WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile confrontation effects

  1. Confronting Perpetrators of Prejudice: The Inhibitory Effects of Social Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Stewart, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which social costs influence whether or not targets of prejudice confront individuals who behave in a prejudiced manner during interpersonal interactions. Consistent with our predictions, we found that although women believe they will confront perpetrators of prejudice regardless of the…

  2. Confrontation clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk Sviatoslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution enumerates a cluster of rights granted to criminal defendants and is designed to make criminal prosecutions more accurate, fair, and legitimate. The Confrontation Clause, which states that „In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witness against him” should not be underestimated. This article seeks to analyse the evolution of the Confrontation Clause and the extent of a defendant’s right to face-to-face confrontation. The article analyse the case Crawford v. Washington, which was a key shift in the Supreme Court’s Confrontation Clause jurisprudence.

  3. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  4. Age effects on visual-perceptual processing and confrontation naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutherie, Audrey H; Seely, Peter W; Beacham, Lauren A; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William A; Moore, Anna Bacon

    2010-03-01

    The impact of age-related changes in visual-perceptual processing on naming ability has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 6 levels of spatial frequency and 6 levels of contrast on accuracy and latency to name objects in 14 young and 13 older neurologically normal adults with intact lexical-semantic functioning. Spatial frequency and contrast manipulations were made independently. Consistent with the hypotheses, variations in these two visual parameters impact naming ability in young and older subjects differently. The results from the spatial frequency-manipulations revealed that, in general, young vs. older subjects are faster and more accurate to name. However, this age-related difference is dependent on the spatial frequency on the image; differences were only seen for images presented at low (e.g., 0.25-1 c/deg) or high (e.g., 8-16 c/deg) spatial frequencies. Contrary to predictions, the results from the contrast manipulations revealed that overall older vs. young adults are more accurate to name. Again, however, differences were only seen for images presented at the lower levels of contrast (i.e., 1.25%). Both age groups had shorter latencies on the second exposure of the contrast-manipulated images, but this possible advantage of exposure was not seen for spatial frequency. Category analyses conducted on the data from this study indicate that older vs. young adults exhibit a stronger nonliving-object advantage for naming spatial frequency-manipulated images. Moreover, the findings suggest that bottom-up visual-perceptual variables integrate with top-down category information in different ways. Potential implications on the aging and naming (and recognition) literature are discussed.

  5. The effects of confrontation and avoidance coping in response to workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Cameron, Ann-Frances; Gervais, Loie; Bozeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Workplace incivility has significant adverse consequences for targets. However, we know remarkably little about how targets of incivility cope and even less about which coping strategies are effective. Drawing on the coping process of the transactional model of stress, we examine confrontation as a form of problem-focused coping and avoidance as a form of emotion-focused coping in response to incivility. We examine the effects of these coping strategies on reoccurrence of incivility, incivility enacted by targets, psychological forgiveness, and emotional exhaustion. Focusing on the target's perspective of a series of uncivil interactions between a target and perpetrator, we conducted a 3-wave study of employees from various occupations. Employing the critical incident technique, participants reported on an incident of workplace incivility, and then answered a series of questions over 3 waves of data collection regarding their interactions with this perpetrator. Our findings suggest that confrontation and avoidance are ineffective in preventing reoccurrence of incivility. Avoidance can additionally lead to increased emotional exhaustion, target-enacted incivility, and lower psychological forgiveness. However, confrontation coping has promise with regards to eliciting positive outcomes such as psychological forgiveness that are beneficial to interpersonal workplace relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  7. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  8. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W; Krzyzanowski, M W; Wojtyniak, B

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  9. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  10. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  11. Protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-06-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. 35 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table.

  12. Social comparison 2.0: examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C

    2011-05-01

    Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.

  13. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small ( 2 /s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. Emergency Managers Confront Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Labadie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency managers will have to deal with the impending, uncertain, and possibly extreme effects of climate change. Yet, many emergency managers are not aware of the full range of possible effects, and they are unsure of their place in the effort to plan for, adapt to, and cope with those effects. This may partly reflect emergency mangers’ reluctance to get caught up in the rancorous—and politically-charged—debate about climate change, but it mostly is due to the worldview shared by most emergency managers. We focus on: extreme events; acute vs. chronic hazards (floods vs. droughts; a shorter event horizon (5 years vs. 75–100 years; and a shorter planning and operational cycle. This paper explores the important intersection of emergency management, environmental management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. It examines the different definitions of terms common to all three fields, the overlapping strategies used in all three fields, and the best means of collaboration and mutual re-enforcement among the three to confront and solve the many possible futures that we may face in the climate change world.

  15. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  16. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Ariana J., E-mail: ariana.mckay@outlook.com; Johnson, Chris J., E-mail: chris.johnson@unbc.ca

    2017-05-15

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  17. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of cold particle fueling profiles on particle and energy transport in an ignition sized tokamak plasma are investigated in this study with a one-dimensional, multifluid transport model. A density gradient driven trapped particle microinstability model for plasma transport is used to demonstrate potential effects of fueling profiles on ignition requirements. Important criteria for the development of improved transport models under the conditions of shallow particle fueling profiles are outlined. A discrete pellet fueling model indicates that large fluctuations in density and temperature may occur in the outer regions of the plasma with large, shallowly penetrating pellets, but fluctuations in the pressure profile are small. The hot central core of the plasma remains unaffected by the large fluctuations near the plasma edge

  18. Self-Confrontation of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Richard A.

    Simply presenting teachers with information about discrepancies between their ideal and their actual classroom performances does not, in itself, lead to constructive change. In part, this is because teachers confronted with such discrepancies experience dissonance which often gives rise to anxiety. This paper discusses the psychological processes…

  19. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  20. Confronting climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially from energy production and use, and their impact on global climate emerged as a major national issue in the United States during the 1980s. As a result, Congress directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to ask the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering to assess the current state of research and development (R ampersand D) in the United States in alternative energy sources, and to suggest energy R ampersand D strategies involving roles for both the public and private sectors, should the government want to give priority to stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs. The findings and recommendations of the Committee on Alternative Energy Research and Development Strategies, appointed by the National Research Council in response to Congress's directive, are provided in this report and summarized in this chapter. The energy R ampersand D strategies and actions recommended by the committee are structured to facilitate prudent and decisive responses by the United States, despite uncertainties regarding the effects of GHGs on global climate. 96 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small (<<0.1 m[sup 2]/s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Barody, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  3. Games Based Study of Nonblind Confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security confrontation is the second cornerstone of the General Theory of Security. And it can be divided into two categories: blind confrontation and nonblind confrontation between attackers and defenders. In this paper, we study the nonblind confrontation by some well-known games. We show the probability of winning and losing between the attackers and defenders from the perspective of channel capacity. We establish channel models and find that the attacker or the defender wining one time is equivalent to one bit transmitted successfully in the channel. This paper also gives unified solutions for all the nonblind confrontations.

  4. Navigating between Dialogue and Confrontation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    such as human rights and ethnic discrimination, issues that may involve strong emotions. Drawing inspiration from a qualitative methodology focusing on resistance and power, the article argues that in such situations the interviewer needs to integrate both dialogic and agonistic interview methodologies through...... phronesis, Aristotle’s concept of practical rationality. A phronetic approach, involving reflections on the link between reason and emotions, is well suited for handling both dialogue and confrontation in the interview process. Empirically, the paper draws on interviews with representatives of trade unions...... and employer organizations on the subject of human rights and ethnic discrimination in the Danish labor market....

  5. Matter Density Profile Shape Effects at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kevin J. [Northwestern U.; Parke, Stephen J. [Fermilab

    2018-02-19

    Quantum mechanical interactions between neutrinos and matter along the path of propagation, the Wolfenstein matter effect, are of particular importance for the upcoming long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, specifically the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). Here, we explore specifically what about the matter density profile can be measured by DUNE, considering both the shape and normalization of the profile between the neutrinos' origin and detection. Additionally, we explore the capability of a perturbative method for calculating neutrino oscillation probabilities and whether this method is suitable for DUNE. We also briefly quantitatively explore the ability of DUNE to measure the Earth's matter density, and the impact of performing this measurement on measuring standard neutrino oscillation parameters.

  6. The protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. (orig.)

  7. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  8. Education confronts the energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

  9. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D), multifluid transport model is used to investigate the effects of particle fueling profiles on plasma transport in an ignition-sized tokamak (TNS). Normal diffusive properties of plasmas will likely maintain the density at the center of the discharge even if no active fueling is provided there. This significantly relaxes the requirements for fuel penetration. Not only is lower fuel penetration easier to achieve, but it may have the advantage of reducing or eliminating density gradient-driven trapped particle microinstabilities. Simulation of discrete pellet fueling indicates that relatively low velocity (approximately 10 3 m/sec) pellets may be sufficient to fuel a TNS-sized device (approximately 1.25-m minor radius), to produce a relatively broad, cool edge region of plasma which should reduce the potential for sputtering, and also to reduce the likelihood of trapped particle mode dominated transport. Low penetrating pellets containing up to 10 to 20 percent of the total plasma ions can produce fluctuations in density and temperature at the plasma edge, but the pressure profile and fusion alpha production remain almost constant

  10. Confronting shibboleths of dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-10-01

    Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.

  11. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  12. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...

  13. To Confront Versus not to Confront: Women’s Perception of Sexual Harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Herrera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different victim responses to harassment. A total of 138 women were administered a questionnaire where the type of harassment, and victim response were manipulated. Moreover, the influence of ideological variables (i.e. ambivalent sexism and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception was assessed. Results show perception of sexual harassment was lower in gender harassment than in unwanted sexual attention and participants believed women who confronted their harasser would be evaluated negatively by men. Furthermore, effects of ideology on perception of harassment were found. The results underscore the complexities involved in defining certain behaviours as harassment, and the implications of different victim responses to harassment.

  14. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lipid Profile: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mazidi; Peyman Rezaie; Ehsan Karimi; Mohsen Nematy

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious obligation, practiced by millions of people around the world. Ramadan fasting is essentially a fundamental change in lifestyle for one lunar month. This type of fasting may have significant effects on lipid profile. Although there is no scientific consensus about the effects of fasting on cardiovascular risks such as changes in lipid profile, some studies have revealed the positive effects of Ramadan fasting (and similar religious fas...

  15. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Confronting new technological challenges in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2000-01-01

    The new technological challenges that will have to be confronted in HEP are mainly due to the new physics issues. What is beyond the standard model? That is the question. This review will first list the physics demands in order to explore this unknown world. It will then show with appropriate examples, how the new physics will require confronting new technological challenges in: designing new accelerators, developing new detectors, designing new front-end readout systems and using the new software and hardware tools for the online readout and DAQ systems

  17. Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The article investigates the effects of the underutilization of the abundant vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the disregard and stigmatization of most dialects. Sesotho sa Leboa has several dialects differing greatly concerning terminology ...

  18. Macroeconomic Issues Confronting the Next President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies economic issues that confronted the United States in the late 1980's and discusses how the president might deal with them. Highlights the following issues: recession, rising price levels, the budget deficit, international trade imbalance, and revival of U.S. long-term growth. (GEA)

  19. Confronting the neoliberal and libertarian reconceptualisations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confronting this phenomenon, this paper reviews neoliberal and libertarian understandings of educational equality and democratic education and interrogates the rationale for the justification of markets in education. In the process, I criticise the notion of possessive individualism as a principle of democratic education on the ...

  20. Confronting Misinformation in Climate Change Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among the many challenges faced by climate change educators is the highly politicized nature of the subject matter (e.g. McCright and Dunlap, 2011) and the associated misinformation from key media outlets and websites (e.g. see Oreskes and Conway, 2010). Students typically do not enter the classroom as 'blank slates', but often have already formed some opinion about climate change which may or may not be based on reputable sources. Further, many students have lives outside the classroom and/or off campus, and even those who do live in an isolated bubble of campus life will eventually graduate. Thus, providing students with a level of climate change knowledge and understanding robust enough to cope with misinformation may be an important goal for educators. This paper presents a case study of the direct use of climate change misinformation as a college-level classroom activity. Some research from other fields (notably psychology) has found that directly addressing misconceptions in the classroom can be the most effective means of dispelling them (Kowalski and Taylor, 2009). However, directly confronting misinformation in the classroom carries inherent risks, such as reinforcing misconceptions (e.g. Cook and Lewandowsky, 2011). This paper therefore considers approaches to minimizing those risks while attempting to maximize the possible benefits. This paper argues that use of misinformation as a teaching tool can provide useful exercises in critical thinking, testing of content knowledge, and consideration of the nature of science. Cook, J. and S. Lewandowsky. 2011. The Debunking Handbook. Online publication available www.skepticalscience.com/docs/Debunking_Handbook.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2012. Kowalski, P. and A.K. Taylor. 2009. DOI: 10.1080/00986280902959986. McCright, A., and R.T. Dunlap. 2011. The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public's views of global warming, 2001-2010. The Sociological Quarterly 52:2, 155-194. Oreskes, N. and E

  1. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  2. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  3. RF slice profile effects in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehwa; Han, Dongyeob; Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF) slice profile effects on T1 and T2 estimation in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are investigated with respect to time-bandwidth product (TBW), flip angle (FA) level and field inhomogeneities. Signal evolutions are generated incorporating the non-ideal slice selective excitation process using Bloch simulation and matched to the original dictionary with and without the non-ideal slice profile taken into account. For validation, phantom and in vivo experiments are performed at 3T. Both simulations and experiments results show that T1 and T2 error from non-ideal slice profile increases with increasing FA level, off-resonance, and low TBW values. Therefore, RF slice profile effects should be compensated for accurate determination of the MR parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.

  5. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  6. Effects of mask imperfections on InP etching profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, D.T.C.; Yan, M.F.; Wynn, J.D.; Wilt, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the quality of etch masks has a significant effect on the InP etching profiles. In particular, the authors have shown that mask imperfections can cause defective etching profiles, such as vertical sidewalls and extra mask undercutting in InP. The authors also discovered that the geometry of these defective profiles is determined by the orientation of the substrate relative to the direction of the mask imperfections. Along a left-angle 110 right-angle line mask defect, the downward etching process changes the left-angle 110 right-angle v-grooves to vertical sidewalls without extra undercutting. For v-grooves aligned along the left-angle 110 right-angle direction, defects on the mask give a significant extra undercutting without changing the etching profile

  7. Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress. ... Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the ...

  8. Fear appeals and confronting information campaigns. [Previously: Fear-based information campaigns.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Fear appeals or confronting information campaigns confront people in an often hard and sometimes even shocking way with the consequences of risky behaviour. This can have a positive impact on the attitudes and behavioural intentions of the target group, but only if key conditions are met. Those conditions are that the information does not only evoke fear, but also informs the target group individuals of their personal risk and provides them with feasible and effective behavioural alternatives...

  9. On the effects of rotation on interstellar molecular line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelson, L.M.; Chunming Leung

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the effects of systematic gas rotation on the emergent profiles of interstellar molecular lines, in particular the effects of optical depth and different velocity laws. Both rotational and radial motions (expansion or contraction) may produce similar asymmetric profiles, but the behaviour of the velocity centroid of the emergent profile over the whole cloud (iso-centroid maps) can be used to distinguish between these motions. Iso-centroid maps can also be used to determine the location and orientation of the rotation axis and of the equatorial axis. For clouds undergoing both radial and rotational motion, the component of the centroid due to the rotational motion can be separated from that due to the radial motion. Information on the form of the rotational velocity law can also be derived. (author)

  10. Confronting tracker field quintessence with data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Chien-Wen; Chen, Pisin

    2012-01-01

    We confront tracker field quintessence with observational data. The potentials considered in this paper include V(φ)∝φ −α , exp (M p /φ), exp (M p /φ)−1, exp (βM p /φ) and exp (γM p /φ)−1; while the data come from the latest SN Ia, CMB and BAO observations. Stringent parameter constraints are obtained. In comparison with the cosmological constant via information criteria, it is found that models with potentials exp (M p /φ), exp (M p /φ)−1 and exp (γM p /φ)−1 are not supported by the current data

  11. Dark radiation confronting LHC in Z′ models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaguren-Beascoa, A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as “dark radiation”. Extensions of the SM involving TeV-scale Z ′ gauge bosons generically contain superweakly interacting light right-handed neutrinos which can constitute this dark radiation. In this Letter we confront the requirement on the parameters of the E 6 Z ′ models to account for the present evidence of dark radiation with the already existing constraints from searches for new neutral gauge bosons at LHC7

  12. The effect of Gongronema latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    3. Results. To evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from G. latifolium leaves on serum lipid profile and oxi- dative stress in diabetic rats, these extracts were adminis-. Table 1. Experimental design. Group. Number of rats. Treatment. Diabetic control (DC). 6. Saline solution. Diabetic (DA). 6. Aqueous extract.

  13. TPSS plasma engineering studies: profile effects and plasma power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computationally fast profile-averaged, steady-state plasma model has been developed to allow studies of radial effects in ignited and driven tokamak systems. This code was used to search for the smallest size tokamak consistent with power balance calculations

  14. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  15. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  16. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ON HALO PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R, E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N -body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ( λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ( λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  18. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  19. Atención primaria de salud, vía para enfrentar los efectos de la crisis económica en salud Primary health care a procedure to confront the effects of health recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Marimón Torres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la actual crisis económica y financiera global y sus efectos negativos para los sistemas de salud. Profundiza en las afectaciones para Cuba y en la preparación del sistema nacional de salud, a partir de su concepción, sus principios, así como la preparación que tiene el país ante crisis anteriores, como lo constituyó el Período Especial. Se evidencia que la forma viable de mantener los niveles de salud de la población y mejorar sus indicadores de morbimortalidad, a pesar de las carencias económicas actuales y las futuras, en caso de empeorar la situación mundial, es la Atención Primaria de Salud, base del sistema cubano, el cual alcanza un importante desarrollo luego de 50 años de transformaciones y perfeccionamiento. Se exponen los principales resultados alcanzados y las medidas trazadas, enfocadas a su sostenibilidad en este nuevo escenario mundial, con la intención de que esta experiencia pueda servir de referencia a otros países, reforzar las capacidades nacionales y contribuir al perfeccionamiento de los sistemas de salud, como propuesta de enfrentamiento a esta grave situación mundial y lograr la salud de las poblaciones.Present paper analyzes the current global recession and financial crisis and its negative effects on the health system studying in depth the Cuban affectations and the preparation of health national system from its conception, its principles, as well as the preparation of our country in face of previous crises, by example, the Special Period. It is evidenced that the viable way to maintain the health levels of population and to improve its indicators of morbidity and mortality, despite the current and the future economic lacks if the world situation get worse, is the Primary Health Care which is the foundation of Cuban system achieving a significant development after 50 years of transformation and improvement. Authors expose the major results achieved and the outlines measures

  20. A universe model confronted to observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Present work is a detailed study of a Universe model elaborated in several steps, and some of its consequences. Absence zone in quasar spatial distribution is first described; demonstration is made it is sufficient to determine a cosmological model. Each following paragraph is concerned with a type of observation, which is confronted with the model. Universe age and density, redshift-luminosity relation for galaxies and quasars, diameter-redshift relation for radiosources, radiation isotropy at 3 0 K, matter-antimatter contact zone physics. An eventual stratification of universe parallel to this zone is more peculiarly studied; absorption lines in quasar spectra are in way interpreted, just as local super-cluster and local group of galaxies, galaxy HI region orientation, and at last neighbouring galaxy kinematics [fr

  1. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  2. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  3. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B R

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  4. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic effects of current profile control in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Linear and non-linear MHD computations are used to investigate reversed field pinch configurations with magnetic fluctuations reduced through current profile control. Simulations with reduced ohmic drive and moderate auxiliary current drive, represented generically with an electron force term, applied locally in radius near the plasma edge show magnetic fluctuation energies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those in simulations without profile control. The core of the improved configurations has reduced magnetic shear and closed flux surfaces in some cases, and reversal is sustained through the auxiliary current drive. Modes resonant near the edge may become unstable with auxiliary drive, but their saturation levels can be controlled. The space of auxiliary drive parameters is explored, and the ill effects of deviating far from optimal conditions is demonstrated in non-linear simulations. (author)

  6. To Confront Versus not to Confront: Women’s Perception of Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Herrera; Antonio Herrera; Francisca Expósito

    2017-01-01

    Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different v...

  7. EFFECTS OF LOCAL DISSIPATION PROFILES ON MAGNETIZED ACCRETION DISK SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ted; Blaes, Omer

    2013-01-01

    We present spectral calculations of non-LTE accretion disk models appropriate for high-luminosity stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems. We first use a dissipation profile based on scaling the results of shearing box simulations of Hirose et al. to a range of annuli parameters. We simultaneously scale the effective temperature, orbital frequency, and surface density with luminosity and radius according to the standard α-model. This naturally brings increased dissipation to the disk surface layers (around the photospheres) at small radii and high luminosities. We find that the local spectrum transitions directly from a modified blackbody to a saturated Compton scattering spectrum as we increase the effective temperature and orbital frequency while decreasing midplane surface density. Next, we construct annuli models based on the parameters of a L/L Edd = 0.8 disk orbiting a 6.62 solar mass black hole using two modified dissipation profiles that explicitly put more dissipation per unit mass near the disk surface. The new dissipation profiles are qualitatively similar to the one found by Hirose et al., but produce strong near power-law spectral tails. Our models also include physically motivated magnetic acceleration support based once again on scaling the Hirose et al. results. We present three full-disk spectra, each based on one of the dissipation prescriptions. Our most aggressive dissipation profile results in a disk spectrum that is in approximate quantitative agreement with certain observations of the steep power-law spectral states from some black hole X-ray binaries.

  8. Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (re. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top re from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of re representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio Na = 25 mg−1, intermediate (Na = 100 mg−1, and polluted (Na = 2000 mg−1 conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top re from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed re profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud re profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed re profiles represent the in-cloud re profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud re can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top re is less useful. The differences in re profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on re and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction

  9. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  10. Evaluation the Effect Garlet Tablet on Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some investigators reported significant effect of garlic on serum cholesterol reduction. In addition, Iranian culture has specific belief on herbs and garlic in this regard. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of garlet tablets on serum lipid profile.Materials & Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups for evaluation of the effect of garlic on their lipid profile. The first group was low fat regimen group and the second was garlet tablet regimen group. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in both groups. Then, after two months of these regimens administration, these items were measured again and were compared.Results: Mean age, sex and baseline initial lipid levels were similar in both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in the garlic regimen group (in spite of non significant reduction in the other group. Triglyceride and HDL levels were not changed significantly in both regimen groups. Conclusion: Garlet tablet administration has more significant reductive effect on cholestrol level than low cholesterol diet.

  11. Socratic Confrontation with Athens: an Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tajik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Impiety was one of the two charges against Socrates. As a civil religion (within which politics and religion are mutually intertwined was the then-dominated religion in Athens, impiety was regarded as a civil laws violation. Thus, charge of impiety, as a political subversion, might lead Socrates to death. However, in Apology there are some signs of Socrates’ religiousness as swearing and the claim to be at service of the Polis’ formal gods and goddess which lead to the question whether Socrates were an impious person, in addition to the question concerning the reasons why Socrates was sentenced to death, while he has showed his religiousness. In this study, we argued the nature of Socrates’ religiousness and offered an interpretation of Socrates’ silent confrontation with Athenians as is described in the court and his advocacy there. Therefore, introducing the state of religion in Athens, it would be shown that Socrates goes not deep in the inspirations, but intervening personal negative accounts, argues for a private religious experience, while does not offers any substitution for the formal religion.

  12. Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-01-01

    We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small

  13. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting.

  14. Confronting Higgcision with electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Kingman [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sik [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Senaha, Eibun [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tseng, Po-Yan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-26

    Current data on the signal strengths and angular spectrum of the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson still allow a CP-mixed state, namely, the pseudoscalar coupling to the top quark can be as sizable as the scalar coupling: C{sub u}{sup S}≈C{sub u}{sup P}=1/2. CP violation can then arise and manifest in sizable electric dipole moments (EDMs). In the framework of two-Higgs-doublet models, we not only update the Higgs precision (Higgcision) study on the couplings with the most updated Higgs signal strength data, but also compute all the Higgs-mediated contributions from the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson to the EDMs, and confront the allowed parameter space against the existing constraints from the EDM measurements of Thallium, neutron, Mercury, and Thorium monoxide. We found that the combined EDM constraints restrict the pseudoscalar coupling to be less than about 10{sup −2}, unless there are contributions from other Higgs bosons, supersymmetric particles, or other exotic particles that delicately cancel the current Higgs-mediated contributions.

  15. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  16. The Vatican & Population Growth Control: Why an American Confrontation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Stephen D.

    1983-01-01

    The Vatican, because of its position on population growth, threatens the security of all nations. Catholic countries with right-wing dictatorships cannot confront the Vatican on family planning and survive. U.S. Catholics must confront the Vatican on this issue. American lay Catholics must break the American church away from the Vatican control.…

  17. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... information about the inmate and the immediate situation. Based on their assessment of that information, they...

  18. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    the decision maker (DM) in making the best possible choice for the environment. At present, some DMs do not trust the LCA to be a reliable decisionsupport tool—often because DMs consider the uncertainty of an LCA to be too large. The standard evaluation of uncertainty in LCAs is an ex-post approach that can...... regarding which type of LCA study to employ for the decision context at hand. This taxonomy enables the derivation of an LCA classification matrix to clearly identify and communicate the type of a given LCA. By relating the LCA classification matrix to statistical principles, we can also rank the different......The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...

  19. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  20. Personal summarization from profile networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongqing WANG; Shoushan LI; Guodong ZHOU

    2017-01-01

    Personal profile information on social media like Linkedln.com and Facebook.com is at the core of many interesting applications,such as talent recommendation and contextual advertising.However,personal profiles usually lack consistent organization confronted with the large amount of available information.Therefore,it is always a challenge for people to quickly find desired information from them.In this paper,we address the task of personal profile summarization by leveraging both textual information and social connection information in social networks from both unsupervised and supervised learning paradigms.Here,using social connection information is motivated by the intuition that people with similar academic,business or social background (e.g.,comajor,co-university,and co-corporation) tend to have similar experiences and should have similar summaries.For unsupervised learning,we propose a collective ranking approach,called SocialRank,to combine textual information in an individual profile and social context information from relevant profiles in generating a personal profile summary.For supervised learning,we propose a collective factor graph model,called CoFG,to summarize personal profiles with local textual attribute functions and social connection factors.Extensive evaluation on a large dataset from LinkedIn.com demonstrates the usefulness of social connection information in personal profile summarization and the effectiveness of our proposed unsupervised and supervised learning approaches.

