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Sample records for profile functional form

  1. Aggressive Forms and Functions on School Playgrounds: Profile Variations in Interaction Styles, Bystander Actions, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karin S.; Newman, Jodi Burrus; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.

    2014-01-01

    Coders used real-time focal-child sampling methods to observe the playground behavior and victimization experiences of 600 third to sixth grade youth. Person-centered analyses yielded three profiles that specified aggressive function (reactive, proactive) and form (direct, indirect), and conformed to social-information-processing functional…

  2. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  3. Flange Curling in Cold Formed Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Ramonas, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear flange curling phenomenon in cold formed profiles is the tendency of slender flanges to deform towards the neutral axis for increasing flexural curvature. Based on Braziers work, Winter proposed a simple engineering formula for determination of the local flange deformation towards...

  4. Suicide bombers form a new injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Klein, Yoram; Peleg, Kobi

    2006-12-01

    Recent explosions of suicide bombers introduced new and unique profiles of injury. Explosives frequently included small metal parts, increasing severity of injuries, challenging both physicians and healthcare systems. Timely detonation in crowded and confined spaces further increased explosion effect. Israel National Trauma Registry data on hospitalized terror casualties between October 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004 were analyzed. A total of 1155 patients injured by explosion were studied. Nearly 30% suffered severe to critical injuries (ISS > or = 16); severe injuries (AIS > or = 3) were more prevalent than in other trauma. Triage has changed as metal parts contained in bombs penetrate the human body with great force and may result in tiny entry wounds easily concealed by hair, clothes etc. A total of 36.6% had a computed tomography (CT), 26.8% had ultrasound scanning, and 53.2% had an x-ray in the emergency department. From the emergency department, 28.3% went directly to the operating room, 10.1% to the intensive care unit, and 58.4% directly to the ward. Injuries were mostly internal, open wounds, and burns, with an excess of injuries to nerves and to blood vessels compared with other trauma mechanisms. A high rate of surgical procedures was recorded, including thoracotomies, laparotomies, craniotomies, and vascular surgery. In certain cases, there were simultaneous multiple injuries that required competing forms of treatment, such as burns and blast lung. Bombs containing metal fragments detonated by suicide bombers in crowded locations change patterns and severity of injury in a civil population. Specific injuries will require tailored approaches, an open mind, and close collaboration and cooperation between trauma surgeons to share experience, opinions, and ideas. Findings presented have implications for triage, diagnosis, treatment, hospital organization, and the definition of surge capacity.

  5. Ceratonia siliqua L. hydroethanolic extract obtained by ultrasonication: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds profile and effects in yogurts functionalized with their free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Irada; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Isabel P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Ferchichi, Ali; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive extracts were obtained from powdered carob pulp through an ultrasound extraction process and then evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Ten minutes of ultrasonication at 375 Hz were the optimal conditions leading to an extract with the highest antioxidant effects. After its chemical characterization, which revealed the preponderance of gallotannins, the extract (free and microencapsulated) was incorporated in yogurts. The microspheres were prepared using an extract/sodium alginate ratio of 100/400 (mg mg(-1)) selected after testing different ratios. The yogurts with the free extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the samples added with the encapsulated extracts, showing the preserving role of alginate as a coating material. None of the forms significantly altered the yogurt's nutritional value. This study confirmed the efficiency of microencapsulation to stabilize functional ingredients in food matrices maintaining almost the structural integrity of polyphenols extracted from carob pulp and furthermore improving the antioxidant potency of the final product.

  6. Revised Line Profile Function for Hydrogenic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical series expansions for the hydrogenic spectral line profile functions are derived starting from the three single expressions, obtained by integrating twice the convolution of the Holtsmark, Lorentz and Doppler line profile functions. We get well converging series expansions for the line wings and centers by reducing the number of arguments in the profile function by one, introducing the module of the Holtsmark and Lorentz profiles as a new argument. In the intermediate part of the line, the parabolic cylinder functions expressed via the confluent hypergeometric series, are used. The multi-component Stark splitting of the hydrogenic spectral lines and the modeled stochastic electron transitions in the electric field of the adjacent ions generate wide Doppler plateaux at the line centers, with the characteristic widths estimated from the fit to the characteristic width of the Holtsmark profile. This additional Doppler broadening of the line profile function removes the central dip typical to the Holtsmark profile.

  7. Closed forms for conformally flat Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Grove, P.G.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    A closed form is obtained for the massless scalar Green's function on Rindler space. This is related by conformal transformation to the Green's function for a massless, conformally coupled scalar field on the open Einstein universe. A closed form is also obtained for the corresponding Green's function on the Einstein static universe. (author)

  8. Plasma profile recovery by function parameterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.J.; Sexton, M.C.

    1986-11-01

    The use of Function Parameterisation for the recovery of plasma profiles as a function of flux surface area from spatial point data directly combined with external magnetic measurements is demonstrated in the case of ASDEX electron temperature and density profiles. The extrapolated temperature on the magnetic axis is shown to be more reliable than that obtained from a conventional fitting procedure. (orig.)

  9. Cubic metaplectic forms and theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Proskurin, Nikolai

    1998-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the theory of cubic metaplectic forms on the 3-dimensional hyperbolic space and the author's research on cubic metaplectic forms on special linear and symplectic groups of rank 2. The topics include: Kubota and Bass-Milnor-Serre homomorphisms, cubic metaplectic Eisenstein series, cubic theta functions, Whittaker functions. A special method is developed and applied to find Fourier coefficients of the Eisenstein series and cubic theta functions. The book is intended for readers, with beginning graduate-level background, interested in further research in the theory of metaplectic forms and in possible applications.

  10. Conference L-Functions and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnen, Winfried; LAF

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a collection of carefully refereed research articles and lecture notes stemming from the Conference "Automorphic Forms and L-Functions", held at the University of Heidelberg in 2016.  The theory of automorphic forms and their associated L-functions is one of the central research areas in modern number theory, linking number theory, arithmetic geometry, representation theory, and complex analysis in many profound ways.  The 19 papers cover a wide range of topics within the scope of the conference, including automorphic L-functions and their special values, p-adic modular forms, Eisenstein series, Borcherds products, automorphic periods, and many more.

  11. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  12. Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica Hola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.

  13. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  14. Design, Form, and Function in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Human beings are influenced by design every day through continuous contact with functional form in and through visual culture. They encounter a continuous current of such new styles as clothing fashions, architecture, furniture and advertisements. The American pursuit of happiness has become related to an increasing flow of products and…

  15. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  16. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. Form Follows Function. A new approach to determining vessel function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent van der Veen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a theoretical model for assigning functions to categories of Roman ceramics. This model was designed to make broad statements about assemblages that are too large to analyse in detail. It is therefore based on the 'ideal use' of a vessel - i.e. the function the potter had in mind when he chose the clay, temper, forming techniques and so on - rather than 'non-ideal' or actual use. Characteristics considered are, among others, shape, size, weight, surface treatment and wall thickness. Seven distinct functions have been identified, taking the inherent multi-functionality of certain vessels into account. In many cases an individual vessel type will be suitable for more than one function. In a case study the commonly made functional distinction between smooth-tempered one-handled flagons (kruiken as tableware and two-handled flagons (kruikamforen as storage vessels is challenged. Furthermore, differences in their deposition within both grave and settlement assemblages are explored.

  18. Wordplay in Advertising: Form, Meaning and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Laviosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, wordplay (or pun is a witticism that relies for its effect on playing with different levels of language, i.e. phonological, graphological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, and textual. Puns are frequently used in commercial advertising as a rhetorical device to promote a given product or service by creating humour, attracting the reader’s attention and adding persuasive force to the message. They also reflect the cultural preferences and traditions of a country, therefore they can be fruitfully used for pedagogic purposes to raise awareness of the specific linguistic and cultural features of the foreign language. In this paper  I examine the form, meaning and function of puns that rely on the different meanings of polysemic words, the literal and non-literal senses of idioms or on bringing two homonyms together in the same utterance to produce witty remarks. After introducing the notions of homonymy, polysemy and idiom I analyse the play on words contained in a sample of advertisements selected at random from two broadsheet newspapers, The Guardian Weekend (1997 and The Independent (1997, two quality weekly magazines, Cosmopolitan (1997 and The Telegraph Magazine (1997, as well as a promotional brochure by Alliance & Leicester plc (2003 and promotional leaflets published in 2000 respectively by Royal Mail, British Telecommunications plc and Johnson & Johnson. Finally, I propose some activities that can be carried out in the LSP classroom either individually or in groups to raise awareness of some of the linguistic and cultural features characterizing the rhetoric of marketing and promotion in business language.

  19. Universal analytical scattering form factor for shell-, core-shell, or homogeneous particles with continuously variable density profile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    A novel analytical and continuous density distribution function with a widely variable shape is reported and used to derive an analytical scattering form factor that allows us to universally describe the scattering from particles with the radial density profile of homogeneous spheres, shells, or core-shell particles. Composed by the sum of two Fermi-Dirac distribution functions, the shape of the density profile can be altered continuously from step-like via Gaussian-like or parabolic to asymptotically hyperbolic by varying a single "shape parameter", d. Using this density profile, the scattering form factor can be calculated numerically. An analytical form factor can be derived using an approximate expression for the original Fermi-Dirac distribution function. This approximation is accurate for sufficiently small rescaled shape parameters, d/R (R being the particle radius), up to values of d/R ≈ 0.1, and thus captures step-like, Gaussian-like, and parabolic as well as asymptotically hyperbolic profile shapes. It is expected that this form factor is particularly useful in a model-dependent analysis of small-angle scattering data since the applied continuous and analytical function for the particle density profile can be compared directly with the density profile extracted from the data by model-free approaches like the generalized inverse Fourier transform method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Reconciling Form and Function through Generative Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The current form-giving activity in industrial design is characterized by explorations that depend on the individual capability to mentally manipulate a solution space from which to select and express the intended result. Industrial designers frequently rely on artistic experimentation, aesthetic inspiration, or design briefs. These points of departure often result in satisfactory results, but they could be augmented by algorithmic form generation, optimization, and complex morphologies. By a...

  1. From function to form using physical reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavbi, R.; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2002-01-01

    The goal of engineering design is to design a product, which fulfils a required function. The Domain theory and chaining of physical laws (way to synthesise solutions) offer a possibility to propose a framework of how to carry out functional reasoning. The proposed framework consists of mental ob...

  2. Reducing Approximation Error in the Fourier Flexible Functional Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Skolrud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier Flexible form provides a global approximation to an unknown data generating process. In terms of limiting function specification error, this form is preferable to functional forms based on second-order Taylor series expansions. The Fourier Flexible form is a truncated Fourier series expansion appended to a second-order expansion in logarithms. By replacing the logarithmic expansion with a Box-Cox transformation, we show that the Fourier Flexible form can reduce approximation error by 25% on average in the tails of the data distribution. The new functional form allows for nested testing of a larger set of commonly implemented functional forms.

  3. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  4. Trace forms for the generalized Wigner functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Sacchi, M. F.; Evanston, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    They derive simple formulas connecting the generalized Wigner functions for s-ordering with the density matrix, and vice versa. These formulas proved very useful for quantum-mechanical applications, as, for example, for connecting master equations with Fokker-Plank equations, or for evaluating the quantum state from Monte Carlo simulations of Fokker-Plank equations, and finally for studying positivity of the generalized Wigner functions in the complex plane

  5. Trace forms for the generalized Wigner functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Ariano, G. M. [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ``Alessandro Volta``; Sacchi, M. F. [Evanston, Univ. (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering]|[Evanston, Univ. (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    They derive simple formulas connecting the generalized Wigner functions for s-ordering with the density matrix, and vice versa. These formulas proved very useful for quantum-mechanical applications, as, for example, for connecting master equations with Fokker-Plank equations, or for evaluating the quantum state from Monte Carlo simulations of Fokker-Plank equations, and finally for studying positivity of the generalized Wigner functions in the complex plane.

  6. Engaging with Molecular Form to Understand Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicola C.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Cells are bustling factories with diverse and prolific arrays of molecular machinery. Remarkably, this machinery self-organizes to carry out the complex biochemical activities characteristic of life. When Watson and Crick published the structure of DNA, they noted that DNA base pairing creates a double-stranded form that provides a means of…

  7. Equilibrium Temperature Profiles within Fission Product Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We studied waste form strategies for advanced fuel cycle schemes. Several options were considered for three waste streams with the following fission products: cesium and strontium, transition metals, and lanthanides. These three waste streams may be combined or disposed separately. The decay of several isotopes will generate heat that must be accommodated by the waste form, and this heat will affect the waste loadings. To help make an informed decision on the best option, we present computational data on the equilibrium temperature of glass waste forms containing a combination of these three streams.

  8. The neuron identity problem: form meets function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishell, Gord; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-10-30

    A complete understanding of nervous system function cannot be achieved without the identification of its component cell types. In this Perspective, we explore a series of related issues surrounding cell identity and how revolutionary methods for labeling and probing specific neuronal types have clarified this question. Specifically, we ask the following questions: what is the purpose of such diversity, how is it generated, how is it maintained, and, ultimately, how can one unambiguously identity one cell type from another? We suggest that each cell type can be defined by a unique and conserved molecular ground state that determines its capabilities. We believe that gaining an understanding of these molecular barcodes will advance our ability to explore brain function, enhance our understanding of the biochemical basis of CNS disorders, and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A possible form of the pion's structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Ming; Huang Tao

    1986-01-01

    The pion's structure function behaviour is discussed by using the Fock state expansion of the hadronic wave function in QCD in this paper. As an example, we employ a model wave function of the Fock state in the light-cone and assume a Regge behaviour of a weight function for higher Fock states, and we get a possible form of the pion's structure function. This form is consistent with experimental data of the pion's structure function

  10. Reiter′s Disease - Clinical Profile of Epidemic Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Girgia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of urethritis need not exclude the possiblity of Reiter′s disease in young males where conjunctivitis and polyarthritis are cardinal features. Appearance of cutaneous lesion early in the course of the disease heralds a poor prognosis specially in the rare epidemic form of the disease. Two cases of Reiter′s disease are reported. Both belonged to the dysentric type of the disease; sometimes ref to as the epidemic form. Relatively high dose of steroids necessary to control symptoms.

  11. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  12. A Functional Programming Technique for Forms in Graphical User Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Kuper, Jan; Achten, P.M.; Grelck, G.; Huch, F.; Michaelson, G.; Trinder, Ph.W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents FunctionalForms, a new combinator library for constructing fully functioning forms in a concise and flexible way. A form is a part of a graphical user interface (GUI) restricted to displaying a value and allowing the user to modify it. The library is built on top of the

  13. Technological guns which form the profiled electron beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Electron guns with high-voltage glow discharge are developed which form disc - and tubule-like,hollow conic and linear electron beams,as well as devices and systems for control of gun parameter and technological processes in low and intermediate vacuum

  14. The position value for partition function form network games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouweland, van den C.G.A.M.; Slikker, M.

    We use the axiomatization of the position value for network situations in van den Nouweland and Slikker (2012) to define a position value for partition function form network situations. We do this by generalizing the axioms to the partition function form value function setting as studied in Navarro

  15. Psychopathological profile of patients with different forms of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Tutuncu, Recep; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms in patients who self-reported different forms of bruxism by means of clinical and anamnestic diagnostic criteria. Eighty-five participants were divided into four groups as sleep bruxers (12), awake bruxers (24), sleep-awake bruxers (33), and non-bruxers (16). A self-report symptom inventory questionnaire (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) was filled out by all groups to determine their psychopathological symptoms. As regards mean psychopathological scores, patients with sleep-awake bruxism endorsed the highest scores. In addition, patients with awake bruxism showed higher scores than patients with sleep bruxism and non-bruxism in most SCL-90-R subscales. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between groups in any of the SCL-90-R subscales, except for the psychoticism subscale. Mann-Whitney test followed by Bonferroni's test correction between non-bruxer and sleep-awake bruxer groups revealed significant differences in depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, global severity index, positive symptom distress index, and positive symptom total in all SCL-90-R subscales. Statistical analysis of our study showed that differences between groups were significant in all SCL-90-R subscales except for the psychoticism subscale. Better distinction of bruxism forms may help to develop new treatment strategies for bruxism disorder.

  16. Comparison of lists of genes based on functional profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salicrú Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How to compare studies on the basis of their biological significance is a problem of central importance in high-throughput genomics. Many methods for performing such comparisons are based on the information in databases of functional annotation, such as those that form the Gene Ontology (GO. Typically, they consist of analyzing gene annotation frequencies in some pre-specified GO classes, in a class-by-class way, followed by p-value adjustment for multiple testing. Enrichment analysis, where a list of genes is compared against a wider universe of genes, is the most common example. Results A new global testing procedure and a method incorporating it are presented. Instead of testing separately for each GO class, a single global test for all classes under consideration is performed. The test is based on the distance between the functional profiles, defined as the joint frequencies of annotation in a given set of GO classes. These classes may be chosen at one or more GO levels. The new global test is more powerful and accurate with respect to type I errors than the usual class-by-class approach. When applied to some real datasets, the results suggest that the method may also provide useful information that complements the tests performed using a class-by-class approach if gene counts are sparse in some classes. An R library, goProfiles, implements these methods and is available from Bioconductor, http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/goProfiles.html. Conclusions The method provides an inferential basis for deciding whether two lists are functionally different. For global comparisons it is preferable to the global chi-square test of homogeneity. Furthermore, it may provide additional information if used in conjunction with class-by-class methods.

  17. A convenient analytical form for the triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, C.; Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The triton wave function obtained by solving the Faddeev equations with the Reid soft core potential is parametrized in a symmetrized cluster form. As a test the 3 He charge form factor is calculated for the exact and the parametrized wave functions and reasonable agreement between the two is found. (author)

  18. Functional Safety Specification of Communication Profile PROFIsafe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rofar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper maps the trends in area of safety-related communication within PROFIBUS and PROFINET industry networks. There are analyses safety measures and Fail-safe parameters of PROFIsafe profile in version V2 and their localisation in Safety Communication Layer SCL, which guarantees Safety Integrity Level SIL according to standard IEC 61508. The last chapter analyses the reaction in the event of fault during transmission of messages.

  19. Differential forms orthogonal to holomorphic functions or forms, and their properties

    CERN Document Server

    Aizenberg, L A

    1983-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of characterizing the exterior differential forms which are orthogonal to holomorphic functions (or forms) in a domain D\\subset {\\mathbf C}^n with respect to integration over the boundary, and some related questions. They give a detailed account of the derivation of the Bochner-Martinelli-Koppelman integral representation of exterior differential forms, which was obtained in 1967 and has already found many important applications. They study the properties of \\overline \\partial-closed forms of type (p, n - 1), 0\\leq p\\leq n - 1, which turn out to be the duals (with respect to the orthogonality mentioned above) to holomorphic functions (or forms) in several complex variables, and resemble holomorphic functions of one complex variable in their properties.

  20. Personification in discourse: linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on examples from a corpus of 14 excerpts from novels, this article aims to present a systematic investigation of the different linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions of personification in discourse. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group, 2007)

  1. Functional form diagnostics for Cox's proportional hazards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2004-03-01

    We propose a new type of residual and an easily computed functional form test for the Cox proportional hazards model. The proposed test is a modification of the omnibus test for testing the overall fit of a parametric regression model, developed by Stute, González Manteiga, and Presedo Quindimil (1998, Journal of the American Statistical Association93, 141-149), and is based on what we call censoring consistent residuals. In addition, we develop residual plots that can be used to identify the correct functional forms of covariates. We compare our test with the functional form test of Lin, Wei, and Ying (1993, Biometrika80, 557-572) in a simulation study. The practical application of the proposed residuals and functional form test is illustrated using both a simulated data set and a real data set.

  2. System of marketing: principles of forming, functioning and development

    OpenAIRE

    Mazko, T.

    2010-01-01

    Initial positions of system marketing forming, functioning and development are examined as a component subsystem to the enterprise. Principles are offered in relation to the certain states of the system of marketing for enterprise

  3. Function and Form: Shifts in Modernist Architects’ Design Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atli Magnus Seelow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship between Function and Form: First, how Functional Thinking was turned into an Art Form; this orginates in the Werkbund concept of artistic refinement of industrial production. Second, how Functional Analysis was applied to design and production processes, focused on certain aspects, such as economic management or floor plan design. Third, how Architectural Function was used as a social or political argument; this is of particular interest during the interwar years. A comparison of theses different aspects of the relationship between Function and Form reveals that it has undergone fundamental shifts—from Art to Science and Politics—that are tied to historic developments. It is interesting to note that this happens in a short period of time in the first half of the 20th Century. Looking at these historic shifts not only sheds new light on the creative process in Modern Architecture, this may also serve as a stepstone towards a new rethinking of Function and Form.

  4. Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D

    2015-01-01

    The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie

  5. ON WEIGHTED GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH QUADRATIC FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider certain types of weighted generalized functions associated with nondegenerate quadratic forms. Such functions and their derivatives are used for constructing fundamental solutions of iterated ultra-hyperbolic equations with the Bessel operator and for constructing negative real powers of ultra-hyperbolic operators with the Bessel operator.

  6. An Empirical Assessment of the Form of Utility Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N.

    2011-01-01

    Utility functions, which relate subjective value to physical attributes of experience, are fundamental to most decision theories. Seven experiments were conducted to test predictions of the most widely assumed mathematical forms of utility (power, log, and negative exponential), and a function proposed by Rachlin (1992). For pairs of gambles for…

  7. Parametric scaling from species to growth-form diversity: an interesting analogy with multifractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Pacini, Alessandra; Avena, Giancarlo

    2002-01-01

    We propose a measure of divergence from species to life-form diversity aimed at summarizing the ecological similarity among different plant communities without losing information on traditional taxonomic diversity. First, species and life-form relative abundances within a given plant community are determined. Next, using Rényi's generalized entropy, the diversity profiles of the analyzed community are computed both from species and life-form relative abundances. Finally, the speed of decrease from species to life-form diversity is obtained by combining the outcome of both profiles. Interestingly, the proposed measure shows some formal analogies with multifractal functions developed in statistical physics for the analysis of spatial patterns. As an application for demonstration, a small data set from a plant community sampled in the archaeological site of Paestum (southern Italy) is used.

  8. Nucleon structure functions, resonance form factors, and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovsky, V.V.; Struminsky, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of nucleon structure functions in the resonance region is explored. For form factors that describe resonance production, expressions are obtained that are dependent on the photon virtuality Q 2 , which have a correct threshold behavior, and which take into account available experimental data on resonance decay. Resonance contributions to nucleon structure functions are calculated. The resulting expressions are used to investigate quark-hadron duality in electron-nucleon scattering by taking the example of the structure function F 2

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Impaired Cognitive Function in Patients Receiving Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Chertow, Glenn M.; Depner, Thomas A.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Schiller, Brigitte; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Liu, Sai; Sirich, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients partici...

  10. Proteome Profiling Outperforms Transcriptome Profiling for Coexpression Based Gene Function Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zihao; Carr, Steven A.; Mertins, Philipp; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Townsend, R. Reid; Smith, Richard D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Chen, Xian; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Boja, Emily S.; Mesri, Mehdi; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-11-11

    Coexpression of mRNAs under multiple conditions is commonly used to infer cofunctionality of their gene products despite well-known limitations of this “guilt-by-association” (GBA) approach. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have enabled global expression profiling at the protein level; however, whether proteome profiling data can outperform transcriptome profiling data for coexpression based gene function prediction has not been systematically investigated. Here, we address this question by constructing and analyzing mRNA and protein coexpression networks for three cancer types with matched mRNA and protein profiling data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Our analyses revealed a marked difference in wiring between the mRNA and protein coexpression networks. Whereas protein coexpression was driven primarily by functional similarity between coexpressed genes, mRNA coexpression was driven by both cofunction and chromosomal colocalization of the genes. Functionally coherent mRNA modules were more likely to have their edges preserved in corresponding protein networks than functionally incoherent mRNA modules. Proteomic data strengthened the link between gene expression and function for at least 75% of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and 90% of KEGG pathways. A web application Gene2Net (http://cptac.gene2net.org) developed based on the three protein coexpression networks revealed novel gene-function relationships, such as linking ERBB2 (HER2) to lipid biosynthetic process in breast cancer, identifying PLG as a new gene involved in complement activation, and identifying AEBP1 as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. Our results demonstrate that proteome profiling outperforms transcriptome profiling for coexpression based gene function prediction. Proteomics should be integrated if not preferred in gene function and human disease studies

  11. Energy demand with the flexible double-logarithmic functional form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, G.D.; Murry, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible double-logarithmic function form is developed to meet assumptions of consumer behavior. Then annual residential and commercial data (1970-87) are applied to this functional form to examine demand for petroleum products, electricity, and natural gas in California. The traditional double log-linear functional form has shortcomings of constant elasticities. The regression equations in this study, with varied estimated elasticities, overcome some of these shortcomings. All short-run own-price elasticities are inelastic and all income elasticities are close to unity in this study. According to the short-run time-trend elasticities, consumers' fuel preference in California is electricity. The long-run income elasticities also indicate that the residential consumers will consume more electricity and natural gas as their energy budgets increase in the long run. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  12. LOGISTIC FUNCTION PROFILE FIT: A least-squares program for fitting interface profiles to an extended logistic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, William H.

    2012-01-01

    The extended logistic function provides a physically reasonable description of interfaces such as depth profiles or line scans of surface topological or compositional features. It describes these interfaces with the minimum number of parameters, namely, position, width, and asymmetry. Logistic Function Profile Fit (LFPF) is a robust, least-squares fitting program in which the nonlinear extended logistic function is linearized by a Taylor series expansion (equivalent to a Newton–Raphson approach) with no apparent introduction of bias in the analysis. The program provides reliable confidence limits for the parameters when systematic errors are minimal and provides a display of the residuals from the fit for the detection of systematic errors. The program will aid researchers in applying ASTM E1636-10, “Standard practice for analytically describing sputter-depth-profile and linescan-profile data by an extended logistic function,” and may also prove useful in applying ISO 18516: 2006, “Surface chemical analysis—Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy—determination of lateral resolution.” Examples are given of LFPF fits to a secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profile, an Auger surface line scan, and synthetic data generated to exhibit known systematic errors for examining the significance of such errors to the extrapolation of partial profiles.

  13. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A.; Button, David J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  14. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A; Button, David J; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-05-20

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  15. Prospect theory: A parametric analysis of functional forms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Eugene Lobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze risk preferences in Brazil based on prospect theory by estimating the risk aversion parameter of the expected utility theory (EUT for a select sample, in addition to the value and probability function parameter, assuming various functional forms, and a newly proposed value function, the modified log. This is the first such study in Brazil, and the parameter results are slightly different from studies in other countries, indicating that subjects are more risk averse and exhibit a smaller loss aversion. Probability distortion is the only common factor. As expected, the study finds that behavioral models are superior to EUT, and models based on prospect theory, the TK and Prelec weighting function, and the value power function show superior performance to others. Finally, the modified log function proposed in the study fits the data well, and can thus be used for future studies in Brazil.

  16. Correlation energy functional within the GW -RPA: Exact forms, approximate forms, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2010-05-01

    In principle, the Luttinger-Ward Green’s-function formalism allows one to compute simultaneously the total energy and the quasiparticle band structure of a many-body electronic system from first principles. We present approximate and exact expressions for the correlation energy within the GW -random-phase approximation that are more amenable to computation and allow for developing efficient approximations to the self-energy operator and correlation energy. The exact form is a sum over differences between plasmon and interband energies. The approximate forms are based on summing over screened interband transitions. We also demonstrate that blind extremization of such functionals leads to unphysical results: imposing physical constraints on the allowed solutions (Green’s functions) is necessary. Finally, we present some relevant numerical results for atomic systems.

  17. Sheet-bulk metal formingforming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  18. [Development of a Japanese version of a short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuki; Koyasu, Masuo

    2015-06-01

    Emotional competence refers to individual differences in the ability to appropriately identity, understand, express, regulate, and utilize one's own emotions and those of others. This study developed a Japanese version of a short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence, a measure that allows the comprehensive assessment of intra- and interpersonal emotional competence with shorter items, and investigated its reliability and validity. In Study 1, we selected items for a short version and compared it with the full scale in terms of scores, internal consistency, and validity. In Study 2, we examined the short form's test-retest reliability. Results supported the original two-factor model and the measure had adequate reliability and validity. We discuss the construct validity and practical applicability of the short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence.

  19. Executive Functioning Profiles and Test Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study attempted to answer whether a specific executive functioning profile for individuals with test anxiety exists and whether deficits in working memory are associated with an earlier onset of test anxiety. Two hundred eighty-four undergraduate students completed a survey on test anxiety and self-report measures of test anxiety and…

  20. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  1. Form factors and structure functions of hadrons in parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkonskij, N.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The hadron charge form factors and their relation to the deep-inelastic lepton-production structure functions in the regions of asymptotically high and small momentum transfer Q 2 are studied. The nucleon and pion charge radii are calculated. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. The K- and D-meson charge radii are estimated. In the region of asymptotically high Q 2 the possibility of Drell-Yan-West relation violation is analyzed. It is shown, that for pseudoscalar mesons this relation is violated. The relation between the proton and neutron form factor asymptotics is obtained

  2. Integrating Flow, Form, and Function for Improved Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin Lane, Belize Arela

    Rivers are complex, dynamic natural systems. The performance of river ecosystem functions, such as habitat availability and sediment transport, depends on the interplay of hydrologic dynamics (flow) and geomorphic settings (form). However, most river restoration studies evaluate the role of either flow or form without regard for their dynamic interactions. Despite substantial recent interest in quantifying environmental water requirements to support integrated water management efforts, the absence of quantitative, transferable relationships between river flow, form, and ecosystem functions remains a major limitation. This research proposes a novel, process-driven methodology for evaluating river flow-form-function linkages in support of basin-scale environmental water management. This methodology utilizes publically available geospatial and time-series data and targeted field data collection to improve basic understanding of river systems with limited data and resource requirements. First, a hydrologic classification system is developed to characterize natural hydrologic variability across a highly altered, physio-climatically diverse landscape. Next, a statistical analysis is used to characterize reach-scale geomorphic variability and to investigate the utility of topographic variability attributes (TVAs, subreach-scale undulations in channel width and depth), alongside traditional reach-averaged attributes, for distinguishing dominant geomorphic forms and processes across a hydroscape. Finally, the interacting roles of flow (hydrologic regime, water year type, and hydrologic impairment) and form (channel morphology) are quantitatively evaluated with respect to ecosystem functions related to hydrogeomorphic processes, aquatic habitat, and riparian habitat. Synthetic river corridor generation is used to evaluate and isolate the role of distinct geomorphic attributes without the need for intensive topographic surveying. This three-part methodology was successfully

  3. The Forms and Functions of Specialised Dictionaries for Practical Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    , metalexicography has thoroughly mapped out all three orientations. This paper studies a fourth orientation, in which the overarching purpose of the dictionary is to help users make decisions and carry out practical tasks, e.g. purchasing real estate, buying shares as part of a retirement scheme, selecting a dish...... from a menu in a restaurant abroad. The paper investigates the forms and functions of a number of dictionaries and dictionary concepts for practical purposes in different settings, such as real estate, investment, and tourism. It demonstrates how communicative, cognitive and operative functions...

  4. Functional Forms, Exogenous Shifts, and Economic Surplus Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Xueyan Zhao; John D. Mullen; Gary R. Griffith

    1997-01-01

    Conditions for exact welfare measures in equilibrium displacement modeling are examined. These relate to the functional form of supply and demand, the nature of the exogenous shift, and the definition of percentage changes. Approximation errors when these conditions are not met in empirical applications are investigated and analytical expressions for the errors derived. Significant errors are possible when a proportional shift is assumed. The assumptions underlying Alston and Wohlgenant's emp...

  5. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N k MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  6. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2017-03-24

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N{sup k}MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  7. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    Margarita Sandstone. The Santa Cruz Mudstone is a thin to medium-bedded siliceous mudstone with nonsiliceous mudstone and siltstone and minor amounts of sandstone. The siliceous nature implies organic deposition in a quiescent, deep-water environment. Bedrock is mantled by 1–4 meters of medium to coarse-grained regressive beach sediment and fluvial deposits from the Ben Lomond Mountains. Terrace age increases with elevation above sea level, and weathering of primary minerals increases with age. The suite of soils formed on the terraces is referred to as a soil chronosequence. Soil chronosequences, important tools in characterizing natural weathering rates, are defined as a group of soils that differ in age and therefore in duration of weathering but have similar climatic conditions, vegetation, geomorphic position, and parent material (Jenny, 1941; Birkland, 1999). Soils are frequently useful indicators of geomorphic age (Muhs, 1982; Switzer and others, 1988) and are a function of pedogenic and/or eolian processes. Some aspects of soil development can be episodic but when viewed on large time scales can be perceived as continuous (Switzer and others, 1988). The age of the soil may be constrained by the age of the deposit, since soil formation generally commences when deposition has ceased (Birkland, 1999). Dating of the terraces provides an unprecedented opportunity to study weathering and soil-formation rates (Perg and others, 2001; Hanks and others, 1984; Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Bradley and Addicott, 1968; Bradley, 1956). Ages of the terraces recently dated by cosmogenic radionuclide are, starting with the youngest, 65, 92, 137, 139, and 226 k.y. (Perg and others, 2001). However, these ages are much younger than recent radiometric dates on mollusk shells (Muhs, U.S. Geological Survey, personal communication, 2002; Bradley and Addicott, 1968). For this study, soils were sampled on five terraces. Terrace one in the Lighthouse Field along Westcliff in Santa Cruz was the

  8. Domain-oriented functional analysis based on expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-regulation of genes may imply involvement in similar biological processes or related function. Many clusters of co-regulated genes have been identified using microarray experiments. In this study, we examined co-regulated gene families using large-scale cDNA microarray experiments on the human transcriptome. Results We present a simple model, which, for each probe pair, distills expression changes into binary digits and summarizes the expression of multiple members of a gene family as the Family Regulation Ratio. The set of Family Regulation Ratios for each protein family across multiple experiments is called a Family Regulation Profile. We analyzed these Family Regulation Profiles using Pearson Correlation Coefficients and derived a network diagram portraying relationships between the Family Regulation Profiles of gene families that are well represented on the microarrays. Our strategy was cross-validated with two randomly chosen data subsets and was proven to be a reliable approach. Conclusion This work will help us to understand and identify the functional relationships between gene families and the regulatory pathways in which each family is involved. Concepts presented here may be useful for objective clustering of protein functions and deriving a comprehensive protein interaction map. Functional genomic approaches such as this may also be applicable to the elucidation of complex genetic regulatory networks.

  9. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  10. Heart failure: when form fails to follow function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Arnold M; Rolett, Ellis L

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac performance is normally determined by architectural, cellular, and molecular structures that determine the heart's form, and by physiological and biochemical mechanisms that regulate the function of these structures. Impaired adaptation of form to function in failing hearts contributes to two syndromes initially called systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF). In SHF, characterized by high end-diastolic volume (EDV), the left ventricle (LV) cannot eject a normal stroke volume (SV); in DHF, with normal or low EDV, the LV cannot accept a normal venous return. These syndromes are now generally defined in terms of ejection fraction (EF): SHF became 'heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' (HFrEF) while DHF became 'heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction' (HFnEF or HFpEF). However, EF is a chimeric index because it is the ratio between SV--which measures function, and EDV--which measures form. In SHF the LV dilates when sarcomere addition in series increases cardiac myocyte length, whereas sarcomere addition in parallel can cause concentric hypertrophy in DHF by increasing myocyte thickness. Although dilatation in SHF allows the LV to accept a greater venous return, it increases the energy cost of ejection and initiates a vicious cycle that contributes to progressive dilatation. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy in DHF facilitates ejection but impairs filling and can cause heart muscle to deteriorate. Differences in the molecular signals that initiate dilatation and concentric hypertrophy can explain why many drugs that improve prognosis in SHF have little if any benefit in DHF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Family profiles in eating disorders: family functioning and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerniglia L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luca Cerniglia,1 Silvia Cimino,2 Mimma Tafà,2 Eleonora Marzilli,2 Giulia Ballarotto,2 Fabrizia Bracaglia2 1Faculty of Psychology, International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, 2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Research has studied family functioning in families of patients suffering from eating disorders (EDs, particularly investigating the associations between mothers’ and daughters’ psychopathological symptoms, but limited studies have examined whether there are specific maladaptive psychological profiles characterizing the family as a whole when it includes adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, and binge eating disorder (BED. Through the collaboration of a network of public and private consultants, we recruited n=181 adolescents diagnosed for EDs (n=61 with AN, n=60 with BN, and n=60 with BEDs and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and youths were assessed through a self-report measure evaluating family functioning, and adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire assessing psychopathological symptoms. Results showed specific family functioning and psychopathological profiles based on adolescents’ diagnosis. Regression analyses also showed that family functioning characterized by rigidity predicted higher psychopathological symptoms. Our study underlines the importance of involving all members of the family in assessment and intervention programs when adolescent offspring suffer from EDs. Keywords: family functioning, eating disorders, adolescents, psychopathological risk

  12. ABC gene expression profiles have clinical importance and possibly form a new hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Pesta, Martin; Soucek, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins constitute a large family of active transporters through extracellular and intracellular membranes. Increased drug efflux based on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein activity is related to the development of cancer cell chemoresistance. Several articles have focused on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles (signatures), based on the expression of all 49 human adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette genes, in individual tumor types and reported connections to established clinicopathological features. The aim of this study was to test our theory about the existence of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles common to multiple types of tumors, which may modify tumor progression and provide clinically relevant information. Such general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette profiles could constitute a new attribute of carcinogenesis. Our combined cohort consisted of tissues from 151 cancer patients-breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. Standard protocols for RNA isolation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were followed. Gene expression data from individual tumor types as well as a merged tumor dataset were analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Several general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette profiles, with differences in gene functions, were established and shown to have significant relations to clinicopathological features such as tumor size, histological grade, or clinical stage. Genes ABCC7, A3, A8, A12, and C8 prevailed among the most upregulated or downregulated ones. In conclusion, the results supported our theory about general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles and their importance for cancer on clinical as well as research levels. The presence of ABCC7 (official symbol CFTR) among the genes with key roles in the profiles supports the emerging evidence about its crucial role in various

  13. Relativistic form factors for clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Kumari, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple variant of an argument employed by Licht and Pagnamenta (LP) on the effect of Lorentz contraction on the elastic form factors of clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions, it is shown how their result can be generalized to inelastic form factors so as to produce (i) a symmetrical appearance of Lorentz contraction effects in the initial and final states, and (ii) asymptotic behavior in accord with dimensional scaling theories. A comparison of this result with a closely analogous parametric form obtained by Brodsky and Chertok from a propagator chain model leads, with plausible arguments, to the conclusion of an effective mass M for the cluster, with M 2 varying as the number n of the quark constituents, instead of as n 2 . A further generalization of the LP formula is obtained for an arbitrary duality-diagram vertex, again with asymptotic behavior in conformity with dimensional scaling. The practical usefulness of this approach is emphasized as a complementary tool to those of high-energy physics for phenomenological fits to data up to moderate values of q 2

  14. Functional protease profiling for diagnosis of malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Clinical proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry (MS) aims at uncovering specific alterations within mass profiles of clinical specimens that are of diagnostic value for the detection and classification of various diseases including cancer. However, despite substantial progress in the field, the clinical proteomic profiling approaches have not matured into routine diagnostic applications so far. Their limitations are mainly related to high-abundance proteins and their complex processing by a multitude of endogenous proteases thus making rigorous standardization difficult. MS is biased towards the detection of low-molecular-weight peptides. Specifically, in serum specimens, the particular fragments of proteolytically degraded proteins are amenable to MS analysis. Proteases are known to be involved in tumour progression and tumour-specific proteases are released into the blood stream presumably as a result of invasive progression and metastasis. Thus, the determination of protease activity in clinical specimens from patients with malignant disease can offer diagnostic and also therapeutic options. The identification of specific substrates for tumour proteases in complex biological samples is challenging, but proteomic screens for proteases/substrate interactions are currently experiencing impressive progress. Such proteomic screens include peptide-based libraries, differential isotope labelling in combination with MS, quantitative degradomic analysis of proteolytically generated neo-N-termini, monitoring the degradation of exogenous reporter peptides with MS, and activity-based protein profiling. In the present article, we summarize and discuss the current status of proteomic techniques to identify tumour-specific protease-substrate interactions for functional protease profiling. Thereby, we focus on the potential diagnostic use of the respective approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Microscopic models for hadronic form factors and vertex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, I.; Bhatnagar, S.; Mitra, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    We review the status of nucleon (N) and few-nucleon form factors (f.f.'s) from the view-point of a gradual unfolding of successively inner degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) with increase in q 2 . To this end we focus attention on the problem of a microscopic formulation of hadronic vertex functions (v.f.) from the point of view of their key role in understanding the physics of a large variety of few-hadron reactions on the one hand, and their practical usefulness in articulating the internal dynamics of hadron and few-hadron systems on the other hand. The criterion of an integrated view from low-energy spectroscopy to high-q 2 amplitudes is employed to emphasize the desirability of formulations in terms of relativistic dynamical equations based on Lorentz and gauge invariance in preference to phenomenological models, which often require additional assumptions beyond their original premises to extend their applicability domains. In this respect, the practical possibilities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in articulating the necessary dynamical ingredients are emphasized on a two-tier basis, the basis constants (3) being pre-determined from the mass spectral data (1 st stage) in preparation for the construction of the hadron-quark vertex functions (2 nd stage). An explicit construction is outlined for meson-quark and baryon-quark vertex functions as well as of meson-nucleon vertex functions in a stepwise fashion. The role of the latter as basic parameter-free ingredients is discussed for possible use in the more serious treatment in the current literature of quark-meson level (α) and meson-isobar (β) d.o.f. in 2-N and 3-N form factor studies. Since most of these studies are characterized by the use of RGM techniques at the six-quark level, a comparative discussion is also given of several contemporary RGM based models. Finally, the concrete prospects for employing such hardon-quark vertex functions for evaluating pp-bar annihilation amplitudes are briefly indicated

  16. Boron profiles in doped amorphous-silicon solar cells formed by plasma ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, C.T.H.; Hunt, C.P.; Coleman, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous silicon p-n junction solar cells of large area (100 cm 2 ) and having a quantum efficiency approaching 100% in the blue region have been prepared by plasma ion-plating, the p layer being formed from diborane and silane gases in a cathode glow-discharge. Surface secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with ion beam etching was found to be a very sensitive method with high in-depth resolution for obtaining the initial boron-silicon profile of the solar cell p-n junction. (author)

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  18. Beam-scanning system for determination of beam profiles and form factors in merged-beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, C.J.; Froelich, H.R.; Mitchell, J.B.A.; McGowan, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A beam-scanning system for a merged electron-ion beam experiment is described. This system is used to determine the horizontal and vertical beam profiles and the form factors at three different locations along the axis of the beams. Design details of the wedge-shaped scanners and the electronic circuit for obtaining beam profiles and form factors are described. The form factor derivation for merged beams is given and an expression in terms of measured quantities is derived. (author)

  19. Babelomics: advanced functional profiling of transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Carbonell, José; Minguez, Pablo; Goetz, Stefan; Conesa, Ana; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Alloza, Eva; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    We present a new version of Babelomics, a complete suite of web tools for the functional profiling of genome scale experiments, with new and improved methods as well as more types of functional definitions. Babelomics includes different flavours of conventional functional enrichment methods as well as more advanced gene set analysis methods that makes it a unique tool among the similar resources available. In addition to the well-known functional definitions (GO, KEGG), Babelomics includes new ones such as Biocarta pathways or text mining-derived functional terms. Regulatory modules implemented include transcriptional control (Transfac, CisRed) and other levels of regulation such as miRNA-mediated interference. Moreover, Babelomics allows for sub-selection of terms in order to test more focused hypothesis. Also gene annotation correspondence tables can be imported, which allows testing with user-defined functional modules. Finally, a tool for the ‘de novo’ functional annotation of sequences has been included in the system. This allows using yet unannotated organisms in the program. Babelomics has been extensively re-engineered and now it includes the use of web services and Web 2.0 technology features, a new user interface with persistent sessions and a new extended database of gene identifiers. Babelomics is available at http://www.babelomics.org PMID:18515841

  20. Improving functional modules discovery by enriching interaction networks with gene profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed

    2013-05-01

    Recent advances in proteomic and transcriptomic technologies resulted in the accumulation of vast amount of high-throughput data that span multiple biological processes and characteristics in different organisms. Much of the data come in the form of interaction networks and mRNA expression arrays. An important task in systems biology is functional modules discovery where the goal is to uncover well-connected sub-networks (modules). These discovered modules help to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the observed biological processes. While most of the existing module discovery methods use only the interaction data, in this work we propose, CLARM, which discovers biological modules by incorporating gene profiles data with protein-protein interaction networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CLARM on Yeast and Human interaction datasets, and gene expression and molecular function profiles. Experiments on these real datasets show that the CLARM approach is competitive to well established functional module discovery methods.

