joint gives rise to two operating modes for that joint: free and braked. As a consequence, there exist two operating modes for a robot manipulator with one unactuated joint and four operating modes for a manipulator with two unactuated joints. Since these systems can change dynamics, they can be regarded as switched dynamical systems. The optimal control problem for these systems is solved using the so-called embedding approach. The main advantages of this technique are that assumptions about the number of switches are not necessary, integer or binary variables do not have to be introduced to model switching decisions between modes, and the optimal switching times between modes are not unknowns of the optimal control problem. As a consequence, the resulting problem is a classical continuous optimal control problem. In this way, a general method for the solution of optimal control problems for switched dynamical systems is obtained. It is shown in this paper that it can deal with nonintegrable differential constraints.

  16. Mental Models and Deliberate Manipulation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koester, Thomas; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Brøsted, Jesper Ejdorf

    2015-01-01

    compromise patient safety and/or the integrity of the system. The pilot study in this paper set out to explore mental models and deliberate manipulation of data in a Danish telemedicine setting of home monitoring among pregnant women. Results show, that patients construct mental models of the telemedicine...... system, and that the patient can utilize such mental models in attempts to manipulate their data input to get a desired output from the telemedicine system....

  17. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  18. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials.

  19. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for colonic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Lewe, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Surgical treatment options for patients with colonic inertia are costly and do not always relieve the pain associated with the condition. The author describes a case of a 41-year-old woman with colonic inertia who received osteopathic manipulative treatment targeted at the neuromusculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems. The patient reported temporary improvement in pain and bowel function without pharmacotherapy or surgical intervention. Osteopathic manipulative treatment should be considered in patients with visceral as well as neuromusculoskeletal symptoms.

  20. Optical Trapping, Cell Manipulation, And Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Morrison, William C.; Upham, Bryan D.

    1989-06-01

    A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed.

  1. Optical trapping, cell manipulation and robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, T.N.; Neagley, D.L.; Morrison, W.C.; Upham, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of Robot Manipulator via Intelligent Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neha; Ohri, Jyoti

    2017-02-01

    Inspite of so much research, key technical problem, naming chattering of conventional, simple and robust SMC is still a challenge to the researchers and hence limits its practical application. However, newly developed soft computing based techniques can provide solution. In order to have advantages of conventional and heuristic soft computing based control techniques, in this paper various commonly used intelligent techniques, neural network, fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been combined with sliding mode controller (SMC). For validation, proposed hybrid control schemes have been implemented for tracking a predefined trajectory by robotic manipulator, incorporating structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system. After reviewing numerous papers, all the commonly occurring uncertainties like continuous disturbance, uniform random white noise, static friction like coulomb friction and viscous friction, dynamic friction like Dhal friction and LuGre friction have been inserted in the system. Various performance indices like norm of tracking error, chattering in control input, norm of input torque, disturbance rejection, chattering rejection have been used. Comparative results show that with almost eliminated chattering the intelligent SMC controllers are found to be more efficient over simple SMC. It has also been observed from results that ANFIS based controller has the best tracking performance with the reduced burden on the system. No paper in the literature has found to have all these structured and unstructured uncertainties together for motion control of robotic manipulator.

  3. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D...

  4. Acupuncture manipulation enhances anti-nociceptive effect on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Ho; Yeom, Mijung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Shim, Insop; Hong, Mee Sook; Kim, Chang-Ju; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2010-02-01

    In order to apply appropriate acupuncture stimulation, different needle manipulation techniques are required. These manipulations are performed in many ways such as twirling the needle, varying the insertion angle, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of these manipulations to the acupuncture point ST36 on formalin-induced pain in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: non-treated control (CON), acupuncture without manipulation (AT), acupuncture with twirling manipulation (TM) and acupuncture with lifting-thrusting manipulation (LM) group. Level of pain was measured in formalin-injected rats in the early (0-10 minutes) and the late (10-60 minutes) phase. Several pain-related gene expressions were investigated in the spinal cord using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Formalin-induced pain was significantly reduced in the TM and the LM groups, compared with the CON and the AT groups. TM was more effective than LM in both phases. Needle manipulation was also effective in suppressing the mRNA expression of pain-related genes such as Fos, opioid receptor-like 1, tachykinin 1, tachykinin receptor 1, mu-opioid receptor and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A in the spinal cord. The TM and the LM groups showed enhanced analgesia, compared with the AT group. This effect might be related to the suppression of the transcription of pain-related genes.

  5. The senior pupils’ understanding of the essence of manipulative strategies in communicative sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Григорівна Кучерявець

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of an adequate understanding of the manipulative strategy in educational process of the modern school by the high school aged pupils. The topicality of the problem is connected with inadequate spread of manipulative interaction in all life spheres. The deficiency of the skill of expedient use of manipulation in pedagogical process as well as fixing manipulation as the main way of relation construction are the unfavorable variants of human development. There were characterized the main influence strategies in communication. There were cited the results of techniques and creative tasks that allow to reveal the understanding of essence of manipulative strategy and to study its functioning in the senior pupils’ communicative plane. The special authors’ attention was concentrated on determination of pedagogical conditions of mastering the experience of manipulative communication by the high school aged pupils. In the process of research there were determined the certain threatening moments: the significant part of senior pupils does not understand their own manipulative actions, but see it in surrounding people and is ready to aggressive response. The ability to use the ways of flexible, adaptive countermanipulation that allow retain communicative connections between pupils and teachers is not sufficiently developed in the pupils of high school age

  6. On-demand Droplet Manipulation via Triboelectrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Vahabi, Hamed; Cackovic, Matthew; Jiang, Rui; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    Controlled manipulation of liquid droplets has attracted tremendous interest across different scientific fields over the past two decades. To date, a variety of external stimuli-mediated methods such as magnetic field, electric field, and light have been developed for manipulating droplets on surfaces. However, these methods usually have drawbacks such as complex fabrication of manipulation platform, low droplet motility, expensive actuation system and lack of precise control. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of liquid droplet with both high (e.g., water) and low (e.g., n-hexadecane) dielectric strengths on a smooth, slippery surface via triboelectric effect. Our highly simple, facile and portable methodology enables on-demand, precise manipulation of droplets using solely the electrostatic attraction or repulsion force, which is exerted on the droplet by a simple charged actuator (e.g., Teflon film). We envision that our triboelectric effect enabled droplet manipulation methodology will open a new avenue for droplet based lab-on-a-chip systems, energy harvesting devices and biomedical applications.

  7. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. OPTIMAL POINT TO POINT PATH PLANNING OF FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR UNDER LARGE DEFORMATION BY USING HARMONY SEARCH METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Esfandiar, Habib; Habibnejad Korayem, Moharam

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at planning an optimal point to point path for a flexible manipulator under large deformation. For this purpose, the researchers use a direct method and meta-heuristic optimization process. In this paper, the maximum load carried by the manipulator and the minimum transmission time are taken as objective functions of the optimization process to get optimal path profiles. Kinematic constraints, the maximum velocity and acceleration, the dynamic constraint of the maximum torque ...