  1. When Do We Confront? Perceptions of Costs and Benefits Predict Confronting Discrimination on Behalf of the Self and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J.; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2012-01-01

    Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting…

  2. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  3. Equation of state, universal profiles, scaling and macroscopic quantum effects in warm dark matter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, H.J. de [Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie UPMC Paris VI, LPTHE CNRS UMR 7589, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N.G. [Observatoire de Paris PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universites UPMC Paris VI, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f(E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r{sub h}, mass M{sub h}, velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M{sub h} >or similar 2.3 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} and effective temperatures T{sub 0} > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} >or similar M{sub h} >or similar M{sub h,min} ≅ 3.10 x 10{sup 4} (2 keV/m){sup (16)/(5)} M {sub CircleDot}, T{sub 0} < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T{sub 0} = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r{sub h}, the squared velocity v{sup 2}(r{sub h}) and the temperature T{sub 0} turn to exhibit square-root of M{sub h} scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ(r)/ρ(0) and the normalized velocity profiles v{sup 2}(r)/v{sup 2}(0) are universal functions of r/r{sub h} reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For

  4. Predictive profiling and its legal limits : Effectiveness gone forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; van der Sloot, B.; Broeders, D.; Schrijvers, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine predictive group profiling in the Big Data context as an instrument of governmental control and regulation. We first define profiling by drawing some useful distinctions (section 6.1). We then discuss examples of predictive group profiling from policing (such as parole prediction methods

  5. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  6. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  7. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Book cover Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of ... of an innovative research and action project carried out by ENDA Tiers ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  8. Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B.

    2012-01-01

    We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK

  9. The Frontiers of Observational Cosmology and the Confrontation with Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The current state of observational cosmology and the confrontation with theory is presented. The review is divided into the following sections: - Basic observations on which the models are based. - Testing the basic assumptions made in the construction of the standard cosmological models. - Structure formation in the standard models; - Observational tests of the standard models - the confrontation with observation; - Basic problems and approaches to their solution; - Future challenges - the ESA EUCLID mission is given as an example.

  10. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented.

  11. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  12. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A Artelle

    Full Text Available Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  13. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  14. Profile of effective donors from organ and tissue procurement services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Simey de Lima Lopes; Ferraz Neto, Jose Ben-Hur de Escobar; Sardinha, Luiz Antonio da Costa; Araujo, Sebastião; Zambelli, Helder Jose Lessa; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Athayde, Maria Valeria de Omena; Montone, Eliete Bombarda Bachega; Panunto, Marcia Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the profile of effective organ and tissue donors and to understand which organs and tissues were donated for transplantation. Methods This was a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study that analyzed clinical data from 305 donors between January 2006 to December 2010. The data were then analyzed using descriptive analyses, generating frequency tables, measures of position (mean, minimum and maximum) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) for data that was social and clinical in nature. Results There was an overall predominance of white (72%) and male (55%) individuals between the ages of 41 and 60 years (44%). The primary cause of brain death was cerebrovascular accident (55%). In the patient history, 31% of the patients were classified as overweight, 27% as hypertensive and only 4.3% as having diabetes mellitus. Vasoactive drugs were used in 92.7% of the donors, and the main drug of choice was noradrenaline (81.6%). Hyperglycemia and hypernatremia were diagnosed in 78% and 71% of the donors, respectively. Conclusion Significant hemodynamic changes were found, and the results indicate that the use of vasoactive drugs was the main strategy used to control these changes. Furthermore, most donors presented with hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, which were frequently reported in association with brain death. The persistent nature of these findings suggests that the organ donors were inadequately maintained. PMID:24770685

  15. Effect of microstructure on the arsenic profile in implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Rhee, M.H.; Williams, J.M.; Streit, L.A.; Williams, P.

    1985-10-01

    According to an irradiation damage model, the profile of an implanted ion at temperature great enough for diffusion to occur will depend on the sink density in the material. To test this model, pure silicon wafers were prepared with high and low dislocation densities. These wafers were implanted with about 5 x 10 19 As +2 /m 2 at 77 0 K, 300 0 C, and 600 0 C. After implanting the profiles were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The observed spreading of the As-profile contradicts initial theoretical predictions. Further speculation is presented to explain the differences

  16. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  17. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another – from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a ‘lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  18. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  19. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  20. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  1. Motivational versus confrontational interviewing: a comparison of substance abuse assessment practices at employee assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R J; Casey, J; Kohn, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of two employee assistance program (EAP) assessment approaches with substance abusers: confrontational interviewing (CI) and motivational interviewing (MI). A total of 176 EAP clients from 14 study sites met the study criteria, and 89 (51%) agreed to participate in the study. At three and nine months postassessment, both the MI and CI groups showed similar changes in readiness for change, completion of initial treatment plans, and subsequent treatment. Most important, both the MI and CI participants showed significant and comparable improvement on all of the substance abuse baseline measures as well as measures of family-social well-being and effects of drinking/drugging on work performance. The results open the door for EAP counselors to use an empirically supported assessment style that is at least as effective as the traditional confrontational approach.

  2. Beam profile effects on NPB [neutral particle beam] performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, R.J. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts. 2 refs., 6 figs

  3. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (−0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276). Conclusion We conclude that Cr monohydrate

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percário Sandro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine (Cr supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9, placebo group (GP, N = 9, no treatment group (COT, N = 8 for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, total antioxidant status (TAS, and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356 and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025, with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001. No differences (pre- vs. post-training in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (−0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268, higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209 and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276. Conclusion We conclude that Cr

  5. Psychological Challenges Confronting Women in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    A woman psychiatrist points out the internal psychological challenges that threaten to undermine a woman's effectiveness to fight for her rights because of inner fears of which she may not be aware. Four intrapsychic conflicts of women scientists are discussed, described briefly, and illustrated by specific case examples. (Author/MK)

  6. The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M

    2014-01-01

    The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed and updated. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of local Lorentz invariance and clock experiments. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion, and frame-dragging. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to better than half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and a growing family of other binary pulsar systems is yielding new tests, especially of strong-field effects. Current and future tests of relativity will center on strong gravity and gravitational waves.

  7. Effect of Equilibrium Current Profiles on External Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Liu Yue; Ma Zhaoshuai

    2014-01-01

    Based on a linearized MHD model, the effect of equilibrium current profiles on external kink modes in tokamaks is studied by MARS code. Three types of equilibrium current profiles are adopted in this work. Firstly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles are chosen. In these profiles the maximum current values in the center of the plasma are fixed, and the currents have different gradient and jump at the plasma boundary. The effects of the current gradient and jump on the growth rate of external kink mode are investigated. It is found that the current jump which causes the q profiles to change plays an important role in the external kink modes in tokamaks. Secondly, a set of step equilibrium current profiles with different jump positions are chosen. The effect of jump position on external kink modes is discussed. Thirdly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles with current bumps are chosen for the case of off-axis heating. The effects of height, width and position of the current bumps on external kink modes are analyzed. The flat equilibrium current profiles are disadvantageous for the MHD stabilities of tokamaks, because of the large current jump at the plasma edge. The peaked equilibrium current profiles and a large and localized current bump near the plasma edge benefit the MHD stabilities of tokamaks

  8. Wheel set run profile renewing method effectiveness estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Dmitrij; Bazaras, Žilvinas; Žukauskaite, Orinta

    2010-01-01

    At all the repair enterprises, despite decreased rim wear-off resistance, after every grinding only geometry wheel profile parameters are renewed. Exploit wheel rim work edge decrease tendency is noticed what induces acquiring new wheels. This is related to considerable axle load and train speed increase and also because of wheel work edge repair method imperfection.

  9. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  10. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds

  11. Turning Words Into Action: Confronting Acquisition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Force Institute of Technology. he 2014 U.S. Air Force policy document A Call to the Future boldly stated that the military of today and the future...opportunities for global game­changers and that rapid change is the new norm. The effect to the warfighter is that we enjoy shorter durations of...companies would be out of business . Sure, the Air Force makes more than just smart­ phones, but most electronics companies offer many models and devices

  12. Proton decay: Numerical simulations confront grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, R.C.; Maturana, G.; Giles, R.C.; Moriarty, K.J.M.; Samuel, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Grand Unified Theories of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions constitute a far reaching attempt to synthesize our knowledge of theoretical particle physics into a consistent and compelling whole. Unfortunately, many quantitative predictions of such unified theories are sensitive to the analytically intractible effects of the strong subnuclear theory (Quantum Chromodynamics or QCD). The consequence is that even ambitious experimental programs exploring weak and super-weak interaction effects often fail to give definitive theoretical tests. This paper describes large-scale calculations on a supercomputer which can help to overcome this gap between theoretical predictions and experimental results. Our focus here is on proton decay, though the methods described are useful for many weak processes. The basic algorithms for the numerical simulation of QCD are well known. We will discuss the advantages and challenges of applying these methods to weak transitions. The algorithms require a very large data base with regular data flow and are natural candidates for vectorization. Also, 32-bit floating point arithmetic is adequate. Thus they are most naturally approached using a supercomputer alone or in combination with a dedicated special purpose processor. (orig.)

  13. The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Clifford M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed. Einstein’s equivalence principle (EEP is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to better than half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and other binary pulsar systems have yielded other tests, especially of strong-field effects. When direct observation of gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources begins, new tests of general relativity will be possible.

  14. The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford M. Will

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed and updated. Einstein’s equivalence principle (EEP is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of local Lorentz invariance and clock experiments. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion, and frame-dragging. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to better than half a percent using the Hulse–Taylor binary pulsar, and a growing family of other binary pulsar systems is yielding new tests, especially of strong-field effects. Current and future tests of relativity will center on strong gravity and gravitational waves.

  15. Teaching Human Rights: Confronting the Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Hammond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching human rights means taking on a series of controversies over what human rights are, how they are determined, and how they are (or are not upheld.  The "possession paradox" is that often human rights are declared but many, or even most, people do not actually enjoy them.  In teaching human rights we must convey both the promise of human rights and the discrepancy between that promise and their fulfillment.  I review a number of controversies in the current application of human rights, many of which arise from that discrepancy.  I then suggest the use of literary works and simulation games that can sometimes convey meanings more effectively than expository material.

  16. The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analysing them are reviewed. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Future tests of EEP and of the inverse square law will search for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and new binary pulsar systems may yield further improvements.When direct observation of gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources begins, new tests of general relativity will be possible.

  17. The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...

  18. Confrontation and Alienation: Education's Flawed Response to Religious Textbook Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    Recent controversies over textbooks illustrate objections held by Evangelicals to "secular humanism" in the schools. Educators automatically tend to assume that all religious objections to curricula are clear-cut attempts at censorship. This confrontational attitude on the part of educators can lead to alienation of minority religious…

  19. Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV rollout: rights and responsibilities. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... Unless the rights of HCWs are recognised and their needs adequately addressed, the best laid plans of government will be at risk.

  20. Challenge, Confrontation, and Exhortation as Intentional Invitations by Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines intentional invitations that challenge, confront, exhort, and persuade people to change their behaviors. Assumes that the sender controls the "intention" and that the receiver determines the degree of "inviting." Suggests that elements of the invitational model serve as a framework to create acceptable inducements in…

  1. Clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated the clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer. They noted that diagnostic of skin cancer have to foresee the determination morphologic implements and degree of malignancy tumorous process why in general depend prognosis of illness

  2. Confronting quintessence models with recent high-redshift supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, G. Barro; Maroto, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We confront the predictions of different quintessence models with recent measurements of the luminosity distance from two sets of supernovae type Ia. In particular, we consider the 157 SNe Ia in the Gold dataset with z M -α and Ω M -w φ planes for the different models and compare their predictions with dark energy models with constant equation of state

  3. Third world programs confront adolescent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to identify workable youth programs and effective research projects that could deal with the problem of adolescent fertility. Typical objectives identified at various conferences concerned with this problem included the following: 1) focus attention on the adverse medical and socioeconomic efforts of early pregnancy; 2) draw attention to the current dimensions of adolescent fertility and its changing patterns; 3) encourage development of programs; and 4) impress decision makers with the importance of programs for adolescents. These conferences express a sense of urgency in developing programs before teen-age pregnancy reaches epidemic proportions. Most of the projects already underway are still pilot efforts and have an impact on a very small sector of the population. Yet, they are positive steps toward a solution of the rising problems of adolescent fertility and help to identify workable solutions. A few of these projects -- underway in Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Cost Rica, Guatemala and Mexico -- are reviewed. The consensus of all conferences held to date has been that cross-cultural interchanges is crucial to the spread of programs and ideas that can be adapted to local conditions. 2 key recommendations have emerged from a meeting of donor and support agencies held in Washington, D.C. in May: 1) a major conference should take place during the International Year of the Child (1979) that would focus on early sexual activity and fertility and 2) an Adolescent Fertility Council should be appointed. An Adolescent Fertility Council would provide a structure to correlate and stimulate interaction, while recognizing that country and culture specific programs are essential.

  4. Francisella tularensis Confronts the Complement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis has developed a number of effective evasion strategies to counteract host immune defenses, not the least of which is its ability to interact with the complement system to its own advantage. Following exposure of the bacterium to fresh human serum, complement is activated and C3b and iC3b can be found covalently attached to the bacterial surface. However, the lipopolysaccharide and capsule of the F. tularensis cell wall prevent complement-mediated lysis and endow the bacterium with serum resistance. Opsonization of F. tularensis with C3 greatly increases its uptake by human neutrophils, dendritic cells and macrophages. Uptake occurs by an unusual looping morphology in human macrophages. Complement receptor 3 is thought to play an important role in opsonophagocytosis by human macrophages, and signaling through this receptor can antagonize Toll-like receptor 2-initiated macrophage activation. Complement C3 also determines the survival of infected human macrophages and perhaps other cell types. C3-opsonization of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain SCHU S4 results in greatly increased death of infected human macrophages, which requires more than complement receptor engagement and is independent of the intracellular replication by the pathogen. Given its entry into the cytosol of host cells, F. tularensis has the potential for a number of other complement-mediated interactions. Studies on the uptake C3-opsonized adenovirus have suggested the existence of a C3 sensing system that initiates cellular responses to cytosolic C3b present on invading microbes. Here we propose that C3 peptides enter the cytosol of human macrophages following phagosome escape of F. tularensis and are recognized as intruding molecular patterns that signal host cell death. With the discovery of new roles for intracellular C3, a better understanding of tularemia pathogenesis is likely to emerge.

  5. Contemporary management issues confronting fisheries science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kenneth T.; Brickman, David

    2001-06-01

    Stock collapses have occurred worldwide. The most frequently cited cause is over-fishing, suggesting that fisheries management has been ineffective in controlling exploitation rates. The progression of a fishery from an over-exploited to a collapsed state involves impairment of the reproductive capacity of the target species, i.e. recruitment over-fishing. In many cases, this occurs by reduction of the spawning stock biomass (SSB) through the systematic elimination of spawning components within a stock complex. While operational definitions of minimum levels of SSB have been developed, they have seldom been applied and never adopted in a Canadian groundfish management context. The answer to the question of how much is enough to perpetuate a stock under exploitation has been illusive. Serebryakov [J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 47 (1990) 267] has advocated definition of critical levels of SSB based on survival rates (R/SSB). We review his method and discuss the utility of the approach. An alternative approach to the problem of estimating minimum SSB is through a fundamental revision of the traditional stock and recruitment relationship. Explicit theoretical SSB thresholds below which reproduction/recruitment is severely impaired based upon density-dependent mating success (or Allee effects) is considered a superior approach to the question of how much is enough because of its ecological grounding. However, the successful application of this approach will require re-definition of the space/time scales of the management unit. Finally, support is growing for the establishment of closed areas or "no-take zones" as an alternative approach to managing the problems of fishing a stock complex by enabling sub-populations to escape fishing. While the expected benefits of areas protected from fishing are numerous, clear demonstrations of benefits of such areas in marine temperate ecosystems are lacking. In fact, unintended negative consequences may result from such actions.

  6. Assessment of Elderlies Sleep Disorders and Different Confronts Methods Among Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Nobahar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sleep is one of the essential needs for human and every disorder in during of sleep causes psychological problem and decreased person>s ability. Although sleep disorders occur in every of ages. Elderly person usually has very problem for satisfied sleep. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and confront methods of those in elderly persons in Semnan city. Methods & Materials: This is a descriptive analytical research. 200 elderly residents of Semnan were selected through rundomical sampling. Sleep disorders was assessment with questioner and interviewer that include of sleep disorders (Dissomnia, Parasomnia and confront methods (Behavioral, Cognitive, sleep hygiene and drug therapy. Results: Data indicated that prevalence of dissomnia was 67% and prevalence of insomnia was 61% that the most problem were in all stage of sleep (early, intermittent and end. Prevalence of Parasomnia was 29% that more of those (14% had night terror. In the part of confront methods of sleep disorders, 57% used of behavioral therapy. The most of that (25% were concentration of the limb before the sleep and 95.5% of them comprehension of cognitive methods. The most of that (26% were comprehension of effect of age on sleep. 100% of them orientation of sleep hygiene and the most of that (39% were orientation with 4 choose of sleep hygiene. 20% of them used of drug therapy. Conclusion: Finding above indicate that high prevalence of sleep disorders in elderly in Semnan, need supervised and widespread program for promoting awareness among population about sleep disorders and confront methods of those.

  7. Geometrical effects determinant of the Compton profile shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Renzo; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of the experimental set up on the shape of the Compton line. In any scattering experiment, the scattering angle is not well defined due to the collimators aperture and thus, a distribution of angles is found for each set up. This, in turn, produces the energies' distribution of the scattered photons around a mean value. This contribution has been evaluated and found it to be significant for several cases. In order to do this evaluation, a response function, that is numerically generated for each experimental set up and convoluted with the Compton profile, was defined. (Author) [es

  8. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

    2013-12-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

  9. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, K; Sagara, K; Kanemoto, T; Umekage, T

    2013-01-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation

  10. Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant

  11. EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC STIMULATION ON BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE TESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourissa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical profile (BPP test is the most commonly used antenatal test of fetal well-being. Purpose of this study is determining the influence of acoustic stimulation (AS on BPP testing time. About 55 pregnant women at 35 to 42 weeks who referred to department of Obstetric & Gynecology at university of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran, were selected randomly. We used abdominal ultrasound guidance to place buzzer like device with power of 110 dB at the skin surface of the maternal abdomen, close to the fetal head. BPP test performed and BPP mean testing time calculated before and after AS. Data compared and analyzed by paired t-test. The results showed that fetal AS reduces the overall mean testing time from 24 minutes to 5 minutes. This clinical application can be helpful in busy clinics when rapid assessment of fetal health is required.

  12. Issues confronting women participation in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, Radhlinah; Jingmond, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises the issues confronting the minority cohort’s participation in the construction industry. Women in construction are seen as the wrong gender to be around for the construction occupations require not only manual dexterity but physical strength. Currently, the industry is employing less than 10% of the female in the workforce with even lower participation in crafts and trade. This paper discussed about the current women participation in construction focusing on the European Uni...

  13. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  14. Scheme with two large extra dimensions confronted with neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalampi, J.; Sipilaeinen, V.; Vilja, I.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a particle physics model in a six-dimensional spacetime, where two extra dimensions form a torus. Particles with standard model charges are confined by interactions with a scalar field to four four-dimensional branes, two vortices accommodating ordinary type fermions and two antivortices accommodating mirror fermions. We investigate the phenomenological implications of this multibrane structure by confronting the model with neutrino physics data

  15. Stop Harassment! Men’s reactions to victims’ confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Herrera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim’s self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men’s perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation, both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.

  16. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM ... Medicine Division. Photo Courtesy of Lisa Helfert Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives is on display in the ...

  17. The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R.; Atwood-Blaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a professional development workshop for K-12 science teachers entitled "The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom." This workshop was conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), which has the primary goal to understand and predict the role of polar ice sheets in sea level change. The specific objectives of this summer workshop were two-fold; first, to address the need for advancement in science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and second, to address the need for science teacher training in climate change science. Twenty-eight Kansas teachers completed four pre-workshop assignments online in Moodle and attended a one-week workshop. The workshop included lecture presentations by scientists (both face-to-face and via video-conference) and collaboration between teachers and scientists to create online inquiry-based lessons on the water budget, remote sensing, climate data, and glacial modeling. Follow-up opportunities are communicated via the CReSIS Teachers listserv to maintain and further develop the collegial connections and collaborations established during the workshop. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results indicate that this workshop was particularly effective in the following four areas: 1) creating meaningful connections between K-12 teachers and CReSIS scientists; 2) integrating distance-learning technologies to facilitate the social construction of knowledge; 3) increasing teachers' content understanding of climate change and its impacts on the cryosphere and global sea level; and 4) increasing teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about teaching climate science. Evaluation methods included formative content understanding assessments (via "clickers") during each scientist's presentation, a qualitative evaluation survey administered at the end of the workshop, and two quantitative evaluation instruments administered pre- and post- workshop. The first of these

  18. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  19. Shaping the composition profiles in heteroepitaxial quantum dots: Interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Georgiou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations, coupling thermodynamic and kinetic effects, resolve a longstanding controversy regarding the origin of composition profiles in heteroepitaxial SiGe quantum dots. It is shown that profiles with cores rich in the unstrained (Si component derive from near-equilibrium processes and intraisland diffusion. Profiles with cores rich in the strained (Ge component are of nonequilibrium nature, i.e., they are strain driven but kinetically limited. They are shaped by the distribution of kinetic barriers of atomic diffusion in the islands. The diffusion pathways are clearly revealed for the first time. Geometrical kinetics play a minor role.

  20. SU-F-T-478: Effect of Deconvolution in Analysis of Mega Voltage Photon Beam Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [JAYPEE HOSPITAL- RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study and compare the penumbra of 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam profiles after deconvoluting different volume ionization chambers. Methods: 0.125cc Semi-Flex chamber, Markus Chamber and PTW Farmer chamber were used to measure the in-plane and cross-plane profiles at 5 cm depth for 6 MV and 15 MV photons. The profiles were measured for various field sizes starting from 2×2 cm till 30×30 cm. PTW TBA scan software was used for the measurements and the “deconvolution” functionality in the software was used to remove the volume averaging effect due to finite volume of the chamber along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the ionization chambers. The predicted true profile was compared and the change in penumbra before and after deconvolution was studied. Results: After deconvoluting the penumbra decreased by 1 mm for field sizes ranging from 2 × 2 cm till 20 x20 cm. This is observed for along both lateral and longitudinal directions. However for field sizes from 20 × 20 till 30 ×30 cm the difference in penumbra was around 1.2 till 1.8 mm. This was observed for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The penumbra was always lesser in the deconvoluted profiles for all the ionization chambers involved in the study. The variation in difference in penumbral values were in the order of 0.1 till 0.3 mm between the deconvoluted profile along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the chambers under study. Deconvolution of the profiles along longitudinal direction for Farmer chamber was not good and is not comparable with other deconvoluted profiles. Conclusion: The results of the deconvoluted profiles for 0.125cc and Markus chamber was comparable and the deconvolution functionality can be used to overcome the volume averaging effect.

  1. Mitochondrial Profiles and the Anticonvulsant Effect of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD in adolescent rats, at Emory University and other centers, found that the hippocampus responds by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing metabolic gene expression, and increasing energy reserves.

  2. MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY EXECUTIVE CHEFS IN HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal BIRDIR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the managerial problems confronted by executive chefs working at 4 and 5-star hotels in Turkey. A survey developed by the researchers was employed as a data collection tool. Answers given by participants were analyzed using “T-test” and “ANOVA” analyses in order to determine whether there are significant differences of opinion on the subject (collated in answers to the survey questionnaire amongst executive chefs, based on answers given by them (expressed as average figures dependent upon such variables as their “Age”, “Gender”, “Educational Status” and “Star status of the hotel within which they worked.” The study results showed that the most important problem confronting executive chefs was “finding educated/trained kitchen personnel.” On the specific problem, “responsibility and authority is not clear within the kitchen,” there was a significant difference of opinion by the gender of the executive chefs. Moreover, there was a significant difference of opinion dependent upon the star status of the hotels within which the chefs worked on the problem of whether or not “the working hours of kitchen personnel were too long.” The findings suggest that there are important problems confronted by executive chefs. Moreover, male and female executive chefs have different opinions on the magnitudes of some specific problems. Whereas there are various reports and similar publications discussing problems faced by executive chefs, the present study is the first one in the literature that solely explore the managerial problems experienced at a kitchen context.

  3. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  4. Confronting the effects of unemployment on achievement motivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significantly after the intervention (team player, competitiveness, self-confidence and achiever). Other changes following the intervention included an overall increase in the scores in the subscale 'work habits' (planning/organisation, initiative, team player). Apart from revealing an increase in achievement motivation, the ...

  5. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  6. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  7. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  8. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-03-01

    The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  9. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  10. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  11. MINERAL PROFILE EVOLUTION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual minerals and antibacterial activity were investigated in 5 medicinal plants (pot marigold - Calendula officinalis, burdock - Arctium lappa, celandine - Chelidonium majus, basil- Ocimum basilicum, thyme - Thymus vulgaris using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS technique and antibiogram  method. The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 12 strains isolated from milk microflora, belonging to Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia and Bacillus genera. The obtained results show the best antibacterial effect with  Arctium lappa ethanol extracts, having inhibition areas of 6.3 to 17.5 mm, with an average of 9.0 mm and the highest determined mineral being Calcium. The results obtained open the prospect of using these medicinal plants as an alternative to be used for the control and cure of some mineral deficiencies or for preventing various diseases of the animals.

  12. A profile of effective leadership in some South African high-poverty schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Kamper

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The struggle of high-poverty schools for survival is well documented. Some have overcome poverty-related odds and performed exceptionally well, prompting the following research question: What elements constitute a profile of effective leadership in high-poverty schools? Investigations conducted at six successful high-poverty schools revealed the contribution of invitational leadership to this success. I look at the personal traits and capabilities of effective leaders in high-poverty schools, as presented in a leadership profile.

  13. Effect of extrusion stem speed on extrusion process for a hollow aluminum profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Zhao, Guoqun; Chen, Zhiren; Chen, Hao; Kou, Fujun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Extrusion stem speed has significant effects on extrusion process. ► An optimum value of stem speed exists for uniform metal flow distribution. ► A higher stem speed leads to a higher required extrusion force. ► A high stem speed leads to an improved welding quality of aluminum profile. - Abstract: Extrusion stem speed is one of important process parameters during aluminum profile extrusion, which directly influences the profile quality and choice of extrusion equipments. In this paper, the extrusion process of a thin-walled hollow aluminum profile was simulated by means of the HyperXtrude commercial software. Through a serial of numerical simulation, the effects of stem speed on extrusion process, such as metal flow behavior at die exit, temperature distribution, extrusion force, and welding pressure, have been investigated. The numerical results showed that there existed an optimum value of stem speed for flow velocity distribution. With the increasing stem speed, the temperature of the extrudate and required extrusion force increased, and the welding quality of extrudate would be improved. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis, the appropriate stem speed could be determined for practical extrusion production. Thus, the research results could give effective guideline for determining initial billet and die temperature and choosing the proper extrusion press in aluminum profile industry.

  14. Molecular profiles of finasteride effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Kim, Jeri

    2009-06-01

    Our inability to distinguish between low-grade prostate cancers that pose no threat and those that can kill compels newly diagnosed early prostate cancer patients to make decisions that may negatively affect their lives needlessly for years afterward. To reliably stratify patients into different risk categories and apply appropriate treatment, we need a better molecular understanding of prostate cancer progression. Androgen ablation therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors reduce dihydrotestosterone levels and increase apoptosis. Because of the differing biological potentials of tumor cells, however, these treatments may, in some cases, worsen outcome by selecting for or inducing adaptation of stronger androgen receptor signaling pathways. Reduced dihydrotestosterone also may be associated with altered survival pathways. Complicating treatment effects further, molecular adaptation may be accelerated by interactions between epithelial and stromal cells. The hypothesis that early prostate cancer cells with differing biological potential may respond differently to finasteride treatment is worth testing. Ongoing studies using a systems biology approach in a preoperative prostate cancer setting are testing this hypothesis toward developing more-rational clinical interventions.