  1. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors) and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Matrix Organization and Adhesion. Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data. PMID:12356337

  2. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madore Steven J

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data.

  3. Metabolic Profiling of Impaired Cognitive Function in Patients Receiving Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Chertow, Glenn M; Depner, Thomas A; Nissenson, Allen R; Schiller, Brigitte; Mehta, Ravindra L; Liu, Sai; Sirich, Tammy L

    2016-12-01

    Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients participating in a trial of frequent hemodialysis. We assessed executive function with the Trail Making Test Part B and the Digit Symbol Substitution test. Impaired executive function was defined as a score ≥2 SDs below normative values. Four metabolites-4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, hippurate, and prolyl-hydroxyproline-were associated with impaired executive function at the false-detection rate significance threshold. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, the associations remained statistically significant: relative risk 1.16 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.32), 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.71), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50), and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38) for each SD increase in 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, hippurate, and prolyl-hydroxyproline, respectively. The association between 4-hydroxyphenylacetate and impaired executive function was replicated in the second cohort (relative risk 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.23), whereas the associations for phenylacetylglutamine, hippurate, and prolyl-hydroxyproline did not reach statistical significance in this cohort. In summary, four metabolites related to phenylalanine, benzoate, and glutamate metabolism may be markers of cognitive impairment in patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. © 2015 Richardson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  6. The importance of functional form in optimal control solutions of problems in population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    profile may end up producing alternatives that do not differ as importantly as if different functional forms had been used. We recommend that biological knowledge be used to bracket a range of possible functional forms, and robustness of conclusions be checked over this range.

  7. Size effects in winding roll formed profiles: A study of carcass production for flexible pipes in offshore industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    neutral plane. Other parameters such as profile entry angle on the mandrel and spiral pitch are likely to have significant importance. Proper dividing point position is shown to be obtainable by adjusting the profile in the roll forming stage. The profile rolling is successfully modeled by Finite Element......Carcass production of flexible offshore oil and gas pipes implies winding and interlocking of a roll formed stainless steel profile around a mandrel in a spiral shape. The location of the dividing point between the left and right half of the s-shaped profile in the finished carcass is very...... Analysis (FEA), whereas a simplified FE-model of the subsequent winding operation shows that full interlock modeling is required for proper prediction of profile deformation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications....

  8. Electrophoretic protein profiles of mid-sized copepod Calanoides patagoniensis steadily fed bloom-forming diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M Aguilera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent field and experimental evidence collected in the southern upwelling region off Concepción (36°5'S, 73°3'W showed an abrupt reduction (<72 h in the egg production rates (EPR of copepods when they were fed steadily and solely with the local bloom-forming diatom Thalassiosira rotula. Because diatoms were biochemically similar to dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, a diet which supported higher reproductive outcomes, the fecundity reduction observed in copepod females fed with the diatom may have obeyed to post-ingestive processes, giving rise to resources reallocation. This hypothesis was tested by comparing feeding (clearance and ingestion rates, reproduction (EPR and hatching success and the structure of protein profiles (i.e., number and intensity of electrophoretic bands of copepods (adults and eggs incubated during 96 h with the two food conditions. The structure of protein profiles included molecular sizes that were calculated from the relative mobility of protein standards against the logarithm of their molecular sizes. After assessing the experimental conditions, feeding decreased over time for those females fed with T. rotula, while reproduction was higher in females fed with P. minimum. Electrophoretic profiles resulted similar mostly at a banding region of 100 to 89-kDa, while they showed partial differences around the region of 56-kDa band, especially in those females fed and eggs produced with T. rotula. Due to reproductive volume was impacted while larvae viability, a physiological processes with specific and high nutritional requirements, was independent on food type; post-ingestive processes, such as expression of stress-related proteins deviating resources to metabolic processes others than reproduction, are discussed under framework of nutritional-toxic mechanisms mediating copepod-diatoms relationships in productive upwelling areas.

  9. Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmale, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic expressions which remain untreated, i. e. where no subsequent activity might provide a clue as to the understanding of the idiom in question. The study thus concentrates on co(ntextual or semantic indicators which might facilitate the understanding and interpretation of untreated idioms. Finally the hypothesis is put forward that not the correct understanding of an idiom is decisive but rather the production of a next activity meeting the idiom producer's expectations. The idiom may even be misinterpreted as long as its host turn can be interpreted adequately in order to produce a conditionally relevant following turn.

  10. Elliptic curves, modular forms, and their L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Many problems in number theory have simple statements, but their solutions require a deep understanding of algebra, algebraic geometry, complex analysis, group representations, or a combination of all four. The original simply stated problem can be obscured in the depth of the theory developed to understand it. This book is an introduction to some of these problems, and an overview of the theories used nowadays to attack them, presented so that the number theory is always at the forefront of the discussion. Lozano-Robledo gives an introductory survey of elliptic curves, modular forms, and L-functions. His main goal is to provide the reader with the big picture of the surprising connections among these three families of mathematical objects and their meaning for number theory. As a case in point, Lozano-Robledo explains the modularity theorem and its famous consequence, Fermat's Last Theorem. He also discusses the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture and other modern conjectures. The book begins with some moti...

  11. Off-gas treatment carbon footprint calculator : form and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessell, L. [Good EarthKeeping Organization Inc., Corona, CA (United States); Squire, J.; Crosby, K. [Haley and Aldrich Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon footprinting is the measurement of the impact on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide released directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, process, event or product. This presentation discussed an off-gas treatment carbon footprint calculator. The presentation provided a review of off-gas treatment technologies and presented a carbon footprint model. The model included: form and function; parameters; assumptions; calculations; and off-gas treatment applications. Parameters of the model included greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. Assumptions of the model included stationary combustion emissions; mobile combustion emissions; indirect emissions; physical or chemical processing emissions; fugitive emissions; and de minimus emissions. The presentation also examined resource conservation and discussed three greenhouse gas footprint case studies. It was concluded that the model involved a calculator with standard calculations with clearly defined assumptions with boundaries. tabs., figs.

  12. Phylogenetic versus functional signals in the evolution of form-function relationships in terrestrial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Schmitz, Lars

    2011-08-01

    Phylogeny is deeply pertinent to evolutionary studies. Traits that perform a body function are expected to be strongly influenced by physical "requirements" of the function. We investigated if such traits exhibit phylogenetic signals, and, if so, how phylogenetic noises bias quantification of form-function relationships. A form-function system that is strongly influenced by physics, namely the relationship between eye morphology and visual optics in amniotes, was used. We quantified the correlation between form (i.e., eye morphology) and function (i.e., ocular optics) while varying the level of phylogenetic bias removal through adjusting Pagel's λ. Ocular soft-tissue dimensions exhibited the highest correlation with ocular optics when 1% of phylogenetic bias expected from Brownian motion was removed (i.e., λ= 0.01); the value for hard-tissue data were 8%. A small degree of phylogenetic bias therefore exists in morphology despite of the stringent functional constraints. We also devised a phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis and recorded the effects of phylogenetic bias on this method using the same data. Use of proper λ values during phylogenetic bias removal improved misidentification rates in resulting classifications when prior probabilities were assumed to be equal. Even a small degree of phylogenetic bias affected the classification resulting from phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Changes in pyridine metabolism profile during growth of trigonelline-forming Lotus japonicus cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Matsui, Ayu; Sakuta, Masaaki; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the profile of pyridine metabolism during growth of cells were investigated using trigonelline-forming suspension-cultured cells of Lotus japonicus. Activity of the de novo and salvage pathways of NAD biosynthesis was estimated from the in situ metabolism of [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide. Maximum activity of the de novo pathway for NAD synthesis was found in the exponential growth phase, whereas activity of the salvage pathway was increased in the lag phase of cell growth. Expression profiles of some genes related to pyridine metabolism were examined using the expression sequence tags obtained from the L. japonicus database. Transcript levels of NaPRT and NIC, encoding salvage enzymes, were enhanced in the lag phase of cell growth, whereas the maximum expression of NADS was found in the exponential growth phase. Correspondingly, the activities of the salvage enzymes, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.11) and nicotinamidase (EC 3.5.1.19), increased one day after transfer of the stationary phase cells to the fresh medium. The greatest in situ trigonelline synthesis, both from [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide, was found in the stationary phase of cell growth. The role of trigonelline in leguminous plants is discussed.

  14. Geometric Parameters of Cutting Tools that Can be Used for Forming Sided Surfaces with Variable Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumov M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes machining technology of polyhedral surfaces with varying profile, which is provided by planetary motion of multiblade block tools. The features of the technology and urgency of the problem is indicated. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum value of the clearance angle of the tool. Also, the study is carried out about changing the value of the front and rear corners during the formation of polygonal surface using a planetary gear. The scheme of calculating the impact of various factors on the value of the minimum clearance angle of the tool and kinematic front and rear corners of the instrument is provided. The mathematical formula for calculating the minimum clearance angle of the tool is given. Also, given the formula for determining the front and rear corners of the tool during driving. This study can be used in the calculation of the design operations forming multifaceted external surfaces with a variable profile by using the planetary gear.

  15. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    numerous welds between coils of stainless steel, often duplex grades. The welds are a source of failure, since fracture from time to time occurs here in the winding stage. A simulative test in form of three-point-bending is developed, which shows promising results together with simplified air- and v......-bent profiles allowing offline testing of welds for optimisation purposes. Comparative studies are shown possible but discrepancies in boundary conditions cause the maximum strains in the simulative test to differ from those in production. A study of weld failure is done applying the simulative test and tensile...... tests using GOM ARAMIS 4M system for strain measurements. The results show strain localization at the weld from onset of yielding caused by the soft, heat affected zone next to the weld seam resulting in a local thinning of the strip similar to what is observed in production....

  16. Functional ecomorphology: Feedbacks between form and function in fluvial landscape ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Stuart G.; Heffernan, James B.; Sponseller, Ryan A.; Welter, Jill R.

    2007-09-01

    The relationship between form and function has been a central organizing principle in biology throughout its history as a formal science. This concept has been relevant from molecules to organisms but loses meaning at population and community levels where study targets are abstract collectives and assemblages. Ecosystems include organisms and abiotic factors but ecosystem ecology too has developed until recently without a strong spatially explicit reference. Landscape ecology provides an opportunity to once again anneal form and function and to consider reciprocal causation between them. This ecomorphologic view can be applied at a variety of ecologically relevant scales and consists of an investigation of how geomorphology provides a structural template that shapes, and is shaped by ecological processes. Running water ecosystems illustrate several principles governing the interaction of landscape form and ecological function subsumed by the concept of "Functional Ecomorphology". Particularly lucrative are ecosystem-level interactions between geologic form and biogeochemical processes integrated by hydrologic flowpaths. While the utility of a flowpath-based approach is most apparent in streams, spatially explicit biogeochemical processing pervades all landscapes and may be of general ecological application.

  17. Normal forms for characteristic functions on n-ary relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFunctions of type (n) are characteristic functions on n-ary relations. Keenan established their importance for natural language semantics, by showing that natural language has many examples of irreducible type (n) functions, i.e., functions of type (n) that cannot be represented as

  18. Functional metagenomic profiling of intestinal microbiome in extreme ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Collino, Sebastiano; Franceschi, Claudio; O'Toole, Paul W; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Age-related alterations in human gut microbiota composition have been thoroughly described, but a detailed functional description of the intestinal bacterial coding capacity is still missing. In order to elucidate the contribution of the gut metagenome to the complex mosaic of human longevity, we applied shotgun sequencing to total fecal bacterial DNA in a selection of samples belonging to a well-characterized human ageing cohort. The age-related trajectory of the human gut microbiome was characterized by loss of genes for shortchain fatty acid production and an overall decrease in the saccharolytic potential, while proteolytic functions were more abundant than in the intestinal metagenome of younger adults. This altered functional profile was associated with a relevant enrichment in “pathobionts”, i.e. opportunistic pro-inflammatory bacteria generally present in the adult gut ecosystem in low numbers. Finally, as a signature for long life we identified 116 microbial genes that significantly correlated with ageing. Collectively, our data emphasize the relationship between intestinal bacteria and human metabolism, by detailing the modifications in the gut microbiota as a consequence of and/or promoter of the physiological changes occurring in the human host upon ageing. PMID:24334635

  19. Functional metagenomic profiling of intestinal microbiome in extreme ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Collino, Sebastiano; Franceschi, Claudio; O'Toole, Paul W; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    Age-related alterations in human gut microbiota composition have been thoroughly described, but a detailed functional description of the intestinal bacterial coding capacity is still missing. In order to elucidate the contribution of the gut metagenome to the complex mosaic of human longevity, we applied shotgun sequencing to total fecal bacterial DNA in a selection of samples belonging to a well-characterized human ageing cohort. The age-related trajectory of the human gut microbiome was characterized by loss of genes for shortchain fatty acid production and an overall decrease in the saccharolytic potential, while proteolytic functions were more abundant than in the intestinal metagenome of younger adults. This altered functional profile was associated with a relevant enrichment in "pathobionts", i.e. opportunistic pro-inflammatory bacteria generally present in the adult gut ecosystem in low numbers. Finally, as a signature for long life we identified 116 microbial genes that significantly correlated with ageing. Collectively, our data emphasize the relationship between intestinal bacteria and human metabolism, by detailing the modifications in the gut microbiota as a consequence of and/or promoter of the physiological changes occurring in the human host upon ageing.

  20. Deriving the slit functions from OMI solar observations and its implications for ozone-profile retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI has been successfully measuring the Earth's atmospheric composition since 2004, but the on-orbit behavior of its slit functions has not been thoroughly characterized. Preflight measurements of slit functions have been used as a static input in many OMI retrieval algorithms. This study derives on-orbit slit functions from the OMI irradiance spectra assuming various function forms, including standard and super-Gaussian functions and a stretch to the preflight slit functions. The on-orbit slit functions in the UV bands show U-shaped cross-track dependences that cannot be fully represented by the preflight ones. The full widths at half maximum (FWHM of the stretched preflight slit functions for detector pixels at large viewing angles are up to 30 % larger than the nadir pixels for the UV1 band, 5 % larger for the UV2 band, and practically flat in the VIS band. Nonetheless, the on-orbit changes of OMI slit functions are found to be insignificant over time after accounting for the solar activity, despite of the decaying of detectors and the occurrence of OMI row anomaly. Applying the derived on-orbit slit functions to ozone-profile retrieval shows substantial improvements over the preflight slit functions based on comparisons with ozonesonde validations.

  1. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  2. Phytosterol Profiles of Common Foods and Estimated Natural Intake of Different Structures and Forms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhang, Liangxiao; Shao, Yafang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Ziyan; Mei, Xiaohong; Li, Tao; Wang, Donghui; Liang, Ying; Li, Jing; Huang, Yining; Zhang, Liuquan; Xu, Tao; Song, Huaxin; Zhong, Yongheng; Lu, Baiyi

    2018-03-21

    Phytosterols are well-known for their cholesterol-lowering effects, and the structures and forms of phytosterols affect their bioactivity. We aimed to illustrate the phytosterol profiles in common foods and estimate their natural intake in five geographical regions and among different age groups in China. In total, 12 phytosterols in free and esterified forms of 119 foods from five regions across China were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, the dietary intake of phytosterols was calculated combined with the dietary foods intake data of Chinese people. The total phytosterol content was highest in vegetable oils (150.4-1230.9 mg/100 g), followed by legumes (129.6-275.6 mg/100 g), nuts (18.9-255.2 mg/100 g), and cereals (11.9-93.8 mg/100 g). Vegetables and fruits contained lower contents of total phytosterols. Phytosterols were mainly esterified in most common foods except in nuts. The predominant phytosterols were β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, all of which belonged to plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols. Total phytosterol intake varied across different regions, ranging between 257.7 and 473.7 mg/standard-person (sp)/day, with the highest intake in Beijing, followed by Hangzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing, and Guangzhou. However, phytosterol proportion was similar across regions, with β-sitosterol accounting for 46.5-50.3% of the natural intake. Phytosterol intake was mainly constituted by plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols in esterified form (61.9-74.6%). At the age of 2-70 years, phytosterol intake ranged from 154.3 mg/day to 348.0 mg/day in the national scale.

  3. Cost damping and functional form in transport models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2016-01-01

    out to be an important guidance as the damping rate largely dictates which link functions are appropriate for the data. Thirdly, inspired by the Box–Cox function, we propose alternative linear-in-parameter link functions, some of which are based on interpolation of approximate Box–Cox end points...

  4. Anticipatory Functions, Digital-Analog Forms and Biosemiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnellos, Argyris; Bruni, Luis Emilio; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2012-01-01

    We argue that living systems process information such that functionality emerges in them on a continuous basis. We then provide a framework that can explain and model the normativity of biological functionality. In addition we offer an explanation of the anticipatory nature of functionality withi...

  5. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  6. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are also intended to include the caregiver if the patient is 24 hours after surgery. (2) Surgeons should not routinely place packing in the nasal cavity of rhinoplasty patients (with or without septoplasty) at the conclusion of surgery. The panel group made the following statement an option: (1) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, may administer perioperative systemic steroids to the rhinoplasty patient.

  7. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  8. Application of modified analytical function for approximation and computer simulation of diffraction profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, S. I.; Turibus, S. N.; Assis, J. T. De; Monin, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    Data processing of the most of diffraction experiments is based on determination of diffraction line position and measurement of broadening of diffraction profile. High precision and digitalisation of these procedures can be resolved by approximation of experimental diffraction profiles by analytical functions. There are various functions for these purposes both simples, like Gauss function, but no suitable for wild range of experimental profiles and good approximating functions but complicated for practice using, like Vougt or PersonVII functions. Proposed analytical function is modified Cauchy function which uses two variable parameters allowing describing any experimental diffraction profile. In the presented paper modified function was applied for approximation of diffraction lines of steels after various physical and mechanical treatments and simulation of diffraction profiles applied for study of stress gradients and distortions of crystal structure. (Author)

  9. [Utilitarian goals and artistic autonomy architectural forms and their functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    In the late 19(th) century, authors writing on aesthetics often referred to architecture to justify establishing a new hierarchy between things beautiful and things useful, a change underwritten by the rising sociological and anthropological perspectives on art. Meanwhile, architects debated the origins and evolution of artistic styles from the earliest forms of art to the most advanced monumental art works, a debate that fundamentally transformed the relationship between artistic expression and material determinism.

  10. Correlation functions formed by a femtosecond pulse interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, M.; Bhattacharya, N.; Urbach, H.P.; Van den berg, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a stabilized femtosecond frequency comb can be applied as a tool for distance measurement. The scheme is based on optical interference between individual pulses in a Michelson type interferometer. The cross-correlation functions between individual pulses with a

  11. Membrane nanodomains in plants: capturing form, function, and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapken, Wiebke; Murphy, Angus S

    2015-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between the cell and the external environment. Plasma membrane lipids provide scaffolds for proteins and protein complexes that are involved in cell to cell communication, signal transduction, immune responses, and transport of small molecules. In animals, fungi, and plants, a substantial subset of these plasma membrane proteins function within ordered sterol- and sphingolipid-rich nanodomains. High-resolution microscopy, lipid dyes, pharmacological inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthetic mutants have been employed to examine the relationship between the lipid environment and protein activity in plants. They have also been used to identify proteins associated with nanodomains and the pathways by which nanodomain-associated proteins are trafficked to their plasma membrane destinations. These studies suggest that plant membrane nanodomains function in a context-specific manner, analogous to similar structures in animals and fungi. In addition to the highly conserved flotillin and remorin markers, some members of the B and G subclasses of ATP binding cassette transporters have emerged as functional markers for plant nanodomains. Further, the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, that are often associated with detergent-resistant membranes, appear also to have a functional role in membrane nanodomains. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Linguistic Viewpoint in Crime News Narratives. Form, Function and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieken, K.W.M. van

    2016-01-01

    In the coverage of criminal events, newspapers often publish narratives which combine characteristics of journalistic discourse with elements of literary fiction. The function of these stories is not so much to inform readers about what happened, but to create an immersive reading experience. How

  13. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  14. Functional protease profiling for laboratory based diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Bassel; Costina, Victor; Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients, because diagnostic criteria according to EORTC/MSG guidelines are often not met and have low sensitivity. Hence there is an urgent need to improve diagnostic procedures by developing novel approaches. In the present study, we present a proof of concept experiment for the monitoring of Aspergillus associated protease activity in serum specimens for diagnostic purpose. Synthetic peptides that are selectively cleaved by proteases secreted from Aspergillus species were selected from our own experiments and published data. These so called reporter peptides (RP, n=5) were added to serum specimens from healthy controls (HC, n=101) and patients with proven (IA, n=9) and possible (PIA, n=144) invasive aspergillosis. Spiked samples were incubated ex vivo under strictly standardized conditions. Proteolytic fragments were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Spiked specimens of IA patients had highest concentrations of RP-fragments followed by PIA and HC. The median signal intensity was 116.546 (SD, 53.063) for IA and 5.009 (SD, 8.432) for HC. A cut-off >36.910 was chosen that performed with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Patients with PIA had either values above [53% (76/144)] or below [47% (67/144)] this chosen cut-off. The detection of respective reporter peptide fragments can easily be performed by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. In this proof of concept study we were able to demonstrate that serum specimens of patients with IA have increased proteolytic activity towards selected reporter peptides. However, the diagnostic value of functional protease profiling has to be validated in further prospective studies. It is likely that a combination of existing and new methods will be required to achieve optimal performance for diagnosis of IA in the future.

  15. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study alters our fundamental understanding of the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain by establishing that the left and right hemispheres have qualitatively different biases in how they dynamically interact with one another. Left-hemisphere regions are biased to interact more strongly within the same hemisphere, whereas right-hemisphere regions interact more strongly with both hemispheres. These two different patterns of interaction are associated ...

  16. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  17. Form and Function in the Evolution of Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses on claims about the origin and evolution of language from the point of view of the formalist-functionalist debate in linguistics. In linguistics, an account of a grammatical phenomenon is considered "formal" if it accords center stage to the structural properties of that phenomenon, and "functional" if it appeals to the language user's communicative needs or to domain-general human capacities. The gulf between formalism and functionalism has been bridged in language evolution research, in that some leading formalists, Ray Jackendoff for one, appeal to functional mechanisms such as natural selection. In Jackendoff's view, the biological evolution of language has proceeded in stages, each stage improving communicative efficiency. This article calls into question that idea, pointing to the fact that well-understood purely historical processes suffice to explain the emergence of many grammatical properties. However, one central aspect of formalist linguistic theorizing-the idea of the autonomy of syntax-poses a challenge to the idea, central to most functionalist approaches, that the nature of grammar is a product of purely historical (as opposed to biological) evolution. The article concludes with a discussion of the origins of the autonomy of syntax, speculating that it may well have arisen over evolutionary (as opposed to historical) time. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Relating form to function in the hummingbird feeding apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rico-Guevara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores. Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales. I focused on the portions of the hummingbird tongue that have been shown to be key for understanding their feeding mechanisms. I used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, microCT, and ex-vivo experiments in order to advance the comprehension of the morphology and functioning of the hummingbird feeding apparatus. I found that hummingbird tongues are composed mainly of thin cornified epithelium, lack papillae, and completely fill the internal cast of the rostral oropharyngeal cavity. Understanding this puzzle-piece match between bill and tongue will be essential for the study of intraoral transport of nectar. Likewise, I found that the structural composition and tissue architecture of the tongue groove walls provide the rostral portion of the tongue with elastic properties that are central to the study of tongue-nectar interactions during the feeding process. Detailed studies on hummingbirds set the basis for comparisons with other nectar-feeding birds and contribute to comprehend the natural solutions to collecting liquids in the most efficient way possible.

  19. Relating form to function in the hummingbird feeding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores). Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales. I focused on the portions of the hummingbird tongue that have been shown to be key for understanding their feeding mechanisms. I used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, microCT, and ex-vivo experiments in order to advance the comprehension of the morphology and functioning of the hummingbird feeding apparatus. I found that hummingbird tongues are composed mainly of thin cornified epithelium, lack papillae, and completely fill the internal cast of the rostral oropharyngeal cavity. Understanding this puzzle-piece match between bill and tongue will be essential for the study of intraoral transport of nectar. Likewise, I found that the structural composition and tissue architecture of the tongue groove walls provide the rostral portion of the tongue with elastic properties that are central to the study of tongue-nectar interactions during the feeding process. Detailed studies on hummingbirds set the basis for comparisons with other nectar-feeding birds and contribute to comprehend the natural solutions to collecting liquids in the most efficient way possible. PMID:28607842

  20. Form follows function: ultrastructure of different morphotypes of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettmeier, Christina; Lee, Jonghyun; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2018-04-01

    The multinucleate, unicellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a highly motile and morphologically diverse giant amoeba. Despite being brainless and lacking neurons, it exhibits ‘smart’ behavior. There is considerable interest in describing such traits and to investigate the underlying mechanochemical patterns which may hint at universal principles of behavior and decision-making. Furthermore, the slime mold’s mechanism of locomotion is unique. It resembles amoeboid movement, but differs from the locomotion of other amoebae in many ways, e.g. in their much larger size and lack of lobopodia. These two aspects, behavior and locomotion, are linked by the cytoskeleton and the overall morphology of P. polycephalum. In this paper, we present a structural analysis of different growth forms (micro-, meso- and macroplasmodia) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy of F-actin. With these detailed investigations of cellular ultrastructure and morphology, we provide the basis for the analysis of, e.g. viscoelastic and rheological measurements. Our data also provide structural details for the many models that have been constructed for the understanding of locomotion. We conclude that morphological information is vital for the assessment and measurement of material properties.

  1. Improving functional modules discovery by enriching interaction networks with gene profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Aljarah, Ibrahim; Brewer, James

    2013-01-01

    networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CLARM on Yeast and Human interaction datasets, and gene expression and molecular function profiles. Experiments on these real datasets show that the CLARM approach is competitive to well established functional

  2. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Solano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers. The molecular structure of the two main types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the environmental and genetic factors that regulate avian melanogenesis are also presented, establishing the main relationship between them. Finally, the special functions of melanin in bird feathers are also discussed, emphasizing the aspects more closely related to these animals, such as honest signaling, and the factors that may drive the evolution of pheomelanin and pheomelanin-based color traits, an issue for which birds have been pioneer study models. PMID:27070583

  3. Bird Integumentary Melanins: Biosynthesis, Forms, Function and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Galván

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers. The molecular structure of the two main types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the environmental and genetic factors that regulate avian melanogenesis are also presented, establishing the main relationship between them. Finally, the special functions of melanin in bird feathers are also discussed, emphasizing the aspects more closely related to these animals, such as honest signaling, and the factors that may drive the evolution of pheomelanin and pheomelanin-based color traits, an issue for which birds have been pioneer study models.

  4. Motor and Executive Function Profiles in Adult Residents ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) may be associated with tremor, motor and executive dysfunction (EF), clinically resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD research has identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) profiles. NTD PD presents with bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural sway, and is associated with EF impairment with lower quality of life (QoL). Presence and impact of tremor, motor, and executive dysfunction profiles on health-related QoL and life satisfaction were examined in air-Mn exposed residents of two Ohio, USA towns. Participants and Methods: From two Ohio towns exposed to air-Mn, 186 residents (76 males) aged 30-75 years were administered measures of EF (Animal Naming, ACT, Rey-O Copy, Stroop Color-Word, and Trails B), motor and tremor symptoms (UPDRS), QoL (BRFSS), life satisfaction (SWLS), and positive symptom distress (SCL-90-R). Air-Mn exposure in the two towns was modeled with 10 years of air-monitoring data. Cluster analyses detected the presence of symptom profiles by grouping together residents with similar scores on these measures. Results: Overall, mean air-Mn concentration for the two towns was 0.53 µg/m3 (SD=.92). Two-step cluster analyses identified TD and NTD symptom profiles. Residents in the NTD group lacked EF impairment; EF impairment represented a separate profile. An unimpaired group also emerged. The NTD and EF impairment groups were qualitatively similar, with relatively lo

  5. Masticatory form and function in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B

    2002-02-01

    This study examines variability in masticatory morphology as a function of dietary preference among the African apes. The African apes differ in the degree to which they consume leaves and other fibrous vegetation. Gorilla gorilla beringei, the eastern mountain gorilla, consumes the most restricted diet comprised of mechanically resistant foods such as leaves, pith, bark, and bamboo. Gorilla gorilla gorilla, the western lowland gorilla subspecies, consumes leaves and other terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) but also consumes a fair amount of ripe, fleshy fruit. In contrast to gorillas, chimpanzees are frugivores and rely on vegetation primarily as fallback foods. However, there has been a long-standing debate regarding whether Pan paniscus, the pygmy chimpanzee (or bonobo), consumes greater quantities of THV as compared to Pan troglodytes, the common chimpanzee. Because consumption of resistant foods involves more daily chewing cycles and may require larger average bite force, the mechanical demands placed on the masticatory system are expected to be greater in folivores as compared to primates that consume large quantities of fleshy fruit. Therefore, more folivorous taxa are predicted to exhibit features that improve load-resistance capabilities and increase force production. To test this hypothesis, jaw and skull dimensions were compared in ontogenetic series of G. g. beringei, G. g. gorilla, P. t. troglodytes, and P. paniscus. Controlling for the influence of allometry, results show that compared to both chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas exhibit some features of the jaw complex that are suggestive of improved masticatory efficiency. For example, compared to all other taxa, G. g. beringei has a significantly wider mandibular corpus and symphysis, larger area for the masseter muscle, higher mandibular ramus, and higher mandibular condyle relative to the occlusal plane of the mandible. However, the significantly wider mandibular symphysis may be an

  6. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jackisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue.

  7. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Angermann, Lisa; Allroggen, Niklas; Sprenger, Matthias; Blume, Theresa; Tronicke, Jens; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-07-01

    The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study) and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue).

  8. Radial profile of pressure in a storm ring current as a function of D st

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, A. S.

    2010-06-01

    Using satellite data obtained near the equatorial plane during 12 magnetic storms with amplitudes from -61 down to -422 nT, the dependences of maximum in L-profile of pressure ( L m) of the ring current (RC) on the current value of D st are constructed, and their analytical approximations are derived. It is established that function L m( D st ) is steeper on the phase of recovery than during the storm’s main phase. The form of the outer edge of experimental radial profiles of RC pressure is studied, and it is demonstrated to correspond to exponential growth of the total energy of RC particles on a given L shell with decreasing L. It is shown that during the storms’ main phase the ratio of plasma and magnetic field pressures at the RC maximum does not practically depend on the storm strength and L m value. This fact reflects resistance of the Earth’s magnetic field to RC expansion, and testifies that during storms the possibilities of injection to small L are limited for RC particles. During the storms’ recovery phase this ratio quickly increases with increasing L m, which reflects an increased fraction of plasma in the total pressure balance. It is demonstrated that function L m( D st ) is derived for the main phase of storms from the equations of drift motion of RC ions in electrical and magnetic fields, reflecting the dipole character of magnetic field and scale invariance of the pattern of particle convection near the RC maximum. For the recovery phase it is obtained from the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relationship. The obtained regularities allow one to judge about the radial profile of RC pressure from ground-based magnetic measurements (data on the D st variation).

  9. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios in 4 treatment groups; very high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VH), high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (H), low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (L), very low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VL) and control, respectively.

  10. Cold spraying of aluminum bronze on profiled submillimeter cermet structures formed by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashin, N. S.; Malikov, A. G.; Shikalov, V. S.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Kuchumov, B. M.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of the cold spraying of aluminum bronze coatings on substrates profiled with WC/Ni tracks obtained by laser cladding. Reinforcing cermet frames shaped as grids with varied mesh sizes were clad on stainless steel substrates using a CO2 laser machine "Siberia" (ITAM SB RAS, Russia). As a result, surfaces/substrates with heterogeneous shape, composition, and mechanical properties were obtained. Aluminum bronze coatings were deposited from 5lF-NS powder (Oerlikon Metco, Switzerland) on those substrates using cold spraying equipment (ITAM SB RAS). Data of profiling, microstructure diagnostics, EDS analysis, and mechanical tests of obtained composites is reported. Surface relief of the sprayed coatings dependence on substrate structure has been demonstrated.

  11. Estimation of Equivalent Thermal Conductivity for Impregnated Electrical Windings Formed from Profiled Rectangular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat, Sabrina S; Wrobel, Rafal; Goss, James; Drury, David

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy and reduce model setting-up, and solving time in thermal analysis of electrical machines, transformers and wound passive components, the multi-material winding region is frequently homogenised. The existing winding homogenization techniques are predo-minantly focused on winding constructions with round conductors, where thermal conductivity across conductors is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, for the profiled rectangular conductors that assumption is no ...

  12. LENSING PROPERTIES OF THE EINASTO PROFILE IN TERMS OF THE MEIJER G FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Retana-Montenegro; Francisco Frutos-Alfaro

    2014-01-01

    In N-body simulations of cold dark matter, it has been found that three-parameter models, particularly the Einasto profile, yield better fits to a wide range of dark matter haloes than two parameter models like the Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Recently, the analytical properties of the Einasto profile has been studied, allowing closed expressions for its surface mass density and lensing properties in terms of the Fox H and Meijer G functions, using a Mellin transform formalism. These expressi...

  13. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Functional forms and price elasticities in a discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Lavín, F. A.; Hernandez, J. I.; Ponce, R. D.; Orrego, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    During recent decades, water demand estimation has gained considerable attention from scholars. From an econometric perspective, the most used functional forms include log-log and linear specifications. Despite the advances in this field and the relevance for policymaking, little attention has been paid to the functional forms used in these estimations, and most authors have not provided justifications for their selection of functional forms. A discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand is estimated using six functional forms (log-log, full-log, log-quadratic, semilog, linear, and Stone-Geary), and the expected consumption and price elasticity are evaluated. From a policy perspective, our results highlight the relevance of functional form selection for both the expected consumption and price elasticity.

  15. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filtration rate.[7,8] However, clinical studies on hypothyroid subjects are very few and not much data is available on how hypothyroidism influences renal function in human beings. Hence, we conducted this observational study to see the relation of the thyroid hormone with hepatic and renal functions. Subjects and Methods.

  16. Differential cytokine gene expression profiles in the three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhind Susan M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual death. Three forms of Johne's disease have been described in sheep – paucibacillary, multibacillary and asymptomatic. The paucibacillary form is characterized by an inflammatory, Th1-type immune response. The multibacillary form of the disease, which disseminates the infection, is characterized by macrophage infiltration mediated by a Th2-type immune response, and asymptomatic animals have no clinical symptoms or pathology but are infected with MAP. What determines these three forms of the disease is unknown. To further understand these differences, we used real-time RT-PCR to compare the expression of thirteen cytokine and cytokine-related genes in ileal tissue from sheep with the three forms of the disease. Results Three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis were defined on the basis of histopathology, cytochemistry (Zeihl-Neelsen and IS900 PCR. Paucibacillary lesions have largely T cell and eosinophil infiltration and are ZN negative; multibacillary lesions have macrophage infiltration and large numbers of acid-fast bacteria. The pauci- and multibacillary forms are linked to the differential expression of IFNγ and IL-10 respectively. In addition the increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα, IL-8, IL-18 and TRAF-1 in both diseased forms is indicative of persistent inflammatory lesions. No changes were seen in IL-1α in any sheep ileum tissues. Asymptomatic animals are IS900+ with normal histology but have significantly decreased levels of IL-18 and increased levels TNFα. Conclusion We have quantified the expression levels of thirteen cytokine and cytokine related genes in three forms of ovine paratuberculosis using real-time PCR analyses and confirm that sheep pauci- and

  17. The explicit form of the rate function for semi-Markov processes and its contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Kobayashi, Testuya J.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the explicit form of the rate function for semi-Markov processes. Here, the ‘random time change trick’ plays an essential role. Also, by exploiting the contraction principle of large deviation theory to the explicit form, we show that the fluctuation theorem (Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry) holds for semi-Markov cases. Furthermore, we elucidate that our rate function is an extension of the level 2.5 rate function for Markov processes to semi-Markov cases.

  18. LENSING PROPERTIES OF THE EINASTO PROFILE IN TERMS OF THE MEIJER G FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Retana-Montenegro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In N-body simulations of cold dark matter, it has been found that three-parameter models, particularly the Einasto profile, yield better fits to a wide range of dark matter haloes than two parameter models like the Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Recently, the analytical properties of the Einasto profile has been studied, allowing closed expressions for its surface mass density and lensing properties in terms of the Fox H and Meijer G functions, using a Mellin transform formalism. These expressions are valid for all values of the Einasto index in terms of the Fox H function, and valid for integer and half-integer values of Einasto index in terms of the Meijer G function. In this paper, we derive expressions for lensing properties of the Einasto profile for all rational values of the Einasto index in terms of the Meijer G function. Equivalency between these expressions and other recent results is also discussed

  19. Model etch profiles for ion energy distribution functions in an inductively coupled plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Abraham-Shrauner, B.; Woodworth, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Rectangular trench profiles are modeled with analytic etch rates determined from measured ion distribution functions. The pattern transfer step for this plasma etch is for trilayer lithography. Argon and chlorine angular ion energy distribution functions measured by a spherical collector ring analyzer are fit to a sum of drifting Maxwellian velocity distribution functions with anisotropic temperatures. The fit of the model ion distribution functions by a simulated annealing optimization procedure converges adequately for only two drifting Maxwellians. The etch rates are proportional to analytic expressions for the ion energy flux. Numerical computation of the etch profiles by integration of the characteristic equations for profile points and connection of the profiles points is efficient. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  20. Adolescents’ Pain Coping Profiles: Expectations for Treatment, Functional Outcomes and Adherence to Psychological Treatment Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Lewis Claar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore how adolescents’ pain coping profiles relate to their expectations regarding psychological treatment recommendations, and to examine patients’ functioning and engagement in psychological treatment three months following a multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation.

  1. [Formula: see text]Attention and executive functioning profiles in children following perinatal arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosenbark, Danielle D; Krivitzky, Lauren; Ichord, Rebecca; Jastrzab, Laura; Billinghurst, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) is a form of childhood stroke; the majority of those affected experience neurologic sequelae, including motor, language and neurocognitive impairments. This study examines the attention and executive functioning (EF) profiles of children following PAIS, as well as the impact of age and sex. In this single-center cross-sectional study, 40 children aged 3 to 16 years (median age 7.2 years; 58% male) who have suffered a PAIS underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention and EF. Parents completed behavioral questionnaires regarding real-world functioning. Composite scores were calculated for seven attention and EF domains (Attention, Working Memory, Verbal Retrieval, Inhibitory Control, Flexibility/Shifting, Planning/Organization, and Processing Speed). The results for all measured domains of attention and EF are significantly lower in the participants compared to the normative samples (p attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Sex is not associated with performance measures or parental report of functioning. The participants demonstrate mild-to-moderate attention and EF impairment compared to the normative population. Clinicians, families, and educators should be informed about the neurocognitive sequelae of PAIS and the need for close developmental surveillance in this population to identify vulnerable children and initiate appropriate therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion.