  10. Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth kinetics with application to bacterial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappan, R.E.; Fogler, H.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-15

    Bacterial profile modification (BPM) is being developed as an oil recovery technique that uses bacteria to selectively plug oil depleted zones within a reservoir to divert displacing fluids into oil-rich zones. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which produces dextran when supplied with sucrose, is a bacterium that is technically feasible for use in profile modification. However, the technique requires controlled bacterial growth to produce selective plugging. A kinetic model for the production of cells and polysaccharides has been developed for L. mesenteroides bacteria. This model, based on data from batch growth experiments, predicts saccharide utilization, cell generation, and dextran production. The underlying mechanism is the extracellular breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and the subsequent production of polysaccharide. The monosaccharides are then available for growth. Accompanying sucrose consumption is the utilization of yeast extract. The cell requires a complex media that is provided by yeast extract as a source of vitamins and amino acids. Varying the concentration ratio of yeast extract to sucrose in the growth media provides a means of controlling the amount of polymer produced per cell. Consequently, in situ bacteria growth can be controlled by the manipulation of nutrient media composition, thereby providing the ability to create an overall strategy for the use of L. mesenteroides bacteria for profile modification.

  11. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926-1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface.

  12. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Leinen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926–1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111 surface.

  13. Soil Temperature Manipulation to Study Global Warming Effects in Arable Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, R H; Laegdsmand, M; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    clearly showed the efficacy of buried heating-cable technique in simulating soil temperature, and thus offers a simple, effective and alternative technique to study soil biogeochemical processes under warmer climates. This technique, however, decouples below-ground soil responses from that of above......-ground vegetation response as this method heats only the soil. Therefore, using infrared heaters seems to represent natural climate warming (both air and soil) much more closely and may be used for future climate manipulation field studies....

  14. Dynamic manipulation of magnetic contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Congxian; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Seo, Chi Hyung; Hu, Xiaoge; Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used extensively ex vivo for cellular and molecular separations. We recently showed that a coupled nanoparticle combining a superparamagnetic core with a thin, isolated gold shell providing strong absorption in the near infrared can be used for magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging (mmPA), a new technique in which magnetic manipulation of the particle during PA imaging greatly enhances molecular contrast specificity. This particle can also be biologically targeted for in vivo applications, where mmPA imaging provides a spatially localized readout of magnetic manipulations. As an initial test of potential in vivo molecular assays and integrated molecular therapeutics using magnetic manipulation of nanoparticles, we present experiments demonstrating PA readout of trapped magnetic particles in a flow field. An aqueous solution containing a concentration of 0.05-mg/ml 10-μM superparamagnetic iron oxide particles flowed in a 1.65-mm diameter Zeus PTFE (Teflon) sublite wall tubing at three velocities of 0.8, 1.5 and 3.0-mm/s. Opposed permanent magnets separated by 40-mm were positioned on both sides of the tube. As expected, the targeted objects can be magnetically captured and accumulated locally. By translating the magnets, a dynamic magnetic field (0.1-0.3-T) was alternately generated on the side of the tube closest to one of the magnets and created a synchronous PA motion from accumulated targeted objects. This synchronized motion can be used to differentiate the stationary background or other PA sources moving asynchronously with magnetic manipulations (e.g., moving blood) from targeted cells moving synchronously with the magnetic field. This technology can potentially provide sensitive molecular assays of cellular targets travelling in the vasculature (e.g., metastatic tumor cells).

  15. Short-term effects of manipulative treatment versus a therapeutic home exercise protocol for chronic cervical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Ramírez-Velez, Robinson

    2018-01-01

    ) with stretching and low-intensity (10% of max) isometric contractions on pain and function. METHODS: Single-blind randomized clinical trial was performed. A total of 27 asymptomatic subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: manipulation techniques (MT, n= 13) and home exercise (HE, n= 14). The visual analogue......BACKGROUND: While both manipulative treatment and physical exercises are used to treat cervical pain, it remains unclear which is most effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term effects of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation techniques (MT) with those of home-exercise (HE...

  16. Manipulating quantum information by propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Alvaro [Departmento de Automatica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Plenio, Martin B [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    We study the creation of bipartite and multipartite continuous variable entanglement in structures of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators. By adjusting the interaction strengths between nearest neighbours we show how to maximize the entanglement production between the arms in a Y-shaped structure where an initial single mode squeezed state is created in the first oscillator of the input arm. We also consider the action of the same structure as an approximate quantum cloner. For a specific time in the system dynamics the last oscillators in the output arms can be considered as imperfect copies of the initial state. By increasing the number of arms in the structure, multipartite entanglement is obtained, as well as 1 {yields}M cloning. Finally, we consider configurations that implement the symmetric splitting of an initial entangled state. All calculations are carried out within the framework of the rotating wave approximation in quantum optics, and our predictions could be tested with current available experimental techniques.

  17. Role of lateral forces on atom manipulation process on Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface in dynamic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ayhan; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the role of lateral force components on the lateral manipulation of intrinsic Si adatoms toward a vacancy site on a Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface using noncontact atomic force microscopy at room temperature. Lateral atom manipulation was accomplished via constant-height scans using a set of tips with varying chemical reactivities. We determined the vertical and lateral force as well as the interaction energy profiles associated with the lateral manipulation of a Si adatom on a Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface. Our results demonstrate that lateral forces do not play a decisive role in the manipulation process while the vertical force component is key for the manipulation process, and the ability to manipulate the Si adatom depends primarily on the chemical nature of the tip apex. Our results further reveal that the tips that exhibit high chemical reactivity with Si adatoms have a sharper interaction energy profile above Si adatoms than tips with less chemical reactivity, indicating the stronger atom-trapping ability of the chemically reactive tips. This characteristic property gives tips the ability to create localized reductions in the energy barrier required for adatom movement, thereby enabling thermally induced adatom hopping toward the tip. These findings can enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the lateral manipulation of intrinsic adatoms of semiconductor surfaces, as well as adsorbate atoms/molecules forming covalent bonds with tip-surface systems, i.e., chemisorption systems.

  18. [Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints and the academic thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-li; Jin, Xiao-qing

    2014-11-01

    Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints is a set of needling manipulation of the chief physician of TCM, SHENG Xie-sun, summarized through his over 50 years clinical experiences and on the basis of Internal Classic. Regarding this manipulation, on the premise of acupoint selection based on syndrome differentiation, the acupoints close to bone are possibly selected and punctured, with the needle tip toward bone edge, and followed by the technique to achieve reducing purpose. Clinically, the significant immediate analgesia can be achieved in pain disorders such as headache and toothache. Professor Sheng thought, corresponding to the location of needle insertion and needling depth, the tissue layers of needle tip passing through should be considered specially. The site of needle insertion should be changeable so as to ensure the needle tip reaching the bone. This manipulation for analgesia provides a certain guide for acupuncture study, especially for the mechanism study on acupuncture analgesia.