  15. Effect of limiter recycling on measured poloidal impurity emission profiles in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bush, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Vallet, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Poloidal impurity emission profiles measured with the Tore Supra grazing incidence duochromator exhibit a complex spatial structure during ergodic divertor operation with an outboard poloidal guard limiter. As previous measurements with inboard-wall limited plasmas have shown that these profiles give important information about the ergodic field structure, so the contribution of local neon recycling from the limiter-induced plume has been modeled. This permits a discrimination of edge and core transport effects. The BBQ 3D scrape-off layer code calculates the asymmetric contribution to the emission and MIST 1D simulation gives the symmetric part. A systematic increase is observed in the decay rate of neon emission after injection as the ergodic divertor strength is increased. The calculations permit identification of the limiter plume contribution to the profile structure, and, with this identification, the effect of the divertor to enhance impurity efflux can be seen from the decay data

  16. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases or sham (controls acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia.

  17. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  18. Effects of breed on milk fatty acid profile in dairy ewes, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the fatty acid profile of milk fat, with particular reference to cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in two indigenous Romanian sheep breeds (Spanca and Turcana), irrespective of the effects of diet and season. The ewes (n = 25 for each breed) received the ...

  19. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, sunflower oil, high oleic acid ...

  20. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  1. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  2. The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on release profiles of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Imamul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Diclofenac could be successfully prepared using an appropriate amount of Methocel K15 MCR® and CA in the form of matrix tablets with similar dissolution profile of patent product Voltaren SR® . The type of polymers used was found to induce a profound effect on release rate and mechanism.

  3. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  4. Effect of Cassia hirsuta (L) extract on DNA profile of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanol extract of leaf of Cassia hirsute (L) on the DNA profile of some selected pathogenic microorganisms were investigated using PCR-RAPD analysis to generate DNA fingerprint. The change in molecular configuration of organisms with and without extract shows a wide disparity between the sensitive and ...

  5. Effect of soy protein on serum lipid profile and some lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soy protein on serum lipid profile and some lipid metabolizing enzymes in rats fed with cholesterol diets was examined in this study. Rats were subjected to feeding trial over a period of six weeks on formulated diets containing: 20% soy protein with 0% cholesterol (group A), 20% soy protein with 5% cholesterol ...

  6. A profile of effective leadership in some South African high-poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The struggle of high-poverty schools for survival is well documented. Some have overcome poverty-related odds and performed exceptionally well, prompting the following research question: What elements constitute a profile of effective leadership in high-poverty schools? Investigations conducted at six successful

  7. Effects of DTM resolution on slope steepness and soil loss prediction on hillslope profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder Paulo Moreira; William J. Elliot; Andrew T. Hudak

    2011-01-01

    Topographic attributes play a critical role in predicting erosion in models such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The effects of four different high resolution hillslope profiles were studied using four different DTM resolutions: 1-m, 3-m, 5-m and 10-m. The WEPP model used a common scenario encountered in the forest environment and the selected hillslope...

  8. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals, ca...

  9. A Profile Analysis on the Effectiveness of Two kinds of Feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Profile Analysis on the Effectiveness of Two kinds of Feeds on Poultry. Birds. Onuoha, Desmond O+. and Opara Pius N*. +Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal ... birds using chicken from Michika Farm in Igwuruta in Port Harcourt, Rivers State as a case study. .... easy to manage, regularly lay eggs, disease.

  10. Novel Profiling Model and Side Effects of Helical Scan Silicon Heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial erasure of track edges was directly measured from triple-track patterns using a novel model to interpret the output profiles. The model is based on representing the read head as the sum of a reference width, wavelength independent, and two side reading effective widths that are wavelength

  11. Confronting hip resurfacing and big femoral head replacement gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Karampinas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved hip kinematics and bone preservation have been reported after resurfacing total hip replacement (THRS. On the other hand, hip kinematics with standard total hip replacement (THR is optimized with large diameter femoral heads (BFH-THR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcomes of THRS and BFH-THR and correlate these results to bone preservation or the large femoral heads. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Gait speed, postural balance, proprioception and overall performance. Our results demonstrated a non-statistically significant improvement in gait, postural balance and proprioception in the THRS confronting to BFH-THR group. THRS provide identical outcomes to traditional BFH-THR. The THRS choice as bone preserving procedure in younger patients is still to be evaluated.

  12. Confronting the Danish sectors for food and agriculture with 'terroir'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoye, Monica

    2007-01-01

    in e.g. PDO and PGI labelling. In the Roman approach, the superior product can be differentiated from all other products by its special taste, identity and/or integrated cultural elements. This definition of superiority is far from the average understanding of high food quality in a Scandinavian......The notion of ‘terroir' originates from wine production in southern Europe. It denotes a traditional approach to food, agriculture and rurality - an approach, which by some scholars has been summarized as a Roman approach. This Roman approach has exerted great influence on EU policies, resulting...... country like Denmark, where uniform products, high nutritional and hygienic levels and veterinary approval characterise an extremely export oriented food sector. However, Danish small scale food producers, who want to implement the terroir approach in their own production, increasingly confront...

  13. Confronting hybrid inflation in supergravity with CMB data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannerot, Rachel; Postma, Marieke

    2005-01-01

    F-term GUT inflation coupled to N = 1 supergravity is confronted with CMB data. Corrections to the string mass-per-unit-length away from the Bogomolny limit are taken into account. We find that a superpotential coupling 10 -7 /N∼ -2 /N, with N the dimension of the Higgs-representation, is still compatible with the data. The parameter space is enlarged in warm inflation, as well as in the curvaton and inhomogeneous reheat scenario. F-strings formed at the end of P-term inflation are also considered. Because these strings satisfy the Bogomolny bound the bounds are stronger: the gauge coupling is constrained to the range 10 -7 -4

  14. The latent confrontation: The Korean peninsula’s uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Blas Mendoza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the changes that have taken place in inter-Korean relations since the fall of the Soviet regimes. In the first few years following the fall of the iron curtain, the Korean perimeter became a scenario of confrontation that seemed to perpetuate theproblem. However, in the second half of the ‘90s, north-east Asia began to undergo a real change that resulted in public contacts between the two Koreas. The new game that was officially opened by the “Sunshine policy” led to a deep-seated rethinking of foreignpolicy by both states, and opened a new chapter in inter-Korean relations that has clearly demonstrated the important dimension and repercussions of the conflict in the geo-strategic framework of the entire East Asian area, as well as in international politics.

  15. Energy condition bounds and their confrontation with supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M. P.; Vitenti, S.; Reboucas, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The energy conditions play an important role in the understanding of several properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible existence of the so-called phantom fields. We show that the integrated bounds provided by the energy conditions on cosmological observables such as the distance modulus μ(z) and the lookback time t L (z) are not sufficient (or necessary) to ensure the local fulfillment of the energy conditions, making explicit the limitation of these bounds in the confrontation with observational data. We recast the energy conditions as bounds on the deceleration and normalized Hubble parameters, obtaining new bounds which are necessary and sufficient for the local fulfillment of the energy conditions. A statistical confrontation, with 1σ-3σ confidence levels, between our bounds and supernovae data from the gold and combined samples is made for the recent past. Our analyses indicate, with 3σ confidence levels, the fulfillment of both the weak energy condition (WEC) and dominant energy condition (DEC) for z≤1 and z < or approx. 0.8, respectively. In addition, they suggest a possible recent violation of the null energy condition (NEC) with 3σ, i.e. a very recent phase of superacceleration. Our analyses also show the possibility of violation of the strong energy condition (SEC) with 3σ in the recent past (z≤1), but interestingly the q(z)-best-fit curve crosses the SEC--fulfillment divider at z≅0.67, which is a value very close to the beginning of the epoch of cosmic acceleration predicted by the standard concordance flat ΛCDM scenario.

  16. The effect of mandrel configuration on the warpage in pultrusion of rectangular hollow profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    pultrusion company. In addition, the predicted warpage behaviour is further analysed by adjusting the mandrel length as well as including the mandrel heating. Using the proposed process model, the effect of the mandrel configurations on the quality of the pultrusion is investigated in terms of temperature......, degree of cure and distortions.These unwanted residual distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances e.g. warpage of pultruded window frames and hollow profiles as well as spring-in of L-shaped profiles, etc....

  17. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  18. Mission profile resolution effects on lifetime estimation of doubly-fed induction generator power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guanguan; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , and the corresponding thermal modeling of power semiconductors are discussed. Accordingly, effects of different mission profiles on the consumed lifetime of the power converter are evaluated. In the above three thermal cycles, the IGBT of the grid-side converter and the diode of the rotor-side converter are more...... fragile, and the total consumed lifetimes are higher. Moreover, the short-term thermal cycles with milliseconds resolution induce the unbalance of the lifetime between the diode and IGBT of the grid-side converter, while thermal cycles with hour, second, and millisecond resolution consumes the similar......In the wind energy generation system, mission profiles are complicated, which range from seconds to years. In order to estimate the consumed lifetime of the power converter, wind speed profiles with the time resolution of 1 hour, 1 second and 0.5 millisecond are studied in this paper...

  19. Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)

  20. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  1. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. (bar P)), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g. ).

  2. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  3. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Method of improving heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Xia, Huifen

    2018-01-01

    The project of polymer flooding has achieved great success in Daqing oilfield, and the main oil reservoir recovery can be improved by more than 15%. But, for some strong oil reservoir heterogeneity carrying out polymer flooding, polymer solution will be inefficient and invalid loop problem in the high permeability layer, then cause the larger polymer volume, and a significant reduction in the polymer flooding efficiency. Aiming at this problem, it is studied the method that improves heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control. The research results show that the polymer physical and chemical reaction of positively-charged gel with the residual polymer in high permeability layer can generate three-dimensional network of polymer, plugging high permeable layer, and increase injection pressure gradient, then improve the effect of polymer flooding development. Under the condition of the same dosage, positively-charged gel profile control can improve the polymer flooding recovery factor by 2.3∼3.8 percentage points. Under the condition of the same polymer flooding recovery factor increase value, after positively-charged gel profile control, it can reduce the polymer volume by 50 %. Applying mechanism of positively-charged gel profile control technology is feasible, cost savings, simple construction, and no environmental pollution, therefore has good application prospect.

  5. Effect of dactyloscopic powders on DNA profiling from enhanced fingerprints: results from an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Giuliodori, Alice; Rodriguez, Daniele; Caenazzo, Luciana

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a study on the effect of fingerprint enhancement methods on subsequent short tandem repeat profiling. First, we performed a study typing blood traces deposited on 5 different surfaces, treated with 8 types of dactyloscopic powders. Three different DNA extraction methods were used. Subsequently, we analyzed latent fingerprints on the same 5 surfaces enhanced with the 8 different powders used in the first part of the study. This study has demonstrated that DNA profiling can be performed on fingerprints left on different substrates, and the substrate will affect the amount of DNA that can be recovered for DNA typing. In the first phase of the study, a profile was obtained in 92% of the 120 samples analyzed; in the second part, in 55% of the 80 samples analyzed, we obtained a profile complete in 32.5% of the cases. From the results obtained, it seems that the powders used in latent fingerprints enhancement, rather than having a direct inhibitory effect on extraction and amplification of DNA, may cause partial degradation of DNA, reducing the efficiency of amplification reaction. It should not be forgotten that these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, and in real caseworks, there may still be different problems involved.

  6. Effect of masticatory stimulation on the quantity and quality of saliva and the salivary metabolomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Okuma

    Full Text Available This study characterized the changes in quality and quantity of saliva, and changes in the salivary metabolomic profile, to understand the effects of masticatory stimulation.Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 55 subjects and salivary hydrophilic metabolites were comprehensively quantified using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.In total, 137 metabolites were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 44 metabolites in stimulated saliva were significantly higher than those in unstimulated saliva. Pathway analysis identified the upregulation of the urea cycle and synthesis and degradation pathways of glycine, serine, cysteine and threonine in stimulated saliva. A principal component analysis revealed that the effect of masticatory stimulation on salivary metabolomic profiles was less dependent on sample population sex, age, and smoking. The concentrations of only 1 metabolite in unstimulated saliva, and of 3 metabolites stimulated saliva, showed significant correlation with salivary secretion volume, indicating that the salivary metabolomic profile and salivary secretion volume were independent factors.Masticatory stimulation affected not only salivary secretion volume, but also metabolite concentration patterns. A low correlation between the secretion volume and these patterns supports the conclusion that the salivary metabolomic profile may be a new indicator to characterize masticatory stimulation.

  7. Mis-estimation and bias of hyperpolarized apparent diffusion coefficient measurements due to slice profile effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeremy W; Milshteyn, Eugene; Marco-Rius, Irene; Ohliger, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E Z

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the impact of slice profile effects on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping of hyperpolarized (HP) substrates. Slice profile effects were simulated using a Gaussian radiofrequency (RF) pulse with a variety of flip angle schedules and b-value ordering schemes. A long T 1 water phantom was used to validate the simulation results, and ADC mapping of HP [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea was performed on the murine liver to assess these effects in vivo. Slice profile effects result in excess signal after repeated RF pulses, causing bias in HP measurements. The largest error occurs for metabolites with small ADCs, resulting in up to 10-fold overestimation for metabolites that are in more-restricted environments. A mixed b-value scheme substantially reduces this bias, whereas scaling the slice-select gradient can mitigate it completely. In vivo, the liver ADC of hyperpolarized [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea is nearly 70% lower (0.99 ± 0.22 vs 1.69 ± 0.21 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) when slice-select gradient scaling is used. Slice profile effects can lead to bias in HP ADC measurements. A mixed b-value ordering scheme can reduce this bias compared to sequential b-value ordering. Slice-select gradient scaling can also correct for this deviation, minimizing bias and providing more-precise ADC measurements of HP substrates. Magn Reson Med 78:1087-1092, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Forty-five years apart - confronting the legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a satisfactory teaching hospital or residence for its [African] ... the transformation of health sciences education in .... by students and to elucidate some challenges for higher ..... other inequalities in staffing profile, as a practical expression of.

  10. Effect of opium addiction on lipid profile and atherosclerosis formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Darabi, Maryam; Nasry, Mohammad; Saabet-Jahromi, Mohammad-Javad; Malek-Pour-Afshar, Reza; Sheibani, Hassan

    2009-03-01

    In some Asian and Middle Eastern societies, opium consumption has traditionally been regarded as a way to lower blood lipids and to prevent heart diseases. This could eventually lead to addiction. In this study, the effect of oral opium consumption on serum lipids and atherogenesis in rabbits was investigated. Twenty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control, hypercholesterolemic, addicted, and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups and were studied for 3 months. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study and at 1 month intervals thereafter. At the end of the study period, aortic plaque formation was assessed. Compared with control, in the hypercholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased (Popium consumption can have aggravating effects in atherosclerosis formation related with hypercholesterolemia, mainly affecting lipid profile.

  11. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  12. [Effect of oral administration of ascorbic acid on insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in obese individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abundis, E; Pascoe-González, S; González-Ortiz, M; Mora-Martínez, J M; Cabrera-Pivaral, C E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of an oral ascorbic acid (AA) supplement on lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese people. A randomized double-blind clinical trial placebo controlled was performed in 16 obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m2]. Eight received orally 1 g of AA daily for four weeks and the other eight volunteers received placebo by the same scheme and period of time. Before and after the pharmacological intervention were measured total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and uric acid. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides were calculated using formulas. In order to assess insulin sensitivity before and after the intervention, the steady-state glucose (SSG) was calculated from the insulin suppression test modified with octreotide. There were not significant differences in clinical characteristics between both groups. Basal metabolic profile and SSG were similar between both groups. There were not significant differences in both groups between before and after the intervention in metabolic profile and insulin sensitivity. AA did not modify the lipid profile nor insulin sensitivity in the group of obese people studied.

  13. Some Challenges the Management Confronts with, in the Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Mihai Treapat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze some features and components of the management in general, and of the management in the financial area in particular. Special attention is given to how they cope with some risk which could affect their activity. Trying to find from practice what kind of difficulties the management faces in their work, for sure, we get to interesting conclusions and furthermore, to optimum solutions. We already have some data, result of some earlier preoccupations of the specialists (Dănilă and Berea, 2000 pp.39-48 while others can be foreseen as specific elements for the beginning of the 3rd millennium, that started with what the rating agencies seem to admit as the most important economic decline and prolonged recession risk within the post World War II history. We consider an evaluation of the challenges the management confronts with, lately - while subject to pressures and to the need for radical changes that come with an astonishing speed and that are enhanced by the shareholders’ desperate need to protect their capital. Findings reveal that, in any business enterprise the shareholders’ strategy and the management’s objectives are earning new clients, enlarging the market share, creating added value and on these bases, maximizing the gained profits. We consider that the volatile and fluctuant nature of the raw material the banks operate with - namely the money – turn the management in this area into a particular one, depicted by some specific features, which we analyze in the following pages.

  14. Dynamics of confrontation : Tarapur and Indo-US relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, Sanjukta

    1981-01-01

    Under the Tarapur Agreement signed in 1963, the United States is under contractual obligations to supply the enriched uranium fuel for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. However, the supply of fuel has become an issue of confrontation between India and the United States after India conducted the peaceful nuclear explosion test at Pokhran in 1974. India also refused to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) due to its discriminatory nature. The United States insists on India's signing the NPT under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act passed by the American Congress in 1978. During 1977-79 period, a license for 12 tonnes was cleared after a sort of assurance that no nuclear test would be conducted. India refused to accept the full scope safeguards as stipulated in the U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act. In 1980, a presidential executive order for 40 tonnes of fuel was issued, but only one consignment of 19.6 tonnes was cleared by the American Senate. After Reagan became the U.S. President, the fuel supply completely stopped. Now discussions are taking place to terminate the Tarapur Agreement on mutually acceptable terms. (M.G.B.)

  15. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  16. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  17. Effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile of albino rats | Peters | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile and histopathology of the heart of albino rats. Albino rats (42) were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120g body weight (BW) and 0.55mg/120g BW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days. Result from the study revealed that there was ...

  18. Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi” Tea on Lipid Profile in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Effect of oral administration of “Gadagi” tea on lipid profile was assessed in 50 healthy male albino rats which were grouped and administered with different doses(mg/kg) i.e low dose (380mg/kg, 415mg/kg, 365mg/kg,. 315mg/kg for “sak”, ”sada” and “magani” respectively), standard dose (760mg/kg, 830mg/kg, ...

  19. Comparative Effects of Injectable and Oral Hormonal Contraceptives on Lipid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayor Adegoke; Pascal C. Eneh; Roseanne Okafor; Benjamin N. Okolonkwo; Solomon A. Braide; Chukwubike U.Okeke; Holy Brown; Ngozika B. Okwandu

    2012-01-01

    Background and AimsThe continual use of hormonal contraceptives among women within reproductive age has been on the increase. The effects of these contraceptives on lipid metabolism vary depending on the type of hormonal contraceptive. This study was carried out among Nigerian women, to compare theeffects of injectable hormonal contraceptives to that of combined oral contraceptives on lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipo-pro...

  20. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  1. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  2. Fear appeals and confronting information campaigns. [Previously: Fear-based information campaigns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Fear appeals or confronting information campaigns confront people in an often hard and sometimes even shocking way with the consequences of risky behaviour. This can have a positive impact on the attitudes and behavioural intentions of the target group, but only if key conditions are met. Those

  3. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...... with theory but quite different from those obtained assuming simple flux-profile relationships. These findings imply that flux-profile relationships can be quite complicated over other than simple homogeneous terrain....

  4. Lateral energy band profile modulation in tunnel field effect transistors based on gate structure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing novel materials and structures is important for enhancing the on-state current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs. In this paper, we reveal that the on-state performance of TFETs is mainly determined by the energy band profile of the channel. According to this interpretation, we present a new concept of energy band profile modulation (BPM achieved with gate structure engineering. It is believed that this approach can be used to suppress the ambipolar effect. Based on this method, a Si TFET device with a symmetrical tri-material-gate (TMG structure is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrated that the special band profile in this device can boost on-state performance, and it also suppresses the off-state current induced by the ambipolar effect. These unique advantages are maintained over a wide range of gate lengths and supply voltages. The BPM concept can serve as a guideline for improving the performance of nanoscale TFET devices.

  5. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  6. Effect of moderate walnut consumption on lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, J N; Aftab, S M; Jubb, A W; Carnegy, F H; Lyall, K; Sarma, J; Newby, D E; Flapan, A D

    2011-02-01

    A large intake of walnuts may improve lipid profile and endothelial function. The effect of moderate walnut consumption is not known. We investigated whether a moderate intake of walnuts would affect lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in healthy volunteers. A total of 30 healthy males were recruited into a single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation (15 g/day) and 4 weeks of control (no walnuts). Arterial stiffness was assessed using pulse waveform analysis to determine the augmentation index and augmented pressure. Platelet activation was determined using flow cytometry to measure circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates. There were no differences in lipid profile after 4 weeks of walnut supplementation compared with control. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was increased during the walnut diet (2.1±0.4 g/day versus 0.7±0.4 g/day, Pprofile, arterial stiffness or platelet activation in man. Our results suggest that the potentially beneficial cardiac effects of walnuts may not be apparent at lower and more practical levels of consumption.

  7. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  8. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. All emergency calls to the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust (currently the Hampshire Division of South Central Ambulance Service, Winchester, UK) during the first weekend of the 2006 World Cup football matches were analysed by call volume and classification of call (call type). On the day of the first football match, call volume was over 50% higher than that on a typical Saturday, with distinct peaks before and after the inaugural match. Call profile analysis showed increases in alcohol-related emergencies, including collapse, unconsciousness, assault and road traffic accidents. The increase in assaults was particularly marked at the end of each match and increased again into the late evening. A detailed mapping of call volumes and profiles during the World Cup football shows a significant increase in overall emergency calls, mostly alcohol related. Mapping of limited resources to these patterns will allow improved responses to emergency calls.

  9. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  10. Scrape-off profiles and effects of limiter pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-11-01

    A one dimensional plasma scrape-off model was used to simulate Tore Supra discharges which are limited by various combinations of the pumped and inner limiters. Scrape-off profiles of the electron density and temperature, ion temperature, and neutral density are given. For each case, various fractions of the ion flux to the neutralizers were assumed to be pumped. Modifications of the scrap-off profiles caused by pumping are predicted. Pumping efficiencies are calculated including the effects of flux amplification caused by recycling. The pumping efficiency is estimated to be 8% for low-power discharges formed on the outer pumped limiter, 7.5% for intermediate-power discharges formed on the seven-module pumped-limiter system, and 5% for full-power discharges formed on both the inner limiter and the pumped-limiter system. The maximum particle removal rate is estimated to be 150 Tl/s

  11. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  12. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  13. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  14. Semi-empirical procedures for correcting detector size effect on clinical MV x-ray beam profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Narayan; Kazi, Abdul M.; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The measured radiation beam profiles need to be corrected for the detector size effect to derive the real profiles. This paper describes two new semi-empirical procedures to determine the real profiles of high-energy x-ray beams by removing the detector size effect from the measured profiles. Measured profiles are corrected by shifting the position of each measurement point by a specific amount determined from available theoretical and experimental knowledge in the literature. The authors developed two procedures to determine the amount of shift. In the first procedure, which employs the published analytical deconvolution procedure of other investigators, the shift is determined from the comparison of the analytical fit of the measured profile and the corresponding analytical real profile derived from the deconvolution of the fitted measured profile and the Gaussian detector response function. In the second procedure, the amount of shift at any measurement point is considered to be proportional to the value of an analytical function related to the second derivative of the real profile at that point. The constant of proportionality and a parameter in the function are obtained from the values of the shifts at the 90%, 80%, 20%, and 10% dose levels, which are experimentally known from the published results of other investigators to be approximately equal to half of the radius of the detector. These procedures were tested by correcting the profiles of 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams measured by three different ionization chambers and a stereotactic field diode detector with 2.75, 2, 1, and 0.3 mm radii of their respective active cylindrical volumes. The corrected profiles measured by different detectors are found to be in close agreement. The detector size corrected penumbra widths also agree with the expected values based on the results of an earlier investigation. Thus, the authors concluded that the proposed procedures are accurate and can be used to derive the real

  15. Profile of capillary bridges between two vertically stacked cylindrical fibers under gravitational effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohang; Lee, Hoon Joo; Michielsen, Stephen; Wilusz, Eugene

    2018-05-01

    Although profiles of axisymmetric capillary bridges between two cylindrical fibers have been extensively studied, little research has been reported on capillary bridges under external forces such as the gravitational force. This is because external forces add significant complications to the Laplace-Young equation, making it difficult to predict drop profiles based on analytical approaches. In this paper, simulations of capillary bridges between two vertically stacked cylindrical fibers with gravitational effect taken into consideration are studied. The asymmetrical structure of capillary bridges that are hard to predict based on analytical approaches was studied via a numerical approach based on Surface Evolver (SE). The axial and the circumferential spreading of liquids on two identical fibers in the presence of gravitational effects are predicted to determine when the gravitational effects are significant or can be neglected. The effect of liquid volume, equilibrium contact angle, the distance between two fibers and fiber radii. The simulation results were verified by comparing them with experimental measurements. Based on SE simulations, curves representing the spreading of capillary bridges along the two cylindrical fibers were obtained. The gravitational effect was scaled based on the difference of the spreading on upper and lower fibers.