  2. Integrated Analysis of Flow, Form, and Function for River Management and Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B. A. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Sandoval Solis, S.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers are highly complex, dynamic systems that support numerous ecosystem functions including transporting sediment, modulating biogeochemical processes, and regulating habitat availability for native species. The extent and timing of these functions is largely controlled by the interplay of hydrologic dynamics (i.e. flow) and the shape and composition of the river corridor (i.e. form). This study applies synthetic channel design to the evaluation of river flow-form-function linkages, with the aim of evaluating these interactions across a range of flows and forms to inform process-driven management efforts with limited data and financial requirements. In an application to California's Mediterranean-montane streams, the interacting roles of channel form, water year type, and hydrologic impairment were evaluated across a suite of ecosystem functions related to hydrogeomorphic processes, aquatic habitat, and riparian habitat. Channel form acted as the dominant control on hydrogeomorphic processes considered, while water year type controlled salmonid habitat functions. Streamflow alteration for hydropower increased redd dewatering risk and altered aquatic habitat availability and riparian recruitment dynamics. Study results highlight critical tradeoffs in ecosystem function performance and emphasize the significance of spatiotemporal diversity of flow and form at multiple scales for maintaining river ecosystem integrity. The approach is broadly applicable and extensible to other systems and ecosystem functions, where findings can be used to characterize complex controls on river ecosystems, assess impacts of proposed flow and form alterations, and inform river restoration strategies.

  3. Towards precise classification of cancers based on robust gene functional expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jing

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of robust and efficient methods for analyzing and interpreting high dimension gene expression profiles continues to be a focus in computational biology. The accumulated experiment evidence supports the assumption that genes express and perform their functions in modular fashions in cells. Therefore, there is an open space for development of the timely and relevant computational algorithms that use robust functional expression profiles towards precise classification of complex human diseases at the modular level. Results Inspired by the insight that genes act as a module to carry out a highly integrated cellular function, we thus define a low dimension functional expression profile for data reduction. After annotating each individual gene to functional categories defined in a proper gene function classification system such as Gene Ontology applied in this study, we identify those functional categories enriched with differentially expressed genes. For each functional category or functional module, we compute a summary measure (s for the raw expression values of the annotated genes to capture the overall activity level of the module. In this way, we can treat the gene expressions within a functional module as an integrative data point to replace the multiple values of individual genes. We compare the classification performance of decision trees based on functional expression profiles with the conventional gene expression profiles using four publicly available datasets, which indicates that precise classification of tumour types and improved interpretation can be achieved with the reduced functional expression profiles. Conclusion This modular approach is demonstrated to be a powerful alternative approach to analyzing high dimension microarray data and is robust to high measurement noise and intrinsic biological variance inherent in microarray data. Furthermore, efficient integration with current biological knowledge

  4. SYNTHESIS METHODS OF ALGEBRAIC NORMAL FORM OF MANY-VALUED LOGIC FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of methods of error-correcting coding, cryptography, and signal synthesis theory based on the principles of many-valued logic determines the need for a more detailed study of the forms of representation of functions of many-valued logic. In particular the algebraic normal form of Boolean functions, also known as Zhegalkin polynomial, that well describe many of the cryptographic properties of Boolean functions is widely used. In this article, we formalized the notion of algebraic normal form for many-valued logic functions. We developed a fast method of synthesis of algebraic normal form of 3-functions and 5-functions that work similarly to the Reed-Muller transform for Boolean functions: on the basis of recurrently synthesized transform matrices. We propose the hypothesis, which determines the rules of the synthesis of these matrices for the transformation from the truth table to the coefficients of the algebraic normal form and the inverse transform for any given number of variables of 3-functions or 5-functions. The article also introduces the definition of algebraic degree of nonlinearity of the functions of many-valued logic and the S-box, based on the principles of many-valued logic. Thus, the methods of synthesis of algebraic normal form of 3-functions applied to the known construction of recurrent synthesis of S-boxes of length N = 3k, whereby their algebraic degrees of nonlinearity are computed. The results could be the basis for further theoretical research and practical applications such as: the development of new cryptographic primitives, error-correcting codes, algorithms of data compression, signal structures, and algorithms of block and stream encryption, all based on the perspective principles of many-valued logic. In addition, the fast method of synthesis of algebraic normal form of many-valued logic functions is the basis for their software and hardware implementation.

  5. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  6. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  7. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), of which 36/64 (56.3%) were hypothyroid and 28/64 (43.8%) were hyperthyroid. No relation was found with renal function, but cholesterol was found high (>250 mg/dl) among hypothyroid patients and significant increase in TG, LDL levels ...

  8. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinicke, Peter

    2009-09-02

    Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web server for ultra-fast functional profiling allows researchers to process large protein sequence collections instantaneously. Besides the frequencies of Pfam and GO categories, the user also obtains the sequence specific assignments to Pfam domain families. In addition, a comparison with existing genomes provides dissimilarity scores with respect to 821 reference proteomes. Considering the underlying UFO domain detection, the results on 206 test genomes indicate a high sensitivity of the approach. In comparison with current state-of-the-art HMMs, the runtime measurements show a considerable speed up in the range of four orders of magnitude. For an average size prokaryotic genome, the computation of a functional profile together with its comparison typically requires about 10 seconds of processing time. For the first time the UFO web server makes it possible to get a quick overview on the functional inventory of newly sequenced organisms. The genome scale comparison with a large number of precomputed profiles allows a first guess about functionally related organisms. The service is freely available and does not require user registration or specification of a valid email address.

  9. The short form endometriosis health profile (EHP-5: translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasebi Azita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5 is a valid instrument to measure health-related quality of life in endometriosis. This study was conducted to culturally adapt and validate the EHP-5 in Iran. Methods Using a standard "forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language. Then a sample of 199 women aged 18-50 years completed the questionnaire. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was evaluated using known groups comparison. Results The mean age of respondents was 31.4 (SD = 5.4 years. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.71. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in infertility and premenstrual syndrome (PMS in the expected direction. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EHP-5 proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of quality of life in endometriosis patients.

  10. Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Costs Associated With Fibromyalgia Subgroups: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Forero, Carlos G; Cerdà-Lafont, Marta; Peñarrubia-María, María Teresa; Fernández-Vergel, Rita; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Ruíz, José M; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; Sirvent-Alierta, Elena; Santo-Panero, Pilar; García-Campayo, Javier; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Rubio-Valera, María

    2016-10-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subgroup typology. We used hierarchical cluster analysis and latent profile analysis to replicate Giesecke's classification in Spanish FM patients. The second aim was to examine whether the subgroups differed in sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, quality of life, and in direct and indirect costs. A total of 160 FM patients completed the following measures for cluster derivation: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Control over Pain subscale. Pain threshold was measured with a sphygmomanometer. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the EuroQoL-5D-3L, and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were administered for cluster validation. Two distinct clusters were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis ("hypersensitive" group, 69.8% and "functional" group, 30.2%). In contrast, the latent profile analysis goodness-of-fit indices supported the existence of 3 FM patient profiles: (1) a "functional" profile (28.1%) defined as moderate tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; (2) a "dysfunctional" profile (45.6%) defined by elevated tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; and (3) a "highly dysfunctional and distressed" profile (26.3%) characterized by elevated tenderness and extremely high distress and catastrophizing. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the 2 clusters or among the 3 profiles. The functional profile was associated with less impairment, greater quality of life, and lower health care costs. We identified 3 distinct profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of FM patients. Our findings might help to design tailored interventions for FM patients.

  11. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional avoidance

  12. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Koo, Phillip [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  13. Response function during oxygen sputter profiling and its application to deconvolution of ultrashallow B depth profiles in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lin; Liu Jiarui; Wang Chong; Ma, Ki B.; Zhang Jianming; Chen, John; Tang, Daniel; Patel, Sanjay; Chu Weikan

    2003-01-01

    The secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) response function to a B 'δ surface layer' has been investigated. Using electron-gun evaporation combined with liquid nitrogen cooling of target, we are able to deposit an ultrathin B layer without detectable island formation. The B spatial distribution obtained from SIMS is exponentially decaying with a decay length approximately a linear function of the incident energy of the oxygen during the SIMS analysis. Deconvolution with the response function has been applied to reconstruct the spatial distribution of ultra-low-energy B implants. A correction to depth and yield scales due to transient sputtering near the Si surface region was also applied. Transient erosion shifts the profile shallower, but beam mixing shifts it deeper. These mutually compensating effects make the adjusted distribution almost the same as original data. The one significant difference is a buried B peak observed near the surface region

  14. Forms and Functions of Aggression in Adolescent Friendship Selection and Influence : A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Ojanen, Tiina; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    Aggressive children are known to have friends. However, less is known about the impact of aggression on friendship development and how this can differ for overt and relational (i.e., the forms) and instrumental and reactive (i.e., the functions) aggression. This longitudinal study utilized the forms

  15. Polydisperse-particle-size-distribution function determined from intensity profile of angularly scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for determining the particle-size-distribution function of a polydispersion of spherical particles is presented. The inversion technique for the particle-size-distribution function is based upon matching the measured intensity profile of angularly scattered light with a summation of the intensity contributions of a series of appropriately spaced, narrowband, size-distribution functions. A numerical optimization technique is used to determine the strengths of the individual bands that yield the best agreement with the measured scattered-light-intensity profile. Because Mie theory is used, the method is applicable to spherical particles of all sizes. Several numerical examples demonstrate the application of this inversion method

  16. Thyroid function profile in cord blood and postnatal changes at 24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studying the acute postnatal changes of newborn thyroid function is essential for determining the best timing of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. There is paucity of literature on neonatal thyroid function and particularly the postnatal changes in Nigeria. Objectives: To describe the profile of thyroid ...

  17. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  18. Disability and Functional Profiles of Patients with Myasthenia Gravis Measured with ICF Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe functional profiles of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and the relationships among symptoms, activities and environmental factors (EF), by using WHO's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Patients were consecutively enrolled at the Besta Institute of Milan, Italy.…

  19. Emerging applications of read profiles towards the functional annotation of the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Poirazi, Panayiota; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    is typically a result of the protocol designed to address specific research questions. The sequencing results in reads, which when mapped to a reference genome often leads to the formation of distinct patterns (read profiles). Interpretation of these read profiles is essential for their analysis in relation...... to the research question addressed. Several strategies have been employed at varying levels of abstraction ranging from a somewhat ad hoc to a more systematic analysis of read profiles. These include methods which can compare read profiles, e.g., from direct (non-sequence based) alignments to classification...... of patterns into functional groups. In this review, we highlight the emerging applications of read profiles for the annotation of non-coding RNA and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) such as enhancers and promoters. We also discuss the biological rationale behind their formation....

  20. Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Tiggemann, Marika

    2018-01-01

    We examined whether shifting young women's ( N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.

  1. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  2. LANGUAGE FORM AND FUNCTION OF CARETAKERS FOUND IN NANNY MCPHEE AND THE BIG BANG MOVIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Putri Kusuma Andani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the form and the function of caretaker speech which is found in caretaker’s utterance in Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The objectives of this study are (1 to describe the type of language form of the caretaker and (2 to describe the type of language function of the caretaker found in Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative research. The data of this research are the utterance from the caretaker found in manuscript of Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The data collection technique is documentation. The technique of analyzing data are descriptive qualitative. The writer uses the theories from Frank (1972 to analyze the type of language form, and M.A.K. Halliday (1977 to analyze the type of language function. The result of this study shows that (1 there are four types of word: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb; three types of phrase: noun phrase, verb phrase, and adverb phrase; and two types of sentence categorized into two. The first category is based on type, namely: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentence; the second one by number of full predication, namely: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentence. (2 The writer found 6 types of language function, they are: regulatory function, instrumental function, representational function, personal function, interactional function, and imaginative function.

  3. The Form and Function of Attachment Behavior in the Daily Lives of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.

    2009-01-01

    Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…

  4. Closed-Form Representations of the Density Function and Integer Moments of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge B. Provost

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a simplified representation of the exact density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. The odd and even moments of R are also obtained in closed forms. Being expressed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, the resulting representations are readily computable. Some numerical examples corroborate the validity of the results derived herein.

  5. Tag Questions across Irish English and British English: A Corpus Analysis of Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anne; Pandarova, Irina; Muderack, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The present study, situated in the area of variational pragmatics, contrasts tag question (TQ) use in Ireland and Great Britain using spoken data from the Irish and British components of the International Corpus of English (ICE). Analysis is on the formal and functional level and also investigates form-functional relationships. Findings reveal…

  6. Neurocognitive functions and behavioral profiles in children with nephropathic cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with nephropathic cystinosis (NCTN have evidence of defective intellec-tual functions and behavioral disorders. This prospective study was performed to detect the cognitive dysfunctions in patients with this rare hereditary lysosomal storage disease, define their behavioral phenotypes, and study the findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Thirteen patients with confirmed diagnosis of cystinosis (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 3.0, range 1.5 - 12 years were subjected to the Stanford Binet test, Porteus Maze test, Child Behavior Checklist, and MRI brain. Thirteen age- and sex-matched children served as the control subjects (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 2.9, range 1.7 - 12 years. The intelligence quotient (IQ was significantly lower in patients with cystinosis (P <0.001, with a significant defect in verbal (language, memory, and compre-hension and non-verbal abilities (visual perception and visiospatial and motor performance. A discrepancy between both abilities was detected - the non-verbal ability being lower; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, analysis revealed the visiospatial ability to be significantly lower compared to the visual perception. In comparison to healthy controls, children with NCTN had evidence of increased incidence of behavioral problems, mainly social (P = 0.023. An MRI of the brain revealed varying degrees of atrophic changes in seven patients. Patients with NCTN need a wider scope of attention and care, encompassing not only the metabolic multisystem derangement, but also the neuropsychological impairment in the context of multidisciplinary management. This approach is crucial in formulating comprehensive plans for social and educational rehabilitation.

  7. The function profile of compressed-air and ultrasonic nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Lin; Lin, Yung-Zen; Wu, Wei-Fong; Huang, Fu-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the detailed function of two kinds of nebulizers commonly used in clinical asthma treatment, compressed-air and ultrasonic, this study was conducted. At the beginning, various flow rates were adjusted, paired with different volumes of solutions in the container. The changes of temperature, pH, and osmolality during the course of nebulization were examined. Normal saline, terbutaline, and fenoterol solutions were used as the nebulized solutions. The study was performed in an environment in ambient temperature around 20 degrees C and relative humidity around 70%. The results showed a minimal 6 L/min flow rate was required to nebulize the solution when using the compressed-air nebulizer. The dead volume was about 0.8 ml for compressed-air and 8.5 ml for the ultrasonic nebulizer. When using the compressed-air nebulizer, the temperature, both in the solution and at the mouthpiece site, dropped gradually. On the contrary, the temperatures at both sites increased a little bit when using the ultrasonic nebulizer. The pH values of pure terbutaline and fenoterol nebulized solutions were acidic (3.58 and 3.00 respectively). The osmolality of terbutaline and fenoterol nebulized solutions were isotonic. The osmolality increased gradually during the course of nebulization, to a greater extent in the compressed-air nebulizer. In conclusion, both types of nebulizers have their special features. The ultrasonic nebulizer displays less extent in change of temperature and osmolality during nebulization and is expected to be a better device in treating asthmatic patients in terms of lesser effect on cooling and changing the osmolality of airway mucosa.

  8. FUNCTIONAL PROFILE OF ACTIVE OLDER ADULTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN, ACCORDING TO THE ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF considers multiples aspects of functionality. It is believed that this tool can help to classify the functionality of older adults with low back pain (LBP . Objectives: To describe the functionality of active older adults with LBP according to the ICF. Methods: A transversal study was conducted using the brief ICF core set for low back pain, to establish functional profiles of 40 older adults. The ICF categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability. Results: Thirty-two of the 35 categories of the brief ICF core set could be considered representative of the sample. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for LBP results demonstrated that this classification system is representative for describing the functional profile of the sample.

  9. PanFP: pangenome-based functional profiles for microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Robeson, Michael S; Hauser, Loren J; Schadt, Christopher W; Gorin, Andrey A

    2015-09-26

    For decades there has been increasing interest in understanding the relationships between microbial communities and ecosystem functions. Current DNA sequencing technologies allows for the exploration of microbial communities in two principle ways: targeted rRNA gene surveys and shotgun metagenomics. For large study designs, it is often still prohibitively expensive to sequence metagenomes at both the breadth and depth necessary to statistically capture the true functional diversity of a community. Although rRNA gene surveys provide no direct evidence of function, they do provide a reasonable estimation of microbial diversity, while being a very cost-effective way to screen samples of interest for later shotgun metagenomic analyses. However, there is a great deal of 16S rRNA gene survey data currently available from diverse environments, and thus a need for tools to infer functional composition of environmental samples based on 16S rRNA gene survey data. We present a computational method called pangenome-based functional profiles (PanFP), which infers functional profiles of microbial communities from 16S rRNA gene survey data for Bacteria and Archaea. PanFP is based on pangenome reconstruction of a 16S rRNA gene operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from known genes and genomes pooled from the OTU's taxonomic lineage. From this lineage, we derive an OTU functional profile by weighting a pangenome's functional profile with the OTUs abundance observed in a given sample. We validated our method by comparing PanFP to the functional profiles obtained from the direct shotgun metagenomic measurement of 65 diverse communities via Spearman correlation coefficients. These correlations improved with increasing sequencing depth, within the range of 0.8-0.9 for the most deeply sequenced Human Microbiome Project mock community samples. PanFP is very similar in performance to another recently released tool, PICRUSt, for almost all of survey data analysed here. But, our method is unique

  10. Searching for globally optimal functional forms for interatomic potentials using genetic programming with parallel tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepoy, A; Peters, M D; Thompson, A P

    2007-11-30

    Molecular dynamics and other molecular simulation methods rely on a potential energy function, based only on the relative coordinates of the atomic nuclei. Such a function, called a force field, approximately represents the electronic structure interactions of a condensed matter system. Developing such approximate functions and fitting their parameters remains an arduous, time-consuming process, relying on expert physical intuition. To address this problem, a functional programming methodology was developed that may enable automated discovery of entirely new force-field functional forms, while simultaneously fitting parameter values. The method uses a combination of genetic programming, Metropolis Monte Carlo importance sampling and parallel tempering, to efficiently search a large space of candidate functional forms and parameters. The methodology was tested using a nontrivial problem with a well-defined globally optimal solution: a small set of atomic configurations was generated and the energy of each configuration was calculated using the Lennard-Jones pair potential. Starting with a population of random functions, our fully automated, massively parallel implementation of the method reproducibly discovered the original Lennard-Jones pair potential by searching for several hours on 100 processors, sampling only a minuscule portion of the total search space. This result indicates that, with further improvement, the method may be suitable for unsupervised development of more accurate force fields with completely new functional forms. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus.

  12. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinicke Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Description Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web server for ultra-fast functional profiling allows researchers to process large protein sequence collections instantaneously. Besides the frequencies of Pfam and GO categories, the user also obtains the sequence specific assignments to Pfam domain families. In addition, a comparison with existing genomes provides dissimilarity scores with respect to 821 reference proteomes. Considering the underlying UFO domain detection, the results on 206 test genomes indicate a high sensitivity of the approach. In comparison with current state-of-the-art HMMs, the runtime measurements show a considerable speed up in the range of four orders of magnitude. For an average size prokaryotic genome, the computation of a functional profile together with its comparison typically requires about 10 seconds of processing time. Conclusion For the first time the UFO web server makes it possible to get a quick overview on the functional inventory of newly sequenced organisms. The genome scale comparison with a large number of precomputed profiles allows a first guess about functionally related organisms. The service is freely available and does not require user registration or specification of a valid email address.

  13. Threat, fear, and persuasion: review and critique of questions about functional form

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Lijiang; Dillard, James Price

    2014-01-01

    Theories of threat appeals have been rightly concerned with the form of the relationship between fear and persuasion: Linear or curvilinear. They have not, however, clearly distinguished the question as a between- or within-persons phenomenon. In fact, the literature often treats these two perspectives as if they were interchangeable. We show that between- versus within-person questions about functional form are distinct from one another. Previous research, which is the product of between-pe...

  14. Examining Profiles of Family Functioning in Pediatric Asthma: Longitudinal Associations With Child Adjustment and Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al G Hriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S

    2017-05-01

    Identify profiles of functioning in families of children with asthma and examine whether profile membership predicts subsequent child mental and physical well-being. Primary caregivers and children ( N  = 1,030) from the Childhood Asthma Management Program completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adaptation at five time points. Asthma severity was also assessed via spirometry. Latent profile analyses identified a four-profile solution as best fitting the data: cohesive, permissive, controlling/disengaged, and controlling/enmeshed families. Distal outcome analyses using Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars techniques suggested that children from families that were more cohesive had fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These associations remained stable across time. Family profiles did not differ with regards to child asthma severity. Results highlight the importance of looking beyond the effects of distinct components of family functioning and instead using pattern-based approaches. Recommendations for incorporating screenings and services for families in pediatric care settings are provided. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Non-Archimedean L-functions and arithmetical Siegel modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This book is devoted to the arithmetical theory of Siegel modular forms and their L-functions. The central object are L-functions of classical Siegel modular forms whose special values are studied using the Rankin-Selberg method and the action of certain differential operators on modular forms which have nice arithmetical properties. A new method of p-adic interpolation of these critical values is presented. An important class of p-adic L-functions treated in the present book are p-adic L-functions of Siegel modular forms having logarithmic growth (which were first introduced by Amice, Velu and Vishik in the elliptic modular case when they come from a good supersingular reduction of ellptic curves and abelian varieties). The given construction of these p-adic L-functions uses precise algebraic properties of the arihmetical Shimura differential operator. The book could be very useful for postgraduate students and for non-experts giving a quick access to a rapidly developping domain of algebraic number theory: ...

  16. Predicting the oral pharmacokinetic profiles of multiple-unit (pellet) dosage forms using a modeling and simulation approach coupled with biorelevant dissolution testing: case example diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Blume, Henning; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the dissolution profile of a poorly soluble drug, diclofenac, from a commercially available multiple-unit enteric coated dosage form, Diclo-Puren® capsules, and to develop a predictive model for its oral pharmacokinetic profile. The paddle method was used to obtain the dissolution profiles of this dosage form in biorelevant media, with the exposure to simulated gastric conditions being varied in order to simulate the gastric emptying behavior of pellets. A modified Noyes-Whitney theory was subsequently fitted to the dissolution data. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for multiple-unit dosage forms was designed using STELLA® software and coupled with the biorelevant dissolution profiles in order to simulate the plasma concentration profiles of diclofenac from Diclo-Puren® capsule in both the fasted and fed state in humans. Gastric emptying kinetics relevant to multiple-units pellets were incorporated into the PBPK model by setting up a virtual patient population to account for physiological variations in emptying kinetics. Using in vitro biorelevant dissolution coupled with in silico PBPK modeling and simulation it was possible to predict the plasma profile of this multiple-unit formulation of diclofenac after oral administration in both the fasted and fed state. This approach might be useful to predict variability in the plasma profiles for other drugs housed in multiple-unit dosage forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymptotic form of three-body (dtμ)+ and (ddμ)+ wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Y.; Shimamura, I.; Armour, E.A.G.; Kamimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate a discrepancy between existing literature values for the normalization constant in the asymptotic form of three-body wave functions for (DTμ) + , we report the results of a new calculation of the normalization constants for this system as well as the related system (DDμ) + . These were obtained by fitting to accurate variational wave functions with special care being taken to describe the long-range behavior. (orig.)

  18. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M α ) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M ☉ ) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M ☉ ) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M ☉ ) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al

  19. A power function profile of a ski jumping in-run hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanevskyy, Ihor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to find a function of the curvilinear segment profile which could make possible to avoid an instantaneous increasing of a curvature and to replace a circle arc segment on the in-run of a ski jump without any correction of the angles of inclination and the length of the straight-line segments. The methods of analytical geometry and trigonometry were used to calculate an optimal in-run hill profile. There were two fundamental conditions of the model: smooth borders between a curvilinear segment and straight-line segments of an in-run hill and concave of the curvilinear segment. Within the framework of this model, the problem has been solved with a reasonable precision. Four functions of a curvilinear segment profile of the in-run hill were investigated: circle arc, inclined quadratic parabola, inclined cubic parabola, and power function. The application of a power function to the in-run profile satisfies equal conditions for replacing a circle arc segment. Geometrical parameters of 38 modern ski jumps were investigated using the methods proposed.

  20. Nocturnal Polyuria : Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, JLHR; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective

  1. Conversational assessment in memory clinic encounters: interactional profiling for differentiating dementia from functional memory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Danielle; Drew, Paul; Elsey, Christopher; Blackburn, Daniel; Wakefield, Sarah; Harkness, Kirsty; Reuber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In the UK dementia is under-diagnosed, there is limited access to specialist memory clinics, and many of the patients referred to such clinics are ultimately found to have functional (non-progressive) memory disorders (FMD), rather than a neurodegenerative disorder. Government initiatives on 'timely diagnosis' aim to improve the rate and quality of diagnosis for those with dementia. This study seeks to improve the screening and diagnostic process by analysing communication between clinicians and patients during initial specialist clinic visits. Establishing differential conversational profiles could help the timely differential diagnosis of memory complaints. This study is based on video- and audio recordings of 25 initial consultations between neurologists and patients referred to a UK memory clinic. Conversation analysis was used to explore recurrent communicative practices associated with each diagnostic group. Two discrete conversational profiles began to emerge, to help differentiate between patients with dementia and functional memory complaints, based on (1) whether the patient is able to answer questions about personal information; (2) whether they can display working memory in interaction; (3) whether they are able to respond to compound questions; (4) the time taken to respond to questions; and (5) the level of detail they offer when providing an account of their memory failure experiences. The distinctive conversational profiles observed in patients with functional memory complaints on the one hand and neurodegenerative memory conditions on the other suggest that conversational profiling can support the differential diagnosis of functional and neurodegenerative memory disorders.

  2. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  3. Protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721: Identification and functional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yi; Tian, Zhong-Min; Wan, Ming-Xi; Zheng, Zhao-Bin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, to analyze the specific functions of abundant expressed proteins in the processes of hepatocarcinoma genesis, growth and metastasis, to identify the hepatocarcinoma-specific biomarkers for the early prediction in diagnosis, and to explore the new drug targets for liver cancer therapy.

  4. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional evidence for alternative ANG II-forming pathways in hamster cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishimura, H; Buikema, H; Baltatu, O; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    1998-01-01

    Like human chymase, hamster chymase is an ANG II-forming enzyme, but pathophysiological roles of chymase are still unknown. We determined the functional conversion of ANG I and [Pro(11), D-Ala(12)]ANG I, a chymase-selective substrate, to ANG II in the hamster cardiovascular system. ANG I and

  6. A designer’s view: the perspective of form and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerwinkel, D.J.; Waarlo, A.J.; Boersma, K.

    2009-01-01

    Perspectives are domain-specific strategies employed by experts in a specific field to formulate and investigate questions. Such strategies may therefore serve as good models for acquiring knowledge. Based on this premise, we developed the perspective of form and function, as used by both biologists

  7. Alternative Form of the Hydrogenic Wave Functions for an Extended, Uniformly Charged Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Koo, E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presented are forms of harmonic oscillator attraction and Coulomb wave functions which can be explicitly constructed and which lead to numerical results for the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the atomic system. The Schrodinger equation and its solution and specific cases of muonic atoms illustrating numerical calculations are included.…

  8. Testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péguin-Feissolle, Anne; Strikholm, Birgit; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a general method for testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form. These tests are based on a Taylor expansion of the nonlinear model around a given point in the sample space. We study the performance of our tests b...

  9. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  10. It is as it does: genital form and function in sex reassignment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemons, Eric D

    2014-03-01

    Surgeons who perform sex reassignment surgeries (SRS) define their goals and evaluate their outcomes in terms of two kinds of results: aesthetic and functional. Since the neogenitals fashioned through sex reassignment surgeries do not enable reproductive function, surgeons must determine what the function of the genitals is or ought to be. A review of surgical literature demonstrates that questions of what constitute genital form and function, while putatively answered in the operating room, are not answerable in the discourses of clinical evaluation used to define them. When the genitals--the word itself derived from the Latin genitas meaning to beget--are not reproductive, the question of their function shifts away from the biological and into other registers: pleasure, intimacy, sociality. As condensed sites of meaning and meaning-making around which selves, affects, resources, anxieties and futures are organized, the genitals signify in excess of the categories of "aesthetic" and "function" that surgeons use to assess them. Not reducible to either aesthetics or function, but constitutive of them both, this excess appears in surgical texts in the form of imagined futures of social and sexual engagement and demonstrates a powerful means by which properly sexed bodies are created.

  11. Functional modulation of cardiac form through regionally confined cell shape changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Auman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing organs acquire a specific three-dimensional form that ensures their normal function. Cardiac function, for example, depends upon properly shaped chambers that emerge from a primitive heart tube. The cellular mechanisms that control chamber shape are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that chamber morphology develops via changes in cell morphology, and we determine key regulatory influences on this process. Focusing on the development of the ventricular chamber in zebrafish, we show that cardiomyocyte cell shape changes underlie the formation of characteristic chamber curvatures. In particular, cardiomyocyte elongation occurs within a confined area that forms the ventricular outer curvature. Because cardiac contractility and blood flow begin before chambers emerge, cardiac function has the potential to influence chamber curvature formation. Employing zebrafish mutants with functional deficiencies, we find that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle. Reduction of circulation limits the extent of cardiomyocyte elongation; in contrast, disruption of sarcomere formation releases limitations on cardiomyocyte dimensions. Thus, the acquisition of normal cardiomyocyte morphology requires a balance between extrinsic and intrinsic physical forces. Together, these data establish regionally confined cell shape change as a cellular mechanism for chamber emergence and as a link in the relationship between form and function during organ morphogenesis.

  12. Normal Forms for Retarded Functional Differential Equations and Applications to Bogdanov-Takens Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, T.; Magalhaes, L. T.

    The paper addresses, for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs), the computation of normal forms associated with the flow on a finite-dimensional invariant manifold tangent to invariant spaces for the infinitesimal generator of the linearized equation at a singularity. A phase space appropriate to the computation of these normal forms is introduced, and adequate nonresonance conditions for the computation of the normal forms are derived. As an application, the general situation of Bogdanov-Takens singularity and its versal unfolding for scalar retarded FDEs with nondegeneracy at second order is considered, both in the general case and in the case of differential-delay equations of the form ẋ( t) = ƒ( x( t), x( t-1)).

  13. Determination of curve 1/M profile as a function of control rod bank position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Valmir; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the subcritical multiplication curve profile (1/M) as a function of control rod bank position is of paramount importance to the development of a system which allows to foresee and also anticipate determination of criticality of a PWR reactor core. This work aims at determining this profile. For that, the 3D- two group-diffusion equations for a subcritical PWR reactor core with external neutron source is solved for different control rod bank positions. Results obtained are compared with the results from the corresponding eigenvalue problem, in order to verify how the external neutron source interferes with the reactor criticality search. (author)

  14. High-Specificity Targeted Functional Profiling in Microbial Communities with ShortBRED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kaminski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Profiling microbial community function from metagenomic sequencing data remains a computationally challenging problem. Mapping millions of DNA reads from such samples to reference protein databases requires long run-times, and short read lengths can result in spurious hits to unrelated proteins (loss of specificity. We developed ShortBRED (Short, Better Representative Extract Dataset to address these challenges, facilitating fast, accurate functional profiling of metagenomic samples. ShortBRED consists of two components: (i a method that reduces reference proteins of interest to short, highly representative amino acid sequences ("markers" and (ii a search step that maps reads to these markers to quantify the relative abundance of their associated proteins. After evaluating ShortBRED on synthetic data, we applied it to profile antibiotic resistance protein families in the gut microbiomes of individuals from the United States, China, Malawi, and Venezuela. Our results support antibiotic resistance as a core function in the human gut microbiome, with tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection proteins and Class A beta-lactamases being the most widely distributed resistance mechanisms worldwide. ShortBRED markers are applicable to other homology-based search tasks, which we demonstrate here by identifying phylogenetic signatures of antibiotic resistance across more than 3,000 microbial isolate genomes. ShortBRED can be applied to profile a wide variety of protein families of interest; the software, source code, and documentation are available for download at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/shortbred.

  15. Hierarchical partitioning of metazoan protein conservation profiles provides new functional insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Witztum

    Full Text Available The availability of many complete, annotated proteomes enables the systematic study of the relationships between protein conservation and functionality. We explore this question based solely on the presence or absence of protein homologues (a.k.a. conservation profiles. We study 18 metazoans, from two distinct points of view: the human's and the fly's. Using the GOrilla gene ontology (GO analysis tool, we explore functional enrichment of the "universal proteins", those with homologues in all 17 other species, and of the "non-universal proteins". A large number of GO terms are strongly enriched in both human and fly universal proteins. Most of these functions are known to be essential. A smaller number of GO terms, exhibiting markedly different properties, are enriched in both human and fly non-universal proteins. We further explore the non-universal proteins, whose conservation profiles are consistent with the "tree of life" (TOL consistent, as well as the TOL inconsistent proteins. Finally, we applied Quantum Clustering to the conservation profiles of the TOL consistent proteins. Each cluster is strongly associated with one or a small number of specific monophyletic clades in the tree of life. The proteins in many of these clusters exhibit strong functional enrichment associated with the "life style" of the related clades. Most previous approaches for studying function and conservation are "bottom up", studying protein families one by one, and separately assessing the conservation of each. By way of contrast, our approach is "top down". We globally partition the set of all proteins hierarchically, as described above, and then identify protein families enriched within different subdivisions. While supporting previous findings, our approach also provides a tool for discovering novel relations between protein conservation profiles, functionality, and evolutionary history as represented by the tree of life.

  16. Cognitive profile in Duchenne muscular dystrophy boys without intellectual disability: The role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, R; Chieffo, D; Bulgheroni, S; Piccini, G; Pecini, C; Lucibello, S; Lenzi, S; Moriconi, F; Pane, M; Astrea, G; Baranello, G; Alfieri, P; Vicari, S; Riva, D; Cioni, G; Mercuri, E

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our prospective observational study was to assess profiles of cognitive function and a possible impairment of executive functions in a cohort of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy without intellectual and behavior disability. Forty Duchenne boys (range of age: 6 years to 11 years and 6 months) were assessed by Wechsler Intelligence scale and battery of tests including tasks assessing working memory and executive functions (inhibition and switching, problem solving and planning). In our cohort some aspects of cognitive function were often impaired. These included multitasking, problem solving, inhibition and working memory necessary to plan and direct goal oriented behavior. Our results support the suggestion that aspects of cognitive function could be impaired even in boys without intellectual disability and support the hypothesis that executive functions may play an important role in specific aspects of cognitive impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Social and Communicative Functions of Informed Consent Forms in East Asia and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Yoshizawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia – the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in

  18. Social and Communicative Functions of Informed Consent Forms in East Asia and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Go; Sasongko, Teguh H; Ho, Chih-Hsing; Kato, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs) for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia - the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after) the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in medical genomics. More

  19. Two different streams form the dorsal visual system: anatomy and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    There are two radically different views on the functional role of the dorsal visual stream. One considers it as a system involved in space perception. The other is of a system that codes visual information for action organization. On the basis of new anatomical data and a reconsideration of previous functional and clinical data, we propose that the dorsal stream and its recipient parietal areas form two distinct functional systems: the dorso-dorsal stream (d-d stream) and the ventro-dorsal stream (v-d stream). The d-d stream is formed by area V6 (main d-d extrastriate visual node) and areas V6A and MIP of the superior parietal lobule. Its major functional role is the control of actions "on line". Its damage leads to optic ataxia. The v-d stream is formed by area MT (main v-d extrastriate visual node) and by the visual areas of the inferior parietal lobule. As the d-d stream, v-d stream is responsible for action organization. It, however, also plays a crucial role in space perception and action understanding. The putative mechanisms linking action and perception in the v-d stream is discussed.

  20. Implementation and identification of Preisach type hysteresis models with Everett Function in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Zsolt, E-mail: szabo@evt.bme.hu [Department of Broadband Infocommunications and Electromagnetic Theory, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Füzi, János [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs (Hungary)

    2016-05-15

    The Preisach function is considered as a product of two special one dimensional functions, which allows the closed form evaluation of the Everett integral. The deduced closed form expressions are included in Preisach models, in particular in the static model, moving model and a rate dependent hysteresis model, which can simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. The details of the freely available implementations, which are available online are presented. The identification of the model parameters and the accuracy to describe the magnetization process are discussed and demonstrated by fitting measured data. Transient electric circuit simulation with hysteresis demonstrates the applicability of the developed models. - Highlights: • Formulation of the Preisach model with Everett function in closed form. • Identification of the parameters: when the shape of the analytical Preisach function does not matches the ferromagnetic material the moving model can be applied to increase the accuracy. • Novel algorithm with Fixed Point iteration, which utilizes the closed formulation to simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. • The developed hysteresis models are utilized in circuit simulation algorithm to determine the transient behavior of the current, which flows through a toroidal coil with ferromagnetic core.

  1. Alignment engineering in liquid crystalline elastomers: Free-form microstructures with multiple functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hao; Cerretti, Giacomo; Wiersma, Diederik S., E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Wasylczyk, Piotr [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Warszawa 00-681 (Poland); Martella, Daniele [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff,” University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Parmeggiani, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INO, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    We report a method to fabricate polymer microstructures with local control over the molecular orientation. Alignment control is achieved on molecular level in a structure of arbitrary form that can be from 1 to 100 μm in size, by fixing the local boundary conditions with micro-grating patterns. The method makes use of two-photon polymerization (Direct Laser Writing) and is demonstrated specifically in liquid-crystalline elastomers. This concept allows for the realization of free-form polymeric structures with multiple functionalities which are not possible to realize with existing techniques and which can be locally controlled by light in the micrometer scale.

  2. Functional interactivity in social media: an examination of Chinese health care organizations' microblog profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai

    2017-09-08

    Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari J S Ferreira

    Full Text Available Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  4. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S

    2014-06-12

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world\\'s oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  5. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, Joã o C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvä slaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André ; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A.C.; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  6. Family demographic profiles and their relationship with the quality of executive functioning subcomponents in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Forms, functions, and foibles of humor used in AIDS service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenko, Kami A; Rintamaki, Lance S

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that HIV service providers commonly use humor to cope with work-related stress; however, little is known about the forms and functions of humor used by these professionals. In this study, 25 HIV service providers from five AIDS service organizations were interviewed about their use of humor. Participants described five primary types of humor as prevalent within AIDS service organizations and noted that humor served a variety of functions, which were either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive functions included boosting morale and reducing tension, whereas maladaptive functions ranged from masking emotions to alienating certain groups. Results emphasized the importance of context in the study of humor use and the need for continued investigations of the stress and coping of HIV service providers.

  8. Design of the Nonlinear Pin Rubber Forming Equipment Integrating the Functions of Extruding, Dewatering, Drying & Expanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefeng Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The top priority of car-tire suppliers is to improve wetland grip force of the using tires, reduce the rolling resistance and the rolling noise of tires. It is urgent for the tire industry to research and develop high-performance tires to solve the above problems. They must use the high- performance synthetic rubber and auxiliary rubber to develop the most advanced manufacturing technologies and equipment. Silica, a kind of important tire auxiliary rubber, can significantly reduce the rolling resistance of tires, improve the grip force and properties resistant to ice, wetness or slippery of tires. In this paper, based on the conventional tire rubber forming technologies of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding, a study is made on the conical screw, the dewatering barrel, the drying barrel, the pin layout scheme, the expanding die head, cutter and the control system. The nonlinear pin rubber forming equipment integrating the functions of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding is designed and applied to tire auxiliary rubber forming. The experiment shows that the forming device can realize the one-step forming, with high forming efficiency, low cost and less labor.

  9. Towards refactoring the Molecular Function Ontology with a UML profile for function modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Patryk; Loebe, Frank; Herre, Heinrich

    2017-10-04

    Gene Ontology (GO) is the largest resource for cataloging gene products. This resource grows steadily and, naturally, this growth raises issues regarding the structure of the ontology. Moreover, modeling and refactoring large ontologies such as GO is generally far from being simple, as a whole as well as when focusing on certain aspects or fragments. It seems that human-friendly graphical modeling languages such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML) could be helpful in connection with these tasks. We investigate the use of UML for making the structural organization of the Molecular Function Ontology (MFO), a sub-ontology of GO, more explicit. More precisely, we present a UML dialect, called the Function Modeling Language (FueL), which is suited for capturing functions in an ontologically founded way. FueL is equipped, among other features, with language elements that arise from studying patterns of subsumption between functions. We show how to use this UML dialect for capturing the structure of molecular functions. Furthermore, we propose and discuss some refactoring options concerning fragments of MFO. FueL enables the systematic, graphical representation of functions and their interrelations, including making information explicit that is currently either implicit in MFO or is mainly captured in textual descriptions. Moreover, the considered subsumption patterns lend themselves to the methodical analysis of refactoring options with respect to MFO. On this basis we argue that the approach can increase the comprehensibility of the structure of MFO for humans and can support communication, for example, during revision and further development.

  10. Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2012-08-01

    Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.

  11. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Radosław; Gałczyńska-Rusin, Małgorzata; Gizińska, Małgorzata; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Zdanowska, Agata; Romanowski, Mateusz Wojciech; Romanowski, Wojciech; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS) questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheu...

  13. A simple functional form for proton-208Pb total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Deb, P.K.; Amos, K.

    2001-01-01

    A simple functional form has been found that gives a good representation of the total reaction cross sections for the scattering from 208 Pb of protons with energies in the range 30 to 300 MeV. The ratios of the total reaction cross sections calculated under this approximations compared well (to within a few percent) to those determined from the microscopic optical model potentials

  14. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the functional profile of elderly women with urinary continence and incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Regiane Winter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence (UI, more prevalent in women and influencing their functional decline, increases with age. Current longitudinal study with two data collection in 2005-2006 and 2011 compares the functional profile of urinary continence and incontinence in elderly women. Sixty-eight women were divided into females with urinary continence (CG; n = 62 and females with urinary incontinence (IG; n = 6. Dependent variables measured were obesity and body adiposity indexes and functional fitness. Data were given in means with standard deviation (± and analyzed by the independent t-test (p < 0.05. There were six cases of UI. In the first evaluation group differences occurred for waist circumference (CG: 85.3±9.7 cm; IG: 91.2 ± 12.4cm; t=-2.267; p < 0.05 and cardiorespiratory fitness (CG: 517.9 ± 67.3 m; IG: 463.0±85.9 m; t = 2.571; p < 0.05. CG had a better functional profile, excepting flexibility and lower limbs strength, in the second evaluation. Women with UI had higher waist circumference and lower cardiorespiratory fitness. This may be due to the relationship between the variables and greater abdominal compression and functional decline. Results show that future public health strategies should focus on these factors to decrease the risk of people developing UI and to improve physical-functional and psycho-social benefits to elderly women.