  19. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment as a Useful Adjunctive Tool for Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheldon; Hassani, John; Gagne, Martin; George, Gebe; Gilliar, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia, the inflammatory state of lung tissue primarily due to microbial infection, claimed 52,306 lives in the United States in 20071 and resulted in the hospitalization of 1.1 million patients2. With an average length of in-patient hospital stay of five days2, pneumonia and influenza comprise significant financial burden costing the United States $40.2 billion in 20053. Under the current Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines, standard-of-care recommendations include the rapid administration of an appropriate antibiotic regiment, fluid replacement, and ventilation (if necessary). Non-standard therapies include the use of corticosteroids and statins; however, these therapies lack conclusive supporting evidence4. (Figure 1) Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is a cost-effective adjunctive treatment of pneumonia that has been shown to reduce patients’ length of hospital stay, duration of intravenous antibiotics, and incidence of respiratory failure or death when compared to subjects who received conventional care alone5. The use of manual manipulation techniques for pneumonia was first recorded as early as the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918, when patients treated with standard medical care had an estimated mortality rate of 33%, compared to a 10% mortality rate in patients treated by osteopathic physicians6. When applied to the management of pneumonia, manual manipulation techniques bolster lymphatic flow, respiratory function, and immunological defense by targeting anatomical structures involved in the these systems7,8, 9, 10. The objective of this review video-article is three-fold: a) summarize the findings of randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of OMT in adult patients with diagnosed pneumonia, b) demonstrate established protocols utilized by osteopathic physicians treating pneumonia, c) elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind manual manipulation of the respiratory and lymphatic systems

  20. Osteopathic manipulative treatment as a useful adjunctive tool for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheldon; Hassani, John; Gagne, Martin; George, Gebe; Gilliar, Wolfgang

    2014-05-06

    Pneumonia, the inflammatory state of lung tissue primarily due to microbial infection, claimed 52,306 lives in the United States in 2007 (1) and resulted in the hospitalization of 1.1 million patients (2). With an average length of in-patient hospital stay of five days (2), pneumonia and influenza comprise significant financial burden costing the United States $40.2 billion in 2005 (3). Under the current Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines, standard-of-care recommendations include the rapid administration of an appropriate antibiotic regiment, fluid replacement, and ventilation (if necessary). Non-standard therapies include the use of corticosteroids and statins; however, these therapies lack conclusive supporting evidence (4). (Figure 1) Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is a cost-effective adjunctive treatment of pneumonia that has been shown to reduce patients' length of hospital stay, duration of intravenous antibiotics, and incidence of respiratory failure or death when compared to subjects who received conventional care alone (5). The use of manual manipulation techniques for pneumonia was first recorded as early as the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918, when patients treated with standard medical care had an estimated mortality rate of 33%, compared to a 10% mortality rate in patients treated by osteopathic physicians (6). When applied to the management of pneumonia, manual manipulation techniques bolster lymphatic flow, respiratory function, and immunological defense by targeting anatomical structures involved in the these systems(7,8, 9, 10). The objective of this review video-article is three-fold: a) summarize the findings of randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of OMT in adult patients with diagnosed pneumonia, b) demonstrate established protocols utilized by osteopathic physicians treating pneumonia, c) elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind manual manipulation of the respiratory and

  1. Rhythmic Manipulation of Objects with Complex Dynamics: Predictability over Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The study of object manipulation has been largely confined to discrete tasks, where accuracy, mechanical effort, or smoothness were examined to explain subjects' preferred movements. This study investigated a rhythmic manipulation task, which involved continuous interaction with a nonlinear object that led to unpredictable object behavior. Using a simplified virtual version of the task of carrying a cup of coffee, we studied how this unpredictable object behavior affected the selected strategies. The experiment was conducted in a virtual set-up, where subjects moved a cup with a ball inside, modeled by cart-and-pendulum dynamics. Inverse dynamics calculations of the system showed that performing the task with different amplitudes and relative phases required different force profiles and rendered the object's dynamics with different degrees of predictability (quantified by Mutual Information between the applied force and the cup kinematics and its sensitivity). Subjects (n = 8) oscillated the virtual cup between two targets via a robotic manipulandum, paced by a metronome at 1 Hz for 50 trials, each lasting 45 s. They were free to choose their movement amplitude and relative phase between the ball and cup. Experimental results showed that subjects increased their movement amplitudes, which rendered the interactions with the object more predictable and with lower sensitivity to the execution variables. These solutions were associated with higher average exerted force and lower object smoothness, contradicting common expectations from studies on discrete object manipulation and unrestrained movements. Instead, the findings showed that humans selected strategies with higher predictability of interaction dynamics. This finding expressed that humans seek movement strategies where force and kinematics synchronize to repeatable patterns that may require less sensorimotor information processing. PMID:25340581

  2. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power

  3. Optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits in awake marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Matthew; Nummela, Samuel U; Coop, Shanna; Disney, Anita; Mitchell, Jude F; Miller, Cory T

    2016-09-01

    Optogenetics has revolutionized the study of functional neuronal circuitry (Boyden ES, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Deisseroth K. Nat Neurosci 8: 1263-1268, 2005; Deisseroth K. Nat Methods 8: 26-29, 2011). Although these techniques have been most successfully implemented in rodent models, they have the potential to be similarly impactful in studies of nonhuman primate brains. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently emerged as a candidate primate model for gene editing, providing a potentially powerful model for studies of neural circuitry and disease in primates. The application of viral transduction methods in marmosets for identifying and manipulating neuronal circuitry is a crucial step in developing this species for neuroscience research. In the present study we developed a novel, chronic method to successfully induce rapid photostimulation in individual cortical neurons transduced by adeno-associated virus to express channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in awake marmosets. We found that large proportions of neurons could be effectively photoactivated following viral transduction and that this procedure could be repeated for several months. These data suggest that techniques for viral transduction and optical manipulation of neuronal populations are suitable for marmosets and can be combined with existing behavioral preparations in the species to elucidate the functional neural circuitry underlying perceptual and cognitive processes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available of the platform. An environment is simulated using a gradient vector field and a simulated iRobot PackBot platform is modeled moving through the environment. The PackBot manipulator motion is modeled using the forward kinematics of serial structured manipulators...