  16. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Creating Moral Crisis and the Role of the University in Confronting It from the View Point of Qassim University Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Hend Sam'an Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at recognizing the effect of the social networking sites (henceforth snss) in creating moral crisis and the role of the university in its confrontation from the view point of faculty members at Qassim University. Two tests were constructed; the first included (29 items) developed to identify the role of snss in creating moral…

  17. Effects of eslicarbazepine acetate on lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulitano, Patrizia; Franco, Valentina; Mecarelli, Oriano; Brienza, Marianna; Davassi, Chiara; Russo, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs is associated with increased serum lipid levels. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel antiepileptic drug specifically designed with the objective to identify carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine analogues with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The present study aimed to assess the changes in lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy taking ESL as adjunctive therapy. This report describes a retrospective cohort study of 36 adult patients with epilepsy, taking ESL as an add-on treatment. The laboratory values assessed prior and after (range 6-18 months) ESL treatment were sodium levels, total cholesterol (TC), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins and triglycerides. TC and LDL values were significantly decreased already after at least six months of therapy with ESL (191.3±29.6 vs 179.7±29.2mg/dl, p ESL treatment were significantly increased (57.5± 9.1 vs 63.9±8.3mg/dl; pESL, in contrast to the negative effects observed with traditional older carboxamides, positively affects lipid metabolism profile in patients with epilepsy over an average follow-up of 11 months. Further research is needed to confirm the obtained results with a focus on a comprehensive assessment of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of longitudinal profile on the seismic anaysis of concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nady, A.; Ghobarah, A.; Aziz, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional three-dimensional analysis of concrete gravity dams is expensive and very difficult. An alternate approach is to divide the dam into substructures. Each monolith is considered as a substructure and its degrees of freedom are reduced to those on the contact surfaces with the adjacent monoliths as well as a few Ritz vectors. Using this procedure high accuracy was achieved using a reasonable number of degrees of freedom. The analysis is carried out in the frequency domain to account for the frequency dependent parameters in the reservoir substructure. The procedure was tested and compared to typical three-dimensional analysis and was found to give high accuracy. A simplified cross section of gravity dams with different longitudinal profiles was studied using the substructuring procedure as well as a typical two-dimensional analysis. The results obtained show a significant variation in dynamic properties of the dam from that calculated assuming two-dimensional analysis. Furthermore, the response of the dam varies significantly when including the effect of longitudinal profile of the structure. It is concluded that the two-dimensional representation of the structure may substantially overestimate the response of the dam, depending on its longitudinal profile, especially when keyed joints are used in the construction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  20. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed 134 Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of 137 Cs and /sup 239.240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm 2 /yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, were fine-particle accumulation rates are generally >3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm 2 /yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation

  1. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  2. Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavaletto, Maria; Spertino, Stefano; Icardi, Sara; Tortone, Claudia; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-04-07

    The most widespread method for the treatment of donor milk is the Holder pasteurization (HoP). The available literature data show that HoP may cause degradation of some bioactive components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HoP on the protein profile of human milk (HM) using a GeLC-MS method, a proteomic approach and a promising technique able to offer a qualitative HM protein profile. HM samples were collected by standardized methods from 20 mothers carrying both preterm and term newborns. A aliquot of each sample was immediately frozen at -80 °C, whilst another one was Holder pasteurized and then frozen. All samples were then analyzed by GeLC-MS. The protein bands of interest were excised from the gel, digested with trypsin and identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The protein profile before and after HoP showed qualitative differences only in 6 samples out of 20, while in the remaining 14 no detectable differences were found. The differences interested only colostrums and transitional milk samples and regarded the decrease of the electrophoretic bands corresponding to alpha and beta-casein, tenascin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulin. In the majority of samples, HoP did not cause any modification, thereby preserving the biological activity of HM proteins.

  3. Molecular Profiling of Glatiramer Acetate Early Treatment Effects in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Feldman, Anna; Gurevich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone®) has beneficial effects on the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the exact molecular mechanisms of GA effects are only partially understood. Objective: To characterized GA molecular effects in RRMS patients within 3 months of treatment by microarray profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: Gene-expression profiles were determined in RRMS patients before and at 3 months after initiation of GA treatment using Affimetrix (U133A-2) microarrays containing 14,500 well-characterized human genes. Most informative genes (MIGs) of GA-induced biological convergent pathways operating in RRMS were constructed using gene functional annotation, enrichment analysis and pathway reconstruction bioinformatic softwares. Verification at the mRNA and protein level was performed by qRT-PCR and FACS. Results: GA induced a specific gene expression molecular signature that included altered expression of 480 genes within 3 months of treatment; 262 genes were up-regulated, and 218 genes were down-regulated. The main convergent mechanisms of GA effects were related to antigen-activated apoptosis, inflammation, adhesion, and MHC class-I antigen presentation. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GA treatment induces alternations of immunomodulatory gene expression patterns that are important for suppression of disease activity already at three months of treatment and can be used as molecular markers of GA activity. PMID:19893201

  4. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  5. Aflatoxin effect on erythrocyte profile and histopathology of broilers given different additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, M. F.; Sutrisno, B.; Agus, A.; Suryani, A. E.; Istiqomah, L.; Damayanti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte profile and microscopic changes effect of AF induces by low level (57.18 ppb) and chronic exposure (34 days) with administration of additive (Lactobacillus plantarum G7 and methionine). Aflatoxin-contaminated corn was prepared by inoculate Aspergillus flavus FNCC 6002 on corn. Total number of 576 broiler Lohman strain (MB202) unsexed DOC were allocated completely randomized into four treatments and 12 replicates, with 12 broiler chicks each. The treatments as follows: T1 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet, T2 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB (w/w), T3 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 0.8% of methionine (w/w), and T4 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB + 0.8% of methionine (w/w). The effect of treatments was evaluated using ANOVA and the difference among mean treatments were analyzed using DMRT. The result showed that administration of additives had no significant effect (P>0.05) on erythrocyte profile, liver, and bursa of Fabricius. The dose of additive in each treatment (T2, T3, T4) were insufficient to reduce adverse effect of chronic aflatoxicosis. It was concluded that the LAB dose for binding AF (57.18%) should be evaluated and the dose for methionine should be reduced for chronic treatment of aflatoxicosis.

  6. Effects of Shear Fracture on In-depth Profile Modification of Weak Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianjie; Song Xinwang; Yue Xiang'an; Hou Jirui; Fang Lichun; Zhang Huazhen

    2007-01-01

    Two sand packs were filled with fine glass beads and quartz sand respectively. The characteristics of crosslinked polymer flowing through the sand packs as well as the influence of shear fracture of porous media on the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel generated from the crosslinked polymer were investigated. The results indicated that under the dynamic condition crosslinking reaction happened in both sand packs,and the weak gels in these two cases became small gel particles after water flooding. The differences were:the dynamic gelation time in the quartz sand pack was longer than that in the glass bead pack. Residual resistance factor (FRR) caused by the weak gel in the quartz sand pack was smaller than that in the glass bead pack. The weak gel became gel particles after being scoured by subsequent flood water. A weak gel with uniform apparent viscosity and sealing characteristics was generated in every part of the glass bead pack,which could not only move deeply into the sand pack but also seal the high capacity channels again when it reached the deep part. The weak gel performed in-depth profile modification in the glass bead pack,while in the quartz sand pack,the weak gel was concentrated with 100 cm from the entrance of the sand pack. When propelled by the subsequent flood water,the weak gel could move towards the deep part of the sand pack but then became tiny gel particles and could not effectively seal the high capacity channels there. The in-depth profile modification of the weak gel was very weak in the quartz sand pack. It was the shear fracture of porous media that mainly affected the properties and weakened the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel.

  7. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Analysis of effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation by two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A cone-guided target is used in the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment project phase-I (FIREX-I) and optimization of its design is performed. However a laser profile is not optimized much, because the laser profile that is the best for core heating is not known well. To find that, it is useful to investigate characteristics of generated fast electrons in each condition of different laser profiles. In this research, effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation are investigated on somewhat simple conditions by two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations. In these simulations, a target is made up of Au pre-plasma and Au plasma. The Au pre-plasma has the exponential profile in the x direction with the scale length L = 4.0 μm and the density from 0.10 n cr to 20 n cr . The Au plasma has the flat profile in the x direction with 10 μm width and 20 n cr . Plasma profiles are uniform in the y direction. The ionization degree and the mass number of plasmas are 40 and 197, where the ionization degree is determined by PINOCO simulations. PINOCO is a two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulation code, which simulates formation of the high-density plasma during the compression phase in the fast ignition. A laser is assumed to propagate as plane wave from the negative x direction to the positive x direction. Laser profiles are supposed to be uniform in the y direction. Three different laser profiles, namely flat one with t flat = 100 fs, Gaussian one with t rise/fall = 47.0 fs and flat + Gaussian one with t rise/fall = 23.5 fs and t flat = 50 fs are used. The energy and the peak intensity are constant with E = 10 7 J/cm 2 and I L = 10 20 W/cm 2 in all cases of different laser profiles. We compare results in each condition of three different laser profiles and investigate effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation. Time-integrated energy spectra are similar in all cases of three different laser profiles. In the

  9. Refraction in the lower troposphere: Higher order image distortion effects due to refractive profile curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel J.

    There are many applications that rely on the propagation of light through the atmosphere - all of which are subject to atmospheric conditions. While there are obvious processes such as scattering due to particulates like clouds and dust that affect the received intensity of the radiation, the clear atmosphere can also cause significant effects. Refraction is a clear air effect that can cause a variety of phenomena such as apparent relocation, stretching and compression of objects when viewed through the atmosphere. Recently, there has been significant interest in studying the refractive effects for low angle paths within the troposphere, and in particular, near-horizontal paths in the Earth's boundary layer, which is adjacent to the ground. Refractive effects in this case become problematic for many terrestrial optical applications. For example, the pointing of a free space optical communication or a remote sensing system can suffer wandering effects, high-resolution imagery can present distorted and/or dislocated targets, optical tracking of targets can be inaccurate, and optical geodetic surveying accuracy is also very sensitive to the effects of refraction. The work in this dissertation was inspired by data from a time-lapse camera system that collects images of distant targets over a near-horizontal path along the ground. This system was used previously to study apparent diurnal image displacement and this dissertation extends that work by exploring the higher order effects that result from curvature in the vertical refractive index profile of the atmosphere. There are surprisingly few experiments involving atmospheric refractive effects that carefully correlate field data to analytical expressions and other factors such as meteorological data. In working with the time-lapse data, which is comprised of sequences of hundreds or thousands of images collected over durations of weeks or months, it is important to develop straightforward analysis techniques that can

  10. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  11. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent medicine is expanding in Europe with particular attention being given to cancer of adolescents and its treatment. At a time where specialised units for adolescents are being born, it is essential to collect the current knowledge on the pathological impact of the illness in this age period whose limits themselves are often blurred (13-21 years or 15-25 years). Adolescence is a transition between childhood and adulthood, during which one seeks psychological and emotional development. Cancer, by its direct repercussion on the adolescent and also by the disorganisation of the family, can involve risks impending the process of maturation and can also be a purveyor of psychological after-affects. The occurrence of the illness can isolate the adolescent and leak to a restriction of the psychological investment. The reality of possible death can hinder the ill adolescent from developing his natural opposition to the adults who represent authority such as parents or nurses, thereby hindering access to autonomy, independence and identity construction. One can find oneself locked in a state of trouble, confusion, becoming a stranger to oneself, with an impression of distance waxing between the young patient and others. The parents find themselves weakening and must make calls on their supporters. The siblings see their daily life becoming more unsettled and find themselves confronted by parents less available and reassuring. The impact on the brothers and sisters vary depending on their age and the capacity of the parent's adaptation. From the onset, adolescents struck by cancer necessitate an adaptation of the medical staff. The medical information, the treatment and the aid-care contracts must be approved by the adolescent himself but the parent's involvement remains essential. It is necessary to create an alliance of three. Conflicts and rivalry occur frequently between parents and the medical staff. One must study the possibility of creating a place adapted to

  12. Effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su; Stefani, Jerry A.; Dettling, Theodore B.; Tien, John K.; Wallace, John P.

    1991-01-01

    An eddy current testing method was used to continuously monitor crystal growth process and investigate the effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The experimental concept was to monitor the intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. In terms of the experiments, the effects of changes in growth parameters, which include the crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, and pull rate, and hot-zone geometries were investigated. The results show that the crystal thermal profile could shift significantly as a function of crystal length if the closed-loop control fails to maintain a constant thermal condition. As a direct evidence to the effects of the melt flow on heat transfer processes, a thermal gradient minimum was observed when the crystal/crucible rotation combination was 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradients in the crystal near the growth interface were reduced most by decreasing the pull rate or by reducing the radiant heat loss to the environment; a nearly constant axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was decreased by half, the height of the exposed crucible wall was doubled, or a radiation shield was placed around the crystal. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5°C/mm. When compared to theoretical results found in literature, the axial profiles correlated well with the results of the models which included radiant interactions. However, the radial gradients estimated from three-frequency data were much higher than what were predicted by known theoretical models. This discrepancy seems to indicate that optical phenomenon within the crystal is significant and should be included in theoretical modeling.

  13. Detailed investigation on the effect of wall spring stiffness on velocity profile in molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar, S; Karimian, S M H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, motion of 576 monatomic argon molecules is studied in a channel with two 2-layered wall molecules. The effect of wall spring stiffness (K) on maximum value of velocity profile is investigated in the channel. It was observed that for K −2 , there is a decrease in the maximum value of velocity profile with an increase in K. This observation has been already reported by Sofos et al. To investigate a wider range of spring stiffness, in this paper the value of K was increased to more than 500εσ −2 . In this range of wall spring stiffness the behavior of maximum value of velocity profile changed; it increased with an increase in K. In a separate simulation the external force applied to the molecules was also increased and the same non-monotonic behavior of maximum value of velocity was observed. To clarify the reason of this behavior, the concepts of original and effective wall are introduced and through several test it is inferred that the mentioned concepts are not successful to demonstrate the reason of such behavior. It is suggested to obtain non-dimensional parameters governing the simulation in order to investigate the effect of every involved parameter on such a behavior. It is finally concluded that while wall spring stiffness affects the maximum velocity magnitude within the flow, the interaction of the two has not been clearly shown yet. The behavior of the maximum velocity is non-monotonic with the change of K. This is why no specific criterion has been reported for suitable value of wall spring stiffness in molecular dynamics simulation.

  14. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  15. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  16. Effects of excitation spectral width on decay profile of weakly confined excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effect due to a simultaneous excitation of several exciton states on the radiative decay profiles on the basis of the nonlocal response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films. In the case of excitation of single exciton state, the transient grating signal has two decay components. The fast decay component comes from nonlocal response, and the long-lived component is attributed to free exciton decay. With an increase of excitation spectral width, the nonlocal component becomes small in comparison with the long-lived component, and disappears under irradiation of a femtosecond-pulse laser with broader spectral width. The transient grating spectra clearly indicates the contribution of the weakly confined excitons to the signal, and the exciton line width hardly changes by excitation spectral width. From these results, we concluded that the change of decay profile is attributed not to the many-body effect but to the effect of simultaneous excitation of several exciton states

  17. Effect of Olanzapine on Clinical and Polysomnography Profiles in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in all psychopathological variables with maximum reduction in PANSS total, BPRS total, and PANSS positive scores. A significant increase in total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, nonrapid eye movement (NREM stage 1 duration, stage 3 duration, stage 4 duration, and stage 4 percentage of TST, number of rapid eye movement (REM periods, REM duration, and REM percentage of TST was observed. REM latency at baseline inversely predicted the reduction in BPRS total and PANSS total and positive scores. In summary, short-term treatment with olanzapine produced significant improvement in clinical and polysomnography profiles of patients with schizophrenia with shorter REM latency predicting a good clinical response.

  18. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; pcircadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  20. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. THE MAXIMUM EFFECT OF DEEP LAKES ON TEMPERATURE PROFILES – DETERMINATION OF THE GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eppelbaum L. V.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climate change processes on the basis of geothermal observations in boreholes is an important and at the same time high-intricate problem. Many non-climatic effects could cause changes in ground surface temperatures. In this study we investigate the effects of deep lakes on the borehole temperature profilesobserved within or in the vicinity of the lakes. We propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes (here the term "deep lake" means that long term mean annual temperature of bottom sediments can beconsidered as a constant value on the borehole temperature profiles. This method also allows one to estimate an accuracy of the determination of the geothermal gradient.

  2. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Cardoso, Ana Paula F.; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C.; Camargo, João Lauro V.de; Wolf, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder

  3. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Wolf, Douglas C

    2014-11-05

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  5. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  6. Metabolite Profiling of Feces and Serum in Hemodialysis Patients and the Effect of Medicinal Charcoal Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixiu; Liang, Shanshan; Liu, Hua; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lingshuang; Wei, Meng; Jiang, Hongli; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-22

    Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the fecal and serum metabolic profiles of 20 healthy controls and 31 HD patients before and after taking medicinal charcoal tablets for 3 months. There were distinct metabolic variations between the HD patients and healthy controls both in the feces and serum according to multivariate data analysis. Metabolic disturbances of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism figured prominently in the serum. However, in the feces, alterations of tryptophan metabolism, lysine degradation and beta-alanine metabolism were pronounced, and the levels of several amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were increased dramatically. Nineteen fecal metabolites and 21 serum metabolites were also identified as biomarkers that contributed to the metabolic differences. Additionally, medicinal charcoal treatment generally enabled the serum and fecal metabolomes of the HD patients to draw close to those of the control subjects, especially the serum metabolic profile. Parallel fecal and serum metabolomics uncovered the systematic metabolic variations of HD patients, especially disturbances in amino acid metabolism in the colon. Medicinal charcoal tablets had an impact on the serum and fecal metabolomes of HD patients, but their exact effects still need to be studied further

  7. Temporal expression profiling identifies pathways mediating effect of causal variant on phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even with identification of multiple causal genetic variants for common human diseases, understanding the molecular processes mediating the causal variants' effect on the disease remains a challenge. This understanding is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat disease. While static profiling of gene expression is primarily used to get insights into the biological bases of diseases, it makes differentiating the causative from the correlative effects difficult, as the dynamics of the underlying biological processes are not monitored. Using yeast as a model, we studied genome-wide gene expression dynamics in the presence of a causal variant as the sole genetic determinant, and performed allele-specific functional validation to delineate the causal effects of the genetic variant on the phenotype. Here, we characterized the precise genetic effects of a functional MKT1 allelic variant in sporulation efficiency variation. A mathematical model describing meiotic landmark events and conditional activation of MKT1 expression during sporulation specified an early meiotic role of this variant. By analyzing the early meiotic genome-wide transcriptional response, we demonstrate an MKT1-dependent role of novel modulators, namely, RTG1/3, regulators of mitochondrial retrograde signaling, and DAL82, regulator of nitrogen starvation, in additively effecting sporulation efficiency. In the presence of functional MKT1 allele, better respiration during early sporulation was observed, which was dependent on the mitochondrial retrograde regulator, RTG3. Furthermore, our approach showed that MKT1 contributes to sporulation independent of Puf3, an RNA-binding protein that steady-state transcription profiling studies have suggested to mediate MKT1-pleiotropic effects during mitotic growth. These results uncover interesting regulatory links between meiosis and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. In this study, we highlight the advantage

  8. A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkridge, David; Verjans, Steven; Wilson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Hawkridge, D., Verjans, S., & Wilson, G. (Eds.) (2012). A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2012). September, 11-14, 2012, Manchester, UK.

  9. THE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES ON CHANGE IN BLOOD PROFILE IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Estiyani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum anemia among mothers is a health problem in Indonesia. Consuming Moringa Oleifera is assumed as one of the efforts to deal with anemia. However, lack of the study conducted in the working in the working area of health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of Moringa Oleifera on blood profile in postpartum mothers. Methods: The study was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. The sample in this study were all postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. It was 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, divided into intervention group (15 respondents who received Moringa leaf capsule and iron tablet; and control group (15 respondents were given iron tablet. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: Findings showed a significant difference in the mean of hemoglobin level (Intervention group 11.9467; control group 11.0600, hematocrit (Intervention group 38.3867; Control group 33.8133, thrombocyte (Intervention group 3.02536; Control group 2.35805, and erythrocyte (Intervention group 4.30137; Control group 3.78206 with p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: there was a significant effect of Moringa Oleifera on changes in blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, thrombocyte in postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Thus, it is suggested that Moringa leaves could be used to prevent anemia in postpartum mothers.

  10. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T e measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D

  11. Effects of coronatine elicitation on growth and metabolic profiles of Lemna paucicostata culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of coronatine treatment on the growth, comprehensive metabolic profiles, and productivity of bioactive compounds, including phenolics and phytosterols, in whole plant cultures of Lemna paucicostata were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. To determine the optimal timing of coronatine elicitation, coronatine was added on days 0, 23, and 28 after inoculation. The total growth of L. paucicostata was not significantly different between the coronatine treated groups and the control. The coronatine treatment in L. paucicostata induced increases in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids, such as caffeic acid, isoferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, and phytosterols, such as campesterol and β-sitosterol. The productivity of these useful metabolites was highest when coronatine was added on day 0 and harvested on day 32. These results suggest that coronatine treatment on day 0 activates the phenolic and phytosterol biosynthetic pathways in L. paucicostata to a greater extent than in the control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the effects of coronatine on the alteration of metabolism in L. paucicostata based on GC-MS profiling. The results of this research provide a foundation for designing strategies for enhanced production of useful metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries by cultivation of L. paucicostata.

  12. Effect of motivational climate profiles on motivational indices in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Y; Roberts, G C

    1999-12-01

    Contemporary perspectives of achievement motivation have been based on social cognitive theories which give motivational climate a central place in the regulation of subsequent affective states, cognitions and behaviour in achievement contexts. This study examined the relationship between different profiles of the motivational climate in teamsport and achievement, and socially related cognitions among Norwegian team sport athletes. Players (N= 148) assessed their perception of the motivational climate using the Norwegian version of the Motivational climate in sport questionnaire, sources of satisfaction in team sport, achievement strategies, perceived purposes of sport, and conceptions of ability. Multivariate analysis of variance (2x2) showed both main effects for profiles of the motivational climate and an interaction effect. Athletes perceiving the climate as high in mastery and high in performance oriented criteria reported psychological responses that were more adaptative than those perceiving the climate as low in mastery and high in performance criteria. With one exception, the findings showed that those high in mastery and low in performance were more likely to emphasise self-referenced criteria when judging perceived ability in team sport. For both social responsibility and lifetime skills as purposes in sport, it was the high performance and low mastery athletes who were least likely to endorse these purposes. And importantly, the high mastery climate seemed to moderate the impact of being in a high performance climate. The pattern of findings suggests that perceiving the motivational climate as performance oriented may not be motivationally maladaptive when accompanied by mastery oriented situational cues.

  13. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  14. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  15. Effects of ultrasonic assisted cooking on the chemical profiles of taste and flavor of spiced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunhe; Kang, Dacheng; Liu, Rui; Qi, Jun; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang

    2018-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ultrasonic assisted cooking on the chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor. Ultrasound power with 0 W, 400 W, 600 W, 800 W and 1000 W (frequency of 20 kHz) were used for cooking 120 min. The sodium chloride, sugar, free amino acids (FAAs), 5'-ribonucleotides, lipid oxidation, volatile flavor substance contents and electronic nose of spiced beef were determined. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment could significantly increase the content of sodium chloride in beef sample (P  0.05). With the ultrasonic treatment, the types and relative content of volatile flavor substances were significantly increased (P alcohols and ketones. However, there was no significant variation among the different ultrasound power groups (P > 0.05). This result was consistent with the measurement of electronic nose. Data points of control samples were away from ultrasonic treatment groups, while data points of different ultrasonic treatment groups were flock together. The results indicate that the application of ultrasound during cooking has a positive effect on chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor, particularly for the power of 800 W. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of apple consumption on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir

    2011-04-01

    Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.

  17. Is there a “Mourinho” effect over the psychological performance profile of elite soccer players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUEDES DE CARVALHO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: When a team achieves success, how much of it depends on the coach and/or of the playersprofiles. In this paper we identify the performance psychological profile of elite soccer players from Chelsea andBenfica, assessing their profiles to discover a Mourinho effect, while he is a nowadays special coach and coachedmost of these players.Approach: We applied an international and national validated questionnaire to the players and we complement theanalysis with a qualitative approach with data collected through specific interviews (29 professional players - 21from Chelsea and 8 from Benfica. Statistical procedures consider descriptive, comparative and correlationanalysis.Results: The overall sample values are: Motivation (27.55+2.097, Self-confidence (26.83+2.494, CompetitiveAttitude (26.03+2.758, Positive Thoughts (25.10+2.160, Attention (25.07+3.046, Visualization (23.55+3.429and Negative Thoughts (22.24+2.824. Concerning the comparative analysis between the players that were trainedby Mourinho and other, we could not identify significant statistical differences; however, some of the phenomenaindexes emerge showing that Mourinho players present higher levels in self confidence, attention, motivation andweaker effect of the negative thoughts.Conclusions and recommendations: As the success of the teams where Mourinho coached is an evidence, wesuspect that the main reasons for success should rely upon collective either than individual characteristics of theplayers. This will be the next step in our research on the coaching process.

  18. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  19. Effect of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fulin

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of radial distribution of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by toroidal rotation. The effect of radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity on stability is also examine for comparison. It is found that within the range of tokamak parameters the only radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity cannot induce Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the contrary, when there is a radial distribution of plasma density, i.e. P 01 =P 0 e -tx and V 0 1 = const, plasma becomes unstable, and instability will increase proportionally to the value of t. Meanwhile when the value of t remains constant, the instability growth rate will decrease if P 0 grows or the distance between plasma and wall of container decreases too. It shows that the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability is not only influenced by the steepness of density profile but also by the inertia of plasma in central region, which is helpful for depressing the instability. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, MS 13-505, 3483 Dunhill St, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  1. Effects of intense magnetic fields on sedimentation pattern and gene expression profile in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Masateru; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Miyakoshi, Junji; Ueno, Shoogo; Koana, Takao

    2003-05-01

    Effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on biological systems are usually investigated using biological indices such as gene expression profiles. However, to precisely evaluate the biological effects of MF, the effects of intense MFs on systematic material transport processes including experimental environment must be seriously taken into consideration. In this study, a culture of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used as a model for an in vitro biological test system. After exposure to 5 T static vertical MF, we found a difference in the sedimentation pattern of cells depending on the location of the dish in the magnet bore. Sedimented cells were localized in the center of the dish when they were placed in the lower part of the magnet bore while the sedimentation of the cells was uniform in dishes placed in the upper part of the bore because of the diamagnetic force. Genome wide gene expression profile of the yeast cells after exposure to 5 T static MF for 2 h suggested that the MF did not affect the expression level of any gene in yeast cells although the sedimentation pattern was altered. In addition, exposure to 10 T for 1 h and 5 T for 24 h also did not affect the gene expression. On the other hand, a slight change in expressions of several genes which are related to respiration was observed by exposure to a 14 T static MF for 24 h. The necessity of estimating the indirect effects of MFs on a study of its biological effect of MF in vitro will be discussed.

  2. Modeling the effect of dune sorting on the river long profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A.

    2012-12-01

    River dunes, which occur in low slope sand bed and sand-gravel bed rivers, generally show a downward coarsening pattern due to grain flows down their avalanche lee faces. These grain flows cause coarse particles to preferentially deposit at lower elevations of the lee face, while fines show a preference for its upper elevations. Before considering the effect of this dune sorting mechanism on the river long profile, let us first have a look at some general trends along the river profile. Tributaries increasing the river's water discharge in streamwise direction also cause a streamwise increase in flow depth. As under subcritical conditions mean dune height generally increases with increasing flow depth, the dune height shows a streamwise increase, as well. This means that also the standard deviation of bedform height increases in streamwise direction, as in earlier work it was found that the standard deviation of bedform height linearly increases with an increasing mean value of bedform height. As a result of this streamwise increase in standard deviation of dune height, the above-mentioned dune sorting then results in a loss of coarse particles to the lower elevations of the bed that are less and even rarely exposed to the flow. This loss of coarse particles to lower elevations thus increases the rate of fining in streamwise direction. As finer material is more easily transported downstream than coarser material, a smaller bed slope is required to transport the same amount of sediment downstream. This means that dune sorting adds to river profile concavity, compared to the combined effect of abrasion, selective transport and tributaries. A Hirano-type mass conservation model is presented that deals with dune sorting. The model includes two active layers: a bedform layer representing the sediment in the bedforms and a coarse layer representing the coarse and less mobile sediment underneath migrating bedforms. The exposure of the coarse layer is governed by the rate

  3. Selecting Effective Means to Any End: Futures and Ethics of Persuasion Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Eckles, Dean

    Interactive persuasive technologies can and do adapt to individuals. Existing systems identify and adapt to user preferences within a specific domain: e.g., a music recommender system adapts its recommended songs to user preferences. This paper is concerned with adaptive persuasive systems that adapt to individual differences in the effectiveness of particular means, rather than selecting different ends. We give special attention to systems that implement persuasion profiling - adapting to individual differences in the effects of influence strategies. We argue that these systems are worth separate consideration and raise unique ethical issues for two reasons: (1) their end-independence implies that systems trained in one context can be used in other, unexpected contexts and (2) they do not rely on - and are generally disadvantaged by - disclosing that they are adapting to individual differences. We use examples of these systems to illustrate some ethically and practically challenging futures that these characteristics make possible.