  16. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ena; Chen, Qiang; Goldman, Aaron L; Tan, Hao Yang; Healy, Kaitlin; Zoltick, Brad; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Callicott, Joseph H; Dickinson, Dwight; Berman, Karen F; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2017-11-01

    We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics. We also studied effects on brain morphometry in an overlapping sample of 280 subjects. There was almost no significant association of LOAD-RPS with cognitive or morphometric measures. However, there was a significant negative relationship between LOAD-RPS and hippocampal function (familywise error [small volume correction-hippocampal region of interest] p risk score based on APOE haplotype, and for a combined LOAD-RPS + APOE haplotype risk profile score (p risk genes on hippocampal function even in healthy volunteers. The effect of LOAD-RPS on hippocampal function in the relative absence of any effect on cognitive and morphometric measures is consistent with the reported temporal characteristics of LOAD biomarkers with the earlier manifestation of synaptic dysfunction before morphometric and cognitive changes. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagonal form factors and heavy-heavy-light three-point functions at weak coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, Laszlo; Jiang, Yunfeng; Petrovskii, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider a special kind of three-point functions of HHL type at weak coupling in N=4 SYM theory and analyze its volume dependence. At strong coupling this kind of three-point functions were studied recently by Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050. The authors considered some cases of HHL correlator in the su(2) sector and, relying on their explicit results, formulated a conjecture about the form of the volume dependence of the symmetric HHL structure constant to be valid at any coupling up to wrapping corrections. In order to test this hypothesis we considered the HHL correlator in su(2) sector at weak coupling and directly showed that, up to one loop, the finite volume dependence has exactly the form proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050. Another side of the conjecture suggests that computation of the symmetric structure constant is equivalent to computing the corresponding set of infinite volume form factors, which can be extracted as the coefficients of finite volume expansion. In this sense, extracting appropriate coefficients from our result gives a prediction for the corresponding infinite volume form factors.

  18. Diagonal form factors and heavy-heavy-light three-point functions at weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollo, Laszlo [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Jiang, Yunfeng; Petrovskii, Andrei [Institut de Physique Théorique, DSM, CEA, URA2306 CNRS,Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-09-18

    In this paper we consider a special kind of three-point functions of HHL type at weak coupling in N=4 SYM theory and analyze its volume dependence. At strong coupling this kind of three-point functions were studied recently by Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050. The authors considered some cases of HHL correlator in the su(2) sector and, relying on their explicit results, formulated a conjecture about the form of the volume dependence of the symmetric HHL structure constant to be valid at any coupling up to wrapping corrections. In order to test this hypothesis we considered the HHL correlator in su(2) sector at weak coupling and directly showed that, up to one loop, the finite volume dependence has exactly the form proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050. Another side of the conjecture suggests that computation of the symmetric structure constant is equivalent to computing the corresponding set of infinite volume form factors, which can be extracted as the coefficients of finite volume expansion. In this sense, extracting appropriate coefficients from our result gives a prediction for the corresponding infinite volume form factors.

  19. Structural and functional changes across the visual cortex of a patient with visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen M; Minini, Loredana; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Milner, A David; Parker, Andrew J

    2013-07-31

    Loss of shape recognition in visual-form agnosia occurs without equivalent losses in the use of vision to guide actions, providing support for the hypothesis of two visual systems (for "perception" and "action"). The human individual DF received a toxic exposure to carbon monoxide some years ago, which resulted in a persisting visual-form agnosia that has been extensively characterized at the behavioral level. We conducted a detailed high-resolution MRI study of DF's cortex, combining structural and functional measurements. We present the first accurate quantification of the changes in thickness across DF's occipital cortex, finding the most substantial loss in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). There are reduced white matter connections between LOC and other areas. Functional measures show pockets of activity that survive within structurally damaged areas. The topographic mapping of visual areas showed that ordered retinotopic maps were evident for DF in the ventral portions of visual cortical areas V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Although V1 shows evidence of topographic order in its dorsal portion, such maps could not be found in the dorsal parts of V2 and V3. We conclude that it is not possible to understand fully the deficits in object perception in visual-form agnosia without the exploitation of both structural and functional measurements. Our results also highlight for DF the cortical routes through which visual information is able to pass to support her well-documented abilities to use visual information to guide actions.

  20. Functional form comparison between the population and the individual Poisson based TCP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinkel, C.; Stavreva, N.; Stavrev, P.; Carlone, M.; Fallone, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the functional form similarity between the individual and fundamental population TCP models is investigated. Using the fact that both models can be expressed in terms of the geometric parameters γ 50 and D 50 , we show that they have almost identical functional form for values of γ 50 ≥1. The conceptual inadequacy of applying an individual model to clinical data is also discussed. A general individual response TCP expression is given, parameterized by D f and γ f - the dose corresponding to a control level of f, and the normalized slope at that point. It is shown that the dose-response may be interpreted as an individual response only if γ 50 is sufficiently high. Based on the functional form equivalency between the individual and the population TCP models, we discuss the possibility of applying the individual TCP model for the case of heterogeneous irradiations. Due to the fact that the fundamental population TCP model is derived for homogeneous irradiations only, we propose the use of the EUD, given by the generalized mean dose, when the fundamental population TCP model is used to fit clinical data. (author)

  1. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  3. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  4. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  5. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jason J; Polly, P David

    2015-04-02

    Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume a highly regionalized ancestor, but the extent of deregionalization of the primaxial domain (vertebrae, dorsal ribs) of the skeleton in snake-like body forms has never been analysed. Here we combine geometric morphometrics and maximum-likelihood analysis to show that the pre-cloacal primaxial domain of elongate, limb-reduced lizards and snakes is not deregionalized compared with limbed taxa, and that the phylogenetic structure of primaxial morphology in reptiles does not support a loss of regionalization in the evolution of snakes. We demonstrate that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code. Comparison of primaxial osteology in fossil and modern amniotes with Hox gene distributions within Amniota indicates that a functional, sequentially expressed Hox code patterned a subtle morphological gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in stem members of amniote clades and extant lizards, including snakes. The highly regionalized skeletons of extant archosaurs and mammals result from independent evolution in the Hox code and do not represent ancestral conditions for clades with snake-like body forms. The developmental origin of snakes is best explained by decoupling of the primaxial and abaxial domains and by increases in somite number, not by changes in the function of primaxial Hox genes.

  6. Functional profiling of cyanobacterial genomes and its role in ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of complete genome sequences of many cyanobacterial species, it is becoming feasible to study the broad prospective of the environmental adaptation and the overall changes at transcriptional and translational level in these organisms. In the evolutionary phase, niche-specific competitive forces have resulted in specific features of the cyanobacterial genomes. In this study, functional composition of the 84 different cyanobacterial genomes and their adaptations to different environments was examined by identifying the genomic composition for specific cellular processes, which reflect their genomic functional profile and ecological adaptation. It was identified that among cyanobacterial genomes, metabolic genes have major share over other categories and differentiation of genomic functional profile was observed for the species inhabiting different habitats. The cyanobacteria of freshwater and other habitats accumulate large number of poorly characterized genes. Strain specific functions were also reported in many cyanobacterial members, of which an important feature was the occurrence of phage-related sequences. From this study, it can be speculated that habitat is one of the major factors in giving the shape of functional composition of cyanobacterial genomes towards their ecological adaptations.

  7. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  8. Relativistic form factors for hadrons with quark-model wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.P.; Robson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between relativistic form factors and quark-potential-model wave functions is examined using an improved version of an approach by Licht and Pagnamenta. Lorentz-contraction effects are expressed in terms of an effective hadron mass which varies as the square root of the number of quark constituents. The effective mass is calculated using the rest-frame wave functions from the mean-square momentum along the direction of the momentum transfer. Applications with the parameter-free approach are made to the elastic form factors of the pion, proton, and neutron using a Hamiltonian which simultaneously describes mesons and baryons. A comparison of the calculated radii for pions and kaons suggests that the measured kaon radius should be slightly smaller than the corresponding pion radius. The large negative squared charge radius for the neutron is partially explained via the quark model but a full description requires the inclusion of a small component of a pion ''cloud'' configuration. The problematic connection between the sizes of hadrons deduced from form factors and the ''measured'' values of average transverse momenta is reconciled in the present model

  9. Surveying DNA Elements within Functional Genes of Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Hilton

    Full Text Available Some cyanobacteria are capable of differentiating a variety of cell types in response to environmental factors. For instance, in low nitrogen conditions, some cyanobacteria form heterocysts, which are specialized for N2 fixation. Many heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria have DNA elements interrupting key N2 fixation genes, elements that are excised during heterocyst differentiation. While the mechanism for the excision of the element has been well-studied, many questions remain regarding the introduction of the elements into the cyanobacterial lineage and whether they have been retained ever since or have been lost and reintroduced. To examine the evolutionary relationships and possible function of DNA sequences that interrupt genes of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, we identified and compared 101 interruption element sequences within genes from 38 heterocyst-forming cyanobacterial genomes. The interruption element lengths ranged from about 1 kb (the minimum able to encode the recombinase responsible for element excision, up to nearly 1 Mb. The recombinase gene sequences served as genetic markers that were common across the interruption elements and were used to track element evolution. Elements were found that interrupted 22 different orthologs, only five of which had been previously observed to be interrupted by an element. Most of the newly identified interrupted orthologs encode proteins that have been shown to have heterocyst-specific activity. However, the presence of interruption elements within genes with no known role in N2 fixation, as well as in three non-heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, indicates that the processes that trigger the excision of elements may not be limited to heterocyst development or that the elements move randomly within genomes. This comprehensive analysis provides the framework to study the history and behavior of these unique sequences, and offers new insight regarding the frequency and persistence of interruption

  10. Surveying DNA Elements within Functional Genes of Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jason A; Meeks, John C; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria are capable of differentiating a variety of cell types in response to environmental factors. For instance, in low nitrogen conditions, some cyanobacteria form heterocysts, which are specialized for N2 fixation. Many heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria have DNA elements interrupting key N2 fixation genes, elements that are excised during heterocyst differentiation. While the mechanism for the excision of the element has been well-studied, many questions remain regarding the introduction of the elements into the cyanobacterial lineage and whether they have been retained ever since or have been lost and reintroduced. To examine the evolutionary relationships and possible function of DNA sequences that interrupt genes of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, we identified and compared 101 interruption element sequences within genes from 38 heterocyst-forming cyanobacterial genomes. The interruption element lengths ranged from about 1 kb (the minimum able to encode the recombinase responsible for element excision), up to nearly 1 Mb. The recombinase gene sequences served as genetic markers that were common across the interruption elements and were used to track element evolution. Elements were found that interrupted 22 different orthologs, only five of which had been previously observed to be interrupted by an element. Most of the newly identified interrupted orthologs encode proteins that have been shown to have heterocyst-specific activity. However, the presence of interruption elements within genes with no known role in N2 fixation, as well as in three non-heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, indicates that the processes that trigger the excision of elements may not be limited to heterocyst development or that the elements move randomly within genomes. This comprehensive analysis provides the framework to study the history and behavior of these unique sequences, and offers new insight regarding the frequency and persistence of interruption elements in

  11. Identifying arsenic trioxide (ATO) functions in leukemia cells by using time series gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Lin, Shan; Cui, Jingru

    2014-02-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is presently the most active single agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In order to explore the molecular mechanism of ATO in leukemia cells with time series, we adopted bioinformatics strategy to analyze expression changing patterns and changes in transcription regulation modules of time series genes filtered from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE24946). We totally screened out 1847 time series genes for subsequent analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways enrichment analysis of these genes showed that oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome were the top 2 significantly enriched pathways. STEM software was employed to compare changing patterns of gene expression with assigned 50 expression patterns. We screened out 7 significantly enriched patterns and 4 tendency charts of time series genes. The result of Gene Ontology showed that functions of times series genes mainly distributed in profiles 41, 40, 39 and 38. Seven genes with positive regulation of cell adhesion function were enriched in profile 40, and presented the same first increased model then decreased model as profile 40. The transcription module analysis showed that they mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and ribosome pathway. Overall, our data summarized the gene expression changes in ATO treated K562-r cell lines with time and suggested that time series genes mainly regulated cell adhesive. Furthermore, our result may provide theoretical basis of molecular biology in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (< 25 cm), soil-moisture conditions fluctuate seasonally between xeric and saturated, and summer soil temperatures commonly exceed 48 °C. The effects of these stressors on soil microbial communities (SMC) remain largely unstudied, despite the importance of SMC-plant interactions in regulating the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. SMC profiles and functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  13. Forming method of a functional layer-built film by micro-wave plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Keishi

    1988-11-18

    In forming an amorphous semi-conductor material film, the micro-wave plasma CVD cannot be generally used because of such demerits as film-separation, low yield, columnar structure in the film, and problems in the optical and electrical properties. In this invention, a specific substrate is placed in a layer-built film forming unit which is capable of maintaining vacuum; raw material gas for the film formation is introduced; plasma is generated by a micro-wave energy to decompose the raw material gas, thus forming the layer-built film on the substarte. Then a film is made by adding a specific amount of calcoganide-containing gas to the raw material gas. By this, the utilization efficiency of the raw material gas gets roughly 100% and both the adhesion to the substrate and the structural flexibility of the layer-built film increase, enhancing the yield of forming various functional elements (sensor, solar cell, thin transistor film, etc.), and thus greatly reducing the production cost. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Analysis of Metal Flow Behavior and Residual Stress Formation of Complex Functional Profiles under High-Speed Cold Roll-Beating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengkui Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a good surface layer performance of the complex functional profile during the high-speed cold roll-beating forming process, this paper analyzed the metal plastic flow and residual stress-formed mechanism by using a theoretical model of the metal flow and residual stress generation. By using simulation software, the cold roll-beating forming process of a spline shaft was simulated and analyzed. The metal flow and residual stress formation law in the motion were researched. In a practical experiment, the changes in the grains in the spline tooth profile section and the residual stress distribution on the tooth profile were studied. A microcorrespondence relationship was established between the metal plastic flow and the residual stress generation. The conclusions indicate that the rate at which the metal flow decreases changes gradually at different metal layers. The residual stress value is directly related to the plastic flow difference. As the roll-beating speed increases, the uneven degree of plastic deformation at the workpiece surface increases, and the residual stress in the tooth profile is generally greater. At the same roll-beating speed, the rate change trend of the metal flow decreases gradually from the surface to the inner layer and from the dedendum to the addendum. The residual stress distribution on the surface of the tooth profile decreases from the dedendum to the addendum. These findings provide a basis and guidance for the controlled use of residual stress, obtaining better surface layer quality in the high-speed cold roll-beating process of the complex functional profile.

  15. Profile of cognitive problems in schizophrenia and implications for vocational functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bhing-Leet

    2009-08-01

    This literature review attempts to profile specific areas of cognition that have shown unique and consistent evidence of dysfunction among people with schizophrenia. In addition, their impact on vocational functioning is illustrated, so as to highlight the importance of managing these cognitive difficulties in vocational rehabilitation. Literature search was carried out on seven key cognitive domains identified by the National Institute of Mental Health in the USA. Their impact on vocational function was also reviewed. It is found that attention, declarative and working memory, reasoning, problem-solving and social cognition are areas of impairment that have great impact on vocational functioning. Attention and memory problems affect learning of new work tasks. Executive function is particularly crucial in determining supported and open employment outcomes, as executive dysfunction cannot be easily compensated. Lastly, social cognition plays a major role in determining the success of workplace social exchanges. Occupational therapists need to have a good understanding of the profile of cognitive problems among people with schizophrenia, in order to tailor our intervention according to their cognitive strengths and difficulties. Several cognitive remediation strategies and programs have been designed specifically for people with mental illness. Equipping ourselves with skills in conducting such programs will augment our expertise in vocational rehabilitation.

  16. Mechanical properties of novel forms of graphyne under strain: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of two forms of graphyne sheets named α-graphyne and α2-graphyne under uniaxial and biaxial strains were studied. In-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus were calculated based on density functional theory. The in-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus of α2-graphyne were found to be larger than that of α-graphyne. The maximum values of supported uniaxial and biaxial strains before failure were determined. The α-graphyne was entered into the plastic region with the higher magnitude of tension in comparison to α2-graphyne. The mechanical properties of α-graphyne family revealed that these forms of graphyne are proper materials for use in nanomechanical applications.

  17. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  18. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  19. Rietveld refinement of Y2O3 using the pearson VII profile shape function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcok, L.

    1989-01-01

    Very good agreement between the observed and the calculated intensities was obtained using the Pearson VII profile shape function. The variable exponent m could be refined only in the damped iterations involving exclusively the profile parameters. Simultaneous refinement of the m with the positional and/or thermal parameters has led to large oscillations of the shifts of almost all parameters. Precision of the refined atomic coordinates is better than those from previously published Rietveld refinement and is comparable with single crystal results. The degree of serial correlation in residuals has been determined by the use of the Durbin-Watson d statistic. Normal probability plot based on δR i has been almost linear with the slope greater than one. The weighting scheme with w i = 1/y oi has proved to be good first approximation. (author)

  20. S-N profile of Receive function image across Qiangtang, Northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Gao, R.; Deng, G.; Li, W.; Hou, H.; Lu, Z.; Xiong, X.

    2010-12-01

    Huge thicken Triassic and Jurassic sediments widely outcorp within Qiangtang, tens of oilstones outcorped within Qiangtang showed that Qiangtang have a good advantage in exploring oil and gas. So, the basement beneath Qiangtang and its structures have become the key for us to look for oil and gas accumulations. Within tectonic settings of Qiangtang, the center uplift of Qiangtang (abbr. CUQT) and its developments have become the great barrier to understand the basement and its structures within the basin. Because of complicated structure relief and blueschist and ophiolite outcorps within the CUQT, there was the paradox for lots of geologist to understand how the CUQT developed. One was that it formed under the extension environment. On the contrary, CUQT was ever paleo-Tethys suture zone, because CUQT had the belt of blueschists and ophiolite. So, different opinions to CUQT resulted in the different viewpoints in the basin beneath Qiangtang terrane. Surveying deep structure beneath the CUQT was the key to understand the basement under Qiangtang. In past two years, we have deployed 40 portable broadband seismic stations along E88°to across the whole Qiangtang from Bangong-Nujiang Suture, southern side of Qiangtang terrane, to northern margin of Qiangtang terrane. The temporary network collected a lot of farm waveform data, which is helpful to know about the more finest deep structure beneath the CUQT and its two sides basin. We used P-to-S receiver functions methods to get deep structure image beneath the profile. The preliminary results showed: (1) Within the crust, the velocity structure beneath southern Qiangtang basin is higher than beneath northern Qiangtang basin. (2) Sedimental layer within southern Qiangtang basin is thichen than within northern Qiangtang basin. Combined with other geophysical information, CUQT is an important lithosphere-level boundary fault belts, and southern Qiangtang basin have great difference with northern Qiangtang basin, in

  1. Deuteron A(Q2) structure function and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.; Amroun, A.; Auffret, S.; Cavedon, J.M.; Dreux, P.; Duclos, J.; Frois, B.; Goutte, D.; Hachemi, H.; Martino, J.

    1989-01-01

    We present new measurements of the deuteron A(Q 2 ) structure function in the momentum transfer region between 1 and 18 fm -2 . The accuracy of the data ranges from 2% to 6%. We investigate the sensitivity of A(Q 2 ) to the nucleon-nucleon interaction and to the neutron electric form factor G E n . Our analysis shows that below 20 fm -2 G E n can be inferred from these data with a significantly improved accuracy. The model dependence of this analysis is discussed

  2. Development and Evaluation of the Boston University Osteoarthritis Functional Pain Short Form (BU-OA-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Adam P; Ni, Pengshend; Jette, Alan; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2018-04-19

    Pragmatic studies have gained popularity, thus emphasizing the need for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) to be integrated into electronic health records. This study describes the development of a customized short form from the Boston University Osteoarthritis Functional Assessment PRO (BU-OA-PRO) for a specific pragmatic clinical trial. A Functional Pain Short Form was created from an existing item bank of deidentified data in the BU-OA-PRO. Item response theory (IRT) methods were used to select items. Reliability was measured with the Cronbach alpha, then with IRT simulation methods. To examine validity, ceiling and floor effects, correlations between the short-form scores and scores from the BU-OA-PRO and the Western Ontario McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain and Difficulty subscales, and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. A minimum detectable change at 90% confidence (MDC90) was calculated based on a calibration sample. The BU-OA PRO was reduced from 126 items to 10 items to create the BU-OA Functional Pain Short Form (BU-OA-FPS). The Cronbach alpha indicated high internal consistency (0.91), and reliability distribution estimates were 0.96 (uniform) and 0.92 (normal). Low ceiling effects (4.57%), and floor effects (0%) were found. Moderate-to-high correlations between the BU-OA PRO and BU-OA-FPS were found with WOMAC Pain (BU-OA-FPS = 0.67; BU-OA-PRO = 0.64) and Difficulty (BU-OA-FPS = 0.73; BU-OA-PRO = 0.69) subscales. The correlation between the BU-OA-PRO and BU-OA-FPS was 0.94. The AUC ranged from 0.80 to 0.88. The MDC90 was approximately 6 standardized points. The BU-OA-FPS provides reliable and valid measurement of functional pain. Pragmatic studies may consider the BU-OA-FPS for use in electronic health records to capture outcomes.

  3. Nucleon form factors and structure functions from Nf=2 Clover fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.; Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.

    2010-12-01

    We give an update on our ongoing efforts to compute the nucleon's form factors and moments of structure functions using N f =2 flavours of non-perturbatively improved Clover fermions. We focus on new results obtained on gauge configurations where the pseudo-scalar meson mass is in the range of 170-270 MeV. We compare our results with various estimates obtained from chiral effective theories since we have some overlap with the quark mass region where results from such theories are believed to be applicable. (orig.)

  4. The functionalities of the Darwin radioactivity calculation form and the radiation protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T.D.; Luneville, L.; Diop, C.M.; Eid, M.

    2003-01-01

    The characterisation of the radioactive sources relative to the evolution of nuclear fuels or to the activation under particles flux (generally neutrons) of structures of a nuclear equipment or a simple isotope decay is a step in the radiation protection studies. This characterisation needs to know a fundamental knowledge: the radionuclides concentration. This one changes with time, and follows the coupled differential equations of first order in time, the generalised Bateman equations. The objective of this paper is to present the functionalities of the Darwin form, developed by the Cea and dedicated to the study of radioactivity. (N.C.)

  5. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Form and function: Perspectives on structural biology and resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study is largely to explore and expand on the thesis that biological structures and their functions are suited to. Form indeed follows function and if we are to understand the workings of a living system, with all that such an understanding promises, we must first seek to describe the structure of its parts. Descriptions of a few achievements of structural biology lay the groundwork, but the substance of this booklet is a discussion of important questions yet unanswered and opportunities just beyond our grasp. The concluding pages then outline a course of action in which the Department of Energy would exercise its responsibility to develop the major resources needed to extend our reach and to answer some of those unanswered questions. 22 figs

  7. Form and function: Perspectives on structural biology and resources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study is largely to explore and expand on the thesis that biological structures and their functions are suited to. Form indeed follows function and if we are to understand the workings of a living system, with all that such an understanding promises, we must first seek to describe the structure of its parts. Descriptions of a few achievements of structural biology lay the groundwork, but the substance of this booklet is a discussion of important questions yet unanswered and opportunities just beyond our grasp. The concluding pages then outline a course of action in which the Department of Energy would exercise its responsibility to develop the major resources needed to extend our reach and to answer some of those unanswered questions. 22 figs.

  8. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yushen; Wu, Nicholas C; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Tianhao; Gong, Danyang; Shu, Sara; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2016-11-01

    usually limited by sampling size. Sequence conservation-based methods are further confounded by structural constraints and multifunctionality of proteins. Here we present a method that can systematically identify and annotate functional residues of a given protein. We used a high-throughput functional profiling platform to identify essential residues. Coupling it with homologous-structure comparison, we were able to annotate multiple functions of proteins. We demonstrated the method with the PB1 protein of influenza A virus and identified novel functional residues in addition to its canonical function as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Not limited to virology, this method is generally applicable to other proteins that can be functionally selected and about which homologous-structure information is available. Copyright © 2016 Du et al.

  9. Functionalized D-form self-assembling peptide hydrogels for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bin He,1 Yunsheng Ou,1 Ao Zhou,1 Shuo Chen,1 Weikang Zhao,1 Jinqiu Zhao,2 Hong Li,3 Yong Zhu,1 Zenghui Zhao,1 Dianming Jiang1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bone defects are very common in orthopedics, and there is great need to develop suitable bone grafts for transplantation in vivo. However, current bone grafts still encounter some limitations, including limited availability, immune rejection, poor osteoinduction and osteoconduction, poor biocompatibility and degradation properties, etc. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds have emerged as an important substrate for cell culture and bone regeneration. We report on the structural features (eg, Congo red staining, circular dichroism spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and rheometry assays and osteogenic ability of D-RADA16-RGD peptide hydrogels (with or without basic fibroblast growth factor due to the better stability of peptide bonds formed by these peptides compared with those formed by L-form peptides, and use them to fill the femoral condyle defect of Sprague Dawley rat model. The bone morphology change, two-dimensional reconstructions using microcomputed tomography, quantification of the microcomputed tomography analyses as well as histological analyses have demonstrated that RGD-modified D-form peptide scaffolds are able to enhance extensive bone regeneration. Keywords: bone defect, functionalized D-form self-assembling peptide, D-RADA16-RGD, peptide hydrogel, bone regeneration

  10. Distinct expression profiles and different functions of odorant binding proteins in Nilaparvata lugens Stål.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice, wing form (long and short wing variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival. CONCLUSIONS: NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.

  11. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  12. Comparative expression profiling reveals gene functions in female meiosis and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; He, Jiangman; Cai, Hanyang; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Yanqiang; Liu, Renyi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Qin, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Megasporogenesis is essential for female fertility, and requires the accomplishment of meiosis and the formation of functional megaspores. The inaccessibility and low abundance of female meiocytes make it particularly difficult to elucidate the molecular basis underlying megasporogenesis. We used high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis to identify genes expressed in female meiocytes (FMs) by comparing gene expression profiles from wild-type ovules undergoing megasporogenesis with those from the spl mutant ovules, which lack megasporogenesis. A total of 862 genes were identified as FMs, with levels that are consistently reduced in spl ovules in two biological replicates. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting followed by RNA-seq analysis of DMC1:GFP-labeled female meiocytes confirmed that 90% of the FMs are indeed detected in the female meiocyte protoplast profiling. We performed reverse genetic analysis of 120 candidate genes and identified four FM genes with a function in female meiosis progression in Arabidopsis. We further revealed that KLU, a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is involved in chromosome pairing during female meiosis, most likely by affecting the normal expression pattern of DMC1 in ovules during female meiosis. Our studies provide valuable information for functional genomic analyses of plant germline development as well as insights into meiosis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Versatile Gene-Specific Sequence Tags for Arabidopsis Functional Genomics: Transcript Profiling and Reverse Genetics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Pierre; Allemeersch, Joke; Altmann, Thomas; Aubourg, Sébastien; Avon, Alexandra; Beynon, Jim; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Bitton, Frédérique; Caboche, Michel; Cannoot, Bernard; Chardakov, Vasil; Cognet-Holliger, Cécile; Colot, Vincent; Crowe, Mark; Darimont, Caroline; Durinck, Steffen; Eickhoff, Holger; de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Farmer, Edward E.; Grant, Murray; Kuiper, Martin T.R.; Lehrach, Hans; Léon, Céline; Leyva, Antonio; Lundeberg, Joakim; Lurin, Claire; Moreau, Yves; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Paz-Ares, Javier; Reymond, Philippe; Rouzé, Pierre; Sandberg, Goran; Segura, Maria Dolores; Serizet, Carine; Tabrett, Alexandra; Taconnat, Ludivine; Thareau, Vincent; Van Hummelen, Paul; Vercruysse, Steven; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Weingartner, Magdalena; Weisbeek, Peter J.; Wirta, Valtteri; Wittink, Floyd R.A.; Zabeau, Marc; Small, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Microarray transcript profiling and RNA interference are two new technologies crucial for large-scale gene function studies in multicellular eukaryotes. Both rely on sequence-specific hybridization between complementary nucleic acid strands, inciting us to create a collection of gene-specific sequence tags (GSTs) representing at least 21,500 Arabidopsis genes and which are compatible with both approaches. The GSTs were carefully selected to ensure that each of them shared no significant similarity with any other region in the Arabidopsis genome. They were synthesized by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. Spotted microarrays fabricated from the GSTs show good dynamic range, specificity, and sensitivity in transcript profiling experiments. The GSTs have also been transferred to bacterial plasmid vectors via recombinational cloning protocols. These cloned GSTs constitute the ideal starting point for a variety of functional approaches, including reverse genetics. We have subcloned GSTs on a large scale into vectors designed for gene silencing in plant cells. We show that in planta expression of GST hairpin RNA results in the expected phenotypes in silenced Arabidopsis lines. These versatile GST resources provide novel and powerful tools for functional genomics. PMID:15489341

  15. Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

  16. Naked mole-rat acid-sensing ion channel 3 forms nonfunctional homomers, but functional heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Callejo, Gerard; Srivats, Shyam; Smith, Ewan St John

    2018-02-02

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain. Naked mole-rats, despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Here we cloned naked mole-rat ASIC3 (nmrASIC3) and used a cell-surface biotinylation assay to demonstrate that it traffics to the plasma membrane, but using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology we observed that nmrASIC3 is insensitive to both protons and the non-proton ASIC3 agonist 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline. However, in line with previous reports of ASIC3 mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons, we found that the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2 reversibly inhibits ASIC-like currents in naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. We further show that like the proton-insensitive ASIC2b and ASIC4, nmrASIC3 forms functional, proton-sensitive heteromers with other ASIC subunits. An amino acid alignment of ASIC3s between 9 relevant rodent species and human identified unique sequence differences that might underlie the proton insensitivity of nmrASIC3. However, introducing nmrASIC3 differences into rat ASIC3 (rASIC3) produced only minor differences in channel function, and replacing the nmrASIC3 sequence with that of rASIC3 did not produce a proton-sensitive ion channel. Our observation that nmrASIC3 forms nonfunctional homomers may reflect a further adaptation of the naked mole-rat to living in an environment with high-carbon dioxide levels. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  17. Protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721: Identification and functional analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Feng; Zhong-Min Tian; Ming-Xi Wan; Zhao-Bin Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, to analyze the specific functions of abundant expressed proteins in the processes of hepatocarcinoma genesis, growth and metastasis, to identify the hepatocarcinoma-specific biomarkers for the early prediction in diagnosis, and to explore the new drug targets for liver cancer therapy.METHODS: Total proteins from human hepatocarcinomacell line SMMC-7721 were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The silver-stained gel was analyzed by 2DE software Image Master 2D Elite.Interesting protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)and database searching.RESULTS: We obtained protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721. Among the twenty-one successfully identified proteins, mitofilin,endoplasmic reticulum protein ERp29, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase complex core protein Ⅰ,peroxisomal enoyl CoA hydratase, peroxiredoxin-4 and probable 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1 precursor were the six novel proteins identified in human hepatocarcinoma cells or tissues. Specific functions of the identified heat-shock proteins were analyzed in detail, and the results suggested that these proteins might promote tumorigenesis via inhibiting cell death induced by several cancer-related stresses or via inhibiting apoptosis at multiple points in the apoptotic signal pathway. Other identified chaperones and cancer-related proteins were also analyzed.CONCLUSION: Based on the protein profile of SMMC-7721 cells, functional analysis suggests that the identified chaperones and cancer-related proteins have their own pathways to contribute to the tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer. Furthermore, proteomic analysis is indicated to be feasible in the cancer study.

  18. FUNCTION DEFIES FORM: A THOUGHT FOR ARCHITECTURE IN THE NEW INFORMATION AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izham Ghani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issues and thoughts on the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT towards some of today’s buildings – form and function. ‘Form follows function’ is perhaps one of the world famous dictums in architecture that many would agree on its feasibility in the theory of basic building designs. However, the emergence of the new ‘Information Age’ had suggested otherwise. Spaces had become more intelligent and interactive while circulation is becoming more fluid and flexible. Building forms tend to be more invisible as users turn to the World Wide Web for routine activities that was once achievable only through physical interaction. Nowadays activities such as shopping, meeting, schooling, chatting and even a visit to the library is virtually possible. As computers and human are adapting more towards each other, buildings are just becoming a matter of platform to store the software and hardware. In the digital world, architects face a daunting task of reclaiming the original image and identity of what we see as a ‘building’. Regardless of any invasion of new technology, buildings should serve its purpose as a reflection of the place’s image and identity. This paper would hope to provoke new thoughts in architectural approach as we reach the dawn of an information society.

  19. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  20. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  1. Sexual function and hormone profile in young adult men with idiopathic gynecomastia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Emin; Üçer, Oktay; Aksoy, Alper; Güngör, Melike; Ceylan, Yasin

    2016-01-22

    To compare sexual function and hormone profile in male patients with gynecomastia with matched controls. Forty-seven male subjects with gynecomastia and thirty healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA-SO4, LH and total PSA were measured in the patients and controls. Sexual function of the patients and controls were evaluated using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The hormone values and IIEF scores of the patients were statistically compared with the controls'. The mean of age, body mass index, right and left testicular volume in the patient and control group were similar. The mean FSH and free T3 values of the patients were significantly lower than the controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). The mean of the other hormone values in the both groups were found to be statistically similar (p > 0.05). The mean ±SD of total IIEF scores in the patient and control group were 60.14 ± 8.78 and 65.24 ± 5.52, respectively (p = 0.007). Although the mean IIEF-erectile function, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction scores in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (p gynecomastia were similar with the controls. However, gynecomastia adversely affected male sexual function.

  2. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Scott

    Full Text Available Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures. However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74, focus groups (n = 18 and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups

  3. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Ved, Rajani; Garimella, Surekha; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-01-01

    Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership) and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures). However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC) functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74), focus groups (n = 18) and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups) presented

  4. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO3-N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  5. Fractal analytical approach of urban form based on spatial correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Many fractal parameter relations of cities can be derived by scaling analysis. ► The area-radius scaling of cities suggests a spatial correlation function. ► Spectral analysis can be used to estimate fractal dimension values of urban form. ► The valid range of fractal dimension of urban form comes between 1.5 and 2. ► The traditional scale concept will be replaced by scaling concept in geography. -- Abstract: Urban form has been empirically demonstrated to be of scaling invariance and can be described with fractal geometry. However, the rational range of fractal dimension value and the relationships between various fractal indicators of cities are not yet revealed in theory. By mathematical deduction and transform (e.g., Fourier transform), I find that scaling analysis, spectral analysis, and spatial correlation analysis are all associated with fractal concepts and can be integrated into a new approach to fractal analysis of cities. This method can be termed ‘3S analyses’ of urban form. Using the 3S analysis, I derived a set of fractal parameter equations, by which different fractal parameters of cities can be linked up with one another. Each fractal parameter has its own reasonable extent of values. According to the fractal parameter equations, the intersection of the rational ranges of different fractal parameters suggests the proper scale of the fractal dimension of urban patterns, which varies from 1.5 to 2. The fractal dimension equations based on the 3S analysis and the numerical relationships between different fractal parameters are useful for geographers to understand urban evolution and potentially helpful for future city planning

  6. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in Sphenodon, and implications for diapsid skull development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Curtis

    Full Text Available The vertebrate skull evolved to protect the brain and sense organs, but with the appearance of jaws and associated forces there was a remarkable structural diversification. This suggests that the evolution of skull form may be linked to these forces, but an important area of debate is whether bone in the skull is minimised with respect to these forces, or whether skulls are mechanically "over-designed" and constrained by phylogeny and development. Mechanical analysis of diapsid reptile skulls could shed light on this longstanding debate. Compared to those of mammals, the skulls of many extant and extinct diapsids comprise an open framework of fenestrae (window-like openings separated by bony struts (e.g., lizards, tuatara, dinosaurs and crocodiles, a cranial form thought to be strongly linked to feeding forces. We investigated this link by utilising the powerful engineering approach of multibody dynamics analysis to predict the physiological forces acting on the skull of the diapsid reptile Sphenodon. We then ran a series of structural finite element analyses to assess the correlation between bone strain and skull form. With comprehensive loading we found that the distribution of peak von Mises strains was particularly uniform throughout the skull, although specific regions were dominated by tensile strains while others were dominated by compressive strains. Our analyses suggest that the frame-like skulls of diapsid reptiles are probably optimally formed (mechanically ideal: sufficient strength with the minimal amount of bone with respect to functional forces; they are efficient in terms of having minimal bone volume, minimal weight, and also minimal energy demands in maintenance.

  7. Functional Relationship between Skull Form and Feeding Mechanics in Sphenodon, and Implications for Diapsid Skull Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil; Jones, Marc E. H.; Shi, Junfen; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate skull evolved to protect the brain and sense organs, but with the appearance of jaws and associated forces there was a remarkable structural diversification. This suggests that the evolution of skull form may be linked to these forces, but an important area of debate is whether bone in the skull is minimised with respect to these forces, or whether skulls are mechanically “over-designed” and constrained by phylogeny and development. Mechanical analysis of diapsid reptile skulls could shed light on this longstanding debate. Compared to those of mammals, the skulls of many extant and extinct diapsids comprise an open framework of fenestrae (window-like openings) separated by bony struts (e.g., lizards, tuatara, dinosaurs and crocodiles), a cranial form thought to be strongly linked to feeding forces. We investigated this link by utilising the powerful engineering approach of multibody dynamics analysis to predict the physiological forces acting on the skull of the diapsid reptile Sphenodon. We then ran a series of structural finite element analyses to assess the correlation between bone strain and skull form. With comprehensive loading we found that the distribution of peak von Mises strains was particularly uniform throughout the skull, although specific regions were dominated by tensile strains while others were dominated by compressive strains. Our analyses suggest that the frame-like skulls of diapsid reptiles are probably optimally formed (mechanically ideal: sufficient strength with the minimal amount of bone) with respect to functional forces; they are efficient in terms of having minimal bone volume, minimal weight, and also minimal energy demands in maintenance. PMID:22216358

  8. Functional Differences Between Placental Micro- and Macrovascular Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ioana; O’Reilly, Megan; Ionescu, Lavinia; Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Rajabali, Saima; Zhong, Shumei; Vadivel, Arul; Shelley, W. Chris; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the development of the placental vasculature can lead to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Currently, the cause of preeclampsia is unknown, and there are no specific prevention or treatment strategies. Further insight into the placental vasculature may aid in identifying causal factors. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of endothelial progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and de novo vessel formation in vitro. We hypothesized that ECFCs exist in the micro- and macrovasculature of the normal, term human placenta. Human placentas were collected from term pregnancies delivered by cesarean section (n = 16). Placental micro- and macrovasculature was collected from the maternal and fetal side of the placenta, respectively, and ECFCs were isolated and characterized. ECFCs were CD31+, CD105+, CD144+, CD146+, CD14−, and CD45−, took up 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and bound Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1. In vitro, macrovascular ECFCs had a greater potential to generate high-proliferative colonies and formed more complex capillary-like networks on Matrigel compared with microvascular ECFCs. In contrast, in vivo assessment demonstrated that microvascular ECFCs had a greater potential to form vessels. Macrovascular ECFCs were of fetal origin, whereas microvascular ECFCs were of maternal origin. ECFCs exist in the micro- and macrovasculature of the normal, term human placenta. Although macrovascular ECFCs demonstrated greater vessel and colony-forming potency in vitro, this did not translate in vivo, where microvascular ECFCs exhibited a greater vessel-forming ability. These important findings contribute to the current understanding of normal placental vascular development and may aid in identifying factors involved in preeclampsia and other pregnancy complications. Significance This research confirms that resident endothelial colony-forming

  9. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  10. The genetics of colony form and function in Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Elizabeth M; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Vollmer, Steven V

    2014-12-17

    Colonial reef-building corals have evolved a broad spectrum of colony morphologies based on coordinated asexual reproduction of polyps on a secreted calcium carbonate skeleton. Though cnidarians have been shown to possess and use similar developmental genes to bilaterians during larval development and polyp formation, little is known about genetic regulation of colony morphology in hard corals. We used RNA-seq to evaluate transcriptomic differences between functionally distinct regions of the coral (apical branch tips and branch bases) in two species of Caribbean Acropora, the staghorn coral, A. cervicornis, and the elkhorn coral, A. palmata. Transcriptome-wide gene profiles differed significantly between different parts of the coral colony as well as between species. Genes showing differential expression between branch tips and bases were involved in developmental signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, and BMP, as well as pH regulation, ion transport, extracellular matrix production and other processes. Differences both within colonies and between species identify a relatively small number of genes that may contribute to the distinct "staghorn" versus "elkhorn" morphologies of these two sister species. The large number of differentially expressed genes supports a strong division of labor between coral branch tips and branch bases. Genes involved in growth of mature Acropora colonies include the classical signaling pathways associated with development of cnidarian larvae and polyps as well as morphological determination in higher metazoans.

  11. Potential function of element measurement for form-finding of wide sense tensegrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, C. K.; Obiya, H.; Koga, D.; Nizam, Z. M.; Ijima, K.