  5. Massively parallel single-molecule manipulation using centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Precise manipulation of single molecules has already led to remarkable insights in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. However, widespread adoption of single-molecule techniques has been impeded by equipment cost and the laborious nature of making measurements one molecule at a time. We have solved these issues with a new approach: massively parallel single-molecule force measurements using centrifugal force. This approach is realized in a novel instrument that we call the Centrifuge Force Microscope (CFM), in which objects in an orbiting sample are subjected to a calibration-free, macroscopically uniform force-field while their micro-to-nanoscopic motions are observed. We demonstrate high-throughput single-molecule force spectroscopy with this technique by performing thousands of rupture experiments in parallel, characterizing force-dependent unbinding kinetics of an antibody-antigen pair in minutes rather than days. Additionally, we verify the force accuracy of the instrument by measuring the well-est...

  6. Tuneable elastomeric nanochannels for nanofluidic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Mills, K. L.; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Burns, Mark A.; Thouless, M. D.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-06-01

    Fluidic transport through nanochannels offers new opportunities to probe fundamental nanoscale transport phenomena and to develop tools for manipulating DNA, proteins, small molecules and nanoparticles. The small size of nanofabricated devices and the accompanying increase in the effect of surface forces, however, pose challenges in designing and fabricating flexible nanofluidic systems that can dynamically adjust their transport characteristics according to the handling needs of various molecules and nanoparticles. Here, we describe the use of nanoscale fracturing of oxidized poly(dimethylsiloxane) to conveniently fabricate nanofluidic systems with arrays of nanochannels that can actively manipulate nanofluidic transport through dynamic modulation of the channel cross-section. We present the design parameters for engineering material properties and channel geometry to achieve reversible nanochannel deformation using remarkably small forces. We demonstrate the versatility of the elastomeric nanochannels through tuneable sieving and trapping of nanoparticles, dynamic manipulation of the conformation of single DNA molecules and in situ photofabrication of movable polymeric nanostructures.

  7. Television systems for remote manipulation. [in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, W. H.; Freedman, L. A.; Coan, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was conducted to specify a video system for remote manipulation in space. An operator function analysis identified two basic characteristics, work volume and element relationship, which define four manipulation tasks chosen for examination. A visual function analysis developed a set of elemental scene parameters which grouped the visual dimensions into major areas of influence. Simulation testing was conducted with a four degree-of-freedom motion frame which allowed an operator to perform the manipulation tasks. Four video systems were included in the simulation testing: a black and white and a color monoscopic system, a stereoscopic system, and a black and white two-view system. A sequential experimental plan first provided an overall analysis of the effects of tasks, scene parameters, and video systems. This was followed by a detailed experimental examination of the critical dimensions identified in the first experiment. Results are discussed in terms of a recommended TV system.

  8. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  9. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    , and proposes the VM* family of model manipulation languages addressing them. This family consists of the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL), the Visual Model Constraint Language (VMCL), and the Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL). They allow modelers to specify and execute queries, constraints......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... integration, the VM* Runtime is deployed as a collection of lightweight Web Services. The claim that VM* languages offer end-user modelers superior learnability compared to existing model manipulation languages is verified empirically via user experiments complemented by qualitative evidence....

  10. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Development of an optimum end-effector with a nano-scale uneven surface for non-adhesion cell manipulation using a micro-manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horade, M.; Kojima, M.; Kamiyama, K.; Kurata, T.; Mae, Y.; Arai, T.

    2015-11-01

    In order to realize effective micro-manipulation using a micro-manipulator system, an optimum end-effector is proposed. Cell-manipulation experiments using mouse fibroblast cells are conducted, and the usability of the proposed end-effector is confirmed. A key advantage of the micro-manipulator is high-accuracy, high-speed 3D micro- and nano-scale positioning. Micro-manipulation has often been used in research involving biological cells. However, there are two important concerns with the micro-manipulator system: gripping efficiency and the release of gripped objects. When it is not possible to grip a micro-object, such as a cell, near its center, the object may be dropped during manipulation. Since the acquisition of exact position information for a micro-object in the vertical direction is difficult using a microscope, the gripping efficiency of the end-effector should be improved. Therefore, technical skill or operational support is required. Since, on the micro-scale, surface forces such as the adsorption force are greater than body forces, such as the gravitational force, the adhesion force between the end-effector and the object is strong. Therefore, manipulation techniques without adhesion are required for placed an object at an arbitrary position. In the present study, we consider direct physical contact between the end-effector and objects. First, the design and materials of the end-effector for micro-scale manipulation were optimized, and an end-effector with an optimum shape to increase the grip force was fabricated. Second, the surface of the end-effector tip was made uneven, and the adhesion force from increasing on the micro-scale was prevented. When an end-effector with an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 85.0% of the time. On the other hand, when an end-effector without an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 6.25% of the time. Therefore, the superiority of a structure with an uneven

  12. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  13. Manipulation of soil biota in ecological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-M. He

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of soil biota, such as soil sterilization, may have complex effects as they alter soil properties as well as microorganism communities. To assess the effects of such manipulation, we conducted an experiment using three sterilizing approaches, two soil types, and two plant species to identify the problems that may occur when different sterilizing approaches are used. The sterilizing treatments decreased growth of plants and resulted in large changes in soil nutrients and pH. Such effects varied with the approach followed. Our data suggest that studied effects on soil biota may be misleading if we fail to consider such changes in the soil.

  14. Trust and Manipulation in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Manuel; Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/bandeau-haut/document-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2013.65 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We investigate the role of manipulation in a model of opinion formation where agents have opinions about some common question of interest. Agents repeatedly communicate with their neighbors in the social network, can exert some effort to manipulate the trust of others, and update their opinions taki...

  15. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  16. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  17. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  18. Guideline for Reporting Interventions on Spinal Manipulative Therapy: Consensus on Interventions Reporting Criteria List for Spinal Manipulative Therapy (CIRCLe SMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Oostendorp, Rob A B; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the Consensus on Interventions Reporting Criteria List for Spinal Manipulative Therapy (CIRCLe SMT) study was to develop a criteria list for reporting spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). A Delphi procedure was conducted from September 2011 to April 2013 and consisted of international experts in the field of SMT. The authors formed a steering committee and invited participants, selected initial items, structured the comments of the participants after each Delphi round, and formulated the feedback. To ensure content validity, a large number of international experts from different SMT-related disciplines were invited to participate. A workshop was organized following the consensus phase, and it was used to discuss and refine the wording of the items. In total, 123 experts from 18 countries participated. These experts included clinicians (70%), researchers (93%), and academics working in the area of SMT (27%), as well as journal editors (14%). (Note: The total is more than 100% because most participants reported 2 jobs.) Three Delphi rounds were necessary to reach a consensus. The criteria list comprised 24 items under 5 domains, including (1) rationale of the therapy, (2) description of the intervention, (3) SMT techniques, (4) additional intervention/techniques, and (5) quantitative data. A valid criteria list was constructed with the aim of promoting consistency in reporting SMT intervention in scientific publications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. From computing with numbers to computing with words. From manipulation of measurements to manipulation of perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, L A