  4. EFFECT OF FERMENTED Sauropus androgynus LEAVES ON BLOOD LIPID FRACTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves on blood lipid fractions and haematological profiles in broilers. One hundred and twelve broilers were distributed to 7 treatment groups. One group was fed diets without Sauropus androgynus leaves as the control, and other six groups were fed Sauropus androgynus leaves fermented by Neurospora crassa, Lactobacillus sp. or Saccharomyces cerevisiae at level of 25 g or 50 g/kg diet. Experimental results showed that the treatments had no effect on cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and atherogenic index, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c and triglyceride concentration (P>0.05. It was shown that fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected red blood count (RBC, white blood count (WBC, packed cell volume (PCV, trombosit dan erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (P

  5. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  6. Bioenergetic profile of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effect of metabolic intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Yang

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown. Thus, we profiled cellular bioenergetics of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effects of metabolic intervention. Mitochondria and glycolysis stress tests utilizing Seahorse technology revealed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation accounted for 54.5% of ATP production at rest with the remaining 45.5% due to glycolysis. Stress tests also showed that oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis can increase to a maximum of 3.5 fold and 1.25 fold, respectively, indicating that the former has a high reserve capacity. Analysis of bioenergetic profile indicated that aging cells have lower resting oxidative phosphorylation and reduced reserve capacity. Intracellular ATP level of a single cell was estimated to be over 1.1 mM. Application of metabolic modulators caused significant changes in mitochondria membrane potential, intracellular ATP level and ATP:ADP ratio. The detailed breakdown of cellular bioenergetics showed that proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells rely more or less equally on oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis at rest. These cells have high respiratory reserve capacity and low glycolysis reserve capacity. Metabolic intervention influences both intracellular ATP concentration and ATP:ADP ratio, where subtler changes may be detected by the latter.

  7. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Rocio F.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der; Berg, Martin van den; Heneweer, Marjoke

    2008-01-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant

  8. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  9. Effect of Entrainment and Overflow Occurrences on Concentration Profile in PUREX Flow Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Ishii, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    A deviation in the operational condition of a mixer settler and a centrifugal contactor causes an entrainment or an overflow, which affects the concentration profile. Although there has been no quantitative study about the effect of such abnormal flows on the concentration profile, the occurrence of such abnormal flows has been severely restricted for a PUREX flow sheet. However, the restriction of abnormal flows can be relaxed when the effect of such flows is limited within the allowable range such that the concentration of the product does not deviate from its specification. This relaxation could serve to benefit a continuous operation under a certain degree of deviation from the operational condition and a smaller design load of a solvent extractor. From this viewpoint, the relationship between the magnitude of abnormal flows and the effect of them on the process was studied quantitatively using a specially developed code in a wide range of PUREX flow sheet conditions, and the possibility of this relaxation was investigated. The results showed that the effect of the abnormal flow on the concentration in the organic outflow or aqueous raffinate was dominated by the leakage fraction under normal conditions regardless of each specific flow sheet condition. The common correlations were found between the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium under the occurrence of abnormal flows and that under no abnormal flow for the stripping and extracting conditions, respectively. Comparing the given correlations and the usual specification of the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium suggested that the restriction of the abnormal flows could be relaxed for a usual PUREX flow sheet

  10. [Effects of vegetal oil supplementation on the lipid profile of Wistar rats ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Elpidia; Ayala, Paola; Milena, Rodríguez; Ordóñez, Edgar; Baracaldo, Cesar; Delgado, Willman; Guerra, Martha

    2005-03-01

    Dietary tocopherols, tocotrienols and saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to have an effect on blood lipid profiles. In Colombia, vegetable oils (palm, soy, corn, sunflower, and canola) are a common dietary constituent and consumed in high quantities. In the current study, the effects of vegetable oil consumption was examined by measuring blood concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in male Wistar rats. The concentrations of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and fatty acids in each oil was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Each rat diet was supplemented with 0.2 ml/day with one oil type. Over a 4-week period, groups of animals were sacrificed weekly and blood samples were obtained to quantify TC, TG and HDL-C for each oil class. Statistical analyses included mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and Bonferroni comparisons tests. Triglyceride content was not affected except in the control and the soy group in the third treatment week, although a tendency for decreased TG was noted in the palm oil group and for increased TG in the sunflower oil and canola oil groups. No significant differences in total cholesterol were observed. In HDL-C, significant differences were present for every treatment week (p = 0.005); this represented a decreasing trend in palm oil group and an increasing trend in the sunflower and corn oil groups. The oils effected changes in the blood lipid profile. A small amount of saturated fatty acids (tocopherol and tocotrienol) were favourable for the HDL-C increase. The presenct of tocorienols tended to decrease the TG and probably helped attenuate the unfavorable effects of the saturated fatty acids.

  11. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  12. Effects of gender and physical attractiveness on visual attention to Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Gwendolyn; Miller, Olivia S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined viewers' gaze while observing Facebook profiles of strangers varying in gender and physical attractiveness. Fifty-one participants viewed four Facebook profiles, a physically attractive and unattractive individual of each gender. Participants' eye movements were tracked as they viewed each profile for 60 seconds. Results showed that participants paid more attention to the physical appearance (main profile photograph) of female than of male profile owners and to the personal information (likes and interests) of male than to female profile owners. Participants spent more time focusing on information that was irrelevant to forming an impression of the profile owner (advertisements) when viewing the profiles of unattractive than attractive individuals, suggesting that they made a greater effort to learn about these individuals.

  13. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-04-23

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  14. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Verikas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each. The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG

  15. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  16. Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sadar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Kim, Sam Churl

    2018-01-01

    This study estimated the effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculant on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silages. Yuyeon (Silkless) and Youngyang (Silking) barley hybrids were harvested at 24.9 and 27.1% dry matter, respectively, and chopped to 10 cm lengths. Each hybrid was treated with or without an inoculant (2 × 10 4  colony-forming units/g of Lactobacillus plantarum). A total of 48 silos were prepared in an experiment with a 2 × 2 (hybrid × inoculant) treatment arrangement with four replications and three ensiling durations (2, 7 and 100 days). After 100 days of ensiling, Yuyeon silage had higher (P hybrids and increased (P hybrid might have better potential benefits on animal performances due to its smooth awn and silkless nature, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility. Its higher C18:3n-3 would be better for improving fatty acid profile of meat or milk than Youngyang hybrid. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Geometrical and profile effects on toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Fu, G.Y.

    1992-04-01

    The wave structures, eigenfrequencies and damping rates of toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE, EAE) of low toroidal mode numbers (n) are calculated in various axisymmetric ideal MHD equilibria with the global wave finite element code LION. The importance of safety factor (q) and density (ρ) profiles on continuum damping rates is analysed. For realistic profiles several continuum gaps exist in the plasma discharge. Frequency misalignment of these gaps yields continuum damping rates γ/ω of the order of a few percent. Finite β pol lowers the TAE eigenfrequency. For β values below the Troyon limit the TAE enters the continuum and can thus be stabilized. Finite elongation allows the EAE to exist but triangularity can have a stabilizing effect through coupling to the continuum. The localization of TAE and EAE eigenfunctions is found to increase with the shear and with n. Therefore large shear, through enhanced Landau and collisional damping, is a stabilizing factor for TAE and EAE modes. (author) 16 figs., 28 refs

  18. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  19. The effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    j Rahmani Kahnamoei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Passive cigarette smoke contains five times more carbon monoxide and six times more nicotine compared to the main smoke because cigarette filter has a protective role for smokers. Cigarette smoke contains a range of oxidants and free radicals that can directly or indirectly induce oxidative stress in the body. Adding some aromatic ingredients to cigarette may play an important role in increasing damage and free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on serum lipid profile in rats. For this purpose, 16 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups of eight rats, control and treatment. There was no intervention in the control group, but treatment group was exposed to a cigarette passive smoke on a daily basis for a month. After a month, the rat tail vein blood samples were taken and after separation of the sera, serum lipid profiles, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL was measured and the results were statistically analyzed using t-test. There was a significant (p

  20. Effects of Injection Rate Profile on Combustion Process and Emissions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When multi-injection is implemented in diesel engine via high pressure common rail injection system, changed interval between injection pulses can induce variation of injection rate profile for sequential injection pulse, though other control parameters are the same. Variations of injection rate shape which influence the air-fuel mixing and combustion process will be important for designing injection strategy. In this research, CFD numerical simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted for examining the effects of injection rate shape on diesel combustion and emissions. After the model was validated by experimental results, five different shapes (including rectangle, slope, triangle, trapezoid, and wedge of injection rate profiles were investigated. Modeling results demonstrate that injection rate shape can have obvious influence on heat release process and heat release traces which cause different combustion process and emissions. It is observed that the baseline, rectangle (flat, shape of injection rate can have better balance between NOx and soot emissions than the other investigated shapes. As wedge shape brings about the lowest NOx emissions due to retarded heat release, it produces the highest soot emissions among the five shapes. Trapezoid shape has the lowest soot emissions, while its NOx is not the highest one. The highest NOx emissions were produced by triangle shape due to higher peak injection rate.

  1. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pprofile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Effect of current tobacco consumption on the male reproductive hormone profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2012-06-01

    The knowledge about the effect of cigarette smoking on the male reproductive function is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between active exposure to tobacco smoke and the male reproductive hormone profile in a group of 136 Mexican flower growers. Serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, total testosterone, Inhibin B and estradiol were measured using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Weight and height were also measured and a structured questionnaire was applied to get information on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and work history and alcohol and tobacco consumption (current smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked per day). Based on this information tobacco consumption was divided into four categories: never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers under five cigarettes/day and current smokers over or equal to five cigarettes/day. Using the group of never-smokers as reference and after adjusting for potential confounders, current smokers of five or more cigarettes/day showed significantly higher levels of LH (β=0.33, p=0.01), prolactin (β=0.18, p=0.03) and testosterone (β=0.21, p=0.02). Current smokers of less than five cigarettes/day also showed higher levels of prolactin (β=0.12, p=0.03) and testosterone (β=0.18, pconsumption may act as an endocrine disruptor on the male hormone profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Umamaheswari; Vasudevan, Kavita; Balasubramaniam, Kavita; Yerrabelli, Dhanalakshmi; Shanmugavel, Karthik; John, Nitin Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Exercise is a lifestyle change that has been recommended for lowering atherogenic index in adults. The intensity and duration of exercise to bring about a change in the lipid parameters are yet to be determined. Previous studies examining the effects of exercise intensity on lipid and lipoprotein levels have reported conflicting findings. Thus we aimed at determining the changes in lipid profile in sedentary obese adults influenced by different intensity of exercise. Study included 51 obese adults with sedentary lifestyle. Participants performed exercise of moderate intensity (n=22) and high intermittent intensity (n=29) for a duration of 40min/day for 5 days/week and 20 min/day for 3 days/week respectively on bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 weeks. Pretesting and post testing included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. RESULTS were analysed using the Paired and Unpaired samples t-test. Postexercise revealed significant reduction in the LDL-C and diastolic blood pressure (plife. High intermittent intensity can be considered for individuals who have time constraints and lead a sedentary life style and moderate intensity exercise advised for individuals who are willing to create time for their health benefits. A programmed protocol of exercise will help in reduction of lipid parameters.

  4. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  5. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on phenolic profile and flavonoid content of Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz Dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Menezes, Eloá Aragão; Lopes, Virgínia Rodrigues; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-07-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation is an important abiotic factor that can stimulate the production of secondary metabolites, including polyphenolic compounds. Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for treating wounds and inflammation. This species is rich in phenolic compounds, which could account for some of its biological activities, including antileishmanial, antihypertensive and antibacterial properties. We investigated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on the phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of leaves of K. pinnata. Plants were grown under white light (W - control) and supplemental UV-B radiation (W+UVB). Supplemental UV-B radiation enhanced the total flavonoid content of the leaf extracts, without affecting the antioxidant activity or yield of extracts. Analysis by TLC and HPLC of W and W+UVB leaf extracts revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in their phenolic profiles. W+UVB extracts contained a higher diversity of phenolic compounds and a larger amount of quercitrin, an important bioactive flavonoid of this species. This is the first report of the use of ImageJ® program to analyze a TLC visualized by spraying with NP-PEG reagent. UV-B radiation is proposed as a supplemental light source in K. pinnata cultivation in order to improve its flavonoid composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Are Multidimensional Pain Inventory Coping Strategy Profiles Associated with Long-Term Spinal Cord Stimulation Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroli, Mery; Bernini, Olivia; De Carolis, Giuliano; Tollapi, Lara; Bondi, Franca; Martini, Antonella; Dario, Alessandro; Paolicchi, Adriana

    2018-05-01

    It is acknowledged that the way patients cope with pain may influence treatment outcome. In particular, psychological factors are deemed important when considering patients for suitability for spinal cord stimulation (SCS). The aim of the study is to observe how pre-implantation psychological characteristics impact the effectiveness of SCS for chronic pain. The analysis comprised data from 137 patients who underwent an SCS implant. Screening evaluation included a coping strategies profile (Multidimensional Pain Inventory) and psychiatric disorders (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Based on SCS implant outcome collected during follow-up visits, patients were divided into three groups: subjects with long-term pain relief (long-term group), subjects who failed the SCS treatment and decided to explant trial device (trial explanter group [TE]), and those who chose a permanent device (permanent explanter group [PE]). Results showed that most of the patients who failed with the SCS (TE and PE groups) demonstrated a dysfunctional coping profile and showed a higher presence of psychiatric disorders, which significantly influenced the experience and perception of pain. The findings of this study support the value of a multidisciplinary screening. Addressing psychological issues before SCS implantation can reduce the failure rate of SCS.

  7. Effects of the frequency and satisfaction with leisure profile on dementia caregivers distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Romero-Moreno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The PEAR (pleasant events-activity restriction model has been proposed as a way of understanding leisure effects on dementia caregivers' distress. Considering both the PEAR model and the stress and coping model, the purpose of this study was to analyze the potential of both frequency and satisfaction with leisure to explain caregivers' distress (depression, anxiety and perceived health, risk of institutionalization of the care recipient, caregivers' stressors and resources variables (rumination and cognitive reappraisal in 275 caregivers. Methods: The sample was divided in four groups based on caregivers' scores on frequency and satisfaction with leisure: LFLS = Low frequency + low satisfaction; LFHS = Low frequency and high satisfaction; HFLS = High frequency + low satisfaction; HFHS = High frequency + high satisfaction. Results: Results indicated that while caregivers from the HFHS group showed a generally more positive profile on resources variables, health outcomes and lower levels of risk of institutionalization compared with the other groups, caregivers from the LFLS group used significantly less adaptive emotional regulation strategies and showed worse consequences on health outcomes. Discussion: The results of this study suggest the importance of considering caregivers' profile on frequency and satisfaction with leisure in order to understand caregiving distress.

  8. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  9. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  10. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  11. Minimal analytical model for undular tidal bore profile; quantum and Hawking effect analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Waves travelling up-river, driven by high tides, often consist of a smooth front followed by a series of undulations. A simple approximate theory gives the rigidly travelling profile of such ‘undular hydraulic jumps’, up to scaling, as the integral of the Airy function; applying self-consistency fixes the scaling. The theory combines the standard hydraulic jump with ideas borrowed from quantum physics: Hamiltonian operators and zero-energy eigenfunctions. There is an analogy between undular bores and the Hawking effect in relativity: both concern waves associated with horizons. ‘Physics is not just Concerning the Nature of Things, but Concerning the Interconnectedness of all the Natures of Things’(Sir Charles Frank, retirement speech 1976).

  12. A proposed profile of the effective leader in human spaceflight based on findings from analog environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J M; Penwell, L W

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review of leader characteristics and associated outcomes from four environments considered as analogs to long-duration spaceflight: aviation, submersibles, polar stations, and expeditions. Evidence from 23 sources indicates that, despite differences in the analog settings, effective leaders share a common core of personal traits and leadership-style attributes. The general profile that emerges is a person who works hard to achieve mission objectives, is optimistic, holds the respect of the crew, ordinarily uses participative decision-making but takes charge during critical situations, is sensitive to and makes crew members feel valued for their expertise and their personal qualities, and maintains group harmony and cohesion. Results have implications for selecting leaders for future long-duration space missions.

  13. Monte Carlo study of electron irradiation effect on YBCO dpa profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.; Van Espen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM) consists on a calculation procedure for determining the displacements per atom (dpa) distribution in solid materials. This algorithm allows studying the gamma and electron irradiation damage in different materials. It is based on the electrons elastic scattering classic theories and the use of Monte Carlo simulation for the physical processes involved. The present study deals with the Monte Carlo simulation of electron irradiation effects on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) slabs using the MCNPX code system. Displacements per atom distributions are obtained through the MCCM for electron irradiation up to 10 MeV. In-depth dpa profiles for electrons and positrons are obtained and analyzed. Also, for each atomic species in the material, the dpa distributions are calculated. All the results are discussed in the present contribution. (Author)

  14. Effect of gamma sterilization on the fatty acid profile of lyophilized buffalo cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the fatty acid profile of buffalo cheese after lyophilization and gamma rays treatment at 2 kGy and 4 kGy doses have been studied with the objective of its shelf-live prolongation. The results of the experiments show a decrease of the content of the saturated fatty acids after irradiation at the aforesaid gamma rays doses. A favorable effect on human organism has the decrease of the quantity of the short-chain fatty acids – by 13.16 % on irradiation at 2 kGy and by 18.73% on irradiation at 4 kGy, compared to the control sample. A satisfactory correlation between the essential fatty acids omega-6/omega3 has been observed in the lyophilized buffalo cheese. In the process of irradiation this balanced correlation changes and increases up to 7.32 and 8.31 at 2 kGy and 4 kGy respectively

  15. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  16. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...

  17. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  18. Effective source size, yield and beam profile from multi-layered bremsstrahlung targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    Modern conformal radiotherapy benefits from heterogeneous dose delivery using scanned narrow bremsstrahlung beams of high energy in combination with dynamic double focused multi-leaf collimation and purging magnets. When using a purging magnet to remove electrons and positrons the target space is limited and unorthodox thin multi-layered targets are needed. A computational technique has therefore been developed to determine the forward yield and the angular distributions of the bremsstrahlung beam as well as the size and location of the effective and the virtual photon point source for arbitrary multi-layer bremsstrahlung targets. The Gaussian approximation of the diffusion equation for the electrons has been used and convolved with the bremsstrahlung production process. For electrons with arbitrary emittance impinging on targets of any multi-layer and atomic number combination, the model is well applicable, at least for energies in the range 1-100 MeV. The intrinsic bremsstrahlung photon profile has been determined accurately by deconvolving the electron multiple scattering process from thin experimental beryllium target profiles. For electron pencil beams incident on a target of high density and atomic number such as tungsten, the size of the effective photon source stays at around a tenth of a millimetre. The effective photon source for low-Z materials such as Be, C and Al is located at depths from 3-7 mm in the target, decreasing with increasing atomic number. The effective photon source at off-axis positions then moves out considerably from the central axis, which should be considered when aligning collimators. For high-Z materials such as tungsten, the location of the effective photon source is at a few tenths of a millimetre deep. The virtual photon point source is located only a few tenths of a millimetre upstream of the effective photon source both for high- and low-Z materials. For 50 MeV electrons incident on multi-layered full range targets the radial

  19. Cannabis use in children with individualized risk profiles: Predicting the effect of universal prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Vonkova, Hana; Čablová, Lenka; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect of a universal prevention intervention targeting cannabis use in individual children with different risk profiles. A school-based randomized controlled prevention trial was conducted over a period of 33 months (n=1874 sixth-graders, baseline mean age 11.82). We used a two-level random intercept logistic model for panel data to predict the probabilities of cannabis use for each child. Specifically, we used eight risk/protective factors to characterize each child and then predicted two probabilities of cannabis use for each child if the child had the intervention or not. Using the two probabilities, we calculated the absolute and relative effect of the intervention for each child. According to the two probabilities, we also divided the sample into a low-risk group (the quarter of the children with the lowest probabilities), a moderate-risk group, and a high-risk group (the quarter of the children with the highest probabilities) and showed the average effect of the intervention on these groups. The differences between the intervention group and the control group were statistically significant in each risk group. The average predicted probabilities of cannabis use for a child from the low-risk group were 4.3% if the child had the intervention and 6.53% if no intervention was provided. The corresponding probabilities for a child from the moderate-risk group were 10.91% and 15.34% and for a child from the high-risk group 25.51% and 32.61%. School grades, thoughts of hurting oneself, and breaking the rules were the three most important factors distinguishing high-risk and low-risk children. We predicted the effect of the intervention on individual children, characterized by their risk/protective factors. The predicted absolute effect and relative effect of any intervention for any selected risk/protective profile of a given child may be utilized in both prevention practice and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

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    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  1. Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.

  2. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

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    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  3. Heel Effect: Dose Mapping And Profiling For Mobile C-Arm Fluoroscopy Unit Toshiba SXT-1000A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Ramli Arshad; Shahrul Azlan Azizan; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Md Khairusalih Md Zin

    2014-01-01

    Heel Effect is the well known phenomena in x-ray production. It contributes the effect to image formation and as well as scattered radiation. But there is paucity in the study related to heel effect. This study is for mapping and profiling the dose on the surface of water phantom by using mobile C-arm unit Toshiba SXT-1000A. Based on the result the dose profile is increasing up to about 57 % from anode to cathode bound of the irradiated area. This result and information can be used as a guide to manipulate these phenomena for better image quality and radiation safety for this specific and dedicated fluoroscopy unit. (author)

  4. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  6. Effects of the Length of Jet Grouted Columns and Soil Profile on the Settlement of Shallow Foundations

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    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of length of jet grouted columns and varying soil profile under shallow foundations of buildings constructed on the liquefiable ground was studied. The isolated shallow footing pad which supports a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the liquefiable ground. This ground was reinforced with jet grouted column rows under the shallow foundations of structure. The system was modeled as plane-strain using the FLAC 2D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses on the length of jet grouted columns in a soil profile and the effect of soil profiles of varying thickness on the settlements of building structure when the soil is liquefied during an earthquake. The results show that liquefaction-induced large settlements of shallow foundation of building decrease to tolerable limits with the increase in the length of columns. For soil profiles, with a relatively thinner liquefiable layer, a certain minimum length of columns (extended in base non liquefiable layer is required to meet the settlement tolerable limits. For soil profiles, with a relatively thicker liquefiable layer, this length should be equal to the thickness of the liquefiable layer from the footing base plus some extension in the base non liquefiable dense layer. In the soil profile with the base liquefiable layer underlying the non liquefiable layer, settlements could not be reduced to the tolerable limits even with columns of relatively larger length which may be critical.

  7. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F n m ) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F n m found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model

  8. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontić, Branko; Dermol, Urška

    2015-01-01

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects

  9. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontić, Branko, E-mail: branko.kontic@ijs.si; Dermol, Urška, E-mail: urska.dermol@gmail.com

    2015-01-15

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects.

  10. CONFRONTING CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING E-PORTFOLIO VIA FACEBOOK IN A PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sipacio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As an alternative assessment, e-Portfolio via Facebook (evFb has been introduced at De La Salle University (DLSU specifically at Department of English and Applied Linguistics (DEAL primarily to respond to the demands of 21st century literacy. However, it was observed that despite the positive impact of evFb on students based on pilot-testing and related studies, there were still innumerable challenges that hindered its implementation. In this paper, these problems were identified, and were addressed using the lens of participatory development framework. Data were taken from interview and feedback forms of participants namely institution (represented by the department chair and project/program committee, implementers/teachers, and students, and were subjected to content analysis.  The results showed three major issues classified as: (1 strong apprehension of students to publish their writing outputs on-line; (2 resistance of teachers towards FB as an educational tool; and, (3 concerns of institution as regards academic honesty and identity theft on-line. To confront these challenges and ensure effective implementation and sustainability of evFb at DEAL, improving participatory mechanisms was suggested and discussed. Finally, some opportunities and implications for policy relevant to evFb were also presented.

  11. L-Tryptophan, Melatonin, Serotonin Profiles in the Foods and their Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kurtulmuş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depending on the progress of science and technology, our eating habits have changed. The shape and quality of nutrition is important for human health. Especially, some food components have various effect on central nervous system such as depression, anxiety, sleep, appetite. Food constituents are transported into the central nervous system via the neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and valine. Amino acids have an important role in human nutrition. It cannot be synthesized in the body and one of the essential amino acids that must be taken outside, trytophan, is indispensable in human nutrition because of it has the many functions. In recent years, scientific community concentrated on the various functions of L-Trytophan (L-Trp as pioneer in the secretion of the hormones serotonin and melatoninin in the human body. The hormones serotonin and melatonin is responsible for activities such as psychology, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure balance, antioxidant effect, cancer inhibitor, sexuality, autism and circadian rhythms in human body that they are available in various foods such as milk, kefir, yogurt, orange, strawberry, grape, olive oil, walnut, prune, nut, pomegranate, coffee, kiwi and banana. In this study, L-Trp, serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism, food profiles and in terms of their physiological and biological effects on human health has been compiled.

  12. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC EXERCISE ON CONCOMITANTS OF FITNESS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

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    Mukadas Akindele

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been on the increase both in high and medium/low income countries. This increase is associated with health and economic consequences, especially in low sub-Saharan Africa that is resource stricken. Availability of affordable and easy to implement treatment intervention will surely reduce these health and economic sequealae of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of plyometric exercise on concomitants of fitness and metabolic profile in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: Simple random sampling technique was employed to recruit participants (n=27 for this study after meeting the inclusion criteria. Physical and physiological measurements were taken from the participants before and after six weeks of plyometric exercise for the experimental group and the control who did not participate in plyometric exercise. Results: A total number of twenty seven (control= 13 participated in the study and there are not significant differences in the physical and physiological parameters of the two groups. There are significant differences in the physiological parameter after six (6 weeks of plyometric exercise among the experimental groups while there are no significant differences among the control group. The eta squared statistics of few parameters show that the effect sizes range between medium and large association. Conclusion: It is concluded that among the concomitants of fitness, plyometric exercise is effective only in improving muscle fitness and body composition.