    2018-04-01

    Tensegrity is a unique morphological structure in which disconnected compression members and connected tension members make the whole structure in self-equilibrium. Many researches have been done on tensegrity structure because of its mysteriousness in form-finding analysis. This study is proposed to investigate the trends and to group into some patterns of the shape that a tensegrity structure can have under the same connectivity and support condition. In this study, tangent stiffness method adopts two different functions, namely power function and logarithm function to element measurement. Numerical examples are based on a simplex initial shape with statically determinate support condition to examine the pure effectiveness of two proposed methods. The tangent stiffness method that can evaluate strict rigid body displacement of elements has a superiority to define various measure potentials and to allow the use of virtual element stiffness freely. From the results of numerical examples, the finding of the dominant trends and patterns of the equilibrium solutions is achieved although it has many related solutions under the same circumstances.

  12. The putative visual word form area is functionally connected to the dorsal attention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alecia C; Miezin, Fran M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2012-03-01

    The putative visual word form area (pVWFA) is the most consistently activated region in single word reading studies (i.e., Vigneau et al. 2006), yet its function remains a matter of debate. The pVWFA may be predominantly used in reading or it could be a more general visual processor used in reading but also in other visual tasks. Here, resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) is used to characterize the functional relationships of the pVWFA to help adjudicate between these possibilities. rs-fcMRI defines relationships based on correlations in slow fluctuations of blood oxygen level-dependent activity occurring at rest. In this study, rs-fcMRI correlations show little relationship between the pVWFA and reading-related regions but a strong relationship between the pVWFA and dorsal attention regions thought to be related to spatial and feature attention. The rs-fcMRI correlations between the pVWFA and regions of the dorsal attention network increase with age and reading skill, while the correlations between the pVWFA and reading-related regions do not. These results argue the pVWFA is not used predominantly in reading but is a more general visual processor used in other visual tasks, as well as reading.

  13. FUNCTIONING FEATURES OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY WHILE FORMING PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN’S COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Beskorsa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of functioning features of computer technology while forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence whose relevance is proved by the increasing role of a foreign language as a means of communication and modernization of foreign language education. There is a great deal of publications devoted to the issue of foreign language learning at primary school by N. Biriukevych, O. Kolominova, O. Metolkina, O. Petrenko, V. Redko, S. Roman. Implementing of innovative technology as well as computer one is to intensify the language learning process and to improve young learners’ communicative skills. The aim of the article is to identify computer technology functioning features while forming primary schoolchildren communicative competence. In this study we follow the definition of the computer technology as an information technology whose implementation may be accompanied with a computer as one of the tools, excluding the use of audio and video equipment, projectors and other technical tools. Using computer technologies is realized due to a number of tools which are divided into two main groups: electronic learning materials; computer testing software. The analysis of current textbooks and learning and methodological complexes shows that teachers prefer authentic electronic materials to the national ones. The most available English learning materials are on the Internet and they are free. The author of the article discloses several on-line English learning tools and depict the opportunities to use them while forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence. Special attention is also paid to multimedia technology, its functioning features and multimedia lesson structure. Computer testing software provides tools for current and control assessing results of mastering language material, communicative skills, and self-assessing in an interactive way. For making tests for assessing English skill

  14. Genomic binding profiles of functionally distinct RNA polymerase III transcription complexes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Wang, Jie; Raha, Debasish; White, Robert J; Snyder, Michael; Weng, Zhiping; Struhl, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide occupancy profiles of five components of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in human cells identified the expected tRNA and noncoding RNA targets and revealed many additional Pol III-associated loci, mostly near short interspersed elements (SINEs). Several genes are targets of an alternative transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) containing Brf2 instead of Brf1 and have extremely low levels of TFIIIC. Strikingly, expressed Pol III genes, unlike nonexpressed Pol III genes, are situated in regions with a pattern of histone modifications associated with functional Pol II promoters. TFIIIC alone associates with numerous ETC loci, via the B box or a novel motif. ETCs are often near CTCF binding sites, suggesting a potential role in chromosome organization. Our results suggest that human Pol III complexes associate preferentially with regions near functional Pol II promoters and that TFIIIC-mediated recruitment of TFIIIB is regulated in a locus-specific manner.

  15. Relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF) in CT image system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Teiji; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2004-01-01

    In the CT image system, we revealed the relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF). In the system, the following equation has been reported; I(x,y)=O(x,y) ** PSF(x,y), in which I(x,y) and O(x,y) are CT image and object function, respectively, and ** is 2-dimensional convolution. In the same way, the following 3-dimensional expression applies; I'(x,y,z)=O'(x,y,z) *** PSF'(x,y,z), in which z-axis is the direction perpendicular to the x/y-scan plane. We defined that the CT image system was separable, when the above two equations could be transformed into following equations; I(x,y)=[O(x,y) * LSF x (x)] * LSF y (y) and I'(x,y,z) =[O'(x,y,z) * SSP(z)] ** PSF(x,y), respectively, in which LSF x (x) and LSF y (y) are LSFs in x- and y-direction, respectively. Previous reports for the LSF and SSP are considered to assume the separable-system. Under the condition of separable-system, we derived following equations; PSF(x,y)=LSF x (x) ·LSF y (y) and PSF'(x,y,z)=PSF(x,y)·SSP(z). They were validated by the computer-simulations. When the study based on 1-dimensional functions of LSF and SSP are expanded to that based on 2- or 3-dimensional functions of PSF, derived equations must be required. (author)

  16. Pathways between profiles of family functioning, child security in the interparental subsystem, and child psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark; Winter, Marcia A

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to delineate pathways between systems profiles of family functioning, children's emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship, and their psychological adjustment in a sample of 221 children and their parents. Consistent with family systems theory, cluster analyses conducted with assessments of marital, coparental, and parent-child functioning indicated that families fit into one of four profiles: (a) cohesive families, characterized by warmth, affection, and flexible well-defined boundaries in family relationships; (b) disengaged families, reflected in high levels of adversity and low levels of support across family subsystems; (c) enmeshed families, evidenced by high levels of discord and weak maintenance of relationship boundaries in the family unit; and (d) adequate families, defined by elevated parental psychological control within a larger family context of low discord and high warmth. In comparison to children in cohesive families, children in enmeshed and disengaged families exhibited greater signs of insecurity in the interparental relationship concurrently and internalizing and externalizing symptoms both concurrently and 1 year later. Structural equation models revealed that a latent, multimethod measure of insecurity in the interparental relationship partially mediated associations between family enmeshment and disengagement and children's psychological symptoms 1 year later. Results are discussed in relation to how they inform and refine a family-wide model of the emotional security hypothesis.

  17. Endocrine profiles and neuropsychologic correlates of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Gambera, Alessandro; Bonini, Luisa; Peroni, Maria; Neri, Francesca; Scagliola, Pasquale; Nacinovich, Renata

    2007-04-01

    To determine trigger factors and neuropsychologic correlates of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) in adolescence and to evaluate the correlations with the endocrine-metabolic profile. Cross-sectional comparison of adolescents with FHA and eumenorrheic controls Academic medical institution Twenty adolescent girls with FHA (aged <18 years) and 20 normal cycling girls All subjects underwent endocrine-gynecologic (hormone) and neuropsychiatric (tests and interview) investigations. A separate semistructured interview was also used to investigate parents. Gonadotropins, leptin, prolactin, androgens, estrogens, cortisol, carrier proteins (SHBG, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1), and metabolic parameters (insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, thyroid hormones) were assayed in FHA and control subjects. All girls were evaluated using a test for depression, a test for disordered eating, and a psychodynamic semistructured interview. Adolescents with FHA showed a particular susceptibility to common life events, restrictive disordered eating, depressive traits, and psychosomatic disorders. The endocrine-metabolic profile was strictly correlated to the severity of the psychopathology. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescence is due to a particular neuropsychologic vulnerability to stress, probably related to familial relationship styles, expressed by a proportional endocrine impairment.

  18. Joint resummation for pion wave function and pion transition form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hsiang-nan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Academia Rd., Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University,University Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University,Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Shen, Yue-Long [College of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China,Songling Rd, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China); Wang, Yu-Ming [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie RWTH Aachen,Physikzentrum Otto-Blumenthal-Straße, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-03

    We construct an evolution equation for the pion wave function in the k{sub T} factorization formalism, whose solution sums the mixed logarithm ln xln k{sub T} to all orders, with x (k{sub T}) being a parton momentum fraction (transverse momentum). This joint resummation induces strong suppression of the pion wave function in the small x and large b regions, b being the impact parameter conjugate to k{sub T}, and improves the applicability of perturbative QCD to hard exclusive processes. The above effect is similar to those from the conventional threshold resummation for the double logarithm ln{sup 2} x and the conventional k{sub T} resummation for ln{sup 2} k{sub T}. Combining the evolution equation for the hard kernel, we are able to organize all large logarithms in the γ{sup ∗}π{sup 0}→γ scattering, and to establish a scheme-independent k{sub T} factorization formula. It will be shown that the significance of next-to-leading-order contributions and saturation behaviors of this process at high energy differ from those under the conventional resummations. It implies that QCD logarithmic corrections to a process must be handled appropriately, before its data are used to extract a hadron wave function. Our predictions for the involved pion transition form factor, derived under the joint resummation and the input of a non-asymptotic pion wave function with the second Gegenbauer moment a{sub 2}=0.05, match reasonably well the CLEO, BaBar, and Belle data.

  19. Differences in Cartilage-Forming Capacity of Expanded Human Chondrocytes From Ear and Nose and Their Gene Expression Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, C.A.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Slagt, I.; Koevoet, W.; Poublon, R.M.L.; Nolst-Trenite, G.J.; de Jong, R.J.B.; Jahr, H.; van Osch, G.J.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  20. Differences in cartilage-forming capacity of expanded human chondrocytes from ear and nose and their gene expression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A.; Verwiel, Eugène T. P.; Slagt, Inez; Koevoet, Wendy; Poublon, René M. L.; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Jahr, Holger; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  1. Harnack inequality for harmonic functions relative to a nonlinear p-homogeneous Riemannian Dirichlet form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biroli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a measure valued map α(u defined on D where D is a subspace of L^p(X,m with X a locally compact Hausdorff topological space with a distance under which it is a space of homogeneous type. Under assumptions of convexity, Gateaux differentiability and other assumptions on α which generalize the properties of the energy measure of a Dirichlet form, we prove the Holder continuity of the local solution u of the problem  ∫Xµ(u,v(dx = 0  for each v belonging to a suitable space of test functions, where µ(u,v =< α'(u,v >.

  2. Gain-of-function SOS1 mutations cause a distinctive form of noonansyndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglia, Marco; Pennacchio, Len A.; Zhao, Chen; Yadav, KamleshK.; Fodale, Valentina; Sarkozy, Anna; Pandit, Bhaswati; Oishi, Kimihiko; Martinelli, Simone; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska, Anna; Martin, Joes; Bristow, James; Carta, Claudio; Lepri, Francesca; Neri, Cinzia; Vasta,Isabella; Gibson, Kate; Curry, Cynthia J.; Lopez Siguero, Juan Pedro; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Gelb, Brude D.

    2006-09-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disordercharacterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heartdefects and skeletal anomalies1. Increased RAS-mitogenactivated proteinkinase (MAPK) signaling due to PTPN11 and KRAS mutations cause 50 percentof NS2-6. Here, we report that 22 of 129 NS patients without PTPN11 orKRAS mutation (17 percent) have missense mutations in SOS1, which encodesa RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). SOS1 mutationscluster at residues implicated in the maintenance of SOS1 in itsautoinhibited form and ectopic expression of two NS-associated mutantsinduced enhanced RAS activation. The phenotype associated with SOS1defects is distinctive, although within NS spectrum, with a highprevalence of ectodermal abnormalities but generally normal developmentand linear growth. Our findings implicate for the first timegain-of-function mutations in a RAS GEF in inherited disease and define anew mechanism by which upregulation of the RAS pathway can profoundlychange human development.

  3. Threat, Fear, and Persuasion: Review and Critique of Questions About Functional Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of threat appeals have been rightly concerned with the form of the relationship between fear and persuasion: Linear or curvilinear. They have not, however, clearly distinguished the question as a between- or within-persons phenomenon. In fact, the literature often treats these two perspectives as if they were interchangeable. We show that between- versus within-person questions about functional form are distinct from one another. Previous research, which is the product of between-persons designs, shows a linear relationship between fear and persuasion. Betweenpersons studies cannot address the question of how changes in fear over time produce persuasion. Consequently, a major piece of the fear appeals-persuasion puzzle may have been overlooked. Reanalysis of an existing data set shows curvilinearity of fear in within-persons data and demonstrates that the curve predicts persuasion. Audience segmentation reveals different curves for different groups as well as differential associations between those curves and persuasion. Overall, the argument and the empirical results suggest that a great deal less is known about fear appeals than it is currently believed.

  4. Radial Basis Functional Model of Multi-Point Dieless Forming Process for Springback Reduction and Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganaw Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Springback in multi-point dieless forming (MDF is a common problem because of the small deformation and blank holder free boundary condition. Numerical simulations are widely used in sheet metal forming to predict the springback. However, the computational time in using the numerical tools is time costly to find the optimal process parameters value. This study proposes radial basis function (RBF to replace the numerical simulation model by using statistical analyses that are based on a design of experiment (DOE. Punch holding time, blank thickness, and curvature radius are chosen as effective process parameters for determining the springback. The Latin hypercube DOE method facilitates statistical analyses and the extraction of a prediction model in the experimental process parameter domain. Finite element (FE simulation model is conducted in the ABAQUS commercial software to generate the springback responses of the training and testing samples. The genetic algorithm is applied to find the optimal value for reducing and compensating the induced springback for the different blank thicknesses using the developed RBF prediction model. Finally, the RBF numerical result is verified by comparing with the FE simulation result of the optimal process parameters and both results show that the springback is almost negligible from the target shape.

  5. Passaged adult chondrocytes can form engineered cartilage with functional mechanical properties: a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenneth W; Lima, Eric G; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J; Jayabalan, Prakash S; Stoker, Aaron M; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Ateshian, Gerard A; Cook, James L; Hung, Clark T

    2010-03-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-beta3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects.

  6. Informational and Communicational Aspects of Forming and Functioning Scientific Schools of Publishing and Printing Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenyuk, E.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential typological features of scientific schools are investigated, paying special attention to informational and communicational aspects of the problem. Peculiarities of scientific research organization in printing and publishing branches are revealed. A specific character of branch science consisting in the fact of close connection between scientific school formation and the activities of specialized higher education institutions is noted. The process of the establishment and development of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing industry technologies, particularly regarding activities on development and application of photopolymer printing forms in printing production is analysed. On the example of the formation and the activity of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing and publishing technologies the features of scientific school are listed. It is shown that scientific schools are formed under the influence of society demands, by the logic of science and practice development providing long-term fundamental and applied research and having essential achievements of public recognition in the homeland and abroad. Given this the functions of scientific schools are defined.

  7. Automatic assignment of prokaryotic genes to functional categories using literature profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Torrieri

    Full Text Available In the last years, there was an exponential increase in the number of publicly available genomes. Once finished, most genome projects lack financial support to review annotations. A few of these gene annotations are based on a combination of bioinformatics evidence, however, in most cases, annotations are based solely on sequence similarity to a previously known gene, which was most probably annotated in the same way. As a result, a large number of predicted genes remain unassigned to any functional category despite the fact that there is enough evidence in the literature to predict their function. We developed a classifier trained with term-frequency vectors automatically disclosed from text corpora of an ensemble of genes representative of each functional category of the J. Craig Venter Institute Comprehensive Microbial Resource (JCVI-CMR ontology. The classifier achieved up to 84% precision with 68% recall (for confidence≥0.4, F-measure 0.76 (recall and precision equally weighted in an independent set of 2,220 genes, from 13 bacterial species, previously classified by JCVI-CMR into unambiguous categories of its ontology. Finally, the classifier assigned (confidence≥0.7 to functional categories a total of 5,235 out of the ∼24 thousand genes previously in categories "Unknown function" or "Unclassified" for which there is literature in MEDLINE. Two biologists reviewed the literature of 100 of these genes, randomly picket, and assigned them to the same functional categories predicted by the automatic classifier. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to confidently assign genes of a real world repository to functional categories, based exclusively on the automatic profiling of its associated literature. The LitProf--Gene Classifier web server is accessible at: www.cebio.org/litprofGC.

  8. DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL AMOUNT OF NITROGEN TO APPLY TO CORN USING THE BOX-COX FUNCTIONAL FORM

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    2000-01-01

    A Box-Cox functional form was estimated from corn-nitrogen data previously used to report optimal nitrogen use from a quadratic production function. Results suggest that less nitrogen should be app1ie.d than recommended using the quadratic function, but with more nitrogen being applied if poor growing conditions are expected.

  9. Spatial coordination of compensatory eye movements in vertebrates: form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, W

    1988-01-01

    The semicircular canals of the labyrinth of vertebrates provide one way of motion detection in three-dimensional space. The fully developed form of the vertebrate labyrinth consists of six semicircular canals, three on each side of the head, whose spatial arrangement (vertical canals are placed diagonally in the head, horizontal canals are oriented earth horizontally) follows three interconnected principles: 1) bilateral symmetry, 2) push-pull operational mode, and 3) mutual orthogonality. Other sensory and motor systems related to vestibular reflexes, such as the extraocular muscles or the "optokinetic" coordinate axes encoded in the activity of the visually driven cells of the accessory optic system, share the same geometrical framework. This framework is also reflected in the anatomical networks mediating compensatory eye movements, linking each of the semicircular canals to a particular set of extraocular muscles (so-called principal vestibuloocular reflex connections to yoke muscles). These classical vestibulo-oculomotor relationships have been verified at many levels of the vertebrate hierarchy, including lateral- and frontal-eyed animals. The particular spatial orientation of the semicircular canals requires further comment and phylogenetic evaluation. The spatial arrangement of the vertical canals is already present in fossil ostracoderms, and is also exemplified in lampreys, the modern forms of once abundant agnathan species that populated the Silurian and Devonian oceans. The lampreys and ostracoderms lack horizontal canals, which appear later in all descendent vertebrates. The fully developed vertebrate labyrinth with its six semicircular canals displays distinct differences that are obvious when comparing distant taxa (e.g. elasmobranchs versus other vertebrates). Whereas the common crus of the semicircular canals in teleosts through mammals is formed between the anterior and the posterior semicircular canal, it occurs between the anterior and the

  10. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FORMING INFORMATIONAL COMPETENCE OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Ostapchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates and analyses the structural and functional model of formation of information competence of technical university students. The system and mutual relationships between its elements are revealed. It is found out that the presence of the target structure of the proposed model, process and result-evaluative blocks ensure its functioning and the opportunity to optimize the learning process for technical school students’ information training. It is established that the formation of technical university students’ information competence based on components such as motivational value, as well as operational activity, cognitive, and reflexive one. These criteria (motivation, operational and activity, cognitive, reflective, indexes and levels (reproductive, technologized, constructive forming technical university students’ information competence are disclosed. Expediency of complex organizational and educational conditions in the stages of information competence is justified. The complex organizational and pedagogical conditions include: orientation in the organization and implementation of class work for technical university students’ positive value treatment; the issue of forming professionalism; informatization of educational and socio-cultural environment of higher technical educational institutions; orientation of technical university students’ training to the demands of European and international standards on information competence as a factor in the formation of competitiveness at the labor market; introducing a special course curriculum that will provide competence formation due to the use of information technology in professional activities. Forms (lecture, visualization, problem lecture, combined lecture, scientific online conference, recitals, excursions, etc., tools (computer lab, multimedia projector, interactive whiteboard, multimedia technology (audio, video, the Internet technologies; social networks, etc

  11. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  12. Structural and functional characteristics of myocard in patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Vasilyeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study structural and functional characteristics of myocard in patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent arrhythmia in clinical practice. Atrial fibrillation is a progressive disease: the duration of paroxysms increases over time and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation transforms to persistent, the last one becomes refractory to pharmacological and electrical cardioversion in time and transforms to permanent. So assessment of myocardial remodeling in patients with persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation is very actual. Methods and results. According to the aim of the study 133 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and 100 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were included into the study. Echocardiographic parameters of left and right atria function were studied. Conclusion. It was found that patients with persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation are characterized with both left and right atrias remodeling. Remodeling of the atrias is less pronounced in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation in comparison with persistent atrial fibrillation patients and arrhythmia recurrence.

  13. Form and function relationships revealed by long-term research in a semiarid mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Benner, S. G.; Chandler, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen years of cumulative research in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA has revealed relationships between catchment form and function and contributed to improved fundamental understanding of Critical Zone structure, function, and evolution that would not have been possible through independent short term projects alone. The impacts of aspect and elevation on incident energy and water, coupled with climate seasonality, has produced tightly connected landforms properties and hydrologic processes. North-facing hillslopes have steeper slopes, thicker soil mantles, and finer soil texture than their south-facing counterparts. Finer soils enable higher water holding capacities on north facing slopes, which when coupled with thicker soils produces higher soil water storage capacity. The storage of water first as snow, then as soil moisture determines how upland ecosystems survive the seasonal and persistent water stress that happens each year, and sustains streamflow throughout the year. The cumulative body of local knowledge has improved general understanding of catchment science, serves as a resource for developing, evaluating, and improving conceptual and numerical of process-based models, and for data-driven hydrologic education.

  14. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheumatological hospital in Śrem (Poland. They represented different sociodemographic characteristics and were characterized as rural and city environments residents. Results. The mean age of the patients was 58.9±10.2 years. The majority of patients (85% were female. The average final FFI-RS score was 62.9±15.3. The internal consistency was achieved at a high level of 0.95 in Cronbach’s alpha test, with an interclass correlation coefficient ranging between 0.78 and 0.84. A strong correlation was observed between the FFI-RS and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI questionnaires. Conclusion. The Polish version of FFI-RS-PL indicator is an important tool for evaluating the functional condition of patients’ feet and can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of Polish-speaking patients suffering from RA.

  15. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Radosław; Gałczyńska-Rusin, Małgorzata; Gizińska, Małgorzata; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Zdanowska, Agata; Romanowski, Mateusz Wojciech; Romanowski, Wojciech; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS) questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheumatological hospital in Śrem (Poland). They represented different sociodemographic characteristics and were characterized as rural and city environments residents. The mean age of the patients was 58.9 ± 10.2 years. The majority of patients (85%) were female. The average final FFI-RS score was 62.9 ± 15.3. The internal consistency was achieved at a high level of 0.95 in Cronbach's alpha test, with an interclass correlation coefficient ranging between 0.78 and 0.84. A strong correlation was observed between the FFI-RS and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires. The Polish version of FFI-RS-PL indicator is an important tool for evaluating the functional condition of patients' feet and can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of Polish-speaking patients suffering from RA.

  16. Usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form for assessing functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Fujino, Haruo; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-11-30

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) has been widely used to assess intellectual functioning not only in healthy adults but also people with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the study was to develop an optimal WAIS-3 short form (SF) to evaluate intellectual status in patients with schizophrenia. One hundred and fifty patients with schizophrenia and 221 healthy controls entered the study. To select subtests for SFs, following criteria were considered: 1) predictability for the full IQ (FIQ), 2) representativeness for the IQ structure, 3) consistency of subtests across versions, 4) sensitivity to functional outcome measures, 5) conciseness in administration time. First, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regression analysis were conducted to select subtests satisfying the first and the second criteria. Then, candidate SFs were nominated based on the third criterion and the coverage of verbal IQ and performance IQ. Finally, the optimality of candidate SFs was evaluated in terms of the fourth and fifth criteria. The results suggest that the dyad of Similarities and Symbol Search was the most optimal satisfying the above criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  18. Effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on sulfate-reducing column startup captured by functional gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Luciana P; Hiibel, Sage R; Perrault, Elizabeth M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Pruden, Amy

    2012-10-01

    Sulfate-reducing permeable reactive zones (SR-PRZs) depend upon a complex microbial community to utilize a lignocellulosic substrate and produce sulfides, which remediate mine drainage by binding heavy metals. To gain insight into the impact of the microbial community composition on the startup time and pseudo-steady-state performance, functional genes corresponding to cellulose-degrading (CD), fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms were characterized in columns simulating SR-PRZs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Duplicate columns were bioaugmented with sulfate-reducing or CD bacteria or biostimulated with ethanol or carboxymethyl cellulose and compared with baseline dairy manure inoculum and uninoculated controls. Sulfate removal began after ~ 15 days for all columns and pseudo-steady state was achieved by Day 30. Despite similar performance, DGGE profiles of 16S rRNA gene and functional genes at pseudo-steady state were distinct among the column treatments, suggesting the potential to control ultimate microbial community composition via bioaugmentation and biostimulation. qPCR revealed enrichment of functional genes in all columns between the initial and pseudo-steady-state time points. This is the first functional gene-based study of CD, fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in a lignocellulose-based environment and provides new qualitative and quantitative insight into startup of a complex microbial system. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  20. Form follows function follows form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Skitse til en problematik som omfatter 3 hovedpunkter: 1. Tematisering af modernismens arkitekturbegreb i rel. til 2. Operationalisering af et moderne rumbegreb i rel. til 3. Skematisering af rummets konstruktion i rel. til IT....

  1. Using the Human Activity Profile to Assess Functional Performance in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Vieira, Otávia Alves; de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rodrigues, Roseane Santo; Carvalho, Maria Luiza Vieira; Montemezzo, Dayane; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    To investigate (1) the validity of using the Human Activity Profile (HAP) in patients with heart failure (HF) to estimate functional capacity; (2) the association between the HAP and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance; and (3) the ability of the HAP to differentiate between New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 62 clinically stable patients with HF (mean age, 47.98 years; NYHA class I-III). Variables included maximal functional capacity as measured by peak oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2) using a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 as estimated by the HAP, and exercise capacity as measured by the 6MWT. The difference between the measured (CPET) and estimated (HAP) peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 against the average values showed a bias of 2.18 mL/kg/min (P = .007). No agreement was seen between these measures when applying the Bland-Altman method. Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP showed a moderate association with the 6MWT distance (r = 0.62; P < .0001). Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP was able to statistically differentiate NYHA functional classes I, II, and III (P < .05). The estimated peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 using the HAP was not concordant with the gold standard CPET measure. On the contrary, the HAP was able to differentiate NYHA functional class associated with the 6MWT distance; therefore, the HAP is a useful tool for assessing functional performance in patients with HF.

  2. Clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing frequent acute exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to anticipate future exacerbations. Methods: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group. Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test variables were assessed. Groups' comparison was performed using an independent t-test for numeric scale parameters and Chi-square test for nominal parameters. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were derived for numeric scale parameters and numeric nominal parameters, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: FECOPD group contained younger patients than in I-FECOPD group although the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding smoking pack-years and duration of illness. FECOPD group had significantly more expectoration score and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores. Cough score and wheeze score did not differ significantly between two groups. More patients in FECOPD group (12/40 vs. 4/40 had lower airway bacterial colonization. Arterial blood gas parameters were more deranged in FECOPD group. Spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume during 1st s as well as transfer test (both diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and transfer coefficient of the lung values were significantly reduced in FECOPD group. Conclusions: The patients in FECOPD group had clinical, spirometric, and transfer test profiling suggestive of a severe COPD phenotype, the recognition will help in predicting future exacerbations and a better management.

  3. Towards a systemic functional model for comparing forms of discourse in academic writing Towards a systemic functional model for comparing forms of discourse in academic writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriel Bloor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research into the variation of texts across disciplines and considers the implications of this work for the teaching of writing. The research was motivated by the need to improve students’ academic writing skills in English and the limitations of some current pedagogic advice. The analysis compares Methods sections of research articles across four disciplines, including applied and hard sciences, on a cline, or gradient, termed slow to fast. The analysis considers the characteristics the texts share, but more importantly identifies the variation between sets of linguistic features. Working within a systemic functional framework, the texts are analysed for length, sentence length, lexical density, readability, grammatical metaphor, Thematic choice, as well as various rhetorical functions. Contextually relevant reasons for the differences are considered and the implications of the findings are related to models of text and discourse. Recommendations are made for developing domain models that relate clusters of features to positions on a cline. This article reports on research into the variation of texts across disciplines and considers the implications of this work for the teaching of writing. The research was motivated by the need to improve students’ academic writing skills in English and the limitations of some current pedagogic advice. The analysis compares Methods sections of research articles across four disciplines, including applied and hard sciences, on a cline, or gradient, termed slow to fast. The analysis considers the characteristics the texts share, but more importantly identifies the variation between sets of linguistic features. Working within a systemic functional framework, the texts are analysed for length, sentence length, lexical density, readability, grammatical metaphor, Thematic choice, as well as various rhetorical functions. Contextually relevant reasons for the differences are considered

  4. Pharmacotherapy for Pain in a Family With Inherited Erythromelalgia Guided by Genomic Analysis and Functional Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Paul; Yang, Yang; Estacion, Mark; Schulman, Betsy R; Tokuno, Hajime; Apkarian, A Vania; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for more effective pharmacotherapy for chronic pain, including pain in inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) in which gain-of-function mutations of sodium channel NaV1.7 make dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. To determine whether pain in IEM can be attenuated via pharmacotherapy guided by genomic analysis and functional profiling. Pain in 2 patients with IEM due to the NaV1.7 S241T mutation, predicted by structural modeling and functional analysis to be responsive to carbamazepine, was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from September 2014 to April 21, 2015. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed patterns of brain activity associated with pain during treatment with placebo or carbamazepine. Multielectrode array technology was used to assess the effect of carbamazepine on firing of DRG neurons carrying S241T mutant channels. Behavioral assessment of pain; functional magnetic resonance imaging; and assessment of firing in DRG neurons carrying S241T mutant channels. This study included 2 patients from the same family with IEM and the S241T NaV1.7 mutation. We showed that, as predicted by molecular modeling, thermodynamic analysis, and functional profiling, carbamazepine attenuated pain in patients with IEM due to the S241T NaV1.7 mutation. Patient 1 reported a reduction in mean time in pain (TIP) per day during the 15-day maintenance period, from 424 minutes while taking placebo to 231.9 minutes while taking carbamazepine (400 mg/day), and a reduction in total TIP over the 15-day maintenance period, from 6360 minutes while taking placebo to 3015 minutes while taking carbamazepine. Patient 2 reported a reduction in mean TIP per day during the maintenance period, from 61 minutes while taking placebo to 9.1 minutes while taking carbamazepine (400 mg then 200 mg/day), and a reduction in total TIP, from 915 minutes while taking placebo over the 15-day maintenance period to 136 minutes while taking carbamazepine

  5. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  6. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present......, GPM6A and six EMT-related genes (SPAG9, SKIL, MTDH, HOOK1, CNOT6L and PRKACB). MTDH, but not EMCN, demonstrated involvement in cell migration and association with EMT-markers. Conclusions Fast- and slow- growing GAs present different gene expression profiles and genes related to EMT have higher...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  7. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Beam Profiles and Window Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, L.; Barnes, C.; Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    Knowledge of the beam profiles is of critical importance for interpreting data from cosmic microwave background experiments. In this paper, we present the characterization of the in-flight optical response of the WMAP satellite. The main-beam intensities have been mapped to the satellite in the same observing mode as for CMB observations. The beam patterns closely follow the prelaunch expectations. The full width at half-maximum is a function of frequency and ranges from 0.82d at 23 GHz to 0.21d at 94 GHz; however, the beams are not Gaussian. We present (a) the beam patterns for all 10 differential radiometers, showing that the patterns are substantially independent of polarization in all but the 23 GHz channel; (b) the effective symmetrized beam patterns that result from WMAP's compound spin observing pattern; (c) the effective window functions for all radiometers and the formalism for propagating the window function uncertainty; and (d) the conversion factor from point-source flux to antenna temperature. A summary of the systematic uncertainties, which currently dominate our knowledge of the beams, is also presented. The constancy of Jupiter's temperature within a frequency band is an essential check of the optical system. The tests enable us to report a calibration of Jupiter to 1%-3% accuracy relative to the CMB dipole. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  8. Profiling Online Poker Players: Are Executive Functions Correlated with Poker Ability and Problem Gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavella, Mauro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Westin, Jerker; Lepore, Gabriele; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-12

    Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong(er) poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers (PGSI and SOGS) and the one of the cognitions related to gambling (GRCS). Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS, we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences (Emotional Quotient inventory Short) and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale (emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization).

  9. EvoCor: a platform for predicting functionally related genes using phylogenetic and expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, W James; McIver, Lauren; Michalak, Pawel; Garner, Harold R; Valdez, Gregorio

    2014-07-01

    The wealth of publicly available gene expression and genomic data provides unique opportunities for computational inference to discover groups of genes that function to control specific cellular processes. Such genes are likely to have co-evolved and be expressed in the same tissues and cells. Unfortunately, the expertise and computational resources required to compare tens of genomes and gene expression data sets make this type of analysis difficult for the average end-user. Here, we describe the implementation of a web server that predicts genes involved in affecting specific cellular processes together with a gene of interest. We termed the server 'EvoCor', to denote that it detects functional relationships among genes through evolutionary analysis and gene expression correlation. This web server integrates profiles of sequence divergence derived by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and tissue-wide gene expression patterns to determine putative functional linkages between pairs of genes. This server is easy to use and freely available at http://pilot-hmm.vbi.vt.edu/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  11. Physical function in hospice patients and physiotherapy interventions: a profile of hospice physiotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cobbe, Sinead

    2012-07-01

    Abstract Objective: There is a dearth of international research on hospice physiotherapy. This study aims to profile hospice physiotherapy in an Irish setting in order to inform practice internationally. Design: The study design consisted of a retrospective chart audit over 6 months. Setting: The study took place at a specialist palliative care inpatient unit (hospice) in Limerick, Ireland. Participants: All patients were discharged (through death or discharge onwards) from January to June 2010. Outcome measure: The Edmonton Functional Assessment Tool (EFAT-2) was used as an outcome measure. Results: Sixty-five percent were referred for physiotherapy; 58% (n=144) were assessed and treated. A wide range of patients was referred (mean functional score 11, range 1-23, SD 5). Rehabilitation activities were widespread: 48% with more than one functional score recorded made improvements; 53% of physiotherapy patients were eventually discharged home; 47% of physiotherapy patients died, of whom 52% received physiotherapy in the last week of life. The median physiotherapy program lasted 11 days (range 1-186, SD 22) whereas the median number of treatments was four (range 1-99, SD 10). The most common interventions were gait re-education (67%), transfer training (58%), and exercises (53%). One third of treatment attempts were unsuccessful because of the unavailability\\/unsuitability of patients. Challenges for physiotherapists included frequent suspension of treatment and large functional fluctuations in patients. Conclusion: There was a high referral rate to physiotherapy in this hospice. Functional changes in hospice patients were mapped, showing that physiotherapy involved both rehabilitative and quality of life\\/supportive measures. The most common treatments were physical activity interventions.

  12. Physical function in hospice patients and physiotherapy interventions: a profile of hospice physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbe, Sinead; Kennedy, Norelee

    2012-07-01

    There is a dearth of international research on hospice physiotherapy. This study aims to profile hospice physiotherapy in an Irish setting in order to inform practice internationally. The study design consisted of a retrospective chart audit over 6 months. The study took place at a specialist palliative care inpatient unit (hospice) in Limerick, Ireland. All patients were discharged (through death or discharge onwards) from January to June 2010. The Edmonton Functional Assessment Tool (EFAT-2) was used as an outcome measure. Sixty-five percent were referred for physiotherapy; 58% (n=144) were assessed and treated. A wide range of patients was referred (mean functional score 11, range 1-23, SD 5). Rehabilitation activities were widespread: 48% with more than one functional score recorded made improvements; 53% of physiotherapy patients were eventually discharged home; 47% of physiotherapy patients died, of whom 52% received physiotherapy in the last week of life. The median physiotherapy program lasted 11 days (range 1-186, SD 22) whereas the median number of treatments was four (range 1-99, SD 10). The most common interventions were gait re-education (67%), transfer training (58%), and exercises (53%). One third of treatment attempts were unsuccessful because of the unavailability/unsuitability of patients. Challenges for physiotherapists included frequent suspension of treatment and large functional fluctuations in patients. There was a high referral rate to physiotherapy in this hospice. Functional changes in hospice patients were mapped, showing that physiotherapy involved both rehabilitative and quality of life/supportive measures. The most common treatments were physical activity interventions.

  13. Analysis of the functional aspects and seminal plasma proteomic profile of sperm from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, Mariana Pereira; Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Cardozo, Karina H M; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of smoking on sperm functional quality and seminal plasma proteomic profile. Sperm functional tests were performed in 20 non-smoking men with normal semen quality, according to the World Health Organization (2010) and in 20 smoking patients. These included: evaluation of DNA fragmentation by alkaline Comet assay; analysis of mitochondrial activity using DAB staining; and acrosomal integrity evaluation by PNA binding. The remaining semen was centrifuged and seminal plasma was used for proteomic analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The quantified proteins were used for Venn diagram construction in Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, using the PINA4MS plug-in. Then, differentially expressed proteins were used for functional enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Reactome, using Cytoscape software and the ClueGO 2.2.0 plug-in. Smokers had a higher percentage of sperm DNA damage (Comet classes III and IV; P analysis, 422 proteins were identified and quantified, of which one protein was absent, 27 proteins were under-represented and six proteins were over-represented in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed the enrichment of antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion involved in immune response, protein kinase A signalling and arachidonic acid secretion, complement activation, regulation of the cytokine-mediated signalling pathway and regulation of acute inflammatory response in the study group (smokers). In conclusion, cigarette smoking was associated with an inflammatory state in the accessory glands and in the testis, as shown by enriched proteomic pathways. This state causes an alteration in sperm functional quality, which is characterized by decreased acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity, as well as by increased nuclear DNA fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John

  14. Profiling as a logical form of reasoning in order to solve controversial circumstances on the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palcu Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While conducting research on the scene or during the entire phase of criminal prosecution, especially for the identification of the authors or settlement of the controversial circumstances, criminal profiling by a forensic psychologist will reduce the circle of suspects, as well as provide assistance in determining possible connections with other crimes and offer to judicial organs sustainable strategies for the solution of the case. In addition to identifying and processing the material traces found on the scene, concern falling strictly within forensics, in the future, efforts against criminality of the third millennium will be oriented towards the interpretation of human behaviour with criminogenic finality.

  15. Spectroscopic constraints on the form of the stellar cluster mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Trancho, G.; Weisz, D. R.; Larsen, S. S.; Fouesneau, M.; Kaschinski, C. B.; Gieles, M.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution addresses the question of whether the initial cluster mass function (ICMF) has a fundamental limit (or truncation) at high masses. The shape of the ICMF at high masses can be studied using the most massive young (advantages are that more clusters can be used and that the ICMF leaves a distinct pattern on the global relation between the cluster luminosity and median age within a population. If a truncation is present, a generic prediction (nearly independent of the cluster disruption law adopted) is that the median age of bright clusters should be younger than that of fainter clusters. In the case of an non-truncated ICMF, the median age should be independent of cluster luminosity. Here, we present optical spectroscopy of twelve young stellar clusters in the face-on spiral galaxy NGC 2997. The spectra are used to estimate the age of each cluster, and the brightness of the clusters is taken from the literature. The observations are compared with the model expectations of Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) for various ICMF forms and both mass dependent and mass independent cluster disruption. While there exists some degeneracy between the truncation mass and the amount of mass independent disruption, the observations favour a truncated ICMF. For low or modest amounts of mass independent disruption, a truncation mass of 5-6 × 105 M⊙ is estimated, consistent with previous determinations. Additionally, we investigate possible truncations in the ICMF in the spiral galaxy M 83, the interacting Antennae galaxies, and the collection of spiral and dwarf galaxies present in Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) based on photometric catalogues taken from the literature, and find that all catalogues are consistent with having a truncation in the cluster mass functions. However for the case of the Antennae, we find a truncation mass of a few × 106M⊙ , suggesting a dependence on the environment, as has been previously suggested.

  16. Intrinsic circannual regulation of brown adipose tissue form and function in tune with hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Martin, Sandra L

    2014-02-01

    Winter hibernators repeatedly cycle between cold torpor and rewarming supported by nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, summer animals are homeotherms, undergoing reproduction, growth, and fattening. This life history confers variability to BAT recruitment and activity. To address the components underlying prewinter enhancement and winter activation, we interrogated the BAT proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels among three summer and five winter states. We also examined mixed physiology in fall and spring individuals to test for ambient temperature and seasonal effects, as well as the timing of seasonal transitions. BAT form and function differ circannually in these animals, as evidenced by morphology and proteome dynamics. This intrinsic pattern distinguished homeothermic groups and early vs. late winter hibernators. Homeothermic variation derived from postemergence delay in growth and substrate biosynthesis. The heterothermic proteome varied less despite extreme winter physiological shifts and was optimized to exploit lipids by enhanced fatty acid binding, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial protein translocation. Surprisingly, ambient temperature did not affect the BAT proteome during transition seasons; rather, the pronounced summer-winter shift preceded environmental changes and phenotypic progression. During fall transition, differential regulation of two fatty acid binding proteins provides further evidence of recruitment and separates proteomic preparation from successful hibernation. Abundance of FABP4 correlates with torpor bout length throughout the year, clarifying its potential function in hibernation. Metabolically active BAT is a target for treating human obesity and metabolic disorders. Understanding the hibernator's extreme and seasonally distinct recruitment and activation control strategies offers untapped potential to identify novel, therapeutically relevant regulatory pathways.

  17. Functional profile determination "trained" and "untrained" by the speed of the bar on the bench press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Albarracín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was designed to explore differences in strength, power and velocity in an incremental load protocol in bench press (PB, to obtain an indicator to catalogue a subject as “trained“ or “untrained” in the PB exercise.. Thirty male subjects consisted two groups, “trained group”, consisted of the participants whose one repetition maximum (1RM exceeded his body weight (BW and “untrained group” consisted of participants whose 1RM was less than their BW. The value of 1RM was 82.33 ± 11.09 kg and 59.67 ± 5.16 kg, in the trained and untrained groups, respectively. The indicator of the level of strength (kg 1RM / kg BW in the trained group was greater than 1, and lower in the untrained group. The average strength showed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the 60, 80% and 1RM. Average power and peak power were higher in the trained group in all analyzed intensities, with the exception of the 1RM. Average velocity and peak velocity showed significant differences between the two groups in the first two intensities analyzed. The main conclusion of this study is provides a functional profile of subjects as “trained”, when the 1RM and BW ratio is equal to or greater than 1 (1RM>BW, while when this ratio is less than 1 (1RMfunctional profile, manifestations of strength.