    2001-04-01

    Interest in issues relating to consciousness has grown markedly during the last several years. And yet, nobody can claim that consciousness is a well-understood concept that lends itself to precise analysis. It may be argued that, as a concept, consciousness is much too complex to fit into the conceptual structure of existing theories based on Aristotelian logic and probability theory. An approach suggested in this paper links consciousness to perceptions and perceptions to their descriptors in a natural language. In this way, those aspects of consciousness which relate to reasoning and concept formation are linked to what is referred to as the methodology of computing with words (CW). Computing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language (e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the price of gas is low and declining, Berkeley is near San Francisco, it is very unlikely that there will be a significant increase in the price of oil in the near future, etc.). Computing with words is inspired by the remarkable human capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations. Familiar examples of such tasks are parking a car, driving in heavy traffic, playing golf, riding a bicycle, understanding speech, and summarizing a story. Underlying this remarkable capability is the brain's crucial ability to manipulate perceptions--perceptions of distance, size, weight, color, speed, time, direction, force, number, truth, likelihood, and other characteristics of physical and mental objects. Manipulation of perceptions plays a key role in human recognition, decision and execution processes. As a methodology, computing with words provides a foundation for a computational theory of perceptions: a theory which may have an important

  20. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasaku, K; Negoro, M; Himeno, R

    2001-12-22

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had masterslave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  1. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasaku, K.; Negoro, M.; Himeno, R.

    2001-01-01

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had master-slave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  2. Solution of Inverse Kinematics for 6R Robot Manipulators With Offset Wrist Based on Geometric Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongtao; Yang, Wenyu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method based on geometric algebra for computing the solutions to the inverse kinematics problem (IKP) of the 6R robot manipulators with offset wrist. Due to the fact that there exist some difficulties to solve the inverse kinematics problem when the kinematics equations are complex, highly nonlinear, coupled and multiple solutions in terms of these robot manipulators stated mathematically, we apply the theory of Geometric Algebra to the kinematic modeling of 6R robot manipulators simply and generate closed-form kinematics equations, reformulate the problem as a generalized eigenvalue problem with symbolic elimination technique, and then yield 16 solutions. Finally, a spray painting robot, which conforms to the type of robot manipulators, is used as an example of implementation for the effectiveness and real-time of this method. The experimental results show that this method has a large advantage over the classical methods on geometric intuition, computation and real-time, and can be directly extended to all serial robot manipulators and completely automatized, which provides a new tool on the analysis and application of general robot manipulators.

  3. Mobilization and Manipulation of the Cervical Spine in Patients with Cervicogenic Headache: Any Scientific Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodan Dela Rosa Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical mobilization and manipulation are frequently used to treat patients diagnosed with cervicogenic headache (CEH, however there is conflicting evidence on the efficacy of these manual therapy techniques. The purpose of this review is to investigate the effects of cervical mobilization and manipulation on pain intensity and headache frequency, compared to traditional physical therapy interventions in patients diagnosed with CEH. A total of 66 relevant studies were originally identified through a review of the literature, and the 25 most suitable articles were fully evaluated via a careful review of the text. Ultimately, ten studies met the inclusion criteria: 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT or open randomized controlled trial; the study contained at least two separate groups of subjects that were randomly assigned either to a cervical spine mobilization or manipulation or a group that served as a comparison, 2 subjects must have had a diagnosis of CEH; 3 the treatment group received either spinal mobilization or spinal manipulation, while the control group received another physical therapy intervention or placebo control; and 4 the study included headache pain and frequency as outcome measurements. Seven of the ten studies had statistically significant findings that subjects who received mobilization or manipulation interventions experienced improved outcomes or reported fewer symptoms than control subjects. These results suggest that mobilization or manipulation of the cervical spine may be beneficial for individuals who suffer from CEH, although heterogeneity of the studies makes it difficult to generalize the findings.

  4. Efficacy and safety profile of a novel technique, ThuLEP (Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate) for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy. Our experience on 148 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Fabrizio; Prezioso, Domenico; Di Lauro, Giovanni; Romeo, Giuseppe; Ruffo, Antonio; Illiano, Ester; Amato, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years laser technology has played a predominant role in prostate surgery, for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Various laser devices have been introduced in clinical practice, showing good results in terms of complications and urodynamic outcomes efficacy compared with TURP and Open Prostatectomy.In this study we describe the efficacy and the safety profile of a novel laser technique, ThuLEP (Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate) that permits a complete anatomical endoscopic enucleation of prostatic adenoma independently to prostate size. 148 patients with a mean age of 68.2 years were enrolled between September 2009 and March 2012 (36 months), and treated for BPH with ThuLEP. Every patient was evaluated at base line according to: Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), prostate volume, Post-Voided volume (PVR), International Prostate Symptoms Score (I-PSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Quality of Life (QoL), PSA values, urine analysis and urine culture, uroflowmetry. The same evaluation was conducted after a 12 month follow-up. ThuLEP was performed by 2 expert surgeons. Our data showed a better post-operative outcome in terms of catheter removal, blood loss, TURP syndrome, clot retention and residual tissue compared to large series of TURP and OP. Only 1.3% of patients had bladder wall injury during morcellation. I-PSS, Qmax, Prostate Volume, QoL and PVR showed a highly significant improvement at 12 month follow-up in comparison to preoperative assessment. ThuLEP represent an innovative option in patients with BPH. It is a size independent surgical endoscopic technique and it can be considered the real alternative, at this time, to TURP and even more to Open Prostatectomy for large prostate, with a complete removal of adenoma and with a low complication rate.

  5. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the

  6. Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence Relevant to Classroom Instruction with Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira J.

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on instructional strategies with manipulatives. Often described as "hands-on learning", these strategies emphasize the use of physical and, more recently, virtual objects to represent target information and concepts. These strategies are frequently suggested as effective techniques for teaching…

  7. CASE STUDY 6.26: UNSUCCESSFUL TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATIONS MANIPULATIONS: SEAWATER BUFFERS AND STERILIZATION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper summarizes several unsuccessful attempts to develop Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) manipulations for aqueous samples during the first 5 years of our research. The first part of the paper explores irradiation as a sterilization technique to discern if sam...

  8. A plasmonic spanner for metal particle manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, W.; Shen, Z.; Man, Z.; Min, C.; Shen, J.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, metal particles are difficult to manipulate with conventional optical vortex (OV) tweezers, because of their strong absorption and scattering. However, it has been shown that the vortex field of surface plasmonic polaritons, called plasmonic vortex (PV), is capable of stable trapping and

  9. Attention manipulation for naval tactical picture compilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P.; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses and evaluates an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew. The agent model consists of four submodels, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. The model was evaluated based on a practical case study

  10. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping matr...

  11. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program prop...