  13. Explaining combinatorial effects of mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in mice with urinary metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Blaženović, Ivana; Cui, Fangchao; Gholami, Morteza; Sun, Jiadi; Habimana, Jean; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2018-02-28

    Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to data matrix processing along with respective pathway analysis by MetaMapp and CytoScape. The results showed that the combined DON and ZEN administration resulted in lower significant changes, compared to the individual mycotoxin treated groups verified by heatmap. Metabolic pathways network mapping indicated that the combined mycotoxins treated groups showed a little effect on the metabolites in most pathways, especially in glucose metabolism and its downstream amino acid metabolism. In glucose metabolism, the content of galactose, mannitol, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, tagatose was drastically down-regulated. Furthermore, the organic acids, pyruvate, and amino acids metabolism displayed the same phenomenon. In conclusion, the combined DON/ZEN administration might lead to an "antagonistic effect" in mice metabolism.

  14. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Anthropometric Measures and Metabolic Profiles among Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

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    Ajit Kumar Paul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting from dawn to dusk during the month of Holy Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims. Individuals are exempted from fasting if they are suffering from an illness that could be adversely affected by fasting. Although The Quran exempts sick people from fasting, many Muslim diabetic patients may not perceive themselves as sick and are keenly interested to fast. But they fast without proper medical guidance exposing themselves to certain risks as a direct consequence of fasting. So we designed this study to assess the impact of fasting during Ramadan and to evaluate the effects of fasting on their biochemical profiles in patients with diabetes. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether Ramadan fasting has any effect on body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1C, serum lipids, serum creatinine among type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty two stable outpatients with type 2 diabetes with intention to fast were studied in the month of Ramadan 1434 Hijri calendar year (11th July to 9th August, 2013 at two points of time: one week before Ramadan (visit 1 and within last 3 days before the end of Ramadan (visit 2. During each visit the height, body weight and blood pressure were recorded. Blood samples were collected for fasting glucose, HbA1C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine. Data were analyzed by Student’s paired t-test using SPSS system and results were expressed as mean ± SD. Probability values were considered to be significant if it was less than 0.05. Results: There were 30 (62.8% males and 22 (37.2% females with a mean age of 54.7 ± 11.55 (range 35–80 years and mean duration of diabetes was 5.5 ± 5.2 years (range 9 months–18 years. In this study mean weight of the patients decreased significantly from 60.5 ± 12.6 kg to 58.5 ± 11.3 kg (p<0.001. Blood pressure reduced but not significantly

  16. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

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    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  17. Effect of hydroxyurea on the promoter occupancy profiles of tumor suppressor p53 and p73

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    Lu Xin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor and its related protein, p73, share a homologous DNA binding domain, and mouse genetics studies have suggested that they have overlapping as well as distinct biological functions. Both p53 and p73 are activated by genotoxic stress to regulate an array of cellular responses. Previous studies have suggested that p53 and p73 independently activate the cellular apoptotic program in response to cytotoxic drugs. The goal of this study was to compare the promoter-binding activity of p53 and p73 at steady state and after genotoxic stress induced by hydroxyurea. Results We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation, the NimbleGen promoter arrays and a model-based algorithm for promoter arrays to identify promoter sequences enriched in anti-p53 or anti-p73 immunoprecipitates, either before or after treatment with hydroxyurea, which increased the expression of both p53 and p73 in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116-3(6. We calculated a model-based algorithm for promoter array score for each promoter and found a significant correlation between the promoter occupancy profiles of p53 and p73. We also found that after hydroxyurea treatment, the p53-bound promoters were still bound by p73, but p73 became associated with additional promoters that that did not bind p53. In particular, we showed that hydroxyurea induces the binding of p73 but not p53 to the promoter of MLH3, which encodes a mismatch repair protein, and causes an up-regulation of the MLH3 mRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that hydroxyurea exerts differential effects on the promoter-binding functions of p53 and p73 and illustrate the power of model-based algorithm for promoter array in the analyses of promoter occupancy profiles of highly homologous transcription factors.

  18. Effect of Ramadan fasting on serum heat shock protein 70 and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A; Hajhashemi, M; Hassan, Z M; Zarrin, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Salarilak, S; Masudi, S; Shahabi, S

    2011-07-01

    Ramadan, the holy month for the Islamic world, is a period every year when food and fluid intake is restricted to the pre-sunrise and post-sunset hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the serum concentration of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and serum lipid profile in healthy men. A total of 32 male volunteers with a mean age of 28.5 (range 23-37) years were selected for the study. Blood samples were obtained one day prior to Ramadan and on the 3rd and 25th days of fasting. Serum HSP70, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios were investigated. It was observed that the mean concentrations of serum HSP70 and HDL on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels on the 3rd day of Ramadan was significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Mean concentrations of serum TG, Chol, LDL, and LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels found on the 3rd day of Ramadan were also significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Ramadan fasting increases serum HSP70 and improves serum lipid profile.

  19. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  20. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time

  1. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Manufacturing, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time.

  2. Gene expression profiling of macrophages: implications for an immunosuppressive effect of dissolucytotic gold ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifert Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold salts has previously been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but have been replaced by biologicals such as TNF-α inhibitors. The mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effect of metallic gold ions are still unknown, however, recent data showed that charged gold atoms are released from pure metallic gold implants by macrophages via a dissolucytosis membrane, and that gold ions are taken up by local macrophages, mast cells and to some extent fibroblasts. These findings open the question of possible immunomodulatory effects of metallic gold and motivate efforts on a deeper understanding of the effect of metallic gold on key inflammatory cells as macrophages. Methods Human macrophage cells (cell line THP-1 were grown on gold foils and intracellular uptake was analysed by autometallography. The impact of phagocytised gold ions on viability of THP-1 cells was investigated by trypan blue staining and TUNEL assay. The global gene expression profile of THP-1 cells after incorporation of gold ions was studied using microarray analysis comprising approximately 20,000 genes. The gene expression data was confirmed by measurement of secreted proteins. Results Autometallography showed intracellular uptake of gold ions into THP-1 cells. No significant effect on viability of THP-1 cells was demonstrated. Our data revealed a unique gene expression signature of dissolucytotic THP-1 cells that had taken up gold ions. A large number of regulated genes were functionally related to immunomodulation. Gold ion uptake induced downregulation of genes involved in rheumatoid arthritis such as hepatocyte growth factor, tenascin-C, inhibitor of DNA binding 1 and 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Conclusion The data obtained in this study offer new insights into the mode of action of gold ions and suggest for the investigation of effects on other key cells and a possible future role of metallic gold as implants in rheumatoid arthritis or

  3. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-D Cultures After Charged Particle Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Kidane, Yared H.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Current risk models for assessment of space radiation-induced cancer have large uncertainties because the models for adverse health effects following radiation exposure are founded on epidemiological analyses of human populations exposed to low-LET radiation. Reducing these uncertainties requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. In order to better quantify these radiation quality effects in biological systems, we are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models for space radiation research. These models hold promise for risk assessment as they provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information.

  4. Effects of profile wear on wheel–rail contact conditions and dynamic interaction of vehicle and turnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe wear is a common damage mechanism in railway turnouts, which strongly affects the dynamic performance of railway vehicles and maintenance costs of tracks. This article explores the effects of profile wear on contact behaviors in the wheel–rail/switch contact and dynamic interaction, and nominal and measured worn turnout rail profiles are used as boundary conditions of wheel–rail contact. The calculation of the dynamic loads and the resultant contact stresses and internal stresses makes it possible to rationally design railway turnouts and correctly select the material to be applied for their components. For these reasons, the multi-body system SIMPACK and finite element software ANSYS are used to calculate the features of load and subsequently distributions of contact stresses and internal stresses in the regions of wheel–turnout components. The results show that profile wear disturbs the distribution of wheel–rail contact point pairs, changes the positions of wheel–rail contact points along the longitudinal direction, and affects the dynamic interaction of vehicle and turnout. For the measured profile in this article, profile wear aggravates vertical dynamic responses significantly but improves lateral dynamic responses. Profile wear disturbs the normal contact situations between the wheel and switch rail and worsens the stress state of the switch rail.

  5. Confronting sea level rise on Egypt's Nile Delta coast

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They aim to develop adaptation strategies and inform coastal land-use policy guidelines to reduce vulnerability ... major effects expected over the next century include flooding of coastal ... joining the informal labour market in growing numbers.

  6. A Simple and Effective Physical Characteristic Profiling Method for Methamphetamine Tablet Seized in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin; Liu, Cuimei

    2018-03-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) tablet production confers chemical and physical properties. This study developed a simple and effective physical characteristic profiling method for MA tablets with capital letter "WY" logos, which realized the discrimination between linked and unlinked seizures. Seventeen signature distances extracted from the "WY" logo were explored as factors for multivariate analysis and demonstrated to be effective to represent the features of tablets in the drug intelligence perspective. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate efficiency of different pretreatments and distance/correlation metrics, while "Standardization + Euclidean" and "Logarithm + Euclidean" algorithms outperformed the rest. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to the data set of 200 MA tablet seizures randomly selected from cases all around China in 2015, and 76% of them were classified into a group named after "WY-001." Moreover, the "WY-001" tablets occupied 51-80% tablet seizures from 2011 to 2015 in China, indicating the existence of a huge clandestine factory incessantly manufacturing MA tablets. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, T., E-mail: tba@et.aau.dk; Schaltz, E. [Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.

  8. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  9. Development of a Detonation Profile Test for Studying Aging Effects in LX-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T; Lewis, P; Tarver, C; Maienschein, J; Druce, R; Lee, R; Roeske, F

    2002-01-01

    A new small-scale Detonation Profile Test (DPT) is being developed to investigate aging effects on the detonation behavior of insensitive high explosives. The experiment involves initiating a small LX-17 cylindrical charge (12.7-19.1 mm diameter x 25.4-33 mm long) and measuring the velocity and curvature of the emerging detonation wave using a streak camera. Results for 12.7 mm diameter unconfined LX-17 charges show detonation velocity in the range between 6.79 and 7.06 km/s for parts up to 33 mm long. Since LX-17 can not sustain detonation at less than 7.3 km/s, these waves were definitely failing. Experiments with confined 12.7 mm diameter and unconfined 19.1 mm diameter samples showed wave velocities in the range of 7.4-7.6 km/s, values approaching steady state conditions at infinite diameter. Experiments with unconfined 19.1 mm diameter specimens are expected to provide reproducible and useful range of detonation parameters suitable for studying aging effects

  10. Development of a Detonation Profile Test for Studying Aging Effects in LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T; Lewis, P; Tarver, C; Maienschein, J; Druce, R; Lee, R; Roeske, F

    2002-03-25

    A new small-scale Detonation Profile Test (DPT) is being developed to investigate aging effects on the detonation behavior of insensitive high explosives. The experiment involves initiating a small LX-17 cylindrical charge (12.7-19.1 mm diameter x 25.4-33 mm long) and measuring the velocity and curvature of the emerging detonation wave using a streak camera. Results for 12.7 mm diameter unconfined LX-17 charges show detonation velocity in the range between 6.79 and 7.06 km/s for parts up to 33 mm long. Since LX-17 can not sustain detonation at less than 7.3 km/s, these waves were definitely failing. Experiments with confined 12.7 mm diameter and unconfined 19.1 mm diameter samples showed wave velocities in the range of 7.4-7.6 km/s, values approaching steady state conditions at infinite diameter. Experiments with unconfined 19.1 mm diameter specimens are expected to provide reproducible and useful range of detonation parameters suitable for studying aging effects.

  11. Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of steer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

  13. Impact of response shift on the assessment of treatment effects using the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Daniel R; Remmler, Antje; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Hirsch, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is challenging because individuals' concepts and internal standards of OHRQoL may change over time. The aim of this study was to detect response shifts in OHRQoL assessments made using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). Oral health-related quality of life was assessed in a consecutive sample of 126 patients seeking prosthodontic care. Patients were asked to rate their OHRQoL before treatment started and 1 month after treatment was finished, using the German 49-item version of the OHIP. When rating their OHRQoL after treatment, patients were also asked to rate their pre-treatment OHRQoL without having access to their baseline data. The response shift was calculated as the difference in OHIP summary scores between the initial assessment and the retrospective baseline assessment. The OHIP mean scores decreased from 31.8 at the initial baseline assessment to 24.4 after treatment. The retrospective baseline assessment resulted in an OHIP mean score of 38.1, corresponding to a response shift of 6.3 OHIP points. The effect size (Cohen's d = 0.21) of the response shift was considered small. The response shift phenomenon and its magnitude have important implications for dental practice, where patients and dentists often assess perceived treatment effects retrospectively. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  15. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships.

  16. When confrontational images may be counter productive: reinforcing the case for pre-testing communications in sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Fielder, Lynda; Ouschan, Robyn

    2008-08-01

    White Ribbon Day is an international campaign that encourages men to speak out about and demonstrate their opposition to violence against women by wearing a white ribbon on 25 November. This study assesses the effectiveness of a graphic confrontational image in the Australian 2006 campaign versus an alternative non-violent image to motivate men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. An intercept survey was conducted with a sample of 45 males aged 30-49 years recruited in an inner city suburban shopping strip. Respondents were presented with two alternatives: a graphic 'amputated arm' image and a non-violent 'father-daughter' image. The primary dependent variable was the relative ability of the two alternatives in motivating respondents to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. The vast majority of respondents nominated the 'father-daughter' as image being more motivating than the 'amputated arm' image to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day: 84% vs 9%. The bland 'father-daughter' image was far more motivating than the macabre/violent 'amputated arm' image in motivating men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. This is contrary to the UNIFEM Australia and White Ribbon Day assertion that 'confrontational/provocative' images are necessary to achieve this behaviour.

  17. Skills of novices early trained or traditionaly trained versus experienced drivers confronted to simulated urban accidents' scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Damm, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The first and second groups were composed of young drivers having less than one month of driving licence; twelve have had a traditional learning course, and twelve had followed, in addition to the initial course, an early driver training under the supervision of an adult. The third group was composed of experienced drivers. Strategies of the three groups were analyzed through their response time, speed and maneuvers. No difference appeared across groups regarding obstacle detection. But traditionally-trained drivers' position control was more conservative than the two others groups, which were more likely to involve efficient evasive action. The exposure gained during early training could thus increase the development of visuo-motor coordination and involve better skills in case of difficult situations. Others accidents' scenarios could be used to confront young drivers with difficult situations not commonly encountered in natural driving.

  18. The effect of pH profiles in methanogenic aggregates on the kinetics of acetate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, de D.; Huisman, J.W.; Heuvel, van den J.C.; Ottengraf, S.P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the conversion of acetic acid into the weaker carbonic acid and CH4, the pH inside methanogenic aggregates is higher than in the bulk liq. The pH profiles in aggregates were measured with pH microelectrodes. These profiles strongly det. the macro-kinetics of the aggregate, by their influence

  19. Effect of age and gender on lipid profile in healthy rural population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...

  20. Effect of Magnetic Mirror on the Asymmetry of the Radial Profile of Near-Wall Conductivity in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Liu Hui; Fu Haiyang

    2009-01-01

    Considering the actual magnetic field configuration in a Hall thruster, the effect of magnetic mirror on the radial profile of near-wall conductivity (NWC) is studied in this paper. The plasma electron dynamic process is described by the test particle method. The Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve this model. The radial profile of electron mobility is obtained and the role of magnetic mirror in NWC is analysed both theoretically and numerically. The numerical results show that the electron mobility peak due to NWC is inversely proportional to the magnetic mirror ratio and the asymmetry of electron mobility along the radial direction gets greater when the magnetic mirror is considered. This effect indicates that apart from the disparity in the magnetic field strength, the difference in the magnetic mirror ratio near the inner and outer walls would actually augment the asymmetry of the radial profile of NWC in Hall thrusters.

  1. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  2. The effectiveness and adverse effects profile of "burst" ketamine in refractory cancer pain: The VCOG PM 1-00 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kate; Ashby, Michael; Howell, Deb; Petersen, Jennifer; Brumley, David; Good, Phillip; Pisasale, Maria; Wein, Simon; Woodruff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This multi-centre study of adjuvant "burst" ketamine in palliative care in-patients documents its effectiveness, duration of pain relief, and adverse effects (AE) profile. Patients received a three-to-five day continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of ketamine escalated from 100 to 300 to 500 mg/24 hours if required. When the effective or maximum tolerated dose was attained, the infusion was continued for three days and each patient assessed as a responder or non-responder using strict criteria. The response rate was 22/44 (50 percent), with 4 (9 percent) becoming pain-free. Pain relief lasting two or more weeks was documented in 50 percent of responders. AEs were documented daily using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria 0-4 scales. There were 11 grade 3 and 4 neurological AEs. However, no responders elected to cease treatment early due to neurological AEs. We concluded that this protocol in the controlled environment of an in-patient PC unit is relatively safe and simple with reasonable effectiveness.

  3. The role of drug profiles as similarity metrics: applications to repurposing, adverse effects detection and drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Hripcsak, George

    2017-07-01

    Explosion of the availability of big data sources along with the development in computational methods provides a useful framework to study drugs' actions, such as interactions with pharmacological targets and off-targets. Databases related to protein interactions, adverse effects and genomic profiles are available to be used for the construction of computational models. In this article, we focus on the description of biological profiles for drugs that can be used as a system to compare similarity and create methods to predict and analyze drugs' actions. We highlight profiles constructed with different biological data, such as target-protein interactions, gene expression measurements, adverse effects and disease profiles. We focus on the discovery of new targets or pathways for drugs already in the pharmaceutical market, also called drug repurposing, in the interaction with off-targets responsible for adverse reactions and in drug-drug interaction analysis. The current and future applications, strengths and challenges facing all these methods are also discussed. Biological profiles or signatures are an important source of data generation to deeply analyze biological actions with important implications in drug-related studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. How Students Learn: Information Processing, Intellectual Development and Confrontation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel

    1975-01-01

    A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…

  5. Confronting Counsels of Despair for the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes and challenges criticism that the behavioral sciences have failed to produce long-lasting generalizations due to cultural and historical relativism and interaction effects. Using findings from meta-analysis, the author argues that considerable consistency and validity across contexts of many generalizations exists, as well as promising…

  6. Confronting product life thinking with product life cycle analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2001-01-01

    to "read" the environment out of the product, in order to systematically, quickly and efficiently come to some design recommendations for the company. The phrases "LCA" and "product life thinking" will be described and differentiated and a pattern identified for their cooperative effect in use....

  7. Dose comparison and side effect profile of metformin extended release versus metformin immediate release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, M.; Khan, K.; Salman, S.; Mehmood, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is very common worldwide, with majority of cases in Asia Pacific region. Metformin is the first line therapy, along with lifestyle modification for all type 2 diabetics as recommended by ADA. Metformin is available as conventional Metformin Immediate Release (MIR) and Metformin Extended Release (MXR). Metformin XR has better gastrointestinal tolerability and fewer side effects as compared to Metformin IR, with similar efficacy regarding anti-hyperglycaemic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether metformin XR is as effective as Metformin IR in maintaining glycaemic control at equivalent doses or even at reduced doses; and to compare the side effect profile of the two preparations. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at Medical and Endocrinology OPD of Jinnah Hospital Lahore A total of 90 type 2 diabetics of both genders were recruited using nonprobability purposive sampling. Patients were randomized into 3 groups; 30 in each group. Group 1 received Metformin IR 1000 mg twice daily; group 2 received metformin XR 1000mg twice daily; and group 3 received metformin XR 500 mg twice daily, for a period of three months. HbA1c was done at baseline and after three months of therapy along with fasting blood sugars and random blood sugars weekly. Results: The mean age of patients was 46+-9 years, with 54% being males and 46% being females. There was a 1% reduction in HbA1c in group 1, 0.7% reduction in group 2 and only 0.4% reduction in group 3. Similarly, all three therapies were equally effective in reducing blood sugar fasting and blood sugar random at three months. Side effects namely diarrhoea, dyspepsia and flatulence were greatest with Metformin IR (40%) but less than half with Metformin XR at equivalent dose and negligible at half the dose. Conclusions: All three Metformin groups were effective in reduction of HbA1C and glycaemic control clinically and there is no statistical difference in HbA1c reduction

  8. Effects of time-temperature profiles on glow curves of germanium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S. E.; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Germanium (Ge) doped silica optical fibres have demonstrated the great potential to be developed as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter that can be used in various applications in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, UV dosimetry system and food irradiation industry. Different time-temperature profile (TTP) parameters of the TL reader have been employed by many researchers in various of TL studies. Nevertheless, none of those studies adequately addressed the effects of the reader's preheat temperature and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve specifically, the Ge-doped silica optical fibres. This research addresses the issue of TTP parameters with special attention to the determination of the kinetic parameters of the glow curve. The glow curve responses were explored and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by the WinGCF software, to show the effect of the preheat temperature and heating rate of the reader on Ge-doped fibre irradiated with 18 Gy of 6 MV photons radiation. The effect of TTP parameters was discussed and compared against the commercial fibre and tailored made fibre of 6 mol% Ge-doped of flat and cylindrical shape. The deconvolution of glow peaks and the kinetic parameters were obtained by the WinGCF software. This enables to fit accurately (1.5%

  9. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol.To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies.Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed.Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics produced changes in total cholesterol (TC (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains.In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Confronting the risks of terrorism: making the right decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Garrick, B.; Hall, James E.; Kilger, Max; McDonald, John C.; O'Toole, Tara; Probst, Peter S.; Rindskopf Parker, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Robert; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Van Arsdale, Lee A.; Zebroski, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This report offers a methodology for assessing, quantitatively, the risks of terrorism. The purpose of the methodology is to support effective decision making to combat terrorism. The emphasis is on terrorist attacks that could have catastrophic consequences. The perspective taken is that in order to make the right decisions about combating terrorism, their needs to be a systematic means of assessing the likelihood of such attacks. A process of implementation of the decisions resulting from risk assessment is essential. That process includes (1) an understanding of the nature of the threat, (2) an information system linked directly to 'intelligence' on terrorism, and (3) organizational structures that can take timely, coordinated, and effective actions. There must also be sound evidence that the methodology can be successfully applied. A description of the nature of terrorism, a terrorism risk assessment methodology, information requirements to fight terrorism, and recommendations for successful implementation is what this report is about

  11. Surface combatant readiness to confront a sea control navy

    OpenAIRE

    Wissel, Nicholas E.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis proposes to correct the shortfalls in the US Surface Combatants ability to counter a Sea-Control Navy. The concept counters this threat using unmanned aerial systems, decoys, and a layered defense. We analyze the performance with a Filtering Model of Salvo Warfare that is an extension of the Hughes Salvo Equations. The model incorporates the diluting effect of decoys upon enemy salvos and accounts for the historical reality of leakers. We conclude that in the absence of air suppor...

  12. Effective Filtering of Query Results on Updated User Behavioral Profiles in Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web with tremendous volume of information retrieves result for user related queries. With the rapid growth of web page recommendation, results retrieved based on data mining techniques did not offer higher performance filtering rate because relationships between user profile and queries were not analyzed in an extensive manner. At the same time, existing user profile based prediction in web data mining is not exhaustive in producing personalized result rate. To improve the query result rate on dynamics of user behavior over time, Hamilton Filtered Regime Switching User Query Probability (HFRS-UQP framework is proposed. HFRS-UQP framework is split into two processes, where filtering and switching are carried out. The data mining based filtering in our research work uses the Hamilton Filtering framework to filter user result based on personalized information on automatic updated profiles through search engine. Maximized result is fetched, that is, filtered out with respect to user behavior profiles. The switching performs accurate filtering updated profiles using regime switching. The updating in profile change (i.e., switches regime in HFRS-UQP framework identifies the second- and higher-order association of query result on the updated profiles. Experiment is conducted on factors such as personalized information search retrieval rate, filtering efficiency, and precision ratio.

  13. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  14. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  15. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  16. Effects of experimentally induced intestinal obstruction on the electrolyte profile in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, E.M.; Khan, M.A.; Mehmood, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively asses the changes in serum electrolyte profile after experimentally induced upper and lower intestinal obstruction in dogs. Ten dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20-25 Kg were selected. After thorough physical examination, de-worming and vaccination they were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups A and B comprised of four animals each while group C had two animals. After preparing the operation site, upper intestinal obstruction was induced in animals of group A and lower intestinal obstruction was induced in all animals of group B through mid line laparotomy under general anesthesia. Animals of group C were kept as control without induction of any obstruction. Proper post-operative care was given to the operated animals. Blood samples were collected from all animals at an interval of 24 hours and evaluated to observe changes in serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels. The results of this study showed marked decline in electrolyte levels in animals of both groups A and B, however this decline was more severe and rapid in group A than group B, while group c acted normally. It can be concluded that upper intestinal obstruction is more fatal in its consequences than lower intestinal obstruction, which is relatively less dangerous in producing its ill effects. (author)

  17. Effect of high pressure treatment on metabolite profile of marinated meat in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-02-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce was produced using hind leg by washing, rubbing salt, marinating with soy sauce and spices, and air dry-ripening for 15d. The effect of high pressure (HP) (150 and 300MPa for 15min) on the metabolite profiles of products was characterized using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 75.4 and 11.9% of variables, respectively. HP treatments increased most of the metabolites, especially PC1, glutamate, sugars, nucleotides, anserine, lactate and creatine compared to the control. The increase of metabolites under HP was not dependent on pressure level except for alanine, lactate, acetate, formate, fumarate, glucose and 5'-IMP. These findings demonstrated that HP treatment at 150MPa was economical to improve the taste of marinated meat in soy sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Moderate Alcoholic Beer Consumption: The Effects on the Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity of Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; do Rio, Rafaela F; Lollo, Pablo C B; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-07-01

    Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. The purpose was to compare the effects of consuming alcoholic beer (AB) and nonalcoholic beer (NAB) on the biochemical blood parameters. Two beers were produced under known and controlled conditions from the same raw material, NAB (0.6%, v/v) and AB with the addition of 6% grain alcohol. Fifteen healthy adult men (aged 20 to 57 y) underwent 3 treatments (30 d per treatment). In Treatment 1 (Baseline), they followed their usual diet without drinking any alcoholic beverage; in Treatment 2, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL NAB; and in Treatment 3, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL AB. It was found that the use of AB for 30 d (16 g alcohol/d) reduced the blood insulin and fasting glucose, reducing insulin resistance. These data suggest that the daily intake of 330 mL AB could statistically change the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of adult men. The volunteers were healthy before and remained so after the intervention, with no change in their clinical status. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  20. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. The reproducibility of RAPD profiles: Effects of PCR components on RAPD analysis of four centaurium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorić Marijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis is a simple and reliable method used to detect DNA polymorphism. Several factors can affect the amplification profiles, thereby causing false bands and non-reproducibility of the assay. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different concentrations of primer, magnesium chloride, template DNA and Taq DNA polymerase to develop and standardize a RAPD protocol for Centaurium species. The optimized PCR reaction mixture included: 50 ng of DNA extracted using a CTbased protocol, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 7.5 pmol primer and 2 U of Taq polymerase in a final volume of 25 μl. Each of the five primers used in experiments (OPB11, OPB15, OPB18, OPF05 and OPH02 generated reproducible and distinguishable fingerprinting patterns of four Centaurium species. The obtained optimized RAPD protocol and the selected primers are useful for our further work in the genetic diversity studies of Centaurium species.