  18. Nocturnal Polyuria: Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, Ruud; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective study in which participants completed a bladder diary, collected urine and provided a blood sample. With an age dependent nocturnal polyuria index greater than 20% to 33% as the referent 4 definitions of nocturnal polyuria were compared, including 1) nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33%, 2) nocturnal urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and 3) greater than 10 ml/kg, and 4) nocturia index greater than 1.5. In 112 male and female participants significant differences in baseline characteristics and bladder diary parameters were found according to definition. Diuresis rate, free water clearance and sodium clearance had similar 24-hour courses in the subgroups with and without polyuria by each definition. The range varied more in the subgroup with vs without polyuria, especially at night for diuresis rate and free water clearance. At night the latter decreased in the polyuria subgroup based on each definition (p polyuria subgroups was found only for urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and polyuria index greater than 20% to 33%. For each definition sodium clearance remained high in the polyuria subgroup, which differed significantly from the no polyuria subgroups (p polyuria by definition. The renal function profile indicating the pathophysiological mechanism of nocturnal polyuria did not seem to be influenced by definition but free water clearance and sodium clearance cutoff sensitivity differed substantially. These results must be confirmed in a larger homogeneous sample. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exact analytical solution of the convolution integral equation for a general profile fitting function and Gaussian detector kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vicente, F.; Rodriguez, C.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in the metrology of radiation fields is the problem of the measurement of dose profiles in regions where the dose gradient is large. In such zones, the 'detector size effect' may produce experimental measurements that do not correspond to reality. Mathematically it can be proved, under some general assumptions of spatial linearity, that the disturbance induced in the measurement by the effect of the finite size of the detector is equal to the convolution of the real profile with a representative kernel of the detector. In this work the exact relation between the measured profile and the real profile is shown, through the analytical resolution of the integral equation for a general type of profile fitting function using Gaussian convolution kernels. (author)

  20. Social class shapes the form and function of relationships and selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-12-01

    Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected. Ties in these networks provide the bonding capital that is key for survival and that promotes the interdependence between self and other(s). In higher social class contexts, social networks tend to be large, far-reaching, diverse and loosely connected. Ties in these networks provide the bridging capital that is key for achieving personal goals and that promotes an independence of self from other. We conclude that understanding and addressing issues tied to social class and inequality requires understanding the form and function of relationships across class contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and summative assessment functions for flexible inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven; Reid Whitaker, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research, the review highlights a common emphasis on formative assessment, at times coupled either with differentiated instruction strategies or with activities that target the generalization of learning. The 5E+I/A model contributes a multi-level assessment strategy that balances formative and summative functions of multiple forms of assessment in order to support classroom participation while still attending to individual achievement. The case report documents the enactment of a weeklong 5E+I/A curricular design as a preliminary account of the model's empirical adequacy. A descriptive and analytical narrative illustrates variable ways that multi-level assessment makes student thinking visible and pedagogical decision-making more powerful. In light of both, it also documents productive adaptations to a flexible curricular design and considers future research to advance this collective line of inquiry.

  2. The search for the number form area: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Price, Gavin R

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies report a putative "number form area" (NFA) in the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) suggested to be specialized for Arabic numeral processing. However, a number of earlier studies report no such NFA. The reasons for such discrepancies across studies are unclear. To examine evidence for a convergent NFA across studies, we conducted two activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on 31 and a subset of 20 neuroimaging studies that have contrasted digits with other meaningful symbols. Results suggest the potential existence of an NFA in the right ITG, in addition to a 'symbolic number processing network' comprising bilateral parietal regions, and right-lateralized superior and inferior frontal regions. Critically, convergent localization for the NFA was only evident when contrasts were appropriately controlled for task demands, and does not appear to depend on employing methods designed to overcome fMRI signal dropout in the ITG. Importantly, only five studies had foci within the identified ITG NFA cluster boundary, indicating that more empirical evidence is necessary to determine the true functional specialization and regional specificity of the putative NFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Peter J.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L.

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as “dorsal doming” are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2–5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  4. Trace element seasonality in marine macroalgae of different functional-form groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Chatziapostolou, Anastasia; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2015-02-01

    Novel information on the seasonality of element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Seasonal patterns of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn concentrations in macroalgae belonging to different functional-form groups (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Codium fragile, Gracilaria gracilis) from the Thessaloniki Gulf, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni- and multivariate data analyses were applied. Element concentrations generally decreased during spring and/or summer, probably due to the growth effect, but a reverse trend, particularly in Ulva species, was also observed. Most elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr) in Ulva species displayed a comparatively low monthly variability, indicating that the extent of seasonal variation is closely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. In particular, these data suggest that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr contents in fast-growing, sheet-like macroalgae are less influenced by the season, compared to their contents in coarsely-branched and thick-leathery macroalgae; therefore, sheet-like macroalgae may be more appropriate to be used in biomonitoring of coastal waters. The data presented could be utilized in the development of biomonitoring programmes for the protection of coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of particle multiplicity distributions using a general form of the grand canonical partition function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Mekjian, A.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Various phenomenological models of particle multiplicity distributions are discussed using a general form of a unified model which is based on the grand canonical partition function and Feynman's path integral approach to statistical processes. These models can be written as special cases of a more general distribution which has three control parameters which are a,x,z. The relation to these parameters to various physical quantities are discussed. A connection of the parameter a with Fisher's critical exponent τ is developed. Using this grand canonical approach, moments, cumulants and combinants are discussed and a physical interpretation of the combinants are given and their behavior connected to the critical exponent τ. Various physical phenomena such as hierarchical structure, void scaling relations, Koba-Nielson-Olesen or KNO scaling features, clan variables, and branching laws are shown in terms of this general approach. Several of these features which were previously developed in terms of the negative binomial distribution are found to be more general. Both hierarchical structure and void scaling relations depend on the Fisher exponent τ. Applications of our approach to the charged particle multiplicity distribution in jets of L3 and H1 data are given

  6. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: mancass@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.

  7. VALUING BENEFITS FROM WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS USING KUHN TUCKER MODEL - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON UTILITY FUNCTIONAL FORMS-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Tadahiro

    Kuhn-Tucker model, which has studied in recent years, is a benefit valuation technique using the revealed-preference data, and the feature is to treatvarious patterns of corner solutions flexibly. It is widely known for the benefit calculation using the revealed-preference data that a value of a benefit changes depending on a functional form. However, there are little studies which examine relationship between utility functions and values of benefits in Kuhn-Tucker model. The purpose of this study is to analysis an influence of the functional form to the value of a benefit. Six types of utility functions are employed for benefit calculations. The data of the recreational activity of 26 beaches of Miyagi Prefecture were employed. Calculation results indicated that Phaneuf and Siderelis (2003) and Whitehead et al.(2010)'s functional forms are useful for benefit calculations.

  8. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N 2 atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  9. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  10. Morphological, maturational, functional and technical profile of young Brazilian soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the anthropometric profile, physical fitness and soccer-specific skills between under-15 and under-17 Brazilian soccer players, as well as to evaluate possible differences in these variables according to biological maturation in the age categories. The sample consisted of 245 male soccer players (under-15: n=161; under-17: n=84. Anthropometric measures included weight, height and skinfolds. Biological maturation was assessed based on pubic hair development. The following tests were used for functional assessment: static and countermovement jump, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (level 2, RAST, 5- and 30-meter running speed, and agility T-test. Soccer-specific skills were assessed using three tests: ball control, dribbling, and kick accuracy. Descriptive statistics, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed a larger body size (stature and body mass, longer sports experience (years of formal training and better performance in most of the functional tests for under-17 soccer players compared to under-15 players. There were no significant differences in adiposity or soccer-specific skills between levels of competition. Significant differences as a function of maturation stage were observed in anthropometric and functional variables only in the under-15 category. In conclusion, the under-17 category differs from the under-15 category in terms of anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics. However, no difference was observed in two of the three soccer-specific skills. Physical fitness components and soccer-specific skills were associated with maturity only in the under-15 category.

  11. Expression profiling of hypothetical genes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris leads to improved functional annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Drury, Elliott C.; Redding, Alyssa M.; Yen, Huei-Che B.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Keasling, Jay D.; Wall, Judy D.

    2008-10-27

    Hypothetical and conserved hypothetical genes account for>30percent of sequenced bacterial genomes. For the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, 347 of the 3634 genes were annotated as conserved hypothetical (9.5percent) along with 887 hypothetical genes (24.4percent). Given the large fraction of the genome, it is plausible that some of these genes serve critical cellular roles. The study goals were to determine which genes were expressed and provide a more functionally based annotation. To accomplish this, expression profiles of 1234 hypothetical and conserved genes were used from transcriptomic datasets of 11 environmental stresses, complemented with shotgun LC-MS/MS and AMT tag proteomic data. Genes were divided into putatively polycistronic operons and those predicted to be monocistronic, then classified by basal expression levels and grouped according to changes in expression for one or multiple stresses. 1212 of these genes were transcribed with 786 producing detectable proteins. There was no evidence for expression of 17 predicted genes. Except for the latter, monocistronic gene annotation was expanded using the above criteria along with matching Clusters of Orthologous Groups. Polycistronic genes were annotated in the same manner with inferences from their proximity to more confidently annotated genes. Two targeted deletion mutants were used as test cases to determine the relevance of the inferred functional annotations.

  12. Same But Different: FIM Summary Scores May Mask Variability in Physical Functioning Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steve R; Middleton, Addie; Graham, James E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2018-02-08

    To examine how similar summary scores of physical functioning using the FIM can represent different patient clinical profiles. Retrospective cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=765,441) discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Not applicable. We used patients' scores on items of the FIM to quantify their level of independence on both self-care and mobility domains. We then identified patients as requiring "no physical assistance" at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation by using a rule and score-based approach. In those patients with FIM self-care and mobility summary scores suggesting no physical assistance needed, we found that physical assistance was in fact needed frequently in bathroom-related activities (eg, continence, toilet and tub transfers, hygiene, clothes management) and with stairs. It was not uncommon for actual performance to be lower than what may be suggested by a summary score of those domains. Further research is needed to create clinically meaningful descriptions of summary scores from combined performances on individual items of physical functioning. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF. This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 ml, T2=13.83 ml, T3=18.75 ml and, T4=13.40 ml. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 ml, T2=88.98 ml, T3=104.40 ml and T4=91.25 ml. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05. The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep. [Keywords––amofer, complete feed, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, liver function

  14. Closed-form expressions for time-frequency operations involving Hermite functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, C.W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    The product, convolution, correlation, Wigner distribution function (WDF) and ambiguity function (AF) of two Hermite functions of arbitrary order n and m are derived and expressed as a bounded, weighted sum of n+m Hermite functions. It was already known that these mathematical operations performed

  15. Comparative study of the pharmacopeial quality and dissolution profiles of generic and other drug forms of sodium metamizole (dipyrone sold in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenna Alana Giordani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, in order for a pharmaceutical company to register a drug form as generic or ‘similar’ with the Brazilian food and drug agency (Anvisa, it must be proved bioequivalent to its innovatory branded form (reference drug. This requires comparative trials, carried out in conformity with official compendia (Brazilian Pharmacopeia or another officially recognized code. Additionally, according to the Anvisa resolution RDC 31/2010, the dissolution profile of the drug must be tested and compared with that of the branded reference, as a benchmark of quality. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of 500 mg sodium metamizole (dipyrone tablets produced by seven different laboratories in Brazil: three generic drugs (G1, G2, G3, three (branded similar drugs (S1, S2,S3 and their reference branded product (Novalgina®, Sanofi-Aventis, drug R. All tests were carried out by methods specified in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia 4th edition (Farmacopeia Brasileira IV. The following tests were performed: uniformity of mass, friability, disintegration time, hardness, assay, uniformity of dosage units, salicylic acid limit assay, dissolution and identification. The dissolution profile was also recorded, as recommended in RDC 31/2010. Whereas every sample was approved in all the Farmacopeia Brasileira IV tests, the results in the dissolution profile test showed that four of the test drugs (G1, G2, S1 and S2 were notpharmaceutically equivalent to drug R. Thus, only drugs G3 and S3 showed dissolution profiles similar to that of drug R and the other four drugs could not be considered equivalent to it and were not approved.

  16. Functional connectivity profile of the human inferior frontal junction: involvement in a cognitive control network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundermann Benedikt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human inferior frontal junction area (IFJ is critically involved in three main component processes of cognitive control (working memory, task switching and inhibitory control. As it overlaps with several areas in established anatomical labeling schemes, it is considered to be underreported as a functionally distinct location in the neuroimaging literature. While recent studies explicitly focused on the IFJ's anatomical organization and functional role as a single brain area, it is usually not explicitly denominated in studies on cognitive networks. However based on few analyses in small datasets constrained by specific a priori assumptions on its functional specialization, the IFJ has been postulated to be part of a cognitive control network. Goal of this meta-analysis was to establish the IFJ’s connectivity profile on a high formal level of evidence by aggregating published implicit knowledge about its co-activations. We applied meta-analytical connectivity modeling (MACM based on the activation likelihood estimation (ALE method without specific assumptions regarding functional specialization on 180 (reporting left IFJ activity and 131 (right IFJ published functional neuroimaging experiments derived from the BrainMap database. This method is based on coordinates in stereotaxic space, not on anatomical descriptors. Results The IFJ is significantly co-activated with areas in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, medial frontal gyrus / pre-SMA, posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal junction / cerebellum, thalamus and putamen as well as language and motor areas. Results are corroborated by an independent resting-state fMRI analysis. Conclusions These results support the assumption that the IFJ is part of a previously described cognitive control network. They also highlight the involvement of subcortical structures in this system. A direct line is drawn from works on the functional

  17. Effect of the strange axial form factor on structure functions for neutral current neutrino scattering in the quasielastic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungsik

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the strange axial form factor on various structure functions for the neutral reaction of neutrino-nucleus scattering in the quasielastic region within the framework of a relativistic single particle model. We use 12 C as the target nucleus, and the incident neutrino energy range is between 150 MeV and 1.5 GeV. The structure functions are extracted at a fixed three momentum transfer and energy transfer by using the intrinsic helicity of neutrino. While the effect of the strange axial form factor is very small, the effect on various structure functions is exhibited explicitly.

  18. Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholodnaya, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of respiratory parameter uncertainties: impact of criterion function form and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchen, K R

    1990-08-01

    A sensitivity analysis based on weighted least-squares regression is presented to evaluate alternative methods for fitting lumped-parameter models to respiratory impedance data. The goal is to maintain parameter accuracy simultaneously with practical experiment design. The analysis focuses on predicting parameter uncertainties using a linearized approximation for joint confidence regions. Applications are with four-element parallel and viscoelastic models for 0.125- to 4-Hz data and a six-element model with separate tissue and airway properties for input and transfer impedance data from 2-64 Hz. The criterion function form was evaluated by comparing parameter uncertainties when data are fit as magnitude and phase, dynamic resistance and compliance, or real and imaginary parts of input impedance. The proper choice of weighting can make all three criterion variables comparable. For the six-element model, parameter uncertainties were predicted when both input impedance and transfer impedance are acquired and fit simultaneously. A fit to both data sets from 4 to 64 Hz could reduce parameter estimate uncertainties considerably from those achievable by fitting either alone. For the four-element models, use of an independent, but noisy, measure of static compliance was assessed as a constraint on model parameters. This may allow acceptable parameter uncertainties for a minimum frequency of 0.275-0.375 Hz rather than 0.125 Hz. This reduces data acquisition requirements from a 16- to a 5.33- to 8-s breath holding period. These results are approximations, and the impact of using the linearized approximation for the confidence regions is discussed.

  20. Atomic form factors, incoherent scattering functions, and photon scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.; Veigele, W.J.; Briggs, E.A.; Brown, R.T.; Cromer, D.T.; Howerton, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Tabulations are presented of the atomic form factor, F (α,Z), and the incoherent scattering function, S (x,Z), for values of x (=sin theta/2)/lambda) from 0.005 A -1 to 10 9 A -1 , for all elements A=1 to 100. These tables are constructed from available state-of-the-art theoretical data, including the Pirenne formulas for Z=1, configuration-into action results by Brown using Brown-Fontana and Weiss correlated wavefunctions for Z=2 to 6 non-relativistic Hartree-Fock results by Cromer for Z=7 to 100 and a relativistic K-shell analytic expression for F (x,Z) by Bethe Levinger for x>10 A -1 for all elements Z=2 to 100. These tabulated values are graphically compared with available photon scattering angular distribution measurements. Tables of coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) total scattering cross sections obtained by nummerical integration over combinations of F 2 (x,Z) with the Thomson formula and S (x,Z) with the Klum-Nishina Formual, respectively, are presented for all elements Z=1 to 100, for photon energies 100 eV (lambda=124 A) to 100 MeV (0.000124 A). The incoherent scattering cross sections also include the radiative and double-Compton corrections as given by Mork. Similar tables are presented for the special cases of terminally-bonded hydrogen and for the H 2 molecule, interpolated and extrapolated from values calculated by Stewart et al., and by Bentley and Stewart using Kolos-Roothaan wavefunctions

  1. Reproductive function in male endurance athletes: sperm analysis and hormonal profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, A; Chicharro, J L; Pérez, M; Serratosa, L; Bandrés, F; Legido, J C

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of endurance exercise on male reproductive function (sex hormones and seminograms). Professional cyclists [n = 12; mean age 24 +/- 2 (SD) yr], elite triathletes (n = 9; 26 +/- 3 yr), recreational marathon runners (n = 10; 32 +/- 6 yr), and sedentary subjects (control group; n = 9; 30 +/- 4 yr) were selected as subjects. for each group, the following parameters were measured three times during the sports season (training period: winter; competition period: spring; resting period: fall): percentage of body fat, hormonal profile (resting levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total and free testosterone, and cortisol), and seminograms (quantitative parameters sperm volume and sperm count; qualitative parameters: sperm motality and morphology). The following comparisons were made in the measured parameters: 1) within groups (longitudinal design) and 2) between groups in each of the three periods (cross-sectional design) and over time (mixed design). In addition, both the volume and the intensity of training of each subject during the season (except for the control group) were quantified. Despite significant differences in training characteristics and in body fat percent, in general no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hormonal profiles or in semen characteristics between or within groups. A lower sperm motility (46.2 +/- 19.5%), however, was observed in the cyclists during the competition period when compared either with the other groups during this same period (P < 0.05) or with themselves during the other two periods of study (P < 0.01). In any case, the later phenomenon was attributed to physical factors associated with cycling, such as mechanical trauma to the testis and/or increased gonadal temperature. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endurance exercise does not adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis.

  2. Identifying patterns of motor performance, executive functioning, and verbal ability in preschool children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Kamphorst, Erica; van der Veer, Gerda; Cantell, Marja

    2018-04-30

    A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%). The home based assessments consisted of a standardized motor test (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2), five performance-based EF tasks measuring inhibition and working memory, and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition. Parents filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to delineate profiles of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Chi-square statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to examine whether profile membership was predicted by age, gender, risk of motor coordination difficulties, ADHD symptomatology, language problems, and socioeconomic status (SES). LPA yielded three profiles with qualitatively distinct response patterns of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Quantitatively, the profiles showed most pronounced differences with regard to parent ratings and performance-based tests of EF, as well as verbal ability. Risk of motor coordination difficulties and ADHD symptomatology were associated with profile membership, whereas age, gender, language problems, and SES were not. Our results indicate that there are distinct subpopulations of children who show differential relations with regard to motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. The fact that we found both quantitative as well as qualitative differences between the three patterns of profiles underscores

  3. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  4. Cognitive profile and disorders affecting higher brain functions in paediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucheret Paz, E; López Ballent, A; Puga, C; García Basalo, M J; Baliarda, F; Ekonen, C; Ilari, R; Agosta, G

    2017-04-18

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro dissolution profile study of mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride from solid oral dosage form by UHPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Maja M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified dissolution test was performed for the release of ambroxol from tablets according to the European Pharmacopoeia. In vitro, three different dissolution media; 0.1 M HCl pH 1.2, acetate buffer (ABS pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer (PBS pH 6.8 were used for the simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions at temperature of 37.0±0.5°C. The drug release was evaluated by a new ultra - high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS method. The method was validated to meet requirements as per ICH guidelines which include linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The corresponding dissolution profiles showed more than 80% drug release within 30 minutes without significant differences. Further, the developed and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method could find a useful application in the process of production, quality control and bioavailability/bioequivalence studies of new pharmaceutical formulations of drugs in order to achieve a safe therapeutic efficacy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175045

  6. Evaluation of profile and functionality of memory T cells in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonaco, Marcela M; Moreira, Jôsimar D; Nunes, Fernanda F C; Loures, Cristina M G; Souza, Larissa R; Martins, Janaina M; Silva, Henrique R; Porto, Arthur Henrique R; Toledo, Vicente Paulo C P; Miranda, Silvana S; Guimarães, Tânia Mara P D

    2017-12-01

    The cells T CD4+ T and CD8+ can be subdivided into phenotypes naïve, T of central memory, T of effector memory and effector, according to the expression of surface molecules CD45RO and CD27. The T lymphocytes are cells of long life with capacity of rapid expansion and function, after a new antigenic exposure. In tuberculosis, it was found that specific memory T cells are present, however, gaps remain about the role of such cells in the disease immunology. In this study, the phenotypic profile was analyzed and characterized the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells of memory and effector, in response to specific stimuli in vitro, in patients with active pulmonary TB, compared to individuals with latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis the ones treated with pulmonary TB. It was observed that the group of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was the one which presented the highest proportion of cells T CD4+ of central memory IFN-ɣ+ e TNF-α+, suggesting that in TB, these T of central memory cells would have a profile of protective response, being an important target of study for the development of more effective vaccines; this group also developed lower proportion of CD8+ T effector lymphocytes than the others, a probable cause of specific and less effective response against the bacillus in these individuals; the ones treated for pulmonary tuberculosis were those who developed higher proportion of T CD4+ of memory central IL-17+ cells, indicating that the stimulation of long duration, with high antigenic load, followed by elimination of the pathogen, contribute to more significant generation of such cells; individuals with latent infection by M. tuberculosis and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis, showed greater response of CD8+ T effector lymphocytes IFN-ɣ+ than the controls, suggesting that these cells, as well as CD4+ T lymphocytes, have crucial role of protection against M. tuberculosis. These findings have contributed to a better

  7. On a non-continuous and stronger form of Levine's semi-continuous functions

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Miguel; Jafari, Saeid; Saraf, Ratnesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The concept of a (δ,β) irresolute function in topological spaces is introduced and studied. Some of their characteristic properties are considered. We also investigate the relationships between these classes of functions and other classes of non-continuous functions.

  8. Functional analysis of the cross-section form and X-ray density of human ulnae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgen, B.

    1981-01-01

    On 20 ulnae the form of the cross sections and distribution of the X-ray density were investigated in five different cross-section heights. The analysis of the cross-section forms was carried through using plane contraction figures, the X-ray density was established by means of the equidensity line method. (orig.) [de

  9. The mutational profile and infiltration pattern of murine MLH1-/- tumors: concurrences, disparities and cell line establishment for functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzki, Claudia; Beyrich, Franziska; Hühns, Maja; Klar, Ernst; Linnebacher, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Mice lines homozygous negative for one of the four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, MSH6) were generated as models for MMR deficient (MMR-D) diseases. Clinically, hereditary forms of MMR-D include Lynch syndrome (characterized by a germline MMR gene defect) and constitutional MMR-D, the biallelic form. MMR-D knockout mice may be representative for both diseases. Here, we aimed at characterizing the MLH1-/- model focusing on tumor-immune microenvironment and identification of coding microsatellite mutations in lymphomas and gastrointestinal tumors (GIT).All tumors showed microsatellite instability (MSI) in non-coding mononucleotide markers. Mutational profiling of 26 coding loci in MSI+ GIT and lymphomas revealed instability in half of the microsatellites, two of them (Rfc3 and Rasal2) shared between both entities. MLH1-/- tumors of both entities displayed a similar phenotype (high CD71, FasL, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 expression). Additional immunofluorescence verified the tumors' natural immunosuppressive character (marked CD11b/CD200R infiltration). Vice versa, CD3+ T cells as well as immune checkpoints molecules were detectable, indicative for an active immune microenvironment. For functional analysis, a permanent cell line from an MLH1-/- GIT was established. The newly developed MLH1-/- A7450 cells exhibit stable in vitro growth, strong invasive potential and heterogeneous drug response. Moreover, four additional MSI target genes (Nktr1, C8a, Taf1b, and Lig4) not recognized in the primary were identified in this cell line.Summing up, molecular and immunological mechanisms of MLH1-/- driven carcinogenesis correlate well with clinical features of MMR-D. MLH1-/- knockout mice combine characteristics of Lynch syndrome and constitutional MMR-D, making them suitable models for preclinical research aiming at MMR-D related diseases.

  10. DNA profiling of Tilapia guinasana, a species endemic to a single sinkhole, to determine the genetic divergence between color forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxomani, C; Ribbink, A J; Kirby, R

    1999-06-01

    Northwestern South Africa and Namibia contain a number of sinkholes in the dolomitic rock formations found in this area. These contain isolated populations of Tilapia. Most contain Tilapia sparmanii, but the one in Namibia, Guinas, is of particular interest as it contains the endemic species, Tilapia guinasana, which exhibits none sex-limited polychromatisms, which is unique for Tilapia. This sinkhole is under environmental threat, particularly as a result of being a recreational diving site. This study, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs), when analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), shows that the colour forms of Tilapia guinasana are genetically distinct. This confirms previous evidence that assortative mating between color forms takes place. The various possible hypotheses for the occurrence and genetic stability of the color polymorphism are discussed. Further, a new hypothesis is put forward based on a need to maximize outbreeding in fully isolated population with no possibility of increase in size above the maximum and limited carrying capacity of the sinkhole.

  11. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    knowledge gaps, practice variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are intended to include the caregiver if the patient is 24 hours after surgery. (2) Surgeons should not routinely place packing in the nasal cavity of rhinoplasty patients (with or without septoplasty) at the conclusion of surgery. The panel group made the following statement an option: (1) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, may administer perioperative systemic steroids to the rhinoplasty patient.

  12. A New Form of the Spherical Expansion of Zonal Functions and Fourier Transforms of SO(d-Finite Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bezubik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent results obtained by the authors (partly in collaboration with A. Dabrowska concerning expansions of zonal functions on Euclidean spheres into spherical harmonics and some applications of such expansions for problems involving Fourier transforms of functions with rotational symmetry. The method used to derive the expansion formula is based entirely on differential methods and completely avoids the use of various integral identities commonly used in this context. Some new identities for the Fourier transform are derived and as a byproduct seemingly new recurrence relations for the classical Bessel functions are obtained.

  13. Lipid profiling and transcriptomic analysis reveals a functional interplay between estradiol and growth hormone in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernández-Pérez

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a

  14. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel; Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Guzmán, Carolina; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A

    2014-11-01

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ(+) cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2--unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i--increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α(+), CD4 IFN-γ(+), and CD8 IFN-γ(+) cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, F G J; Vervat, C; van Pel, M; de Haas, V; Vijfhuizen, L S; Eising, E; Kroes, W G M; 't Hoen, P A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Egeler, R M; van Tol, M J D; Ball, L M

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease covering a spectrum ranging from aplasia (RCC) to myeloproliferation (RAEB(t)). In adult-type MDS there is increasing evidence for abnormal function of the bone-marrow microenvironment. Here, we extensively studied the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from children with MDS. MSCs were expanded from the bone-marrow of 17 MDS patients (RCC: n=10 and advanced MDS: n=7) and pediatric controls (n=10). No differences were observed with respect to phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunomodulatory capacity or hematopoietic support. mRNA expression analysis by Deep-SAGE revealed increased IL-6 expression in RCC- and RAEB(t)-MDS. RCC-MDS MSC expressed increased levels of DKK3, a protein associated with decreased apoptosis. RAEB(t)-MDS revealed increased CRLF1 and decreased DAPK1 expressions. This pattern has been associated with transformation in hematopoietic malignancies. Genes reported to be differentially expressed in adult MDS-MSC did not differ between MSC of pediatric MDS and controls. An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel; Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C.; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Guzmán, Carolina; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ + cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α + , CD4 IFN-γ + , and CD8 IFN-γ + cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells

  17. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  18. Functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction under physiotherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Pinheiro Bezerra de Menezes Kinote

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD receiving physical therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried with 21 patients receiving physiotherapy care during the year of 2007 at the Center for Integrated Medical Care (Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada - NAMI, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Those were submitted to anamnesis (age, presence of pain, affected sites and parafunctional habits and functional assessment (presence of trigger points, movement amplitude and postural evaluation. Results: The age varied from 16 to 56 years, with an average of 31.3 ± 14.85 and female gender was the most affected with 17 (81.0% patients. Of the assessed patients, 13 (61.9% presented pain of moderate intensity, with an average of 5.4 ± 0.50. The most common sites of pain were the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, reported by 15 (71.4%,and cervical region, reported by 13 (61.9% patients. We found that 13 (61.9% assessed patients reported clenching as parafunctional habit. Significant limitation of mouth opening and movements of the cervical region were observed when compared to normal values (p <0.05. The most painful muscles on palpation were upper trapezius (n=19, medial pterygoid (n=15 and the masseter (n=15. The TMJ presented strong pain (degree 3 on palpation in 3 (14.3% patients. In postural assessment, 10 (47.6% had cervical hyperlordosis, 7 (33% had forward head posture and 7 (33% had raised shoulders. Conclusion: Patients with TMJD receiving physical therapy present limitations in TMJ and cervical movement, pain, presence of trigger points and postural changes at a more compromised and symptomatic stage of this dysfunction. In view of this, it becomes necessary to provide early evaluation and treatment with physical therapy.

  19. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R.; Jijakli, Kenan; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  20. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R. [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jijakli, Kenan [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Engineering Division, Biofinery, Manhattan, KS (United States); Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh, E-mail: ksa3@nyu.edu [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-12-10

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  1. Proteomic and functional profiles of a follicle-stimulating hormone positive human nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Guo, Tianyao; Peng, Fang; Long, Ying; Mu, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ye, Ningrong; Li, Xuejun; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-06-01

    Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone-expressed subtypes in NFPA tissues including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) positive, luteinizing hormone-positive, FSH/luteinizing hormone-positive, and negative types. To analyze in-depth the variations in the proteomes among different NFPA subtypes for our long-term goal to clarify molecular mechanisms of NFPA and to detect tumor biomarker for personalized medicine practice, a reference map of proteome of a human FSH-expressed NFPA tissue was described here. 2DE and PDQuest image analysis were used to array each protein. MALDI-TOF PMF and human Swiss-Prot databases with MASCOT search were used to identify each protein. A good 2DE pattern with high level of between-gel reproducibility was attained with an average positional deviation 1.98 ± 0.75 mm in the IEF direction and 1.62 ± 0.68 mm in the SDS-PAGE direction. Approximately 1200 protein spots were 2DE-detected and 192 redundant proteins that were contained in 141 protein spots were PMF-identified, representing 107 nonredundant proteins. Those proteins were located in cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, extracellular space, and so on, and those functioned in transmembrane receptor, ion channel, transcription/translation regulator, transporter, enzyme, phosphatase, kinase, and so on. Several important pathway networks were characterized from those identified proteins with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis systems, including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle alteration, MAPKsignaling system, immune response, TP53-signaling, VEGF-signaling, and inflammation signaling pathways. Those resulting data contribute to a functional profile of the proteome of a human FSH-positive NFPA tissue, and will serve as a reference for the heterogeneity analysis of NFPA proteomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction under physiotherapy treatment -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Pinheiro Bezerra de Menezes Kinote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD receiving physical therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried with 21 patients receiving physiotherapy care during the year of 2007 at the Center for Integrated Medical Care (Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada - NAMI, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Those were submitted to anamnesis (age, presence of pain, affected sites and parafunctional habits and functional assessment (presence of trigger points, movement amplitude and postural evaluation. Results: The age varied from 16 to 56 years, with an average of 31.3 ± 14.85 and female gender was the most affected with 17 (81.0% patients. Of the assessed patients, 13 (61.9% presented pain of moderate intensity, with an average of 5.4 ± 0.50. The most common sites of pain were the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, reported by 15 (71.4%, and cervical region, reported by 13 (61.9% patients. We found that 13 (61.9% assessed patients reported clenching as parafunctional habit. Significant limitation of mouth opening and movements of the cervical region were observed when compared to normal values (p <0.05. The most painful muscles on palpation were upper trapezius (n=19, medial pterygoid (n=15 and the masseter (n=15. The TMJ presented strong pain (degree 3 on palpation in 3 (14.3% patients. In postural assessment, 10 (47.6% had cervical hyperlordosis, 7 (33% had forward head posture and 7 (33% had raised shoulders. Conclusion: Patients with TMJD receiving physical therapy present limitations in TMJ and cervical movement, pain, presence of trigger points and postural changes at a more compromised and symptomatic stage of this dysfunction. In view of this, it becomes necessary to provide early evaluation and treatment with physical therapy.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of 8-form Tai chi improves symptoms and functional mobility in fibromyalgia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kim D.; Sherman, Christy A.; Mist, Scott D.; Carson, James W.; Bennett, Robert M.; Li, Fuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Previous researchers have found that 10-form Tai chi yields symptomatic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to further investigate earlier findings and add a focus on functional mobility. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial FM-modified 8-form Yang-style Tai chi program compared to an education control. Participants met in small groups twice weekly for 90 min over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was symptom reduction and improvement in...

  4. Hydrodynamics-based functional forms of activity metabolism: a case for the power-law polynomial function in animal swimming energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.

  5. Hydrodynamics-based functional forms of activity metabolism: a case for the power-law polynomial function in animal swimming energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.

  6. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N...

  7. Calculation of scalar products of wave functions and form factors in the framework of the algebraic Bethe ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bethe ansatz method is widely used to investigate two-dimensional completely integrable models. In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method it has proved to be possible to construct an algebraic scheme of the Bethe ansatz, and this has been successfully applied to calculation of correlation functions. One of the important questions of the method is that of the scalar products of the wave functions. In particular, knowledge of the properties of the scalar products is necessary for investigating the form factors and correlation function. In the present paper the author considers a generalized model with R matrix of the model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The main formulas and notation are given in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3 he calculates the scalar product of an arbitrary function and an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian. The generalized two-site model is introduced in Sec. 4. In Sec. 5 he calculates the form factor of the particle number operator

  8. Functional strategies of tropical dry forest plants in relation to growth form and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Silvera, K.; Andrade, J. L.; Dawson, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) undergo a substantial dry season in which plant species must endure several months of drought. Although TDFs support a diverse array of plant growth forms, it is not clear how they vary in mechanisms for coping with seasonal drought. We measured organic tissue stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) across six plant growth forms including epiphytes, terrestrial succulents, trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, and oxygen (δ18O) of four growth forms, to distinguish among patterns of resource acquisition and evaluate mechanisms for surviving annual drought in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatan, Mexico. Terrestrial succulent and epiphyte δ13C was around -14‰, indicating photosynthesis through the Crassulacean acid metabolism pathway, and along with one C4 herb were distinct from mean values of all other growth forms, which were between -26 and -29‰ indicating C3 photosynthesis. Mean tissue δ15N across epiphytes was -4.95‰ and was significantly lower than all other growth forms, which had values around +3‰. Tissue N concentration varied significantly among growth forms with epiphytes and terrestrial succulents having significantly lower values of about 1% compared to trees, shrubs, herbs and vines, which were around 3%. Tissue C concentration was highest in trees, shrubs and vines, intermediate in herbs and epiphytes and lowest in terrestrial succulents. δ18O did not vary among growth forms. Overall, our results suggest several water-saving aspects of resource acquisition, including the absolute occurrence of CAM photosynthesis in terrestrial succulents and epiphytes, high concentrations of leaf N in some species, which may facilitate CO2 drawdown by photosynthetic enzymes for a given stomatal conductance, and potentially diverse N sources ranging from atmospheric N in epiphytes with extremely depleted δ15N values, and a large range of δ15N values among trees, many of which are legumes and dry season

  9. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Form and Function of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.; Park, Yang-Nim; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, like other pathogens, can form complex biofilms on a variety of substrates. However, as the number of studies of gene regulation, architecture, and pathogenic traits of C. albicans biofilms has increased, so have differences in results. This suggests that depending upon the conditions employed, biofilms may vary widely, thus hampering attempts at a uniform description. Gene expression studies suggest that this may be the case. To explore this hypothesis further, we compared the architectures and traits of biofilms formed in RPMI 1640 and Spider media at 37°C in air. Biofilms formed by a/α cells in the two media differed to various degrees in cellular architecture, matrix deposition, penetrability by leukocytes, fluconazole susceptibility, and the facilitation of mating. Similar comparisons of a/a cells in the two media, however, were made difficult given that in air, although a/a cells form traditional biofilms in RPMI medium, they form polylayers composed primarily of yeast cells in Spider medium. These polylayers lack an upper hyphal/matrix region, are readily penetrated by leukocytes, are highly fluconazole susceptible, and do not facilitate mating. If, however, air is replaced with 20% CO2, a/a cells make a biofilm in Spider medium similar architecturally to that of a/α cells, which facilitates mating. A second, more cursory comparison is made between the disparate cellular architectures of a/a biofilms formed in air in RPMI and Lee's media. The results demonstrate that C. albicans forms very different types of biofilms depending upon the composition of the medium, level of CO2 in the atmosphere, and configuration of the MTL locus. PMID:23954841

  10. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  11. Microarray Expression Profile and Functional Analysis of Circular RNAs in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihai Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and progression are still poorly understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs have been identified as microRNA sponges and are involved in many important biological processes. This study aims to investigate the global changes in the expression pattern of circRNAs in osteosarcoma and provide a comprehensive understanding of differentially expressed circRNAs. Methods: Microarray based circRNA expression was determined in osteosarcoma cell lines and compared with hFOB1.19, which was used as the normal control. We confirmed the microarray data by real time-qPCR in both osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. The circRNA/microRNA/mRNA interaction network was predicted using bioinformatics. Gene Ontology analysis and 4 annotation tools for pathway analysis (KEGG, Biocarta, PANTHER and Reactome were used to predict the functions of differentially expressed circRNAs. Results: We revealed a number of differentially expressed circRNAs and 12 of them were confirmed, which suggests a potential role of circRNAs in OS. Among these differentially expressed circRNAs, hsa_circRNA_103801 was up-regulated in both osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues, while hsa_circRNA_104980 was down-regulated. The most likely potential target miRNAs for hsa_circRNA_103801 include hsa-miR-370-3p, hsa-miR-338-3p and hsa-miR-877-3p, while the most potential target miRNAs of hsa_circRNA_104980 consist of hsa-miR-1298-3p and hsa-miR-660-3p. Functional analysis found that hsa_circRNA_103801 was involved in pathways in cancer, such as the HIF-1, VEGF and angiogenesis pathway, the Rap1 signaling pathway and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, while hsa_circRNA_104980 was related to some pathways such as the tight junction pathway. Conclusions: This study has identified the comprehensive expression profile of circRNAs in

  12. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  13. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Aubertot

    Full Text Available The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i develop, and to a lesser extent ii combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategies (vertical integration, there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration. Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator, a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat. In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  14. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertot, Jean-Noël; Robin, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests) in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i) develop, and to a lesser extent ii) combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies (vertical integration), there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration). Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator), a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat). In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Liu, Chieh-Hsing

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Assessing health literacy is vital to design health education programme; however, there are no measurement tools exist for use specifically in Chinese adolescents. A non-experimental design was used to test the psychometric properties of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents was translated and back translated into a Chinese language version. Thirty high school students were recruited to validate the scenario of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. Based on the multiple-stage stratified random sampling method, 300 high school students from four counties in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents. The Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents had good internal consistency reliability and excellent test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor solution. Contrary to the original version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents, the findings revealed that the 36-item, one-factor model for the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adolescents is the best-fit model. This is a suitable instrument to assess health literacy levels in Chinese adolescents before health education programmes can be appropriately planned, implemented and evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Robayi, Enas M. [Babylon University , College of Science for Women, laser Physics Department, Hilla (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated wave function (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering function, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution function D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.

  17. Reconciling mass functions with the star-forming main sequence via mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Yurk, Dominic; Capak, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We combine star formation along the 'main sequence', quiescence and clustering and merging to produce an empirical model for the evolution of individual galaxies. Main-sequence star formation alone would significantly steepen the stellar mass function towards low redshift, in sharp conflict with observation. However, a combination of star formation and merging produces a consistent result for correct choice of the merger rate function. As a result, we are motivated to propose a model in which hierarchical merging is disconnected from environmentally independent star formation. This model can be tested via correlation functions and would produce new constraints on clustering and merging.

  18. On the form of the forgetting function: the effects of arithmetic and logarithmic distributions of delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J; White, K Geoffrey

    2003-11-01

    Forgetting functions with 18 delay intervals were generated for delayed matching-to-sample performance in pigeons. Delay interval variation was achieved by arranging five different sets of five delays across daily sessions. In different conditions, the delays were distributed in arithmetic or logarithmic series. There was no convincing evidence for different effects on discriminability of the distributions of different delays. The mean data were better fitted by some mathematical functions than by others, but the best-fitting functions depended on the distribution of delays. In further conditions with a fixed set of five delays, discriminability was higher with a logarithmic distribution of delays than with an arithmetic distribution. This result is consistent with the treatment of the forgetting function in terms of generalization decrement.