  12. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female

  13. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  14. Multimodal Electrothermal Silicon Microgrippers for Nanotube Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström Andersen, Karin; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Carlson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Microgrippers that are able to manipulate nanoobjects reproducibly are key components in 3-D nanomanipulation systems. We present here a monolithic electrothermal microgripper prepared by silicon microfabrication, and demonstrate pick-and-place of an as-grown carbon nanotube from a 2-D array onto...

  15. Using Concrete Manipulatives in Mathematical Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie P.; Tiller, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA) instruction is a process for teaching and learning mathematical concepts. Starting with manipulation of concrete materials (counters, beans, Unifix cubes), the process moves students to the representational level (tallies, dots, stamps), and peaks at the abstract level, at which numbers and symbols are…

  16. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.

  17. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  18. Strengthening Controls from Within: Manipulated by Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasler, Claire E.; Laursen, Erik K.

    2004-01-01

    Since friendship and peer relationships are particularly important to teenagers, students with passive aggressive behaviors frequently and intentionally "set up" more aggressive peers to get them to react and to lose control, guaranteeing a behavioral consequence. As a result, the victim of being set up or "manipulated" also ends up being…

  19. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  20. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  1. Identity and incentives: impact on accounting manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.A.; Bouwens, J.; Kroos, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how individual characteristics of managers influence the incidence of accounting manipulation. We examine one particular characteristic argued to reduce agency costs, namely the extent to which an individual identifies with the firm (OI). Drawing on a database collected from

  2. A spatial impedance controller for robotic manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasse, Ernest D.; Fasse, Ernest; Broenink, Johannes F.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical impedance is the dynamic generalization of stiffness, and determines interactive behavior by definition. Although the argument for explicitly controlling impedance is strong, impedance control has had only a modest impact on robotic manipulator control practice. This is due in part to the

  3. The Problem-Solving Nemesis: Mindless Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Vincent J.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that only 21% of respondents (secondary school math teachers) used computer-assisted instruction for tutorial work, physical models to interpret abstract concepts, or real-life application of the arithmetic or algebraic manipulation. Recommends that creative teaching methods be applied to problem solving. (NKA)

  4. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...

  5. Perception and manipulation of game control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass - Oude Bos, D.; van de Laar, B.L.A.; Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    Brain-computer interfaces do not provide perfect recognition of user input, for similar reasons as natural input modalities. How well can users assess the amount of control they have, and how much control do they need? We describe an experiment where we manipulated the control users had in a

  6. Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, J.S.; Subramaniam, V.; van Driel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study of nuclear architecture and the mechanical

  7. maternal abdominal manipulation and massage in labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted about 4 hours and she had gone for abdominal manipulation and massaging before coming to the hospital. Apgar score at birth was 8 recorded 9 at 5 minutes. The baby was discovered to be very pale about 10 hours after delivery, so admitted in ...

  8. Kinematically Optimal Robust Control of Redundant Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicki, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with the problem of the robust optimal task space trajectory tracking subject to finite-time convergence. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a redundant manipulator are assumed to be uncertain. Moreover, globally unbounded disturbances are allowed to act on the manipulator when tracking the trajectory by the endeffector. Furthermore, the movement is to be accomplished in such a way as to minimize both the manipulator torques and their oscillations thus eliminating the potential robot vibrations. Based on suitably defined task space non-singular terminal sliding vector variable and the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive a class of chattering-free robust kinematically optimal controllers, based on the estimation of transpose Jacobian, which seem to be effective in counteracting both uncertain kinematics and dynamics, unbounded disturbances and (possible) kinematic and/or algorithmic singularities met on the robot trajectory. The numerical simulations carried out for a redundant manipulator of a SCARA type consisting of the three revolute kinematic pairs and operating in a two-dimensional task space, illustrate performance of the proposed controllers as well as comparisons with other well known control schemes.

  9. The risk associated with spinal manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina Mai; Tarp, Simon; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with SMT. METHODS: We...

  10. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation: Controllability, planning, and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mason, M.T. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are interested in using low-degree-of-freedom robots to perform complex tasks by nonprehensile manipulation (manipulation without a form- or force-closure grasp). By not grasping, the robot can use gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces as virtual motors to control more degrees of freedom of the part. The part`s extra motion freedoms are exhibited as rolling, slipping, and free flight. This paper describes controllability, motion planning, and implementation of planar dynamic nonprehensile manipulation. The authors show that almost any planar object is controllable by point contact, and the controlling robot requires only two degrees of freedom (a point translating in the plane). They then focus on a one-joint manipulator (with a two-dimensional state space), and show that even this simplest of robots, by using slipping and rolling, can control a planar object to a full-dimensional subset of its six-0dimensional state space. The authors have developed a one-joint robot to perform a variety of dynamic tasks, including snatching an object from a table, rolling an object on the surface of the arm, and throwing and catching. Nonlinear optimization is used to plan robot trajectories that achieve the desired object motion via coupling forces through the nonprehensile contact.

  11. Minimum jerk trajectory planning for robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the jerk of the desired trajectory adversely affects the performance of the tracking control algorithms for robotic manipulators. In this paper, the reasons behind this effect are investigated, and an optimization problem that minimizes joint jerk over a prespecified Cartesian space trajectory is stated. The necessary conditions are derived, and a numerical algorithm is presented.

  12. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  13. Elastic deformation characteristics and constitutive equations of light weight flexible robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdari, Ali

    Theoretical techniques have been developed to determine the tip positional errors of statically loaded flexible manipulators for any position and orientation. Two different approaches were taken in the analysis of flexible components of manipulator arms. One of which employs the strain energy invariance principle with respect to the elemental and the system reference coordinate frames in conjunction with the differential equations used in the classical beam theory to derive the desired combined flexural-joint stiffness matrix of the robotic structure. The second approach takes advantage of the (4 by 4) Denavit-Hartenberg homogeneous transformations to describe the kinematics of light weight flexible robotic arms under static loading. These methods are general in the sense that they may be applied to n-axis flexible manipulator arms. However, to simplify the derivations without deteriorating the techniques, only models of two link manipulator arms with flexible members are considered. To verify performance, these methods are simulated on an 11/780 Vax computer. Furthermore, sample of a two link motor arm were designed and constructed where the comparison between experimental and the theoretical results is quite satisfactory. The deformational inaccuracies of a current (so called rigid) manipulator such as the PUMA 560 robot is also examined and definite elastic deformation trends have been observed and discussed.