  2. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile Among Algerian Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiboura Ghania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We designed this study to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in July 2014 (Ramadan 1421. The total duration of fasting was 17 hours a day. The investigation involved 80 patients. The mean age of the patients was 56± 8 years. The dietary survey lasting three days was recorded. The anthropometric and the biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects before (T1 and during (T2 the fasting month of Ramadan and results were compared using student t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c levels during T2 (0.35±0,08 g/L compared to T1 (0.38±0,11 g/L. Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 decreased significantly during fasting compared to pre-fasting days while apo B increased during T2 (p˂0.05. The dietary fat consumption increased during Ramadan; especially for the saturated one (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study suggests that fasting month of Ramadan could be beneficial for some patients with type 2 diabetes who are well controlled and balanced. However, some of them may be at risk of cardiovascular complications in which dyslipidemia can be the leading cause.

  3. Effect of nutrients on total lipid content and fatty acids profile of Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zarei Darki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of nutrients on the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus isolated from the south coast of the Caspian Sea was evaluated. The nutritional compositions of the media impacted the growth rate and biomass of S. obliquus that ranged from 0.175 day-1 to 0.209 day-1and 0.92 gr·l-1 to 1.79 gr·l-1, respectively. The alga grew better in the medium which was characterized by higher levels of sodium and trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Mo, and Co and poor in N and P as compared with the other media. The highest level of the total lipid (32% and the highest values of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid also were positively correlated with these nutrients. Peaks in polyunsaturated fatty acids (43.7 %, especially α-linolenic acid (28.4% were related to N and P, but its correlation with K and Mg was more evident. The most important factors correlated with high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids were also N and P, followed by K and Mg to a lesser extent. This study demonstrated that the same algal strain may be a source of different amount of fatty acids, depending on the composition of the culture medium.

  4. About the Effectiveness of the Training Technology Model of Trigonometry Teaching for the Mathematical Profile Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Popov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to trigonometry teaching in higher school as a part of the elementary mathematics course with a complex hierarchical structure. Due to the complicated content of the given discipline,each of its modules can be divided into separate themes; though, the teacher should emphasize their interrelations, as well as the links with the coordinate method, geometry and mathematical analysis.The recommended training technology model allows the teacher to build up and control the training process, and achieve good results in accordance with the assigned tasks. In the course of the model approbation, theauthor developed the e-learning resource and identification method for selecting the key mathematical examples and exercises for each theme and module. The analysis of students’ tests and questionnaires conducted for several years proves the effectiveness of the designed model for the senior university students of mathematical profile. Based on the research findings, the author developed the educational methodology complex for the Basics of Trigonometry course.

  5. EFFECT OF HYDROGENATED, LIQUID AND GHEE OILS ON SERUM LI-PIDS PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Mohammadifard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats, so this study was done to compare the effects of hydrogenated, liquid and ghee oils on serum lipids profile of healthy adults.    METHODS: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 129 healthy participants aged from 20 to 60 years old who were beneficiaries of Imam-e-Zaman charitable organization. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups and each group was treated with a diet containing cooking and frying liquid, ghee, or hydrogenated for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apoprotein A (Apo A, and apoprotein B (Apo B were measured before and after the study.    RESULTS: TC, TG and Apo B had a significant reduction in the liquid oil group compared to the hydrogenated oil group. In the ghee group TG declined and Apo A increased significantly (p < 0.01. Liquid oil group had a significant reduction in HDL-C, compared to the ghee oil group (P < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: It was concluded that consuming liquid oil along with frying oil caused to reduce all serum lipid levels. However, ghee oil only reduced TG and increased HDL-C levels.      Keywords: Serum lipids, Apoproteins, Liquid oil, Hydrogenated oil, Ghee, Clinical trial

  6. Site-directed mutation of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus: Effect on the activity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A site-directed mutant R453T of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-laccase was constructed in order to investigate the effect on laccase catalytic properties. The mutated gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Nickel-affinity purification was achieved and followed by copper ion incorporation. The mature mutated enzyme was quantitatively equal to the wild type. A photometric assay based on the oxidation of the substrate 2,2-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS was employed in comparison with the wild-type Tth-laccase on catalytic properties. The R453T mutant exhibited improvement in substrate affinity and specific activity at room temperature, whereas those parameters were not significantly influenced when the temperature increased up to 65°C or higher. The mutant had better catalytic activity than that of the wild type at acidic pH. Investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, the mutant Tth-laccase displayed similar profiles at low and high temperatures.

  7. Effects on Implosion Characteristics of High-Z Dopant Profiles in ICF Ignition Capsule Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Min; Gu, Jianfa; Zou, Shiyang; Kang, Dongguo; Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan

    2012-10-01

    For ignition target design (ITD) of indirect drive ICF [J. Lindl, PoP 2, 3933(1995)], high-Z dopants in capsule ablators were used to prevent preheat of DTadjacentablators by Au M-band flux in laser-driven gold Hohlraums, therefore to restrain the growth of high-mode hydro-instabilities and to improve the targetrobustness.Based on NIC's Rev. 5 ITD[S. W. Haan et al., PoP 18, 051001(2011)], we investigated the effect of thickness and dopant concentration of doped layers on implosion characteristics, including the Atwood number (AWN) of fuel-ablator interface, the density gradient scale length (DGSL) of ablation front and the implosion velocity (VIM); all three variables decrease with increment of dopant dosage, and increase with dopant concentration while keeping dosage constant. Since a smaller AWN, a larger DGSL, and a faster VIM always characterize a more robust ITD, one should make tradeoff among them by adjusting the dopant profiles in ablators.A Gaussian spectrum (GS) was used to imitate the Au M-band flux [Y. S. Li et al., PoP 18, 022701(2011)], and the impact of GScenter on implosion characteristics of Rev. 5 ITD was studied while moving the GScenter towards higher energy, the ablatorpreheat got severe, AWN got larger, DGSL got larger, and VIM got faster.

  8. Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in illicit methcathinone users reveals effect on immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSikk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Methcathinone (ephedrone is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese, or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We analyzed whole genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data was analyzed by Bayesian modelling and functional annotation. In order to verify the genechip results we performed quantitative real-time (RT PCR in selected genes. 326 out of analyzed 28,869 genes showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation immunological disease, cellular movement and cardiovascular disease gene network (enrichment score 42. As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of patients. A similar functional activation of the immunological disease pathway was evident when we compared patients according to the injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection. However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the patients. Mn-methcathinone abusers have blood transcriptional patterns mostly caused by their HIV and HCV infections.

  9. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  10. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Chan, V.S.; Chen, L.

    1998-12-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n ∼ 2--9 and a fast growth time γ -1 = 20--150 micros are often observed prior to the first giant type 1 ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n > 1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region

  11. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Miller, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n∼2-9 and a fast growth time γ -1 =20-150μs are often observed prior to the first giant type I ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n>1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region. (author)

  12. The effect of superdisintegrants on the properties and dissolution profiles of liquisolid tablets containing rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr

    2017-03-01

    The preparation of liquisolid systems (LSS) represents a promising method for enhancing a dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The release of the drug from LSS tablets is affected by many factors, including the disintegration time. The evaluation of differences among LSS containing varying amounts and types of commercially used superdisintegrants (Kollidon® CL-F, Vivasol® and Explotab®). LSS were prepared by spraying rosuvastatin solution onto Neusilin® US2 and further processing into tablets. Varying amounts of superdisintegrants were used and the differences among LSS were evaluated. The multiple scatter plot method was used to visualize the relationships within the obtained data. All disintegrants do not showed negative effect on the flow properties of powder blends. The type and concentration of superdisintegrant had an impact on the disintegration time and dissolution profiles of tablets. Tablets with Explotab® showed the longest disintegration time and the smallest amount of released drug. Fastest disintegration and dissolution rate were observed in tablets containing Kollidon® CL-F (≥2.5% w/w). Also tablets with Vivasol® (2.5-4.0% w/w) showed fast disintegration and complete drug release. Kollidon® CL-F and Vivasol® in concentration ≥2.5% are suitable superdisintegrants for LSS with enhanced release of drug.

  13. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  14. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  15. Effects of Wind Velocity Driven by Alfven Waves on the Line Profiles for 32 CYG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Mee Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the theoretical line profiles for 32 Cyg in order to investigate the influence of various velocity fields. Line profiles are calculated with wind accelerations driven by Alfven waves and described by velocity parameters. The results for Alfvenic wave model show weakened line profiles. For the orbital phases ¥÷=0.78 and ¥÷=0.06 the Alfvenic models show strong absorption part due to very low densities at the surface of the supergiant. Hence, we conclude the velocity gradient of the wind near the supergiant could influence on the theoretical line formation.

  16. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  17. Mid-rapidity pion cross sections: new data confront theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, K.A.; Bistirlich, J.A.; Bossingham, R.

    1981-07-01

    Pion production by collisions of relativistic heavy ions has been studied recently by Wolf et al. For the reaction 1.05 GeV/A 40 Ar + Ca → π + , they discovered a peak in the invariant cross section at mid-rapidity at P/sub perpendicular/ approx. 0.5 m/sub π/c. This peak is not apparent in the 730 MeV p + p data of Cochran et al. and was attributed to possible hydrodynamic flow effects. Several authors have suggested that the π + peak is a Coulomb effect. These models predict the π - would be drawn in towards the fireball, leaving an essentially flat distribution in the mid-rapidity region. Mid-rapidity π + and π - cross sections were measured using a 1.05 GeV/A argon beam with a calcium target. The pions were measured with a magnetic spectrometer set at 15 0 to the beam and were stopped in a scintillator range telescope. Results are presented and discussed

  18. Effect of cortex mori on pharmacokinetic profiles of main isoflavonoids from pueraria lobata in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bingxin; Sun, Zengxian; Sun, Shu Yang; Dong, Jie; Li, Yanli; Gao, Shan; Pang, Jie; Chang, Qi

    2017-09-14

    Radix pueraria (the root of pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi.), which contains a class of isoflavonoids as the main active components, as well as cortex mori (the root bark of Morus alba L), which contains abundant active alkaloids, have been employed for the treatment of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In previous studies, pharmacodynamic synergistic reactions have been observed in compatible application of pueraria lobata isoflavonoids extracts (PLF) and cortex mori alkaloids extracts (CME) for inhibiting α-glycosidase activity. It has also been demonstrated that PLF can effectively slow down the absorption of active alkaloid from CME, so as to produce a higher effective concentration in small intestine for depressing the elevation of postprandial blood glucose through inhibiting α-glycosidase activity. In this study, the hypoglycemic effect of PLF, CME or CME-PLF mixture (the mixture of CME and PLF at a ratio of 1:6.3) was further evaluated through in vivo glucose tolerance studies. And the effect of CME on pharmacokinetic profiles of main isoflavonoids from PLF in rat plasma was investigated to further underlie compatibility mechanism of the two herbs. Four groups of rats received an oral dose of starch solution alone or simultaneously with drugs by gavage feeding. The blood samples were collected to determine glucose concentrations by glucose oxidase method. In addition, another two groups of rats were orally administered with PLF or CME-PLF. The plasma samples were collected and assayed using an LC/MS/MS method for comparatively pharmacokinetic studies of five main isoflavonoids. For starch loading, co-administration of CME-PLF resulted in more potent inhibition effects on glucose responses compared to those by CME or PLF in rat. The isoflavonoids from PLF were rapidly absorbed, presenting similarly low concentrations in plasma. When CME was added, the C max and AUC of all the five isoflavonoids were increased. A phenomenon of double

  19. Hyaluronidase: its effects on HI-6 dichloride and dimethanesulphonate pharmacokinetic profile in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Pavlik, Michal; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-07-04

    Pigs were administered intramuscularly molar equivalents of HI-6 salts (HI-6 dichloride 10.71 mg/kg and HI-6 DMS 13.59 mg/kg) either with or without hyaluronidase (60 U/kg). Hyaluronidase is supposed to increase tissue permeability and diminishes discomfort caused by the intramuscular injection. Doses of HI-6 salts corresponded with standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for 1 kg of body weight. According to the results, both HI-6 salts applied in combination with hyaluronidase had increased tissue absorption and improved pharmacokinetic profile. The Cmax was significantly higher in case of HI-6 DMS plus hyaluronidase (29.6 ± 2.98 μg/ml) administration increase compared to HI-6 DMS (23.8 ± 3.04 μg/ml) and HI-6 dichloride (19.0 ± 0.93 μg/ml); both without hyaluronidase. Bioavailability calculated as AUCtotal (HI-6 DMS with hyaluronidase, 4,119 ± 647 min μg/ml) was also significantly higher compared to HI-6 DMS (2,259 ± 329 min μg/ml) and HI-6 dichloride (1,969 ± 254 min μg/ml); both without hyaluronidase. The results suggest that administration of HI-6 salt with higher solubility is the first step in the improvement of application strategy, but use some substances with spreading effect (hyaluronidase) may also leads to better absorption and better bioavailability. Improved bioavailability could to go hand in hand with increased effectiveness of therapy without the need of multiple autoinjector applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions-15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week.

  1. Effects of different acute hypoxic regimens on tissue oxygen profiles and metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Drager, Luciano F; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2011-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. Both obesity and OSA are associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, which may be attributable to tissue hypoxia. We hypothesized that a pattern of hypoxic exposure determines both oxygen profiles in peripheral tissues and systemic metabolic outcomes, and that obesity has a modifying effect. Lean and obese C57BL6 mice were exposed to 12 h of intermittent hypoxia 60 times/h (IH60) [inspired O₂ fraction (Fi(O₂)) 21-5%, 60/h], IH 12 times/h (Fi(O₂) 5% for 15 s, 12/h), sustained hypoxia (SH; Fi(O₂) 10%), or normoxia while fasting. Tissue oxygen partial pressure (Pti(O₂)) in liver, skeletal muscle and epididymal fat, plasma leptin, adiponectin, insulin, blood glucose, and adipose tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. In lean mice, IH60 caused oxygen swings in the liver, whereas fluctuations of Pti(O₂) were attenuated in muscle and abolished in fat. In obese mice, baseline liver Pti(O₂) was lower than in lean mice, whereas muscle and fat Pti(O₂) did not differ. During IH, Pti(O₂) was similar in obese and lean mice. All hypoxic regimens caused insulin resistance. In lean mice, hypoxia significantly increased leptin, especially during SH (44-fold); IH60, but not SH, induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in TNF-α secretion by fat. Obesity was associated with striking increases in leptin and TNF-α, which overwhelmed effects of hypoxia. In conclusion, IH60 led to oxygen fluctuations in liver and muscle and steady hypoxia in fat. IH and SH induced insulin resistance, but inflammation was increased only by IH60 in lean mice. Obesity caused severe inflammation, which was not augmented by acute hypoxic regimens.

  2. Effect of temperature on growth and fatty acids profile of the biodiesel producing microalga Scenedesmus acutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sheekh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study examined the effect of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C on biomass, esterified fatty acids content and fatty acid productivity of Scenedesmus acutus. Objectives. This work aimed to study the effect of variation in temperature on lipid productivity and fatty acid profiles of S. acutus as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Method. The alga was grown under different temperatures and its biomass, as well as fatty acid content and composition, were determined. Results. The maximum growth rate of S. acutus was achieved at 30 °C , but there was no significant difference in biomass productivity at 25 and 30 °C (0.41 and 0.42 g·l-1·d-1, respectively. The highest fatty acid content (104.1 mg·g-1 CDW was recorded at low temperature (15 °C and decreased with increasing temperature. As a result of high biomass production, fatty acids productivity showed the highest values (41.27 and 42.10 mg·l-1·d-1 at 25 and 30 °C, respectively. The proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids increased from 13.72 to 23.79% and from 11.13 to 33.10% of total fatty acids when the incubation temperature was raised from 15 to 40 °C, respectively. The increase of temperature from 15 to 40 °C decreased the poly-unsaturated fatty acids from 75.15% to 43.10% of total fatty acids, respectively. Conclusions. The present study concluded that incubation temperature was a critical parameter for quantitative and qualitative fatty acid compositions of S. acutus. In addition, the type and proportion of individual fatty acids, which interfere with biodiesel quality, can be modified using different incubation temperatures in order to meet the biodiesel international standards.

  3. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin LL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lili Qin,1 Mei Wang,2 Rongrong Zhu,3 Songhui You,1 Ping Zhou,1 Shilong Wang31Department of Physical Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16 were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications.Keywords: layered double hydroxides, etoposide, drug delivery, antitumor effect, sustained release

  4. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anti-bacterial profile of some beers and their effect on some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... profile against food born diseases caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium .... technological plane, a fast, premature sporulation is .... directly used as preservative; it should be fractioned in.

  6. Lowest-order average effect of turbulence on atmospheric profiles derived from radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Haugstad, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Turbulence in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres causes changes in angles of refraction of radio waves used in occultation experiments. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles, and ionospheric electron concentration profiles, derived from radio occultation measurements of Doppler frequency contain errors due to such angular offsets. The lowest-order average errors are derived from a geometrical-optics treatment of the radio-wave phase advance caused by the addition of uniform turbulence to an initially homogeneous medium. It is concluded that the average profile errors are small and that precise Doppler frequency measurements at two or more wavelengths could be used to help determine characteristics of the turbulence, as well as accuracy limits and possible correction terms for the profiles. However, a more detailed study of both frequency and intensity characteristics in radio and optical occultation measurements of turbulent planetary atmospheres and ionospheres is required to realize the full potential of such measurements

  7. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on genomic expression profiling of porcine parthenogenetic activated and cloned embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Yonglun; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    derived by PA or HMC. Hierarchical clustering depicted stage-specific genomic expression profiling. At the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, 103 and 163 transcripts were differentially expressed between the HMC and PA embryos, respectively (P

  8. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 1071-1074. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... Revised accepted: 26 April 2015. Abstract. Purpose: To ... maintaining membrane integrity and protection from reactive ..... Plasma lipid profile ...

  9. Evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of criminal geographic profiling methods: The case of Dandora, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mburu, L; Helbich, M

    2015-01-01

    Criminal geographic profiling (CGP) prioritizes offender search, extensively reducing the resources expended in criminal investigations. The utility of CGP has, however, remained unclear when variations in environmental characteristics and offense type are introduced. This study evaluates several

  10. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, L.J.; Ache, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the ‘bottom up’, for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how

  11. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems ... because 1.3 billion people cannot read English, and only 163 million people (a fraction ... childhood obesity in urban areas, caused by increases in junk food and lack of exercise.

  12. The future of Asian feminisms: confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts and neo-liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katjasungkana, N.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This book on the future of Asian feminisms, confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts, and neo-liberalism is a critical contribution to the rising voices of Asian women’s studies scholars and activists. It is based on the ongoing research and advocacy work of the Kartini Asia Network, founded in 2003

  13. La Grippe and World War I: conflict participation and pandemic confrontation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, B J; Collins, C D

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu.

  14. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women’s actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women’s decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants (N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner’s remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women’s perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index. PMID:29051685

  15. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  16. The challenges that head nurses confront on financial management today: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai, RN, BA

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The confusion confronted by head nurses in Changsha include three aspects: managerial roles, managerial training, and managerial tools. Cooperative management model, evidence-based management training, and data-driven tools will contribute to improving the financial management capacity of nurse managers.

  17. Markets, Equality and Democratic Education: Confronting the Neoliberal and Libertarian Reconceptualisations of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    The global emergence of market liberalism marks an effort to decouple the link between citizenship and the welfare state and to rearticulate people's identity as homo economicus, as independent citizens having the right to property and the freedom to choose in the marketplace. Confronting this phenomenon, this paper reviews neoliberal and…

  18. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  19. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus : Confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  20. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus: confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  1. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F

    2017-03-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women's actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women's decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants ( N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner's remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women's perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index.

  2. Relationships among cloud occurrence frequency, overlap, and effective thickness derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat merged cloud vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profiles derived from the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and cloud profiling radar. The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical profiles can be related by a cloud overlap matrix when the correlation length of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data (July 2006) support these assumptions, although the correlation length sometimes increases with separation distance when the cloud top height is large. The data also show that the correlation length depends on cloud top hight and the maximum occurs when the cloud top height is 8 to 10 km. The cloud correlation length is equivalent to the decorrelation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth (2000) when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same. The simple relationships derived in this study can be used to estimate the top-of-atmosphere irradiance difference caused by cloud fraction, uppermost cloud top, and cloud thickness vertical profile differences.

  3. APPLICATION OF A SELF-SIMILAR PRESSURE PROFILE TO SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT DATA FROM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczkowski, Tony; Miller, Amber; Bonamente, Max; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Woody, David; Joy, Marshall; Maughan, Ben; Muchovej, Stephen; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a new, self-similar pressure profile for fitting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of galaxy clusters. Current SZ imaging instruments-such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA)-are capable of probing clusters over a large range in a physical scale. A model is therefore required that can accurately describe a cluster's pressure profile over a broad range of radii from the core of the cluster out to a significant fraction of the virial radius. In the analysis presented here, we fit a radial pressure profile derived from simulations and detailed X-ray analysis of relaxed clusters to SZA observations of three clusters with exceptionally high-quality X-ray data: A1835, A1914, and CL J1226.9+3332. From the joint analysis of the SZ and X-ray data, we derive physical properties such as gas mass, total mass, gas fraction and the intrinsic, integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that parameters derived from the joint fit to the SZ and X-ray data agree well with a detailed, independent X-ray-only analysis of the same clusters. In particular, we find that, when combined with X-ray imaging data, this new pressure profile yields an independent electron radial temperature profile that is in good agreement with spectroscopic X-ray measurements.

  4. Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity

  5. Effects of Inner Surface Roughness and Asymmetric Pipe Flow on Accuracy of Profile Factor for Ultrasonic Flow Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michitsugu Mori; Kenichi Tezuka; Yasushi Takeda

    2006-01-01

    Flow profile factors (PFs), which adjust measurements to real flow rates, also strongly depend on flow profiles. To determine profile factors for actual power plants, manufactures of flowmeters usually conduct factory calibration tests under ambient flow conditions. Indeed, flow measurements with high accuracy for reactor feedwater require them to conduct calibration tests under real conditions, such as liquid conditions and piping layouts. On the contrary, as nuclear power plants are highly aging, readings of flowmeters for reactor feedwater systems drift due to the changes of flow profiles. The causes of those deviations are affected by the change of wall roughness of inner surface of pipings. We have conducted experiments to quantify the effects of flow patterns on the PFs due to pipe roughness and asymmetric flow, and the results of our experiments have shown the effects of elbows and pipe inner roughness, which strongly affect to the creation of the flow patterns. Those changes of flow patterns lead to large errors in measurements with transit time (time-of-flight: TOF) ultrasonic flow meters. In those experiments, changes of pipe roughness result in the changes of PFs with certain errors. Therefore, we must take into account those effects in order to measure the flow rates of feedwater with better accuracy in actual power plants. (authors)

  6. Effects of RF pulse profile and intra-voxel phase dispersion on MR fingerprinting with balanced SSFP readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Chin; Lin, Te-Ming; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Büchert, Martin; Bock, Michael

    2017-09-01

    To investigate possible errors in T1 and T2 quantification via MR fingerprinting with balanced steady-state free precession readout in the presence of intra-voxel phase dispersion and RF pulse profile imperfections, using computer simulations based on Bloch equations. A pulse sequence with TR changing in a Perlin noise pattern and a nearly sinusoidal pattern of flip angle following an initial 180-degree inversion pulse was employed. Gaussian distributions of off-resonance frequency were assumed for intra-voxel phase dispersion effects. Slice profiles of sinc-shaped RF pulses were computed to investigate flip angle profile influences. Following identification of the best fit between the acquisition signals and those established in the dictionary based on known parameters, estimation errors were reported. In vivo experiments were performed at 3T to examine the results. Slight intra-voxel phase dispersion with standard deviations from 1 to 3Hz resulted in prominent T2 under-estimations, particularly at large T2 values. T1 and off-resonance frequencies were relatively unaffected. Slice profile imperfections led to under-estimations of T1, which became greater as regional off-resonance frequencies increased, but could be corrected by including slice profile effects in the dictionary. Results from brain imaging experiments in vivo agreed with the simulation results qualitatively. MR fingerprinting using balanced SSFP readout in the presence of intra-voxel phase dispersion and imperfect slice profile leads to inaccuracies in quantitative estimations of the relaxation times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  8. Challenges confronting female surgical leaders: overcoming the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Rena B; Souba, Wiley W; Thorndyke, Luanne E

    2006-05-15

    The number of women reaching top ranks in academic surgery is remarkably low. The purpose of this study was to identify: 1) barriers to becoming a female surgical leader; 2) key attributes that enable advancement and success; and 3) current leadership challenges faced as senior leaders. Semi-structured interviews of ten female surgical leaders queried the following dimensions: attributes for success, lessons learned, mistakes, key career steps, the role of mentoring, gender advantages/disadvantages, and challenges. Perseverance (60%) and drive (50%) were identified as critical success factors, as were good communication skills, a passion for scholarship, a stable home life and a positive outlook. Eighty percent identified discrimination or gender prejudice as a major obstacle in their careers. While 90% percent had mentors, 50% acknowledged that they had not been effectively mentored. Career advice included: develop broad career goals (50%); select a conducive environment (30%); find a mentor (60%); take personal responsibility (40%); organize time and achieve balance (40%); network (30%); create a niche (30%); pursue research (30%); publish (50%); speak in public (30%); and enjoy the process (30%). Being in a minority, being highly visible and being collaborative were identified as advantages. Obtaining buy-in and achieving consensus was the greatest leadership challenge reported. Female academic surgeons face challenges to career advancement. While these barriers are real, they can be overcome by resolve, commitment, and developing strong communication skills. These elements should be taken into consideration in designing career development programs for junior female surgical faculty.

  9. Potential Mechanisms Underlying Response to Effects of the Fungicide Pyrimethanil from Gene Expression Profiling inSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Fátima N.; Becker, Jörg D.; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrimethanil is a fungicide mostly applied in vineyards. When misused, residue levels detected in grape must or in the environment may be of concern. The present work aimed to analyze mechanisms underlying response to deleterious effects of pyrimethanil in the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyrimethanil concentration-dependent effects at phenotypic (inhibition of growth) and transcriptomic levels were examined. For transcriptional profiling, analysis focused on two sublethal expos...