  19. Functional profiling of microtumors to identify cancer associated fibroblast-derived drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horman, Shane R; To, Jeremy; Lamb, John; Zoll, Jocelyn H; Leonetti, Nicole; Tu, Buu; Moran, Rita; Newlin, Robbin; Walker, John R; Orth, Anthony P

    2017-11-21

    Recent advances in chemotherapeutics highlight the importance of molecularly-targeted perturbagens. Although these therapies typically address dysregulated cancer cell proteins, there are increasing therapeutic modalities that take into consideration cancer cell-extrinsic factors. Targeting components of tumor stroma such as vascular or immune cells has been shown to represent an efficacious approach in cancer treatment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exemplify an important stromal component that can be exploited in targeted therapeutics, though their employment in drug discovery campaigns has been relatively minimal due to technical logistics in assaying for CAF-tumor interactions. Here we report a 3-dimensional multi-culture tumor:CAF spheroid phenotypic screening platform that can be applied to high-content drug discovery initiatives. Using a functional genomics approach we systematically profiled 1,024 candidate genes for CAF-intrinsic anti-spheroid activity; identifying several CAF genes important for development and maintenance of tumor:CAF co-culture spheroids. Along with previously reported genes such as WNT, we identify CAF-derived targets such as ARAF and COL3A1 upon which the tumor compartment depends for spheroid development. Specifically, we highlight the G-protein-coupled receptor OGR1 as a unique CAF-specific protein that may represent an attractive drug target for treating colorectal cancer. In vivo , murine colon tumor implants in OGR1 knockout mice displayed delayed tumor growth compared to tumors implanted in wild type littermate controls. These findings demonstrate a robust microphysiological screening approach for identifying new CAF targets that may be applied to drug discovery efforts.

  20. Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zou, Qiong; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Zeping; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.

  1. INDIVIDUAL PROFILE OF FUNCTIONAL HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bykanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to identify the relationship between the individual profile of functional hemispheric asymmetry (IPFA and lateralization of the Parkinson's disease (PD debut, as well as assess of their impact on anxiety and depressive disorders and quality of life of patients.Materials and methods. 70 patients with PD (28 men and 42 women, average age 63,1 ± 8,1 years with disease duration 48 [36, 72] months (Me [25 %; 75 %] were included. We used Hoehn and Yahr, UPDRS, EuroQol, PDQ-39 scales, scale of anxiety and Spielberger–Hanin Hamilton Depression. IPFA was determined using the protocol survey of 48 jobs during the period of inclusion of patients in the study.Results. In patients with right-sided IPFA right-sided debut of PD was more common (p < 0.05 and in patients with mixed IPFA — leftsided(p < 0.05 PD debut. There were no significant differences in levels of reactive, personal anxiety and depression at different IPFA dependingon the side of PD debut (p > 0.05 received. Quality of life scale PDQ-39 showed worse results in patients with right-in right IPFA debut in comparison with those in patients with left debut (p < 0.05. Quality of life by EuroQol-II scale was higher in patients with rightsided IPFA with the left debut of PD than in patients with right-debut (p < 0.05, and in patients with mixed IPFA with right debut compared to patients with left debut (p < 0.05.Conclusion. With the debut of PD in leading limb and preferential involvement of the dominant hemisphere poorer quality of life was observed. IPFA and clinical asymmetry did not affect on the level of anxiety and depressive disorders, which were revealed in more than twothirds of patients with PD.

  2. Expression profile and function of Wnt signaling mechanisms in malignant mesothelioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Simon A.; Richards, Alex K.; Kusumah, Ivonne; Perumal, Vanathi; Bolitho, Erin M.; Mutsaers, Steven E.; Dharmarajan, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Expression profile of Wnt pathway related genes in mesothelioma cells. •Differential expression of key Wnt pathway molecules and regulators. •Wnt3a stimulated mesothelioma growth whereas sFRP4 was inhibitory. •Targeting β-Catenin can sensitise mesothelioma cells to cytotoxic drugs. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an uncommon and particularly aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure, which currently presents an intractable clinical challenge. Wnt signaling has been reported to play a role in the neoplastic properties of mesothelioma cells but has not been investigated in detail in this cancer. We surveyed expression of Wnts, their receptors, and other key molecules in this pathway in well established in vitro mesothelioma models in comparison with primary mesothelial cultures. We also tested the biological response of MM cell lines to exogenous Wnt and secreted regulators, as well as targeting β-catenin. We detected frequent expression of Wnt3 and Wnt5a, as well as Fzd 2, 4 and 6. The mRNA of Wnt4, Fzd3, sFRP4, APC and axin2 were downregulated in MM relative to mesothelial cells while LEF1 was overexpressed in MM. Functionally, we observed that Wnt3a stimulated MM proliferation while sFRP4 was inhibitory. Furthermore, directly targeting β-catenin expression could sensitise MM cells to cytotoxic drugs. These results provide evidence for altered expression of a number of Wnt/Fzd signaling molecules in MM. Modulation of Wnt signaling in MM may prove a means of targeting proliferation and drug resistance in this cancer

  3. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C. [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Rodríguez, Luz-Stella [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Guzmán, Carolina [Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A. [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ{sup +} cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α{sup +}, CD4 IFN-γ{sup +}, and CD8 IFN-γ{sup +} cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells.

  4. Expression profile and function of Wnt signaling mechanisms in malignant mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Simon A., E-mail: s.fox@curtin.edu.au [Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia); Richards, Alex K.; Kusumah, Ivonne; Perumal, Vanathi [Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia); Bolitho, Erin M. [Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA (Australia); Mutsaers, Steven E. [Lung Institute of Western Australia, Centre for Asthma Allergy and Respiratory Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia); Centre for Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia and Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands (Australia); Dharmarajan, Arun M. [School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Expression profile of Wnt pathway related genes in mesothelioma cells. •Differential expression of key Wnt pathway molecules and regulators. •Wnt3a stimulated mesothelioma growth whereas sFRP4 was inhibitory. •Targeting β-Catenin can sensitise mesothelioma cells to cytotoxic drugs. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an uncommon and particularly aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure, which currently presents an intractable clinical challenge. Wnt signaling has been reported to play a role in the neoplastic properties of mesothelioma cells but has not been investigated in detail in this cancer. We surveyed expression of Wnts, their receptors, and other key molecules in this pathway in well established in vitro mesothelioma models in comparison with primary mesothelial cultures. We also tested the biological response of MM cell lines to exogenous Wnt and secreted regulators, as well as targeting β-catenin. We detected frequent expression of Wnt3 and Wnt5a, as well as Fzd 2, 4 and 6. The mRNA of Wnt4, Fzd3, sFRP4, APC and axin2 were downregulated in MM relative to mesothelial cells while LEF1 was overexpressed in MM. Functionally, we observed that Wnt3a stimulated MM proliferation while sFRP4 was inhibitory. Furthermore, directly targeting β-catenin expression could sensitise MM cells to cytotoxic drugs. These results provide evidence for altered expression of a number of Wnt/Fzd signaling molecules in MM. Modulation of Wnt signaling in MM may prove a means of targeting proliferation and drug resistance in this cancer.

  5. Anthropometric and functional profile of walkers from the community of the MARINGÁ Town district seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anthropometric and functional profile of strollers who walk oround Willie Davids Stadium of Maringá town district seven. The sample was constituted by 168 subjects: 97 females of 37.60-year average age and 71 males of 36.08-year average age, who voluntarily came to the walking project of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The data were collected during 1999. The average stature of males was 171.70cm and of females was 161.29 cm; the average weight of males was 76.27 kg and of females was 61.91 kg. Fat percentage in males was 19.44% and in females was 30.46%; lean weight of 60.79 kg for males and 42.51 kg for females. The IMC was 26.60 for males and 23.79 for females; waist/hip rate for males was 0.91 and for females was 0.77. VO2 max for males was 47.66 ml/kg/min and for females was 39.70 ml/kg/min. The results indicate higher weight and stature values for males than for females, that both males and females present a fat percentage higher than regular and acceptable; that the higher risk concentration in found in the interval of 40 to 49 years of age for females, and for males the interval of 30 to 39 concentrates a high risk and up to 30 years concentrates a very high risk, while VO2 max decreases with aging.

  6. Square well model and the functional form for the resonance integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sane, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the relation β = eta(Z 1 Z 2 )/sup 1/2/ exp/broken bracket/ -X(Z 1 + Z 2 )R/broken bracket//R can be derived by assuming that the effective potential in π-electron systems can be approximated by a three-dimensional square well form. (U.S.)

  7. Tautomeric forms of PPI dendrimers functionalized with 4-(4′-ethoxybenzoyloxy)salicylaldehyde chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franckevičius, M.; Vaišnoras, R.; Marcos, M.; Serrano, J.L.; Gruodis, A.; Galikova, N.; Gulbinas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SA chromophore groups are formed by bonding terminal groups to PPI dendrimers. ► SA chromophore groups reveal four most stable tautomeric forms. ► Tautomeric properties of SA groups depend on the dendrimer generation and solvent. ► Aggregation of SA chromophores facilitates formation of the trans-keto tautomers. ► Fluorescence of PPI SA dendrimers is attributed to nπ ∗ states of keto tautomers. -- Abstract: Bonding of the promesogenic unit derived from 4-(4′-ethoxybenzoyloxy)salicylaldehyde to the amino terminated PPI dendrimer chains results in formation of the salicylidenimine chromophore groups. Absorption and fluorescence investigations of the dendrimer solutions supported by the quantum chemistry calculations revealed that the chromophore groups may exist in enol and keto tautomeric forms with relative concentrations depending on the dendrimer generation and solvent. The dendrimer fluorescence is attributed to nπ ∗ states of keto tautomers which may also be formed from excited enol tautomers.

  8. Function and Form of Action-Based Teaching in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    The aim of the research is to subject progressive, critical and entrepreneurial pedagogy to a didactic inquiry based on the specific application of action-based teaching in order to answer two fundamental didactic questions: What educational purpose does the use of action-based teaching serve? How...... does the educational purpose affect the specific form of the constituting elements of the method?...

  9. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  10. Does the Functional Form of the Association Between Education and Mortality Differ by U.S. Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Connor; Montez, Jennifer Karas; Sasson, Isaac

    2018-01-01

    To understand the education-mortality association among U.S. adults, recent studies have documented its national functional form. However, the functional form of education-mortality relationship may vary across geographic contexts. The four U.S. Census regions differ considerably in their social and economic policies, employment opportunities, income levels, and other factors that may affect how education lowers the risk of mortality. Thus, we documented regional differences in the functional form of the education-mortality association and examined the role of employment and income in accounting for regional differences. We used data on non-Hispanic white adults (2,981,672, person years) aged 45-84 in the 2000-2009 National Health Interview Survey, with Linked Mortality File through 2011 (37,598 deaths) and estimated discrete-time hazard models. The functional form of education and adult mortality was best characterized by credentialism in the Midwest, Northeast, and for Western men. For Western women, the association was linear, consistent with the human capital model. In the South, we observed a combination of mechanisms, with mortality risk declining with each year of schooling and a step change with high school graduation, followed by steeper decline thereafter. Our work adds to the increasing body of research that stresses the importance of contexts in shaping the education-mortality relationship.

  11. Analysis of temporal transcription expression profiles reveal links between protein function and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cen; Lees, Jonathan G; Minneci, Federico; Orengo, Christine A; Jones, David T

    2017-10-01

    Accurate gene or protein function prediction is a key challenge in the post-genome era. Most current methods perform well on molecular function prediction, but struggle to provide useful annotations relating to biological process functions due to the limited power of sequence-based features in that functional domain. In this work, we systematically evaluate the predictive power of temporal transcription expression profiles for protein function prediction in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show significantly better performance on predicting protein function when transcription expression profile-based features are integrated with sequence-derived features, compared with the sequence-derived features alone. We also observe that the combination of expression-based and sequence-based features leads to further improvement of accuracy on predicting all three domains of gene function. Based on the optimal feature combinations, we then propose a novel multi-classifier-based function prediction method for Drosophila melanogaster proteins, FFPred-fly+. Interpreting our machine learning models also allows us to identify some of the underlying links between biological processes and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

  12. Analysis of temporal transcription expression profiles reveal links between protein function and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Wan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate gene or protein function prediction is a key challenge in the post-genome era. Most current methods perform well on molecular function prediction, but struggle to provide useful annotations relating to biological process functions due to the limited power of sequence-based features in that functional domain. In this work, we systematically evaluate the predictive power of temporal transcription expression profiles for protein function prediction in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show significantly better performance on predicting protein function when transcription expression profile-based features are integrated with sequence-derived features, compared with the sequence-derived features alone. We also observe that the combination of expression-based and sequence-based features leads to further improvement of accuracy on predicting all three domains of gene function. Based on the optimal feature combinations, we then propose a novel multi-classifier-based function prediction method for Drosophila melanogaster proteins, FFPred-fly+. Interpreting our machine learning models also allows us to identify some of the underlying links between biological processes and developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster.

  13. High-functionalization of fiber-forming materials. Polymer membrane as separation media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Osaka, (Japan))

    1989-07-05

    For obtaining higher functions by donating specific functions to the fiber, it is effective to change its structure. Various separating films which is known as an example of the high-functionalization of the fiber materials is an example of the fiber structure conversion from the view-point of substance-permeating function. This report firstly describes the features and types of the film separation method and the production of films, and then on the correlation between the structure and functions of the fibers, the correlation of the structure and the separating characteristics of the films, and the mechanism of the emergence of the film structure. Finally, applied examples of the film separating method in the medical field are described. In the medical liquid film separation, blood or plasma are the object of the separation. Blood has various components whose concentration and particle size are multiplicated, and yet requires a tremendous separating accuracy when compared with the industrial separation. Examples are a blood dialyzer film and an ultrafiltration film (film for plasma separation and virus separation), etc.. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Monoclonal antibody form and function: manufacturing the right antibodies for treating drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric; Owens, S Michael; Henry, Ralph L

    2006-05-26

    Drug abuse continues to be a major national and worldwide problem, and effective treatment strategies are badly needed. Antibodies are promising therapies for the treatment of medical problems caused by drug abuse, with several candidates in preclinical and early clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies can be designed that have customized affinity and specificity against drugs of abuse, and because antibodies can be designed in various forms, in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics can be tailored to suit specific clinical applications (eg, long-acting for relapse prevention, or short-acting for overdose). Passive immunization with antibodies against drugs of abuse has several advantages over active immunization, but because large doses of monoclonal antibodies may be needed for each patient, efficient antibody production technology is essential. In this minireview we discuss some of the antibody forms that may be effective clinical treatments for drug abuse, as well as several current and emerging production systems that could bridge the gap from discovery to patient use.

  15. [Comparison of family functioning profile in adolescents with and without drug-dependency in a high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Salmerón, Víctor Hugo; Martínez-Martínez, Martha Leticia; Garibay-López, Leticia; Camacho-Calderón, Nicolás

    2011-02-01

    To compare the family functioning profile (FFP) in adolescents addicted to drugs and those not addicted to drugs. Cross-sectional study comparative. A high school in Querétaro State, Mexico. Study of 63 adolescents with and without addiction, of both sexes between the ages of 13 and 19, enrolled in high school; two groups formed, one not addicted to drugs (systematic probabilistic sampling was carried out); and compared with drug addicts (database). FFP(Alpha Cronbach 91). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Adolescents with drug addiction (n=20), average age 17.5±0.4 (range 16-19), and group of non-addicts (n=43), average age 16.9±0.1 (range 15-18) and P=0.000. All the adolescents lived in an urban area with a predominantly simple nuclear modern, working family type. Half (50%) of addicted adolescents came from broken families P=0.002. The dispersion phase was a protective factor in preventing drug addiction in adolescents (P=0.003 OR 0.6 95% Cl;1.8-21.0). Significant statistical differences were observed in authority (OR=29.7, 95% Cl; 5.8-150.5), supervision (OR 10.3, 95% Cl; 2.8-37.2) and support (OR 0.04, 95% Cl; 5.5-109.8). The overall family dysfunctionality, (P=0.000, OR 1.8, 95% Cl; 1.3-2.3). Dysfunctional families are a risk factor for drug addiction in adolescents, when there is insufficient authority and supervision within the family. On the other hand, family support, as well as the dispersion phase, are protective factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Forms of Functioning of the Modern Market of Addictive Goods Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yu. Skokov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of forms of markets for addictive goods was made according to the criterion of exchange (absent, emerging, free, oligopolistic, monopolistic, monopoly. There were systematized approaches to argument for the state monopolization of the markets. Reducing the supply, increasing prices, reducing the influence of the motive of private profit are crucial. There was made the classification and analysis of prevailing forms of state markets for addictive goods in the international practice. They are: state monopolistic, competitive, prohibitionists, medical, antiprohibitionists mixed. Based on this there were marked modern features of their state regulation due to the consumer culture, religious prohibitions, the effectiveness of measures in demand reducing, diametrically different approaches to new markets, international split in the prohibition of the drug market. Domestic specifics associated with skimping on experience of regulation of the alcoholic market in a similar pattern of consumption in the Nordic countries, inadequate implementation capacity of state regulation of demand for tobacco products, with the creation of barriers to the development of gambling and new markets for addictive goods, with a veto on the liberalization of the drug market. Based on a comprehensive assessment of the market potential of business entities in specific markets there were offered socially appropriate forms of their states: in the markets of gambling and drugs a combination of the policy of prohibition and monopoly-oligopolistic proposals, in oligopolistic markets tobacco products and energy drinks the monopoly, in the markets of alcoholic products the differentiated approach.

  17. The Forms and Functions of Real-Life Moral Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Dennis L.; Denton, Kathy; Wark, Gillian

    1997-01-01

    Observes that the Kohlbergian model of morality does not give a good account of the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives. Argues that a functional model of moral judgment and moral behavior derived from evolutionary theory may supply a better account of real-life morality. (DSK)

  18. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  19. Testing among functional forms: an extension of the Generalized Box-Cox formulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Thijssen, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses the Generalized Box - Cox framework and Double Length artificial Regression to test whether different specifications of the profit function are able to mimic the technology underlying panel data of Dutch arable farms for the period 1970 - 1988. To this end, a linear GBC is developed

  20. Wave functions, evolution equations and evolution kernels form light-ray operators of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Robaschik, D.; Geyer, B.; Dittes, F.M.; Horejsi, J.

    1994-01-01

    The widely used nonperturbative wave functions and distribution functions of QCD are determined as matrix elements of light-ray operators. These operators appear as large momentum limit of non-local hardron operators or as summed up local operators in light-cone expansions. Nonforward one-particle matrix elements of such operators lead to new distribution amplitudes describing both hadrons simultaneously. These distribution functions depend besides other variables on two scaling variables. They are applied for the description of exclusive virtual Compton scattering in the Bjorken region near forward direction and the two meson production process. The evolution equations for these distribution amplitudes are derived on the basis of the renormalization group equation of the considered operators. This includes that also the evolution kernels follow from the anomalous dimensions of these operators. Relations between different evolution kernels (especially the Altarelli-Parisi and the Brodsky-Lepage kernels) are derived and explicitly checked for the existing two-loop calculations of QCD. Technical basis of these resluts are support and analytically properties of the anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators obtained with the help of the α-representation of Green's functions. (orig.)

  1. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  2. The Triumph of Function over Form The Role of Analytic Philosophy in Planning and Analysing Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbala Jasz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most dominant dialectical succession of architectural thinking during the 20th Century was between form and function. The latter of these two modern ways of architectural thinking is based on the results of Carnapian Neopositivism. The keywords of this philosophical school, that are empiricism, logic, verification, unity of language and science, could still be applied to interpreting modern architecture. I will explain the antecedents and the first connection between analytic philosophy and architecture, and some characteristic points of their influence during the 20th Century: the triumph of function over form as analogous to triumph of analytic philosophy over metaphysics.After the theoretic grounding of the form-function debate, I am going to focus first on the characteristic appearance of form: the Façadism of Socialist Realism in the architecture of East-Central Europe. Second, I will explain that architectural tendencies of classical modernism did not disappear in this period, they were just hidden in case of public buildings or migrated to the industrial planning. Third, I am going to claim that after this socialist realist gap, the architectural theory and planning tendencies of the interwar period – especially the work of Le Corbusier – returned and continued.

  3. A novel solid dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid with improved functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh C; Sarvaiya, Krishnakant G

    2007-08-24

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop a novel dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid to minimize degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium and to modulate the release of rifampicin in the stomach and isoniazid in the intestine. Gastroretentive tablets of rifampicin (150 mg) were prepared by the wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, calcium carbonate, and polyethylene glycol 4000. The granules and tablets of rifampicin were characterized. Hard gelatin capsules (size 4) containing a compacted mass of isoniazid (150 mg) and dicalcium phosphate (75 mg) were enteric coated. Two tablets of rifampicin and 1 capsule (size 4) of isoniazid were put into a hard gelatin capsule (size 00). The in vitro drug release and in vitro drug degradation studies were performed. Rifampicin was released over 4 hours by zero-order kinetics from the novel dosage form. More than 90% of isoniazid was released in alkaline medium in 30 minutes. The results of dissolution studies with the US Pharmacopeia XXIII method revealed that a substantial amount of rifampicin was degraded from the immediate release capsule containing rifampicin and isoniazid powder owing to drug accumulation in the dissolution vessel and also to the presence of isoniazid. The degradation of rifampicin to 3-formyl rifampicin SV (3FRSV) was arrested (3.6%-4.8% degradation of rifampicin at 4 hours) because of the minimization of physical contact between the 2 drugs and controlled release of rifampicin in acidic medium in the modified Rossett-Rice apparatus. This study concludes that the problem of rifampicin degradation can be alleviated to a certain extent by this novel dosage form.

  4. The evolution of fishes and corals on reefs: form, function and interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, David R; Goatley, Christopher H R; Bellwood, Orpha

    2017-05-01

    Coral reefs are renowned for their spectacular biodiversity and the close links between fishes and corals. Despite extensive fossil records and common biogeographic histories, the evolution of these two key groups has rarely been considered together. We therefore examine recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and palaeoecology, and place the evolution of fishes and corals in a functional context. In critically reviewing the available fossil and phylogenetic evidence, we reveal a marked congruence in the evolution of the two groups. Despite one group consisting of swimming vertebrates and the other colonial symbiotic invertebrates, fishes and corals have remarkably similar evolutionary histories. In the Paleocene and Eocene [66-34 million years ago (Ma)] most modern fish and coral families were present, and both were represented by a wide range of functional morphotypes. However, there is little evidence of diversification at this time. By contrast, in the Oligocene and Miocene (34-5.3 Ma), both groups exhibited rapid lineage diversification. There is also evidence of increasing reef area, occupation of new habitats, increasing coral cover, and potentially, increasing fish abundance. Functionally, the Oligocene-Miocene is marked by the appearance of new fish and coral taxa associated with high-turnover fast-growth ecosystems and the colonization of reef flats. It is in this period that the functional characteristics of modern coral reefs were established. Most species, however, only arose in the last 5.3 million years (Myr; Plio-Pleistocene), with the average age of fish species being 5.3 Myr, and corals just 1.9 Myr. While these species are genetically distinct, phenotypic differences are often limited to variation in colour or minor morphological features. This suggests that the rapid increase in biodiversity during the last 5.3 Myr was not matched by changes in ecosystem function. For reef fishes, colour appears to be central to recent

  5. Tetranectin Binds to the Kringle 1-4 Form of Angiostatin and Modifies Its Functional Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogues, Tirsit; Etzerodt, Michael; Hall, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    influence cancer progression is by altering activities of plasminogen or the plasminogen fragment, angiostatin. Tetranectin was found to bind to the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ ). In addition, tetranectin inhibited binding of plasminogen or AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to extracellular...... matrix (ECM) deposited by endothelial cells. Finally, tetranectin partially counteracted the ability of AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to inhibit proliferation of endothelial cells. This latter effect of tetranectin was specific for AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ since it did not counteract the antiproliferative activities...

  6. Step-function increase of significance of waste form in RWM strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management on the technical side is composed of four subsystems: storage, radionuclide immobilization, isolation, and post-emplacement. Thus far, emphasis has been on the isolation subsystem, with the assumption that all the radionuclides placed in the geological formation would be released. Findings by a committee of the National Academy of Science on the types of solid forms for radioactive wastes are summarized. The most important research findings of the last two or three years are evaluated, findings which impinge on the role of the newly developed radionuclide immobilization subsystems. 24 refs

  7. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of iron-bound forms of Azotobacter vinelandii (Nif)IscA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2012-10-16

    The ability of Azotobacter vinelandii(Nif)IscA to bind Fe has been investigated to assess the role of Fe-bound forms in NIF-specific Fe-S cluster biogenesis. (Nif)IscA is shown to bind one Fe(III) or one Fe(II) per homodimer and the spectroscopic and redox properties of both the Fe(III)- and Fe(II)-bound forms have been characterized using the UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, and variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The results reveal a rhombic intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) Fe(III) center (E/D = 0.33, D = 3.5 ± 1.5 cm(-1)) that is most likely 5-coordinate with two or three cysteinate ligands and a rhombic high spin (S = 2) Fe(II) center (E/D = 0.28, D = 7.6 cm(-1)) with properties similar to reduced rubredoxins or rubredoxin variants with three cysteinate and one or two oxygenic ligands. Iron-bound (Nif)IscA undergoes reversible redox cycling between the Fe(III)/Fe(II) forms with a midpoint potential of +36 ± 15 mV at pH 7.8 (versus NHE). l-Cysteine is effective in mediating release of free Fe(II) from both the Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-bound forms of (Nif)IscA. Fe(III)-bound (Nif)IscA was also shown to be a competent iron source for in vitro NifS-mediated [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly on the N-terminal domain of NifU, but the reaction occurs via cysteine-mediated release of free Fe(II) rather than direct iron transfer. The proposed roles of A-type proteins in storing Fe under aerobic growth conditions and serving as iron donors for cluster assembly on U-type scaffold proteins or maturation of biological [4Fe-4S] centers are discussed in light of these results.

  8. Forming a complex with MHC class I molecules interferes with mouse CD1d functional expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya J Gourapura

    Full Text Available CD1d molecules are structurally similar to MHC class I, but present lipid antigens as opposed to peptides. Here, we show that MHC class I molecules physically associate with (and regulate the functional expression of mouse CD1d on the surface of cells. Low pH (3.0 acid stripping of MHC class I molecules resulted in increased surface expression of murine CD1d on antigen presenting cells as well as augmented CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Consistent with the above results, TAP1-/- mice were found to have a higher percentage of type I NKT cells as compared to wild type mice. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from TAP1-/- mice showed increased antigen presentation by CD1d compared to wild type mice. Together, these results suggest that MHC class I molecules can regulate NKT cell function, in part, by masking CD1d.

  9. The Catena Concept Revisited: Spatial Optimization of Ecohydrologic Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past two decades, empirical evidence and theory have been developed that suggest that plot scale ecosystem properties such as canopy density and root depth evolve towards a state that maximizes resource use and net primary productivity. We generalize this concept from the plot scale to the catchment by examining canopy density as a function of available energy, water and nutrients connected along hydrologic flowpaths. We use a combination of field measurement, signal processing and distributed simulation to identify emergent optimal ecohydrologic patterns in a set of Long Term Ecological Research sites reflecting the interactions between catchment geomorphic, soil, climate and ecosystem processes. Results to date reveal interesting adjustments of above and below ground canopy structure and physiologic function with water and nutrient availability that indicate the tendency to develop landscape scale optimization, beyond that achieved at individual plots, of net primary productivity and water use efficiency.

  10. Nanoscale form dictates mesoscale function in plasmonic DNA–nanoparticle superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Vaccarezza, Victoria M.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin , Chad A. (NWU)

    2016-06-15

    The nanoscale manipulation of matter allows properties to be created in a material that would be difficult or even impossible to achieve in the bulk state. Progress towards such functional nanoscale architectures requires the development of methods to precisely locate nanoscale objects in three dimensions and for the formation of rigorous structure–function relationships across multiple size regimes (beginning from the nanoscale). Here, we use DNA as a programmable ligand to show that two- and three-dimensional mesoscale superlattice crystals with precisely engineered optical properties can be assembled from the bottom up. The superlattices can transition from exhibiting the properties of the constituent plasmonic nanoparticles to adopting the photonic properties defined by the mesoscale crystal (here a rhombic dodecahedron) by controlling the spacing between the gold nanoparticle building blocks. Furthermore, we develop a generally applicable theoretical framework that illustrates how crystal habit can be a design consideration for controlling far-field extinction and light confinement in plasmonic metamaterial superlattices.

  11. FORMING OF FUNCTIONAL MAINTENANCE OF INFORMATIVE SYSTEM PLANNING OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN NAPN OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Kuznetsova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the material stated in article is caused by urgent needs of society in creation of administrative information systems, in particular Information system of planning of scientific researches in National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis (ІС "Planning". Information and technological support of processes of planning of scientific researches which are carried out in scientific institutions of NAPS of Ukraine is the purpose of creation of this system. The parameters of the functional maintenance of the informative system are pointed in the article, technology of treatment of documents on planning of scientific researches, scheme of routes of working of separate documents, and proper diagrams of their business-processes, on the basis of which using programmatic facilities of Microsoft Sharepoint the functions of programming are automatized, is examined.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS BASED ON FEMALE PARENTS FORMS WITH FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of variability of functional male sterility (ps–2 depending on year of study, genotype and age of the plant is shown. The efficiency of the method of forced ejection of pollen from intact anthers to increase the degree of sterility is shown. The five tomato hybrids developed based on selected lines were submitted for the state variety trial of Moldova.

  13. Form, function and fibres: a preliminary study of the Swartkrans fossil birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Watson

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil bird bones from the Swartkrans cave estimated at about one million years old have been identified to family level. Differences in humerus and sternum structure were noted. This led to an investigation into flight styles and behaviour as well as the muscle structure and function of the modern representatives of three families (Phasianidae - francolins; Columbidae - pigeons; Tytonidae - barn and grass owls in an attempt to understand why the bones in these families were so distinctive.

  14. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  15. Land-use impact on selected forms of arsenic and phosphorus in soils of different functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plak, Andrzej; Bartmiński, Piotr; Dębicki, Ryszard

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of technosols and geomechanically unchanged soils of the Lublin agglomeration on the concentrations of arsenic and phosphorus, and on selected forms of these elements. Arsenic and phosphorus concentrations were determined in the urban soils of Lublin (Poland), and the relationship between their degree of contamination and different types of land use was estimated. The samples collected were subjected to sequential analysis, using ammonium sulphate, acid ammonium phosphate, oxalate buffer (also with ascorbic acid) and aqua regia for arsenic, and ammonium chloride, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and aqua regia for phosphorus. The influence of the land use forms was observed in the study. The greatest amount of arsenic (19.62 mg kg-1) was found in the industrial soils of Lublin, while the greatest amount of phosphorus (580.4 mg kg-1) was observed in non-anthropogenic soils (mainly due to the natural accumulation processes of this element). Fractions of arsenic and phosphorus obtained during analysis showed strong differentiation. Amorphic and crystalline fractions of arsenic, bound with iron oxides, proved to have the highest share in the total arsenic pool. The same situation was noted for phosphorus.

  16. A structural study of lamellar phases formed by nucleoside-functionalized lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, D.; Fratini, E.; Baglioni, P. [Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, Via G. Capponi 9, 50121 Florence (Italy); Dante, S.; Hauss, T. [Berlin Neutron Scattering Center, Hahn Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, Wannsee, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report a neutron-scattering investigation of lamellar phases formed by novel phospholipids bearing nucleosides at the polar-head-group region. These nucleolipids can interact through stacking and H-bond interactions, following a pattern that resembles base-base coupling in natural nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), i.e. they have similar recognition properties. Bilayer stacks formed of DPP-adenosine, DPP-uridine and their 1:1 mixture were investigated after equilibration in a 98% relative humidity atmosphere. The DPP-adenosine spectrum can be accounted for (in analogy to DPPC) by a lamellar phase with a smectic period of about 60 A. DPP-uridine displays a not so straightforward behavior that we have tentatively ascribed to the coexistence of lamellae with different smectic periods. In the 1:1 mixture the lamellar mesophase of DPP-uridine is retained, suggesting a specific interaction of the uridine polar-head group with the adenosine moiety of DPP-adenosine. It should be stressed that this behavior can be considered as an indication of the recognition process occurring at the polar-head-group region of the mixed phospholiponucleoside membrane. (orig.)

  17. A structural study of lamellar phases formed by nucleoside-functionalized lipids

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, D; Baglioni, P; Dante, S; Hauss, T

    2002-01-01

    We report a neutron-scattering investigation of lamellar phases formed by novel phospholipids bearing nucleosides at the polar-head-group region. These nucleolipids can interact through stacking and H-bond interactions, following a pattern that resembles base-base coupling in natural nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), i.e. they have similar recognition properties. Bilayer stacks formed of DPP-adenosine, DPP-uridine and their 1:1 mixture were investigated after equilibration in a 98% relative humidity atmosphere. The DPP-adenosine spectrum can be accounted for (in analogy to DPPC) by a lamellar phase with a smectic period of about 60 A. DPP-uridine displays a not so straightforward behavior that we have tentatively ascribed to the coexistence of lamellae with different smectic periods. In the 1:1 mixture the lamellar mesophase of DPP-uridine is retained, suggesting a specific interaction of the uridine polar-head group with the adenosine moiety of DPP-adenosine. It should be stressed that this behavior can be considere...

  18. Functional toxicogenomic profiling expands insight into modulators of formaldehyde toxicity in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew North

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a commercially important chemical with numerous and diverse uses. Accordingly, occupational and environmental exposure to FA is prevalent worldwide. Various adverse effects, including nasopharyngeal, sinonasal, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, have been linked to FA exposure, prompting designation of FA as a human carcinogen by U.S. and international scientific entities. Although the mechanism(s of FA toxicity have been well studied, additional insight is needed in regard to the genetic requirements for FA tolerance. In this study, a functional toxicogenomics approach was utilized in the model eukaryotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes and cellular processes modulating the cellular toxicity of FA. Our results demonstrate mutant strains deficient in multiple DNA repair pathways–including homologous recombination, single strand annealing, and postreplication repair–were sensitive to FA, indicating FA may cause various forms of DNA damage in yeast. The SKI complex and its associated factors, which regulate mRNA degradation by the exosome, were also required for FA tolerance, suggesting FA may have unappreciated effects on RNA stability. Furthermore, various strains involved in osmoregulation and stress response were sensitive to FA. Together, our results are generally consistent with FA-mediated damage to both DNA and RNA. Considering DNA repair and RNA degradation pathways are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans, mechanisms of FA toxicity identified in yeast may be relevant to human disease and genetic susceptibility.

  19. Gender Differences in the Association between Lipid Profile and Sexual Function among Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Shervin Assari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have been conducted on the association between lipid profile and sexual function among men with coronary artery disease, there is a paucity of knowledge about this association among women with coronary artery disease. Objectives: Our study aimed to evaluate the link between lipid profile and sexual function in men and women with coronary artery disease. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with documented coronary artery disease were consecutively sampled from an outpatient cardiovascular clinic. The patients were assessed for lipid profile and sexual relationship using the Relation and Sexuality Scale (RSS. In addition, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure the symptoms of anxiety and depression. The characteristics of chest pain were also measured using the Rose Angina Questionnaire. The data were analyzed through linear regression analysis. Results: This study was conducted on 91 males (75.8% and 29 females (24.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was correlated with sexual function (B = 0.01, P = 0.010 and total sexual relationship (B = 0.01, P = 0.050. A correlation was also observed between the level of high-density lipoprotein and sexual frequency score (B = -0.02, P = 0.040. Gender moderated these correlations. Among males, serum cholesterol (r = 0.193, P = 0.047 and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.224, P = 0.037 were correlated to sexual function. In females, however, low-density lipoprotein was correlated to the total sexual relationship (r = 0.426, P = 0.021 and high-density lipoprotein was correlated to sexual frequency (r = -0.334, P = 0.046. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed a relationship between lipid profile and sexual relationship among both male and female patients with coronary artery disease. The link between lipid profile and sexual function of the patients with coronary artery disease is thus beyond just

  20. Projected potential profiles across interfaces obtained by reconstructing the exit face wave function from through focal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Koch, Christoph T.; Ruehle, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    An iterative method for reconstructing the exit face wave function from a through focal series of transmission electron microscopy image line profiles across an interface is presented. Apart from high-resolution images recorded with small changes in defocus, this method works also well for a large defocus range as used for Fresnel imaging. Using the phase-object approximation the projected electrostatic as well as the absorptive potential profiles across an interface are determined from this exit face wave function. A new experimental image alignment procedure was developed in order to align images with large relative defocus shift. The performance of this procedure is shown to be superior to other image alignment procedures existing in the literature. The reconstruction method is applied to both simulated and experimental images

  1. From Function to Context to Form: Supporting the Construction of the Product Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    . On the technological side, it shows how to implement such representations in a Query By Example (QBE) computer program using a Content Based Retrieval Approach (CBIR) so that it eliminates the problems associated with human mediated indexing and description. It is done by three empirical studies whose main objectives......! This paper concludes proposing a strategy to solve this problem in future systems to handle design precedents.......Creativity is not only the creation of completely new, innovative solutions to a problem. It also comprises the adequate use of existing knowledge in new situations. In thinking a solution to a problem, the designer has a vague image of the form that will embody the solution. Creating collages...

  2. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  3. Statistics of the hubble diagram. II. The form of the luminosity function and density variations with application to quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    New techniques for deriving a luminosity function LF and a spatial density distribution rho (r) from magnitude-redshift data are presented. These techniques do not require iterative improvement of an initially guessed solution or the adoption of arbitrary analytic forms; instead, they provide explicit numerical estimates of the LF and rho (r). Thus, sources of systematic uncertainty are eliminated. This is achieved at the cost of an increase in the statistical noise. As in Paper I of this series, it is necessary to assume that the LF does not vary in functional form. An internal test of this assumption is described.These techniques are illustrated by application to a sample of 3 CR and 4C quasars. The radio luminosity function is found to be a steep power law with no features. The optical luminosity function is found to be a shallow power law cut off roughly exponentially above a characteristic luminosity L/sub opt/* (Z) corresponding roughly to M/sub B/=-22-6 log (1+Z) The comoving density evolution is not well fitted by any simple function of 1+Z [e.g., (1+Z) 6 errs by factors as large as approx.5 at some redshifts] but is well represented by an exponential of look-back time. Specific analytic fits and numerical tabulations are given for each of these functions. The constant LF form assumption is found to be a reasonable first approximation for the quasars.Other possible applications of the new methods to problems in extragalactic and stellar astronomy are suggested

  4. A comparative study of lipid profile and autonomic functions in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dyslipedaemia, autonomic dysfunction leading to cardiovascular diseases, increases with menopause and an ageing population. Autonomic dysfunction as measured by lower heart rate variability is an established risk factor for cardiac death. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To compare lipid profile and autonomic functions of postmenopausal women on vegetarian and non- vegetarian diet. Materials and Methods: 120 Postmenopausal women (menopausal duration and age-matched without any gross systemic disease from an Industrial population were selected. Sixty women were on vegetarian diet and 60 on non-vegetarian diet. BMI and waist/hip ratios were calculated, lipid profile was analyzed, and autonomic function tests were carried out. A comparison was done between the two groups using Students t test. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated between the independent variable (lipid profile parameters and the dependent variables (deep breath test, valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, OTT, IHG, CPT to understand the effect of lipid profile on autonomic control of heart. Results : Significant increases in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio were noticed in women on non-vegetarian diet. Results of autonomic function tests, i.e. valsalva ratio, deep breath test, 30: 15R-R intervals ratio, isometric hand grip test, cold pressor test, and orthostatic tolerance test were significantly worsened in postmenopausal women on non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: Dietary factors may be an important cause of alteration of lipid metabolism. Increased cholesterol decreases heart rate variability and increased LDL cholesterol decreases baroreceptor sensitivity thereby worsening autonomic functions in postmenopausal women.

  5. Dynamics of a six-quark deuteron: form factor and structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.

    1977-05-01

    Using a colour-dependent h.o. q-q interaction, incorporating the saturation property at the 3q level and of the same strength as provides the baryonic M 2 spectrum, a 6q wave function, antisymmetric with regard to both q→q and 3q→3q cluster interchanges, is constructed as an explicit solution of a 6-body Schroedinger equation. Applications to elastic and deep-inelastic e-d scattering reveal good agreement with the data without adjustable parameters

  6. Human Diseases Associated with Form and Function of the Golgi Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C. Simpson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi complex lies at the heart of the secretory pathway and is responsible for modifying proteins and lipids, as well as sorting newly synthesized molecules to their correct destination. As a consequence of these important roles, any changes in its proteome can negatively affect its function and in turn lead to disease. Recently, a number of proteins have been identified, which when either depleted or mutated, result in diseases that affect various organ systems. Here we describe how these proteins have been linked to the Golgi complex, and specifically how they affect either the morphology, membrane traffic or glycosylation ability of this organelle.

  7. Form follows function: molecular and anatomical information in conventional nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, C.M.; Hellwig, D.; Schaefer, A.

    2003-01-01

    The merger of anatomical information with functional results of nuclear medical studies represents an important step in evaluation and generating a report. The design of a gamma-camera system furnished with a tomographic X-ray unit allows for the almost simultaneous acquisition of tomographic data of the nuclear examination as well as the structure of surrounding tissue and attenuating material within one study without changing the patient's position. The results of this kind of fusion present considerable progress compared to side by side interpretation or software based fusion procedures of different methods like CT and MRI with nuclear studies. (orig.) [de

  8. Magnetic form factor of NpAs2: a crystal field wave function for 5f electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Bonnet, M.; Boucherle, J.X.; Delapalme, A.; Fournier, J.M.; Vigneron, F.