  14. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  15. Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; Kimel, Alexey V.; Rasing, Theo

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with magnetically ordered materials has developed into a fascinating research topic in modern magnetism. From the discovery of subpicosecond demagnetization over a decade ago to the recent demonstration of magnetization reversal by a single 40fs laser pulse, the manipulation of magnetic order by ultrashort laser pulses has become a fundamentally challenging topic with a potentially high impact for future spintronics, data storage and manipulation, and quantum computation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms implies understanding the interaction of photons with charges, spins, and lattice, and the angular momentum transfer between them. This paper will review the progress in this field of laser manipulation of magnetic order in a systematic way. Starting with a historical introduction, the interaction of light with magnetically ordered matter is discussed. By investigating metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics, the roles of (nearly) free electrons, charge redistributions, and spin-orbit and spin-lattice interactions can partly be separated, and effects due to heating can be distinguished from those that are not. It will be shown that there is a fundamental distinction between processes that involve the actual absorption of photons and those that do not. It turns out that for the latter, the polarization of light plays an essential role in the manipulation of the magnetic moments at the femtosecond time scale. Thus, circularly and linearly polarized pulses are shown to act as strong transient magnetic field pulses originating from the nonabsorptive inverse Faraday and inverse Cotton-Mouton effects, respectively. The recent progress in the understanding of magneto-optical effects on the femtosecond time scale together with the mentioned inverse, optomagnetic effects promises a bright future for this field of ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order or femtomagnetism.

  16. Light-Induced Local Heating for Thermophoretic Manipulation of DNA in Polymer Micro- and Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Larsen, Niels Bent; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for making polymer chips with a narrow-band near-infrared absorber layer that enables light-induced local heating of liquids inside fluidic micro- and nanochannels fabricated by thermal imprint in polymethyl methacrylate. We have characterized the resulting liquid temperature...... profiles in microchannels using the temperature dependent fluorescence of the complex [Ru(bpy)3]2+. We demonstrate thermophoretic manipulation of individual YOYO-1 stained T4 DNA molecules inside micro- and nanochannels....

  17. Intelligent Control of a Novel Hydraulic Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for large-size forgings has led to developments and innovations of heavy-duty forging manipulators. Besides the huge carrying capacity, some robot features such as force perception, delicacy and flexibility, forging manipulators should also possess. The aim of the work is to develop a heavy-duty forging manipulator with robot features by means of combination of methods in mechanical, hydraulic, and control field. In this paper, through kinematic analysis of a novel forging manipulator, control strategy of the manipulator is proposed considering the function and motion of forging manipulators. Hybrid pressure/position control of hydraulic actuators in forging manipulator is realized. The feasibility of the control method has been verified by the experiments on a real prototype of the novel hydraulic forging manipulator in our institute. The intelligent control of the forging manipulator is performed with programmable logic controller which is suitable for industrial applications.

  18. A study to determine the effectiveness of chiropractic manipulative therapy and chiropractic manipulative therapy combined with myofascial trigger point therapy in the treatment of chronic mechanical posterior cervical spine pain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chiropractic) This unblinded, controlled pilot study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of chiropractic manipulative therapy with that of a combined therapy involving chiropractic manipulative therapy and myofascial trigger point therapy (dry needling technique and passive stretching), in the treatment of chronic mechanical posterior cervical spine pain. In executing the comparison, it was hypothesised that both treatment protocols would be effective, but that the...

  19. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  20. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  1. Online Bimanual Manipulation Using Surface Electromyography and Incremental Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzulla, Ilaria; Nowak, Markus; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Castellini, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The paradigm of simultaneous and proportional myocontrol of hand prostheses is gaining momentum in the rehabilitation robotics community. As opposed to the traditional surface electromyography classification schema, in simultaneous and proportional control the desired force/torque at each degree of freedom of the hand/wrist is predicted in real-time, giving to the individual a more natural experience, reducing the cognitive effort and improving his dexterity in daily-life activities. In this study we apply such an approach in a realistic manipulation scenario, using 10 non-linear incremental regression machines to predict the desired torques for each motor of two robotic hands. The prediction is enforced using two sets of surface electromyography electrodes and an incremental, non-linear machine learning technique called Incremental Ridge Regression with Random Fourier Features. Nine able-bodied subjects were engaged in a functional test with the aim to evaluate the performance of the system. The robotic hands were mounted on two hand/wrist orthopedic splints worn by healthy subjects and controlled online. An average completion rate of more than 95% was achieved in single-handed tasks and 84% in bimanual tasks. On average, 5 min of retraining were necessary on a total session duration of about 1 h and 40 min. This work sets a beginning in the study of bimanual manipulation with prostheses and will be carried on through experiments in unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees thus increasing its scientific value.

  2. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  3. SVM-Based Control System for a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foudil Abdessemed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Real systems are usually non-linear, ill-defined, have variable parameters and are subject to external disturbances. Modelling these systems is often an approximation of the physical phenomena involved. However, it is from this approximate system of representation that we propose - in this paper - to build a robust control, in the sense that it must ensure low sensitivity towards parameters, uncertainties, variations and external disturbances. The computed torque method is a well-established robot control technique which takes account of the dynamic coupling between the robot links. However, its main disadvantage lies on the assumption of an exactly known dynamic model which is not realizable in practice. To overcome this issue, we propose the estimation of the dynamics model of the nonlinear system with a machine learning regression method. The output of this regressor is used in conjunction with a PD controller to achieve the tracking trajectory task of a robot manipulator. In cases where some of the parameters of the plant undergo a change in their values, poor performance may result. To cope with this drawback, a fuzzy precompensator is inserted to reinforce the SVM computed torque-based controller and avoid any deterioration. The theory is developed and the simulation results are carried out on a two-degree of freedom robot manipulator to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  4. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors. [hand mounted IR device to detect nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing devices suitable for hand mounting on a manipulator are described, which use near IR LED light sources operating at 0.94 micron and silicon detectors, with appropriate signal processing so that the data are unaffected by ambient light. Laboratory tests with simple proximity sensors are described. Extension of the same techniques to yield multipoint or digital sensors is also discussed. A cooperative proximity sensor concept is described, which employs a composite mirror attached to the work piece to generate an unambiguous set of position and orientation signals. A very rudimentary experiment in local control of a manipulator with a pair of hand mounted proximity sensors is also described.

  5. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-09-23

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults experiencing neck pain with or without radicular symptoms and cervicogenic headache (CGH) at immediate- to long-term follow-up. When appropriate, to assess the influence of treatment characteristics (i.e. technique, dosage), methodological quality, symptom duration and subtypes of neck disorder on treatment outcomes. Review authors searched the following computerised databases to November 2014 to identify additional studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, checked references, searched citations and contacted study authors to find relevant studies. We updated this search in June 2015, but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) undertaken to assess whether manipulation or mobilisation improves clinical outcomes for adults with acute/subacute/chronic neck pain. Two review authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, assessed risk of bias and applied Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods (very low, low, moderate, high quality). We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We included 51 trials (2920 participants, 18 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus control; 34 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus another treatment, 1 trial had two comparisons). Cervical manipulation versus inactive control: For subacute and chronic neck pain, a single manipulation (three trials, no meta