    1982-10-01

    Neptunium magnetic form factor measurements in the ferromagnetic phase of NpAs 2 (T = 4.2 K, H = 4.6 T) are analysed under different assumptions: Np 3 + , Np 4 + or Np 5 + , with a free ion wave-function (Russel-Saunders and intermediate coupling scheme) or with a Crystal Field Wave function for 5f electrons: sub(m)sup(μ)asub(m)asub(m)/J,m>. The experimental results are compatible with either a 3+ or 4+ state

  9. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W.; Nicholson, Don M.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  10. Comparison of cranial form and function in association with diet in natricine snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    The skull of squamates has many functions, with food acquisition and ingestion being paramount. Snakes vary interspecifically in the frequency, size, and types of prey that are consumed. Natural selection should favor phenotypes that minimize the costs of energy acquisition; therefore, trophic morphology should reflect a snake's primary prey type to enhance some aspect of feeding performance. I measured 19 cranial variables for six natricine species that vary in the frequency with which they consume frogs and fish. Both conventional and phylogenetically corrected analyses indicated that fish-eating snakes have relatively longer upper and lower jaw elements than frog-eating snakes, which tended to have broader skull components. I also compared the ratio of the in-lever to the out-lever lengths of the jaw-closing mechanism [jaw mechanical advantage (MA)] among species. Fish-eating snakes had significantly lower MAs in the jaws than did the frog-eating snakes. This result suggests that piscivores have faster closing jaws and that the jaws of frog-eating snakes have higher closing forces. Cranial morphology and the functional demands of prey capture and ingestion appear to be associated with primary prey type in natricine snakes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Androgen-Forming Stem Leydig cells: Identification, Function and Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in the male, and differentiation of Leydig cells in the testes is one of the primary events in the development of the male body and fertility. Stem Leydig cells (SLCs exist in the testis throughout postnatal life, but a lack of cell surface markers previously hindered attempts to obtain purified SLC fractions. Once isolated, the properties of SLCs provide interesting clues for the ontogeny of these cells within the embryo. Moreover, the clinical potential of SLCs might be used to reverse age-related declines in testosterone levels in aging men, and stimulate reproductive function in hypogonadal males. This review focuses on the source, identification and outlook for therapeutic applications of SLCs. Separate pools of SLCs may give rise to fetal and adult generations of Leydig cell, which may account for their observed functional differences. These differences should in turn be taken into account when assessing the consequences of environmental pollutants such as the phthalate ester, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP.

  12. Optimization of Photosynthetic Productivity in Contrasting Environments by Regulons Controlling Plant Form and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Demmig-Adams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding, with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals as well as (ii their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant’s sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction. The example of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from geographic origins with contrasting climates is used to describe the links between natural genetic variation in CBF transcription factors and the differential acclimation of plant anatomical and functional features needed to support superior photosynthetic performance in contrasting environments. Emphasis is placed on considering different temperature environments (hot versus cold and light environments (limiting versus high light, on trade-offs between adaptations to contrasting environments, and on plant lines minimizing such trade-offs.

  13. Functional neuromuscular junctions formed by embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy A Umbach

    Full Text Available A key objective of stem cell biology is to create physiologically relevant cells suitable for modeling disease pathologies in vitro. Much progress towards this goal has been made in the area of motor neuron (MN disease through the development of methods to direct spinal MN formation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Previous studies have characterized these neurons with respect to their molecular and intrinsic functional properties. However, the synaptic activity of stem cell-derived MNs remains less well defined. In this study, we report the development of low-density co-culture conditions that encourage the formation of active neuromuscular synapses between stem cell-derived MNs and muscle cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy reveals the expression of numerous synaptic proteins at these contacts, while dual patch clamp recording detects both spontaneous and multi-quantal evoked synaptic responses similar to those observed in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that stem cell-derived MNs innervate muscle cells in a functionally relevant manner. This dual recording approach further offers a sensitive and quantitative assay platform to probe disorders of synaptic dysfunction associated with MN disease.

  14. Functional Characteristics of the Flying Squirrel's Cecal Microbiota under a Leaf-Based Diet, Based on Multiple Meta-Omic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Pei Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian herbivores rely on microbial activities in an expanded gut chamber to convert plant biomass into absorbable nutrients. Distinct from ruminants, small herbivores typically have a simple stomach but an enlarged cecum to harbor symbiotic microbes; however, knowledge of this specialized gut structure and characteristics of its microbial contents is limited. Here, we used leaf-eating flying squirrels as a model to explore functional characteristics of the cecal microbiota adapted to a high-fiber, toxin-rich diet. Specifically, environmental conditions across gut regions were evaluated by measuring mass, pH, feed particle size, and metabolomes. Then, parallel metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were used to detect microbial functions corresponding to the cecal environment. Based on metabolomic profiles, >600 phytochemical compounds were detected, although many were present only in the foregut and probably degraded or transformed by gut microbes in the hindgut. Based on metagenomic (DNA and metatranscriptomic (RNA profiles, taxonomic compositions of the cecal microbiota were dominated by bacteria of the Firmicutes taxa; they contained major gene functions related to degradation and fermentation of leaf-derived compounds. Based on functional compositions, genes related to multidrug exporters were rich in microbial genomes, whereas genes involved in nutrient importers were rich in microbial transcriptomes. In addition, genes encoding chemotaxis-associated components and glycoside hydrolases specific for plant beta-glycosidic linkages were abundant in both DNA and RNA. This exploratory study provides findings which may help to form molecular-based hypotheses regarding functional contributions of symbiotic gut microbiota in small herbivores with folivorous dietary habits.

  15. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Muru, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B; Looe, H K

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  16. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHER’S CREATIVE THINKING IN INSTRUMENTAL AND PERFORMING TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Lavrentieva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article conceptual bases of forming students’ creative thinking in the instrumental and performing activities are revealed, taking current training trends into account. The contradictions between the requirements of society to create favorable conditions to realize future music teachers’ creative potential and current directions of a higher educational establishment to ‘a result”, which causes a specific system of promotion and support students’ value orientations and encourages students to master existing knowledge, algorithms, and performing models, depict the relevant problems of making out the system of the future music teachers’ instrumental and performing training that is aimed at developing their creative thinking. It is noted that while defining such phenomena as creative thinking and cognitive work a great number of scientists emphasizes on the word “create” which means finding and creating something that hasn’t been found in the previous individual or social experience. The aim of the article is to disclose the content and stages of implementing structural and functional model of forming future music teachers’ creative thinking The model is formed as an alternative to information and reproductive approach to training future specialists. The concept model is based on the target of forming future music teachers’ creative and methodological thinking, professional competence, activity and approaches to the students’ training to complete fulfillment of modern needs of professional and music education. The author specifies criteria of structural model of future music teachers’ creative thinking. They are value and motivational, cognitive and educational, action and technological, creative and modulating ones The effectiveness of the future music teachers’ creative thinking in instrumental and performing training depends on the level of forming clear science-based system that has a certain conceptual

  17. Isolation and crystallization of functionally competent Escherichia coli peptide deformylase forms containing either iron or nickel in the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groche, D; Becker, A; Schlichting, I; Kabsch, W; Schultz, S; Wagner, A F

    1998-05-19

    Three metallo forms of peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.31) of Escherichia coli were prepared and crystallized (space group C2, diffraction limit 1.9 A) for initiating the X-ray structure determination of the metal center in correlation with the catalytic functionality of this enzyme. The native Fe2+ containing enzyme species was directly isolated from overproducing bacteria by using catalase as a buffer additive, which stabilizes the catalytic activity against oxidative destruction. The Ni2+ containing form, which is oxygen-insensitive, was obtained by metal exchange with free Ni2+ and found to be catalytically equally effective (kcat/KM = 10(5) M-1 s-1 for N-formyl-Met-Ala). The Zn2+ form, prepared from the apoenzyme or by displacement of bound Ni2+ by free Zn2+, proved virtually inactive.

  18. High-Functioning Wetland Formed Atop Abandoned Pavement in Eutrophic Reservoir Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, C.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Water scientists and managers regularly observe how wetlands, whether natural or created, can mitigate the influence of artificial impervious surfaces on water quality. However, we rarely study or mention wetlands accidentally (sensu Palta et al. 2017) formed atop impervious surfaces. This silence occurs even though many urbanites have likely noticed sedges rimming a clogged drainage grate or in the low bits of a poorly graded or aging parking lot, or similar. A more extreme example occurs in the Little River Waterfowl Impoundment vicinity of the Butner-Falls of Neuse Game Land in Durham, North Carolina. There, a macadam road that connected local residents and a store, and served as the primary route through the area, by 1910-1920, was apparently abandoned by 1951. Later, damming nearby downstream Falls Lake Reservoir in 1981, and smaller-scale construction locally, apparently increased water table depth and flow exposure. Yet, the road remains largely intact structurally, though mostly buried and sometimes underwater. In a particularly wet segment of the road, surrounded by and partially holding back standing water even in drought, a substantial, mostly native wetland plant community has formed. This community includes trees such as overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) as large as 15 cm in diameter, shrubs such as (Cephalanthus occidentalus), sedges such as woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), rushes (multiple Juncus species), grasses such as wood oats (Chasmanthium latifolium), crayfish and fish, and multiple orders of herptiles. The plants grow rooted in fluffy sediment three to rarely more than 20cm deep, over solid pavement. Alongside the old road, the ditches have widened and become shallower and less surficially connected through tree roots and debris dams; they resemble pools. Sediment in these abandoned ditches has accumulated to depths of tens of centimeters, generally reforming a clay-dominated, gleyed soil, in some places buried under more tens of centimeters of very

  19. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  20. Temporal integration of loudness, loudness discrimination, and the form of the loudness function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Temporal integration for loudness of 5-kHz tones was measured as a function of level between 2 and 60 dB SL. Absolute thresholds and levels required to produce equal loudness were measured for 2-, 10-, 50- and 250-ms tones using adaptive, two interval, two alternative forced choice procedures....... The procedure for loudness balances is new and obtained concurrent measurements for ten tone pairs in ten interleaved tracks. Each track converged at the level required to make the variable stimulus just louder than the fixed stimulus. Thus, the data yield estimates of the just noticeable difference...... for loudness level andtemporal integration for loudness. Results for four listeners show that the amount of temporal integration, defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones, varies markedly with level and is largest at moderate levels. The effect of level increases...

  1. Functional properties of nisin-carbohydrate conjugates formed by radiation induced Maillard reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppalla, Shobita R.; Sonavale, Rahul; Chawla, Surinder P.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-12-01

    Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates were prepared by irradiating nisin either with glucose or dextran. Increase in browning and formation of intermediate products was observed with a concomitant decrease in free amino and reducing sugar groups indicating occurrence of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by irradiation. Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence) as well as Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Results of antioxidant assays, including that of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the nisin-dextran conjugates possessed better antioxidant potential than nisin-glucose conjugate. These results suggested that it was possible to enhance the functional properties of nisin by preparing radiation induced conjugates suitable for application in food industry.

  2. Function of skeletal muscle tissue formed after myoblast transplantation into irradiated mouse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A; Zweyer, M; Irintchev, A

    2000-01-15

    1. Pretreatment of muscles with ionising radiation enhances tissue formation by transplanted myoblasts but little is known about the effects on muscle function. We implanted myoblasts from an expanded, male-donor-derived, culture (i28) into X-ray irradiated (16 Gy) or irradiated and damaged soleus muscles of female syngeneic mice (Balb/c). Three to 6 months later the isometric contractile properties of the muscles were studied in vitro, and donor nuclei were visualised in muscle sections with a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe. 2. Irradiated sham-injected muscles had smaller masses than untreated solei and produced less twitch and tetanic force (all by about 18 %). Injection of 106 myoblasts abolished these deficiencies and innervation appeared normal. 3. Cryodamage of irradiated solei produced muscle remnants with few (1-50) or no fibres. Additional myoblast implantation led to formation of large muscles (25 % above normal) containing numerous small-diameter fibres. Upon direct electrical stimulation, these muscles produced considerable twitch (53 % of normal) and tetanic forces (35 % of normal) but innervation was insufficient as indicated by weak nerve-evoked contractions and elevated ACh sensitivity. 4. In control experiments on irradiated muscles, reinnervation was found to be less complete after botulinum toxin paralysis than after nerve crush indicating that proliferative arrest of irradiated Schwann cells may account for the observed innervation deficits. 5. Irradiation appears to be an effective pretreatment for improving myoblast transplantation. The injected cells can even produce organised contractile tissue replacing whole muscle. However, impaired nerve regeneration limits the functional performance of the new muscle.

  3. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  4. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Brenda S; Ye, Qiang; Misra, Anil; Sene, Fabio; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient’s caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of posterior composite restorations, the emphasis must remain on advancing our understanding of the clinical variables that impact the formation of a durable seal at the restoration–tooth interface. This paper presents an update of existing technology and underscores the mechanisms that negatively impact the durability of posterior composite restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:23750102

  5. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  6. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Natchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis, vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis, and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis. This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims.

  7. Characterisation and functional properties of antimicrobial bio-barriers formed by natural fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšič, Brigita; Ilec, Eva; Žerjav, Metka; Hladnik, Aleš; Simončič, Andrej; Simončič, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial bio-barriers formed on cotton (CO), silk (SE), and woollen (WO) fabrics were prepared by the application of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) at 11 concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 20% using an exhaustion method. The presence of the Si-QAC coating on the treated fabric samples was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bromophenol blue reagent was used to determine the concentration of quaternary ammonium groups in the coating. The antimicrobial activity of the coated fibres against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), fungi (Aspergillus niger and Chaetomium globosum), and soil microflora was assessed using standard microbiological methods. The antimicrobial protection of the fibres increased with increases in the applied concentration of Si-QAC. The fibre type strongly influenced the antimicrobial activity of Si-QAC. Si-QAC was most effective for CO fibres, less effective for WO fibres, and least effective for SE fibres, suggesting that Si-QAC is less accessible for interactions with microorganisms when applied to protein fibres than to cellulose. Although Si-QAC reduced the microbial growth, it did not significantly hinder the biodegradability or sustainability of the coated fibres when exposed to soil microflora. The extent of rotting was more influenced by the morphological and chemical properties of the fibres than by the presence of Si-QAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. VHL type 2B mutations retain VBC complex form and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Hacker

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by a spectrum of hypervascular tumors, including renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, and pheochromocytoma, which occur with VHL genotype-specific differences in penetrance. VHL loss causes a failure to regulate the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, resulting in accumulation of both factors to high levels. Although HIF dysregulation is critical to VHL disease-associated renal tumorigenesis, increasing evidence points toward gradations of HIF dysregulation contributing to the degree of predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of the disease.This investigation examined the ability of disease-specific VHL missense mutations to support the assembly of the VBC complex and to promote the ubiquitylation of HIF. Our interaction analysis supported previous observations that VHL Type 2B mutations disrupt the interaction between pVHL and Elongin C but maintain partial regulation of HIF. We additionally demonstrated that Type 2B mutant pVHL forms a remnant VBC complex containing the active members ROC1 and Cullin-2 which retains the ability to ubiquitylate HIF-1alpha.Our results suggest that subtypes of VHL mutations support an intermediate level of HIF regulation via a remnant VBC complex. These findings provide a mechanism for the graded HIF dysregulation and genetic predisposition for cancer development in VHL disease.

  9. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.J. Calkoen

    2015-03-01

    An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets.

  10. Chemical profiling of two congeneric sea mat corals along the Brazilian coast: adaptive and functional patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lotufo, L V; Carnevale-Neto, F; Trindade-Silva, A E; Silva, R R; Silva, G G Z; Wilke, D V; Pinto, F C L; Sahm, B D B; Jimenez, P C; Mendonça, J N; Lotufo, T M C; Pessoa, O D L; Lopes, N P

    2018-02-20

    Metabolomic profiles were explored to understand environmental and taxonomic influences on the metabolism of two congeneric zoanthids, Palythoa caribaeorum and P. variabilis, collected across distinct geographical ranges. Integrated mass spectrometry data suggested the major influence of geographical location on chemical divergence when compared to species differentiation.

  11. In Silico Functional Networks Identified in Fish Nucleated Red Blood Cells by Means of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Marin, Sara; Nombela, Iván; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Chico, Verónica; Coll, Julio; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar

    2018-04-09

    Nucleated red blood cells (RBCs) of fish have, in the last decade, been implicated in several immune-related functions, such as antiviral response, phagocytosis or cytokine-mediated signaling. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and label-free shotgun proteomic analyses were carried out for in silico functional pathway profiling of rainbow trout RBCs. For RNA-seq, a de novo assembly was conducted, in order to create a transcriptome database for RBCs. For proteome profiling, we developed a proteomic method that combined: (a) fractionation into cytosolic and membrane fractions, (b) hemoglobin removal of the cytosolic fraction, (c) protein digestion, and (d) a novel step with pH reversed-phase peptide fractionation and final Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC ESI-MS/MS) analysis of each fraction. Combined transcriptome- and proteome- sequencing data identified, in silico, novel and striking immune functional networks for rainbow trout nucleated RBCs, which are mainly linked to innate and adaptive immunity. Functional pathways related to regulation of hematopoietic cell differentiation, antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), leukocyte differentiation and regulation of leukocyte activation were identified. These preliminary findings further implicate nucleated RBCs in immune function, such as antigen presentation and leukocyte activation.

  12. In Silico Functional Networks Identified in Fish Nucleated Red Blood Cells by Means of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Puente-Marin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleated red blood cells (RBCs of fish have, in the last decade, been implicated in several immune-related functions, such as antiviral response, phagocytosis or cytokine-mediated signaling. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq and label-free shotgun proteomic analyses were carried out for in silico functional pathway profiling of rainbow trout RBCs. For RNA-seq, a de novo assembly was conducted, in order to create a transcriptome database for RBCs. For proteome profiling, we developed a proteomic method that combined: (a fractionation into cytosolic and membrane fractions, (b hemoglobin removal of the cytosolic fraction, (c protein digestion, and (d a novel step with pH reversed-phase peptide fractionation and final Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC ESI-MS/MS analysis of each fraction. Combined transcriptome- and proteome- sequencing data identified, in silico, novel and striking immune functional networks for rainbow trout nucleated RBCs, which are mainly linked to innate and adaptive immunity. Functional pathways related to regulation of hematopoietic cell differentiation, antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII, leukocyte differentiation and regulation of leukocyte activation were identified. These preliminary findings further implicate nucleated RBCs in immune function, such as antigen presentation and leukocyte activation.

  13. Concomitant prediction of function and fold at the domain level with GO-based profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the function of newly sequenced proteins is crucial due to the pace at which these raw sequences are being obtained. Almost all resources for predicting protein function assign functional terms to whole chains, and do not distinguish which particular domain is responsible for the allocated function. This is not a limitation of the methodologies themselves but it is due to the fact that in the databases of functional annotations these methods use for transferring functional terms to new proteins, these annotations are done on a whole-chain basis. Nevertheless, domains are the basic evolutionary and often functional units of proteins. In many cases, the domains of a protein chain have distinct molecular functions, independent from each other. For that reason resources with functional annotations at the domain level, as well as methodologies for predicting function for individual domains adapted to these resources are required.We present a methodology for predicting the molecular function of individual domains, based on a previously developed database of functional annotations at the domain level. The approach, which we show outperforms a standard method based on sequence searches in assigning function, concomitantly predicts the structural fold of the domains and can give hints on the functionally important residues associated to the predicted function.

  14. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Crooks, Claire V; Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n = 367) followed by mutual violence (n = 81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns = 39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.

  15. Situating and teaching 21st century zoology: revealing pattern in the form and function of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P

    2009-09-01

    The current challenges (increasing levels of integration in the biological sciences) facing the teaching of zoology and the structure of the zoology curriculum are explored herein. General context is provided and a more focused scrutiny of the situation in North America is presented. The changing emphases in more broadly-based biological sciences programs in North America are outlined, and their influence on the role of zoology as part of fundamental biological training is considered. The longer term impact of such changes in emphasis on the teaching of zoology is discussed, and the central role that zoology can play in dealing with both science content and science education is advanced. Based upon a focal workshop on the future of the zoology curriculum in Canada, a perspective on the challenges facing curriculum evolution is provided. Extensive curriculum redesign is called for to ensure that zoology provides a broad-scale integrative approach to the understanding of biodiversity in evolutionary, ecological and functional contexts. Barriers to, and drivers of change are identified and the need for collaborative approaches to curricular evolution is emphasized. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Forest ecotone response to climate change: sensitivity to temperature response functional forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Naperville, IL (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Past simulation studies have been in general agreement that climatic change could have adverse effects on forests, including geographic range shrinkages, conversion to grassland, and catastrophic forest decline or dieback. Some other recent studies, however, concluded that this agreement is generally based on parabolic temperature response rather than functional responses or data, and may therefore exaggerate dieback effects. This paper proposes a new model of temperature response that is based on a trade-off between cold tolerance and growth rate. In this model, the growth rate increases at first, and then levels off with increasing growing degree-days. Species from more southern regions have a higher minimum temperature and a faster maximum height growth rate. It is argued that faster growth rates of southern types lead to their competitive superiority in warmer environments and that such temperature response should produce less dieback and slower rates of change than the more common parabolic response model. Theoretical justification of this model is provided, followed by application of the model to a simulated ecotone under a warming scenario. Results of the study based on the proposed asymptotic model showed no dieback and only a gradual ecotone movement north, suggesting that ecotone shifts will, in fact, take many hundreds to thousands of years, with the result that species will not face the risk of extinction. 56 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability

  18. Functional properties of nisin–carbohydrate conjugates formed by radiation induced Maillard reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muppalla, Shobita R.; Sonavale, Rahul; Chawla, Surinder P.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates were prepared by irradiating nisin either with glucose or dextran. Increase in browning and formation of intermediate products was observed with a concomitant decrease in free amino and reducing sugar groups indicating occurrence of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by irradiation. Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence) as well as Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Results of antioxidant assays, including that of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the nisin–dextran conjugates possessed better antioxidant potential than nisin–glucose conjugate. These results suggested that it was possible to enhance the functional properties of nisin by preparing radiation induced conjugates suitable for application in food industry. - Highlights: ► Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates were prepared using radiation induced Maillard reaction. ► Conjugation of nisin with dextran/glucose resulted in improvement of antibacterial spectrum. ► Conjugates of nisin with dextran/glucose had significant radical scavenging activity.

  19. Alternative Splice Forms Influence Functions of Whirlin in Mechanosensory Hair Cell Stereocilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available WHRN (DFNB31 mutations cause diverse hearing disorders: profound deafness (DFNB31 or variable hearing loss in Usher syndrome type II. The known role of WHRN in stereocilia elongation does not explain these different pathophysiologies. Using spontaneous and targeted Whrn mutants, we show that the major long (WHRN-L and short (WHRN-S isoforms of WHRN have distinct localizations within stereocilia and also across hair cell types. Lack of both isoforms causes abnormally short stereocilia and profound deafness and vestibular dysfunction. WHRN-S expression, however, is sufficient to maintain stereocilia bundle morphology and function in a subset of hair cells, resulting in some auditory response and no overt vestibular dysfunction. WHRN-S interacts with EPS8, and both are required at stereocilia tips for normal length regulation. WHRN-L localizes midway along the shorter stereocilia, at the level of inter-stereociliary links. We propose that differential isoform expression underlies the variable auditory and vestibular phenotypes associated with WHRN mutations.

  20. Alternative Splice Forms Influence Functions of Whirlin in Mechanosensory Hair Cell Stereocilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Seham; Ingham, Neil J; Lewis, Morag A; Rogers, Michael J C; Cui, Runjia; Kachar, Bechara; Pass, Johanna C; Steel, Karen P

    2016-05-03

    WHRN (DFNB31) mutations cause diverse hearing disorders: profound deafness (DFNB31) or variable hearing loss in Usher syndrome type II. The known role of WHRN in stereocilia elongation does not explain these different pathophysiologies. Using spontaneous and targeted Whrn mutants, we show that the major long (WHRN-L) and short (WHRN-S) isoforms of WHRN have distinct localizations within stereocilia and also across hair cell types. Lack of both isoforms causes abnormally short stereocilia and profound deafness and vestibular dysfunction. WHRN-S expression, however, is sufficient to maintain stereocilia bundle morphology and function in a subset of hair cells, resulting in some auditory response and no overt vestibular dysfunction. WHRN-S interacts with EPS8, and both are required at stereocilia tips for normal length regulation. WHRN-L localizes midway along the shorter stereocilia, at the level of inter-stereociliary links. We propose that differential isoform expression underlies the variable auditory and vestibular phenotypes associated with WHRN mutations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2017-02-01

    Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238-245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378.

  2. The significance and robustness of a plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile-based multiplex function for detecting lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingyoji, Masato; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Hideki; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported on the changes in plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in lung cancer patients and the efficacy of a PFAA-based, multivariate discrimination index for the early detection of lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness and robustness of PFAA profiling for detecting lung cancer using new test samples. Plasma samples were collected from 171 lung cancer patients and 3849 controls without apparent cancer. PFAA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). High reproducibility was observed for both the change in the PFAA profiles in the lung cancer patients and the discriminating performance for lung cancer patients compared to previously reported results. Furthermore, multivariate discriminating functions obtained in previous studies clearly distinguished the lung cancer patients from the controls based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC = 0.731 ~ 0.806), strongly suggesting the robustness of the methodology for clinical use. Moreover, the results suggested that the combinatorial use of this classifier and tumor markers improves the clinical performance of tumor markers. These findings suggest that PFAA profiling, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a low physical burden on subjects, has great potential for improving early detection of lung cancer

  3. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohaty BS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brenda S Bohaty,1,2 Qiang Ye,3 Anil Misra,3,4 Fabio Sene,6 Paulette Spencer3,51Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Bioengineering Research Center, 4Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, State University of Londrina, School of Dentistry, Londrina, BrazilAbstract: Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient's caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of

  4. Selenium and arsenic in biology: their chemical forms and biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Morita, M; Fuwa, K

    1992-01-01

    Based on the recent development of analytical methods, sensitive systems for the analysis and speciation of selenium and arsenic have been established. A palladium addition technique was developed for the accurate determination of selenium in biological samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis. For the speciation of the elements, combined methods of HPLC either with ICP-AES or with ICP-MS were found to work well. These systems were applied to the elucidation of the chemical form of the elements in natural samples. Some chemical properties of the selenium-mercury complex in dolphin liver were elucidated: i.e., it was a cationic, water-soluble, low molecular weight compound containing selenium and mercury in a 1:1 molar ratio, and was shown to be different from a known selenium-mercury complex, bis(methylmercuric)selenide. The major selenium compound excreted in human urine was revealed to be other than any of those previously identified (TMSe, selenate, and selenite). TMSe, a suspected major metabolite in urine, was found, if at all, in low levels. The major water-soluble, and lipid-soluble arsenic compounds in a brown seaweed, U. pinnatifida (WAKAME), were rigorously identified, and the results were compared with other data on marine algae and animals. The major organic arsenic compounds (termed "arseno-sugars") in marine algae commonly contain 5-deoxy-5-dimethylarsinyl-ribofuranoside moiety. There are various kinds of arseno-sugar derivatives containing different side-chains attached to the anomeric position of the sugar, and the distribution of each arsenic species seems to be related to algal species. The arseno-sugar (A-XI) is present in every alga so far examined, is metabolized to lipids, and possibly may play some specific role in the algal cells. On the other hand, the major arsenic compound in fish, crustacea and molluscs has been identified as arsenobetaine, which is an arseno-analog of glycinebetaine, a very common osmo-regulator in

  5. On the sensitivity of IMRT dose optimization to the mathematical form of a biological imaging-based prescription function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Stephen R; Bentzen, Soeren M; Jeraj, Robert; Flynn, Ryan T

    2009-01-01

    Voxel-based prescriptions of deliberately non-uniform dose distributions based on molecular imaging, so-called dose painting or theragnostic radiation therapy, require specification of a transformation that maps the image data intensities to prescribed doses. However, the functional form of this transformation is currently unknown. An investigation into the sensitivity of optimized dose distributions resulting from several possible prescription functions was conducted. Transformations between the radiotracer activity concentrations from Cu-ATSM PET images, as a surrogate of tumour hypoxia, and dose prescriptions were implemented to yield weighted distributions of prescribed dose boosts in high uptake regions. Dose escalation was constrained to reflect clinically realistic whole tumour doses and constant normal tissue doses. Optimized heterogeneous dose distributions were found by minimizing a voxel-by-voxel quadratic objective function in which all tumour voxels were given equal weight. Prescriptions based on a polynomial mapping function were found to be least constraining on their optimized plans, while prescriptions based on a sigmoid mapping function were the most demanding to deliver. A prescription formalism that fixed integral dose was less sensitive to errors in the choice of the mapping function than one that boosted integral dose. Integral doses to normal tissue and critical structures were insensitive to the shape of the prescription function. Planned target dose conformity improved with smaller beamlet dimensions until the inherent spatial resolution of the functional image was matched. Clinical implementation of dose painting depends on advances in absolute quantification of functional images and improvements in delivery techniques over smaller spatial scales.

  6. Form and Function in Doing Business Rankings: is Investor Protection in Italy Still so Bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Enriques

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank’s Doing Business Report (DBR ranks every year numerous jurisdictions across the globe according to their ability to facilitate business activities. Among the indexes contributing to the definition of the global competitiveness of the legislations, the “Protecting investors index” (PII measures the protection of minority shareholders in listed companies. In this paper, we analyse the DBR’s assessment of the Italian regulatory framework on investor protection. We find that the PII falls short of properly evaluating the applicable rules. First, it underrates Italy because the DBR evaluation falls short of properly evaluating the role performed by independent directors under Italian rules on related party transactions. In particular, the DBR fails to properly account for independent directors’ power to veto unfair transactions before they are submitted to the board, a safeguard that ensures minority investors’ protection at least as well as mandatory abstention by conflicted directors. Second, past DBR overrated the PII, so that subsequent reforms that substantially improved investor protection have not been grasped by more recent assessments, giving the misleading impression that no relevant changes have occurred. Far from representing one of the multiple coding errors reported in the literature, these flaws aptly show that the DBR methodology, while correctly attempting to preserve consistency in the evaluation of different jurisdictions, adopts an excessively formalistic approach and disregards the function of the rules it scrutinizes. In light of the influence that the DBR exerts on national policymakers, this approach is detrimental because it might induce window-dressing reforms. Moreover, it may rule out experimentation, which is key to ensuring that the applicable rules keep pace with the variety of techniques adopted to expropriate minority shareholders.

  7. Peculiarities of Intestine Motor-Evacuation Function in Patients with Various Forms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nagieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess motor and evacuation function of gastrointestinal tract in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS several methods can be used. Our aim was to study colonic motility in patients with different variants of IBS using dynamic scintigraphy. Materials and methods. 107 patients with IBS by Rome III criteria (2006 were enrolled. All patients were divided into 4 groups: I group — IBS with constipation (36/107, 33.6 %, II group — IBS with diarrhea (35/107, 32.7 %, III group — unspecified IBS (22/107, 20.7 %, IV group — mixed IBS (14/107, 13.0 %. Dynamic scintigraphy was done using scintillation gamma-room OFECT‑1 and EBM. Medium activity of radiopharmaceutical was taken at a rate of 10 MBq/kg body weight of the patient. Results. The results showed that in case of the IBS with constipation the passage of radiopharmaceutical decreased (increased radioactivity in the abdomen (> 60 % and asymmetry of the right and left parts of the bowel is 2 5 %, p 0.05. Conclusion. Using dynamic scintigraphy we found expressed slowing of the passage of radiopharmaceutical in IBS patients with constipation (p < 0.05, while in case of IBS with diarrhea the speed of radiopharmaceutical evacuation was increased (p < 0.05. In a case of other variants of IBS no statistically significant changes were detected.

  8. Integrated analysis of microRNA and gene expression profiles reveals a functional regulatory module associated with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Wenshan; Yang, Aiting; Xu, Anjian; Wang, Huan; Cong, Min; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; You, Hong

    2017-12-15

    Liver fibrosis, characterized with the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, represents the final common pathway of chronic liver inflammation. Ever-increasing evidence indicates microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation has important implications in the different stages of liver fibrosis. However, our knowledge of miRNA-gene regulation details pertaining to such disease remains unclear. The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of patients suffered from cirrhosis were extracted for integrated analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R web tool. Putative target gene prediction of DEMs was carried out using the intersection of five major algorithms: DIANA-microT, TargetScan, miRanda, PICTAR5 and miRWalk. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory network (FMGRN) was constructed based on the computational target predictions at the sequence level and the inverse expression relationships between DEMs and DEGs. DAVID web server was selected to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory module was generated based on the biological interpretation. Internal connections among genes in liver fibrosis-related module were determined using String database. MiRNA-gene regulatory modules related to liver fibrosis were experimentally verified in recombinant human TGFβ1 stimulated and specific miRNA inhibitor treated LX-2 cells. We totally identified 85 and 923 dysregulated miRNAs and genes in liver cirrhosis biopsy samples compared to their normal controls. All evident miRNA-gene pairs were identified and assembled into FMGRN which consisted of 990 regulations between 51 miRNAs and 275 genes, forming two big sub-networks that were defined as down-network and up-network, respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that up-network was prominently involved in several KEGG pathways, in which "Focal adhesion", "PI3K-Akt signaling pathway" and "ECM

  9. Chemical modifications to vesicle forming diblock copolymers: Development of smart functional polymersome membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joshua S.

    2011-07-01

    A major limitation to current treatment regimens for diseases is the inability to adequately deliver therapeutics. Many routes to encapsulation of these materials have been explored to improve biodistribution and better protect encapsulants from harsh biological conditions. One vehicle particularly attractive for encapsulation of such materials is the polymersome. While promising for translation to clinical use, there are still limitations in polymer chemistry and resulting polymersome behavior that will slow their adaptation. This thesis addresses several of these limitations. The first major limitation to polymersomes is lack of control over their release rate. Release is generally by simple diffusion, leading to a burst. To address this burst, Aim 1 proposes a route to stabilizing polymersome membranes through their polymerization. PCL-PEG copolymers were terminally acrylated and the acrylates polymerized in the membrane following vesicle assembly. Polymerization enhanced mechanical robustness of the membranes and reduced diffusion of encapsulated contents. To ultimately trigger release, Aim 2 presents a novel route to synthesizing diblock copolymers, enabling insertion of a functional group at the blocks' junction. To facilitate triggering of release, we inserted UV-cleavable 2-nitrophenylalanine. Polymersomes assembled from this polymer collapse upon exposure to light and molecules release. Demonstrating further utility of this synthetic route, fluorescent vesicles were prepared using fluorescent lysine as the joining molecule. These vesicles labeled dendritic cells, providing a novel route to cell labeling and tracking. The second limitation to vesicles promising for biomedical applications (made of PCL-PEG) is their solid membranes. Aim 3 demonstrates partial (or full) replacement of the PCL block with a caprolactone analogue, TOSUO, which is non-crystalline and assembles into soft, deformable vesicles. Increasing TOSUO content in the copolymer leads to

  10. Difference in Dwarf Galaxy Surface Brightness Profiles as a Function of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdae; Park, Hong Soo; Kim, Sang Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok

    2018-05-01

    We investigate surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of dwarf galaxies in field, group, and cluster environments. With deep BV I images from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network Supernova Program, SBPs of 38 dwarfs in the NGC 2784 group are fitted by a single-exponential or double-exponential model. We find that 53% of the dwarfs are fitted with single-exponential profiles (“Type I”), while 47% of the dwarfs show double-exponential profiles; 37% of all dwarfs have smaller sizes for the outer part than the inner part (“Type II”), while 10% have a larger outer than inner part (“Type III”). We compare these results with those in the field and in the Virgo cluster, where the SBP types of 102 field dwarfs are compiled from a previous study and the SBP types of 375 cluster dwarfs are measured using SDSS r-band images. As a result, the distributions of SBP types are different in the three environments. Common SBP types for the field, the NGC 2784 group, and the Virgo cluster are Type II, Type I and II, and Type I and III profiles, respectively. After comparing the sizes of dwarfs in different environments, we suggest that since the sizes of some dwarfs are changed due to environmental effects, SBP types are capable of being transformed and the distributions of SBP types in the three environments are different. We discuss possible environmental mechanisms for the transformation of SBP types. Based on data collected at KMTNet Telescopes and SDSS.

  11. Analyses in zebrafish embryos reveal that nanotoxicity profiles are dependent on surface-functionalization controlled penetrance of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatero, Ilkka; Casals, Eudald; Niemi, Rasmus; Özliseli, Ezgi; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2017-08-21

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are extensively explored as drug delivery systems, but in depth understanding of design-toxicity relationships is still scarce. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to study toxicity profiles of differently surface functionalized MSNs. Embryos with the chorion membrane intact, or dechoroniated embryos, were incubated or microinjected with amino (NH 2 -MSNs), polyethyleneimine (PEI-MSNs), succinic acid (SUCC-MSNs) or polyethyleneglycol (PEG-MSNs) functionalized MSNs. Toxicity was assessed by viability and cardiovascular function. NH 2 -MSNs, SUCC-MSNs and PEG-MSNs were well tolerated, 50 µg/ml PEI-MSNs induced 100% lethality 48 hours post fertilization (hpf). Dechoroniated embryos were more sensitive and 10 µg/ml PEI-MSNs reduced viability to 5% at 96hpf. Sensitivity to PEG- and SUCC-, but not NH 2 -MSNs, was also enhanced. Typically cardiovascular toxicity was evident prior to lethality. Confocal microscopy revealed that PEI-MSNs penetrated into the embryos whereas PEG-, NH2- and SUCC-MSNs remained aggregated on the skin surface. Direct exposure of inner organs by microinjecting NH 2 -MSNs and PEI-MSNs demonstrated that the particles displayed similar toxicity indicating that functionalization affects the toxicity profile by influencing penetrance through biological barriers. The data emphasize the need for careful analyses of toxicity mechanisms in relevant models and constitute an important knowledge step towards the development of safer and sustainable nanotherapies.

  12. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands-nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α -amylase, total protein-and salivary exoglycosidase activities-N-acetyl- β -hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B), β -glucuronidase, α -fucosidase, β -galactosidase, and α -mannosidase-was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α -amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  13. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Maciejczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4 and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4. The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B, β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase—was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α-amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  14. Fluorescence-based high-throughput functional profiling of ligand-gated ion channels at the level of single cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Talwar

    Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems

  15. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  16. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  17. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  18. Simultaneous measure of a spectral line profile and the apparatus function of a Fabry-Perot spectrometer when continuous background is present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.M.; Quintanilla, M.; Mar, S.

    1978-01-01

    A deconvolution method of registered profile on a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is developed, when the actual profile of the source is a Voigt pattern together with a continuous background. The reliability and accuracy of the method is tested with theoreticaly simulated profiles. The method is applied both to measure the real line profiles and to find the Fabry-Perot parameters, as a test of its validity on studies of experimental profiles. Both measure types -source profile and apparatus function- are made simultaneously by means of analysis of the variations of registered profile, at 6438.5A Cd line and 6328A He-Ne laser line, varying the optical path between interferometer mirrors. (author) [es

  19. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as a function of geospatial variability in a Napa Valley vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Angela; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Sue; Jenkins, Christopher; Plant, Richard; Smart, David

    2015-04-01

    A primary tenant of the concept of geoscience and wine is that elemental composition of soils may be reflected in the elemental profile of fruit and discerned in the organoleptic assessment of wine. The extremely varied soil composition at the vineyard level in the Napa Valley region of California provides an ideal setting to study elemental pattern correlations between grape berries and soil samples. In the Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon is a wine grape variety of substantial economic value. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in function of origin will provide a better understanding of the relationship between elemental accumulation in berries and soil element composition. The aim of this study was to explore the geospatial variability of elemental patterns in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with respect to the soil elemental profiles at thirty-six geo-referenced vines in a 4 ha vineyard. Sixty-eight elements were determined via inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); this allowed for elemental profiling of both soil and berries at each sampling site. It was found that for the soil samples twenty-two elements contributed to a significant difference between sampling points, and thirty for the berries. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) showed that soil and berry elemental composition varied as a function of location in the vineyard. For the soil PCA, rare earth metals such as Dy, Ho, Ce, Er, Yb and Tm were driving separation towards the southern section of the vineyard while K, Ga, V, Al, Mg and P were correlated with the northern section. In the berry samples the Lanthanides, Gd, Pr, Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, also showed a higher influence in driving separation towards the southern section while Sr, Mo, Ba, Mg, P, K, Cd, Cu, B, Rb and Ti characterized the elemental profile of the northern part of the block. These findings showed that the rare earth metals, in particular Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, were the most distinguishing elemental

  20. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1 ×, DE3 ×, ME3 ×, NEL3 ×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P = 0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P = 0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P = 0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st

  1. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Endogenous sterol biosynthesis is important for mitochondrial function and cell morphology in procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Sealey-Cardona, Marco; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos; Gelb, Michael H; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Castillo-Acosta, Víctor; Urbina, Julio A; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2012-10-01

    Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors are promising entities for the treatment of trypanosomal diseases. Insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, synthesize ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols, yet also incorporate cholesterol from the medium. While sterol function has been investigated by pharmacological manipulation of sterol biosynthesis, molecular mechanisms by which endogenous sterols influence cellular processes remain largely unknown in trypanosomes. Here we analyse by RNA interference, the effects of a perturbation of three specific steps of endogenous sterol biosynthesis in order to dissect the role of specific intermediates in proliferation, mitochondrial function and cellular morphology in procyclic cells. A decrease in the levels of squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase resulted in a depletion of cellular sterol intermediates and end products, impaired cell growth and led to aberrant morphologies, DNA fragmentation and a profound modification of mitochondrial structure and function. In contrast, cells deficient in sterol methyl transferase, the enzyme involved in 24-alkylation, exhibited a normal growth phenotype in spite of a complete abolition of the synthesis and content of 24-alkyl sterols. Thus, the data provided indicates that while the depletion of squalene and post-squalene endogenous sterol metabolites results in profound cellular defects, bulk 24-alkyl sterols are not strictly required to support growth in insect forms of T. brucei in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Green, Vanessa A; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-08-01

    We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note.

  4. Beyond mean functional traits: Influence of functional trait profiles on forest structure, production, and mortality across the eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; Grant M. Domke; Sassan S. Saatchi

    2014-01-01

    Plant functional traits (PFTs) have increased in popularity in recent years to describe various ecosystems and biological phenomena while advancing general ecological principles. To date, few have investigated distributional attributes of individual PFTs and their relationship with key attributes and processes of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to...

  5. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11......-14 years old) interactions with three maker technologies used to work through design processes in school maker settings. Our findings are beneficial on three factors for designers, researchers and teachers involved in work within maker contexts. (1) reflections on form properties of maker technologies, (2....... Researchers can use the expanded design language to analyze maker technologies in the context of school maker settings. Finally, teachers can make better decisions on how and when to use different maker technologies when school children work through design processes....

  6. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Chiral Cylindrical Molecular Complexes: Functional Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Materials Formed by Helicene Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Avai