  6. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  7. Using Novel 2D Image Manipulation Methods to Aid Initial Concept Generation with Postgraduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurn, Karl; Storer, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide educators and industrial design professionals with an insight into the development of innovative design ideation images manipulation techniques and, highlight how these techniques could be used to not only improve student ideation skills, but also as design enablers for a broader range of professionals working…

  8. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  9. How to manipulate magnetic states of antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng; You, Yunfeng; Chen, Xianzhe; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials, which have drawn considerable attention recently, have fascinating features: they are robust against perturbation, produce no stray fields, and exhibit ultrafast dynamics. Discerning how to efficiently manipulate the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet is key to the development of antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this review, we introduce four main methods (magnetic, strain, electrical, and optical) to mediate the magnetic states and elaborate on intrinsic origins of different antiferromagnetic materials. Magnetic control includes a strong magnetic field, exchange bias, and field cooling, which are traditional and basic. Strain control involves the magnetic anisotropy effect or metamagnetic transition. Electrical control can be divided into two parts, electric field and electric current, both of which are convenient for practical applications. Optical control includes thermal and electronic excitation, an inertia-driven mechanism, and terahertz laser control, with the potential for ultrafast antiferromagnetic manipulation. This review sheds light on effective usage of antiferromagnets and provides a new perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  10. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  11. Stock Price Manipulation: The Role of Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Siddiqi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We model a scenario in which there are three types of investors: fundamentalists, speculators, and trend-followers and an intermediary who cares about his reputation. Fundamentalists are rational investors with long horizons who are interested in the dividend stream. Speculators are rational investors who have short horizons and are interested in profiting from short-term price movements or capital gains. Trend-followers are behavioral investors who extrapolate price trends, and, consequently, are late entrants in the market. We show that an informed intermediary (broker can manipulate demand (consequently stock price without losing his reputation when there is information asymmetry. We also show that there is a trade-off between broker level competition for reputation and market liquidity. Broker level competition checks manipulation, but it adversely affects market liquidity.

  12. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho [Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Maeda 7-15-4-1, Teine-ku, Sapporo 006-855 (Japan)], E-mail: toyodahm@poppy.ocn.ne.jp

    2009-10-15

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  13. Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

  14. Reversible Bergman cyclization by atomic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Bruno; Fatayer, Shadi; Mohn, Fabian; Moll, Nikolaj; Pavliček, Niko; Meyer, Gerhard; Peña, Diego; Gross, Leo

    2016-03-01

    The Bergman cyclization is one of the most fascinating rearrangements in chemistry, with important implications in organic synthesis and pharmacology. Here we demonstrate a reversible Bergman cyclization for the first time. We induced the on-surface transformation of an individual aromatic diradical into a highly strained ten-membered diyne using atomic manipulation and verified the products by non-contact atomic force microscopy with atomic resolution. The diyne and diradical were stabilized by using an ultrathin NaCl film as the substrate, and the diyne could be transformed back into the diradical. Importantly, the diradical and the diyne exhibit different reactivity, electronic, magnetic and optical properties associated with the changes in the bond topology, and spin multiplicity. With this reversible, triggered Bergman cyclization we demonstrated switching on demand between the two reactive intermediates by means of selective C-C bond formation or cleavage, which opens up the field of radical chemistry for on-surface reactions by atomic manipulation.

  15. Resolution of dacryostenosis after osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoznanski, Theresa E; Abu-Sbaih, Reem; Terzella, Michael J; Yao, Sheldon

    2015-02-01

    Dacryostenosis is an obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct and is the most common cause of epiphora and ocular discharge in newborns. Whereas most cases resolve spontaneously, invasive treatment may become necessary if symptoms persist past age 6 to 12 months. In the present case, a 9-month-old boy with persistent dacryostenosis was scheduled for lacrimal duct probing after first-line treatments failed. After a single session of osteopathic manipulative treatment, the patient's epiphora and other symptoms resolved, and he no longer needed surgical probing. A review of the literature highlights key pathophysiologic processes, management options, and musculoskeletal aspects of dacryostenosis. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of dacryostenosis. © 2015 The American Osteopathic Association.

  16. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  17. Multivariable PID Controller For Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Tarokh, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Gains updated during operation to cope with changes in characteristics and loads. Conceptual multivariable controller for robotic manipulator includes proportional/derivative (PD) controller in inner feedback loop, and proportional/integral/derivative (PID) controller in outer feedback loop. PD controller places poles of transfer function (in Laplace-transform space) of control system for linearized mathematical model of dynamics of robot. PID controller tracks trajectory and decouples input and output.

  18. Asset price manipulation with several traders

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, A

    2012-01-01

    In financial markets with asymmetric information, traders may have an incentive to forgo profitable deals today in order to preserve their informational advantage for future deals. This sort of manipulative behaviour has been studied in markets with one informed trader (Kyle 1985, Chakraborty and Yilmaz 2004). The effect is slower social learning. Using an extension of Glosten and Milgrom’s (1985) trading model, we study this effect in markets with N informed traders. As N grows large, each t...

  19. Asset price manipulation with several traders

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    In financial markets with asymmetric information, traders may have an incentive to forgo profitable deals today in order to preserve their informational advantage for future deals. This sort of manipulative behaviour has been studied in markets with one informed trader (Kyle 1985, Chakraborty and Yilmaz 2004). The effect is slower social learning. Using an extension of Glosten and Milgromメs (1985) trading model, we study this effect in markets with N informed traders. As N grows large, each t...

  20. Dynamical pixel manipulation of metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin-Qian

    2017-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metamaterials or known as metasurfaces have attracted researchers' attention due to their capability to manipulate the amplitudes, phases and polarization states of incident electromagnetic waves by conferring extra phase different phase at different positions through a super cell that is composed of different oriented structures. In other words, metasurfaces can achieve beam steering and wave shaping by imparting local, gradient phase shift to the incoming waves. With these abilities, metasurfaces can be applied to applications such as ultrathin invisibility cloaks, metasurface holograms, planar lenses and a vortex generator. With the above mentioned advantages and applications of metasurfaces, yet, all the demonstrated metasurfaces possess a main insufficiency that once the metasurfaces are designed and fabricated, their optical properties are then fixed without any chance for further manipulation, which limits their versatility in practical applications. Moreover, although some researchers employed dynamically changeable materials to achieve an active metasurface, such manipulation can only change the overall performance such as an operating frequency instead of changing the provided phase on each pixel of a metasurface. To solve this issue, we employ liquid crystal integrated with a metasurface and the combination could be thus be dynamically tuned via electric bias on each pixel of liquid crystals. Through this setup, we can alter the polarization state of the incident electromagnetic wave dynamically and thus manipulate the extra phase provided by each pixel. In this combination, liquid crystal is employed to change the incident polarization from 0 to 360-degree and the metasurface is designed to achieve four different output signals including phase modulated linear- and circular-polarized light and amplitude-modulated linear- and circular-polarized light. Meanwhile, the metasurfaces could also control the transmission efficiency of the