  10. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K; Mannino, David M; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation), contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient. The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea) to $9,981 (USA), with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries) and home oxygen therapy (3 countries) being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy) to 52% (USA and UK) with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia) to $30,826 (USA) but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease) and a greater number of comorbidities. The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  11. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Foo

    Full Text Available The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD.This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation, contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient.The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea to $9,981 (USA, with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries and home oxygen therapy (3 countries being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy to 52% (USA and UK with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia to $30,826 (USA but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease and a greater number of comorbidities.The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  12. Confronting conflict: addressing institutional conflicts of interest in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Individual conflicts of interest are rife in healthcare, and substantial attention has been given to address them. Yet a more substantive concern-institutional conflicts of interest ("ICOIs") in academic medical centers ("AMCs") engaged in research and clinical care-have yet to garner sufficient attention, despite their higher stakes for patient safety and welfare. ICOIs are standard in AMCs, are virtually unregulated, and have led to patient deaths. Upon review of ICOIs, we find a clear absence of substantive efforts to confront these conflicts. We also assess the Jesse Gelsinger case, which resulted in the death of a study participant exemplifying a deep-seated culture of institutional indifference and complicity in unmanaged conflicts. Federal policy, particularly the Bayh-Dole Act, also creates and promotes ICOIs. Efforts to address ICOIs are narrow or abstract, and do not provide for a systemic infrastructure with effective enforcement mechanisms. Hence, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive proposal to address ICOIs utilizing a "Centralized System" model that would proactively review, manage, approve, and conduct assessments of conflicts, and would have independent power to evaluate and enforce any violations via sanctions. It would also manage any industry funds and pharmaceutical samples and be a condition of participation in public healthcare reimbursement and federal grant funding. The ICOI policy itself would provide for disclosure requirements, separate management of commercial enterprise units from academic units, voluntary remediation of conflicts, and education on ICOIs. Finally, we propose a new model of medical education-academic detailing-in place of current marketing-focused "education." Using such a system, AMCs can wean themselves from industry reliance and promote a culture of accountability and independence from industry influence. By doing so, clinical research and treatment can return to a focus on patient care, not profits.

  13. How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, Ali; Afshordi, Niayesh; Scott, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (``highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ4 = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ4 = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ4=), and also among different data sets.

  14. How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-01-01

    An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (''highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ 4  = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ 4  = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ 4 =), and also among different data sets

  15. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    SummaryTrans-boundary water agreements are usually conceived as allocation agreements. In other words, water is treated as if it were a pie to be divided among the riparian states. The treatment of water as if it were as immobile as land may be useful in the short term, but it is fundamentally flawed as a means to avoid conflict as well as to ensure efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water over the long term. This article proposes to avoid quantitative allocations within international water agreements, whether they be presented as percentage or fixed allocations or whether or not accompanied by a periodic revision clause. It proposes instead an ongoing joint management structure that allows for continuous conflict resolution concerning water demands and uses in a manner that effectively de-nationalises water uses. As well, it builds on existing, functioning institutions that are already active over a variety of scalar levels. It disaggregates what is usually perceived as a national water demand into its component institutions and re-aggregates them within an international institutional context. Though this approach for building trans-boundary water agreements can prove useful in any geographical situation, this article uses the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a model. It proposes to respect the existing differences in the institutional management of water between the two entities and to reach four general objectives: economic efficiency, social and political equity, ecological sustainability, and the ability to implement the agreement in practice. The institutional design and proposed mechanisms follow five key principles for shared management: water allocations that are not fixed but variable over time; equality in rights and responsibilities; priority for demand management over supply management; continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity; and mediation among competing uses of fresh water. This institutional structure balances water

  16. Confronting the Uncertainty in Aerosol Forcing Using Comprehensive Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Yoshioka, M.; Pringle, K.; Sexton, D.; Lee, L.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of aerosols on cloud droplet concentrations and radiative properties is the largest uncertainty in the overall radiative forcing of climate over the industrial period. In this study, we take advantage of a large perturbed parameter ensemble of simulations from the UK Met Office HadGEM-UKCA model (the aerosol component of the UK Earth System Model) to comprehensively sample uncertainty in aerosol forcing. Uncertain aerosol and atmospheric parameters cause substantial aerosol forcing uncertainty in climatically important regions. As the aerosol radiative forcing itself is unobservable, we investigate the potential for observations of aerosol and radiative properties to act as constraints on the large forcing uncertainty. We test how eight different theoretically perfect aerosol and radiation observations can constrain the forcing uncertainty over Europe. We find that the achievable constraint is weak unless many diverse observations are used simultaneously. This is due to the complex relationships between model output responses and the multiple interacting parameter uncertainties: compensating model errors mean there are many ways to produce the same model output (known as model equifinality) which impacts on the achievable constraint. However, using all eight observable quantities together we show that the aerosol forcing uncertainty can potentially be reduced by around 50%. This reduction occurs as we reduce a large sample of model variants (over 1 million) that cover the full parametric uncertainty to around 1% that are observationally plausible.Constraining the forcing uncertainty using real observations is a more complex undertaking, in which we must account for multiple further uncertainties including measurement uncertainties, structural model uncertainties and the model discrepancy from reality. Here, we make a first attempt to determine the true potential constraint on the forcing uncertainty from our model that is achievable using a comprehensive

  17. Effect of Different Vegetable Fats on Lipid Profile and Risk of Atherosclerosis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainuson, Joana Koma

    2013-07-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVDs) are presently increasing rapidly in incidence and have become key contributors to the burden of disease in most developing countries like Ghana. The condition has been projected to more than double by 2025. The type and amount of dietary fat has been associated with several disorders including AVDs and it complications. Diet, as one of the most important modifiable risk factors of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) modulates the other known risk factors. Excessive intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol has been found to increase serum cholesterol, thus leading to a high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Saturated fats, both of animal and vegetable or plant origin, have been discredited. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vegetable fats including olive oil (OO), red palm oil (RdPO) and refined palm oil or palm olein (RfPO) on lipid profile and risk of Atherosclerosis in rat model. Three months old male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats (n=56) were divided into four groups: control, olive, red palm and refined palm oil groups (n=14 per group) received water and feed ad libitum. The controls were fed the standard rat chow whilst the treatment (oil) groups received diet enriched with extra 6% by weight of the corresponding oil. During the 16 weeks of dietary intervention, 7 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed at two months intervals, and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis. Plasma lipid profile comprising of Total Cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and Apolipoprotein-B100 (Apo-B100) were determined at baseline and at the end of every two months by the enzymatic technique using the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA). Pro-inflammatory markers including Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) were also determined by the ELISA method at baseline

  18. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-d Cultures After Particle Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z. S.; Kidane, Y. H.; Huff, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Reducing uncertainties in current risk models requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. We are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models that provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information. We identified 45 statistically significant gene sets at 0.05 q-value cutoff, including 14 gene sets common to gamma and titanium irradiation, 19 gene sets specific to gamma irradiation, and 12 titanium-specific gene sets. Common gene sets largely align with DNA damage, cell cycle, early immune response, and inflammatory cytokine pathway activation. The top gene set enriched for the gamma- and titanium-irradiated samples involved KRAS pathway activation and genes activated in TNF-treated cells, respectively. Another difference noted for the high-LET samples was an apparent enrichment in gene sets involved in cycle cycle/mitotic control. It is

  19. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Peganum harmala L seeds on lipids profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hasanzadeh Tahery

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Atherosclerosis is the main factor of mortality in cardiovascular patients. Pathogenesis dependence of atherosclerosis on the increase of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c has been proved. Since using of existing chemical medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases causes several side-effects, this has led to more tendency to using of herbs.   According to some traditional medicinal references, Harmala seeds can be used as lowering blood lipids agents. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Harmala seeds on blood lipid profiles.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 18 Wistar rats with the average weight of 300 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. two experimental and one control group. The experimental groups I and II were respectively gavaged 3cc liquid containing 100mg/kg body weight (bw of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Harmala seeds for 30 days and group III, as a negative control, received an equal volume of distilled water for the same period. At the end , after deep anesthesia of the subjects with ether, the amount of blood lipids such as triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, LDL, and HDL were measured using test kits and the amount of VLDL cholesterol, too, was mathematically calculated.   The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (v: 11.5, ANOVA and Tukey tests at the significant level P<0.05.   Results: The findings showed that mean levels of LDL cholesterol in groups I, II, and control was 36.8±4.3, 35.8±4.3 and 44.3±4.6, respectively. Comparatively, the difference between experimental group I and the control (P=0.025 and also between group II and the control (P=0.012 were statistically significant. The other tested blood lipids in the experimental groups and the control group did not show a significant difference.   Conclusion: It was found that consumption of

  1. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  2. The effects of timing of fine needle aspiration biopsies on gene expression profiles in breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Vietty; Wang, Dong-Yu; Warren, Keisha; Kulkarni, Supriya; Boerner, Scott; Done, Susan Jane; Leong, Wey Liang

    2008-01-01

    DNA microarray analysis has great potential to become an important clinical tool to individualize prognostication and treatment for breast cancer patients. However, with any emerging technology, there are many variables one must consider before bringing the technology to the bedside. There are already concerted efforts to standardize protocols and to improve reproducibility of DNA microarray. Our study examines one variable that is often overlooked, the timing of tissue acquisition, which may have a significant impact on the outcomes of DNA microarray analyses especially in studies that compare microarray data based on biospecimens taken in vivo and ex vivo. From 16 patients, we obtained paired fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of breast cancers taken before (PRE) and after (POST) their surgeries and compared the microarray data to determine the genes that were differentially expressed between the FNABs taken at the two time points. qRT-PCR was used to validate our findings. To examine effects of longer exposure to hypoxia on gene expression, we also compared the gene expression profiles of 10 breast cancers from clinical tissue bank. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, 12 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the FNABs taken before and after surgical removal. Remarkably, most of the genes were linked to FOS in an early hypoxia pathway. The gene expression of FOS also increased with longer exposure to hypoxia. Our study demonstrated that the timing of fine needle aspiration biopsies can be a confounding factor in microarray data analyses in breast cancer. We have shown that FOS-related genes, which have been implicated in early hypoxia as well as the development of breast cancers, were differentially expressed before and after surgery. Therefore, it is important that future studies take timing of tissue acquisition into account

  3. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  4. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi, O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P En este estudio se investigó los cambios en el perfil de flavonoides y la capacidad antioxidante de cinco cultivares de olivo después de una salazón en seco. La actividad antioxidante se determinó mediante los métodos FRAP (Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power, ORAC (capacidad de absorción de radicales de oxígeno y ensayos de blanqueo de β-caroteno. Los resultados mostraron que los efectos de la salazón en seco en los parámetros analizados fueron significativos (P < 0,05. Esto causó una disminución en los flavonoides totales con una tasa de pérdida del 55%. El análisis por HPLC de los extractos reveló la presencia de cuatro flavonoides: rutina, luteolina-7-glucósido, cianidina-3-glucósido y cianidina-3-rutinósido. Entre los cultivares estudiados, Azeradj se caracteriza por altos niveles de flavonoides. En cuanto a la actividad antioxidante, se obtuvieron resultados divergentes utilizando diferentes ensayos antioxidantes. En general, la salazón en seco indujo una reducción en la actividad.

  5. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: Effect of sex and arsenic exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Madelyn C.; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A.; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R. Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C.; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex-specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation. PMID:26883664

  6. Effect of almond consumption on the serum fatty acid profile: a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Stephanie; Kendall, Cyril W C; Gascoyne, Ana-Maria; Bazinet, Richard P; Bashyam, Balachandran; Lapsley, Karen G; Augustin, Livia S A; Sievenpiper, John L; Jenkins, David J A

    2014-10-14

    Consumption of almonds has been shown to be associated with a decreased risk of CHD, which may be related to their fatty acid (FA) composition. However, the effect of almond consumption on the serum FA composition is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether almond consumption would alter the serum FA profile and risk of CHD, as calculated using Framingham's 10-year risk score, in a dose-dependent manner in hyperlipidaemic individuals when compared with a higher-carbohydrate control group using dietary interventions incorporating almonds. A total of twenty-seven hyperlipidaemic individuals consumed three isoenergetic (mean 1770 kJ/d) supplements during three 1-month dietary phases: (1) full-dose almonds (50-100 g/d); (2) half-dose almonds with half-dose muffins; (3) full-dose muffins. Fasting blood samples were obtained at weeks 0 and 4 for the determination of FA concentrations. Almond intake (g/d) was found to be inversely associated with the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score (P= 0·026). In both the half-dose and full-dose almond groups, the proportions of oleic acid (OA) and MUFA in the TAG fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·003; MUFA P= 0·004; full-almond: OA Pconsumption increases OA and MUFA content in serum TAG and NEFA fractions, which are inversely associated with CHD lipid risk factors and overall estimated 10-year CHD risk.

  7. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Felipe Souto; Coelho, Luciene Melo; Silva, Lívia do Carmo; da Silva Neto, Benedito Rodrigues; Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Hernández, Orville; Ochoa, Juan Guillermo McEwen; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp), the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5) and superoxide dismutase (sod). Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  8. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Souto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90, cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp, the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5 and superoxide dismutase (sod. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  9. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of veterans: Differential effects of mild traumatic brain injury and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskey, Holly M; Shura, Robert D; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Rowland, Jared A

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric complaints often accompany mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a common condition in post-deployed Veterans. Self-report, multi-scale personality inventories may elucidate the pattern of psychiatric distress in this cohort. This study investigated valid Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles in post-deployed Veterans. Measures of psychopathology and mTBI were examined in a sample of 144 post-deployed Veterans divided into groups: healthy controls (n = 40), mTBI only (n = 31), any mental health diagnosis only (MH; n = 25), comorbid mTBI and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (mTBI/PTSD; n = 23), and comorbid mTBI, PTSD, and other psychological diagnoses (mTBI/PTSD/MDD+; n = 25). There were no significant differences between the mTBI and the control group on mean PAI subscale elevation, or number of subscale elevations above 60T or 70T. The other three groups had significantly higher overall mean scores, and more elevations above 60 and 70T compared to both controls and mTBI only. The mTBI/PTSD/MDD+ group showed the highest and most elevations. After entering demographics, PTSD, and number of other psychological diagnoses into hierarchical regressions using the entire sample, mTBI history did not predict mean PAI subscale score or number of elevations above 60T or 70T. PTSD was the only significant predictor. There were no interaction effects between mTBI and presence of PTSD, or between mTBI and total number of diagnoses. This study suggests that mTBI alone is not uniquely related to psychiatric distress in Veterans, but that PTSD accounts for self-reported symptom distress.

  10. Effects of 3-styrylchromones on metabolic profiles and cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakagami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones (chromones are important naturally-distributing compounds. As compared with flavones, isoflavones and 2-styrylchromones, there are only few papers of 3-styrylchromones that have been published. We have previously reported that among fifteen 3-styrylchromone derivatives, three new synthetic compounds that have OCH3 group at the C-6 position of chromone ring, (E-3-(4-hydroxystyryl-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 11, (E-6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 4, (E-6-methoxy-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 6 showed much higher cytotoxicities against four epithelial human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC lines than human normal oral mesenchymal cells. In order to further confirm the tumor specificities of these compounds, we compared their cytotoxicities against both human epithelial malignant and non-malignant cells, and then investigated their effects on fine cell structures and metabolic profiles and cell death in human OSCC cell line HSC-2. Cytotoxicities of compounds 4, 6, 11 were assayed with MTT method. Fine cell structures were observed under transmission electron microscope. Cellular metabolites were extracted with methanol and subjected to CE-TOFMS analysis. Compounds 4, 6, 11 showed much weaker cytotoxicity against human oral keratinocyte and primary human gingival epithelial cells, as compared with HSC-2, confirming their tumor-specificity, whereas doxorubicin and 5-FU were highly cytotoxic to these normal epithelial cells, giving unexpectedly lower tumor-specificity. The most cytotoxic compound 11, induced the mitochondrial vacuolization, autophagy suppression followed by apoptosis induction, and changes in the metabolites involved in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolisms. Chemical modification of lead compound 11 may be a potential choice for designing new type of anticancer drugs.

  11. Effects of different starch sources on metabolic profile, production and fertility parameters in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła, R; Nowak, W; Jaśkowski, J M; Maćkowiak, P; Oszmałek, E Pruszyńska

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of replacing triticale (high rumen degradable starch) with maize grain (low rumen degradable starch) during the transition period and the first 120 days of lactation on metabolic and hormonal profile indices, milk production and fertility performance in cows. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into 4 groups: TT (2.5 kg triticale grain/cow per day supplemented from 14 days prepartum to day 120 postpartum), TM (2.5 kg triticale grain/cow per day supplemented from day 14 before parturition to calving, and then 2.5 kg maize grain to 120 days of lactation), MT (2.5 kg maize grain/cow per day supplemented from day 14 before parturition to calving, and then 2.5 kg triticale grain to 120 days of lactation), MM (2.5 kg maize grain/cow per day supplemented from 14 days prepartum to day 120 postpartum). Blood samples were collected 3 weeks and 1 week before calving and on days 14, 56 and 70 of lactation, and they were analyzed in terms of concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. Milk samples were collected twice a day at weekly intervals and analyzed for fat, protein and lactose. Milk yield and individual dry mater intake were recorded at weekly intervals. Body condition was estimated 3 weeks before calving, on parturition day and on days 14, 56 and 120 of lactation. Replacing triticale grain with maize grain in the transition period and during lactation positively affected fertility of lactating cows. An increased first service conception rate and shortening of the days open period was observed in MM and TM groups in comparison to those found in group MT (P cows than triticale grain.

  12. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  13. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Mingoo; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-Il; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2008-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid β-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity

  14. Analysing socioeconomic diversity and scaling effects on residential electricity load profiles in the context of low carbon technology uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, R.; Hofmann, L.; Merkel, E.; Fichtner, W.; Strachan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Adequately accounting for interactions between Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) at the building level and the overarching energy system means capturing the granularity associated with decentralised heat and power supply in residential buildings. The approach presented here adds novelty in terms of a realistic socioeconomic differentiation by employing dwelling/household archetypes (DHAs) and neighbourhood clusters at the Output Area (OA) level. These archetypes are combined with a mixed integer linear program (MILP) to generate optimum (minimum cost) technology configurations and operation schedules. Even in the baseline case, without any LCT penetration, a substantial deviation from the standard load profile (SLP) is encountered, suggesting that for some neighbourhoods this profile is not appropriate. With the application of LCTs, including heat pumps, micro-CHP and photovoltaic (PV), this effect is much stronger, including more negative residual load, more variability, and higher ramps with increased LCT penetration, and crucially different between neighbourhood clusters. The main policy implication of the study is the importance of understanding electrical load profiles at the neighbourhood level, because of the consequences they have for investment in the overarching energy system, including transmission and distribution infrastructure, and centralised generation plant. Further work should focus on attaining a superior socioeconomic differentiation between households. - Highlights: • Low carbon technologies (LCTs) for heat/electricity in residential buildings. • Socioeconomic effects and interactions with overarching energy system. • Building thermal/electrical model combined with optimisation. • Significant differences between neighbourhood load profiles. • Policy implications: support for LCTs and investment in infrastructure.

  15. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  16. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey : methods, COPD prevalence, and disease burden in 2012-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, Sarah H.; Muellerova, Hana; Mannino, David M.; Menezes, Ana M.; Han, MeiLan K.; van der Molen, Thys; Ichinose, Masakazu; Aisanov, Zaurbek; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and burden of COPD globally and to update findings from the Confronting COPD International Survey conducted in 1999-2000. Materials and methods: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  18. Planck intermediate results: V. Pressure profiles of galaxy clusters from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.

    2013-01-01

    that most clusters are individually detected at least out to R500. By stacking the radial profiles, we have statistically detected the radial SZ signal out to 3 × R500, i.e., at a density contrast of about 50-100, though the dispersion about the mean profile dominates the statistical errors across the whole......Taking advantage of the all-sky coverage and broadfrequency range of the Planck satellite, we study the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) and pressure profiles of 62 nearby massive clusters detected at high significance in the 14-month nominal survey. Careful reconstruction of the SZ signal indicates...... flatter than most predictions from numerical simulations. Combining the SZ and X-ray observed profiles into a joint fit to a generalised pressure profile gives best-fit parameters [P0,c500,γ, α,β] = [6.41,1.81,0.31,1.33,4.13]. Using a reasonable hypothesis for the gas temperature in the cluster outskirts...

  19. Wear-Induced Changes in FSW Tool Pin Profile: Effect of Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlot, Pankaj; Jha, Kaushal; Dey, G. K.; Arora, Amit

    2018-06-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of high melting point metallic (HMPM) materials has limited application due to tool wear and relatively short tool life. Tool wear changes the profile of the tool pin and adversely affects weld properties. A quantitative understanding of tool wear and tool pin profile is crucial to develop the process for joining of HMPM materials. Here we present a quantitative wear study of H13 steel tool pin profile for FSW of CuCrZr alloy. The tool pin profile is analyzed at multiple traverse distances for welding with various tool rotational and traverse speeds. The results indicate that measured wear depth is small near the pin root and significantly increases towards the tip. Near the pin tip, wear depth increases with increase in tool rotational speed. However, change in wear depth near the pin root is minimal. Wear depth also increases with decrease in tool traverse speeds. Tool pin wear from the bottom results in pin length reduction, which is greater for higher tool rotational speeds, and longer traverse distances. The pin profile changes due to wear and result in root defect for long traverse distance. This quantitative understanding of tool wear would be helpful to estimate tool wear, optimize process parameters, and tool pin shape during FSW of HMPM materials.

  20. Confronting dark energy models mimicking ΛCDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to ΛCDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from ΛCDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as ΛCDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  1. Effect of administration of antibiotics peripartum to wistar rats on bile acid profiles in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement Thaarup, Ida; Roager, Henrik Munch; Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Vertical transmission of the maternal microbiota is assumed to be crucial for the offspring’s development. A disrupted microbiota composition leading to an altered metabolic activity of the microbiota can affect bile acid profiles, which are known to influence host metabolism. Here, we examined...... whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of either amoxicillin or vancomycin to pregnant rats, influenced bile acid profiles in the offspring. The dams were treated with antibiotics from 8 days before the dams gave birth and continued until weaning (4...... weeks later). Blood samples were collected from offspring at ages 2, 4 and 14 weeks, and from dams at the end of treatment. From these blood samples, bile acids were extracted and 22 bile acids were quantified by targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Comparing the serum bile acid profiles...

  2. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    grouping by sampling modes (p = 0.914 by R2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings. PMID:28149291

  3. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    sampling modes ( p = 0.914 by R 2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings.

  4. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHUANG Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing.However,the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented.The objective of this study was to compare sensory quality profiles of fresh and frozen/thawed chicken breast fillets (pectoralis major.Breast fillets were removed from carcasses within 24 h postmortem and either cooked from a fresh state or placed in a -20℃ freezer.Frozen samples were thawed by three different methods:thawing during cooking directly from a frozen state (0 h,thawing in 20℃ water for 2 h prior to cooking (2 h,or thawing at 4℃ for 24 h prior to cooking (24 h.A control treatment with fillets cooked directly from a fresh state was used.Fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78℃ and sensory quality was evaluated by trained descriptive panelists using 0~15 universal intensity scales.Results show that there were not treatment differences (P>0.05 in the average intensity scores for any of the descriptive flavor attributes or for 5 of the descriptive texture attributes (cohesiveness,hardness,juiciness,wad size,and wetness of wad.However,the intensity scores for cohesiveness of mass,rate of breakdown,and chewiness were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05.Cohesiveness of mass intensity scores for 0h and 24 h fillets were significantly higher than 2 h samples.Fillets cooked directly from a frozen state (0 h had significantly higher intensity scores for rate of breakdown and chewiness than fresh controls and 2 h samples,respectively.These results indicate that freezing-thawing does not affect sensory flavor quality;however,it may change the texture attributes of cooked chicken breast meat products.The effects on meat texture depend on thawing methods prior to cooking.

  5. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    concentration decreased by more than half. These changes in the wine and distillate composition had a pronounced effect on the solvent or chemical aroma (associated with ethyl acetate and iso-amyl acetate) and the herbaceous and heads-associated aromas of the final distillate and the solvent or chemical and fruity or flowery characters of the Chenin blanc wines. This study establishes the concept that the overexpression of acetyltransferase genes such as ATF1 could profoundly affect the flavor profiles of wines and distillates deficient in aroma, thereby paving the way for the production of products maintaining a fruitier character for longer periods after bottling.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF MAXILLARY EXPANSION ON THE SOFT TISSUE FACIAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl ARAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were to evaluate the possible changes in soft tissue facial profile induced by orthopedic rapid maxillary expansion (RME and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME, and to correlate them with the underlying hard tissue alterations. Materials and Methods: 16 patients who received bone borne SARME and 25 patients who were subjected to RME using metal cast splint hyrax appliance were analyzed retrospectively. This research was conducted on lateral cephalometric radiographs taken on 2 occasions: before expansion (T1 and at the beginning of any further orthodontic treatment (T2. Investigated lateral cephalometric parameters consisted of Holdaway soft tissue measurements with some supplementary soft tissue, skeletal and dental assessments. Results: The acquisition of T2 cephalograms which conforms to the initiation of further orthodontic treatment corresponded to 83.25±3.51 days for SARME and 85.68±4.37 days for RME after the expansion was completed. The only significant change in soft tissue profile of the SARME group was a decrease in upper lip thickness (p<0.05, whereas in the RME group, decrease in soft tissue facial profile angle and increase in H angle were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05 for each. For the RME group, the changes in soft tissue facial profile angle and H angle correlated only with the changes in SNB angle (p<0.05. Conclusion: While bone-borne SARME did not seem to possess the potential to alter soft tissue profile, tooth-borne RME caused a more convex soft tissue profile related to a reduction in SNB.

  7. Transport simulations of a density limit in radiation-dominated tokamak discharges: profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The density limit observed in tokamak experiments is thought to be due to a radiative collapse of the current channel. A transport code coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium routine is used to determine the detailed, self-consistent evolution of the plasma profiles in tokamak discharges with radiated power close to or equaling the input power. The present work is confined to Ohmic discharges in steady state. It is found that the shape of the density profile can have a significant impact on the variation of the maximum electron density with plasma current. Analytic calculations confirm this result

  8. Transport simulations of a density limit in radiation-dominated tokamak discharges: Profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.

    1988-06-01

    The density limit observed in tokamak experiments is thought to be due to a radiative collapse of the current channel. A transport code coupled with an MHD equilibrium routine is used to determine the detailed, self-consistent evolution of the plasma profiles in tokamak discharges with radiated power close to or equalling the input power. The present work is confined to ohmic discharges in steady state. It is found that the shape of the density profile can have a significant impact on the variation of the maximum electron density with plasma current. Analytic calculations confirm this result. 41 refs., 9 figs

  9. Confronting conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    in developing community development and participatory practices (Ledwith 2011) and they have a long tradition for working closely with citizens and other local stakeholders in the development of innovative solutions to wicked problems. The everyday service delivery or lack thereof by public institutions...... and the direct contact between citizens and civil servants are of utmost importance for the citizens’ perceptions of public institutions. With inspiration from Healey (2012) we aim to analyse the contribution of governance micro-practices, drawing on experiences of “democracy-in –action” in the fine grain...

  10. Postprandial lipemia detects the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk compared with the fasting lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Santo, Ariana M; Browne, Richard W; Burton, Harold; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Steven M; Horvath, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Studies examining the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have not taken advantage of the postprandial state as an adjunct to the fasting lipid profile. The American Heart Association has acknowledged the efficacy of soy protein in reducing CVD risk factors to be limited. We hypothesized that the postprandial state would be more sensitive to any favorable changes associated with consuming soy protein compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the presence of isoflavones in soy would enhance this effect. Thirty sedentary males aged 18-30 years were randomly assigned to milk protein (Milk), isoflavone-poor soy (Soy-), or isoflavone-rich soy (Soy+). Usual diets were supplemented with 25 g/day of protein for 28 days. Serum samples were collected before and after supplementation in a fasted state and postprandially at 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after a high-fat, 1,000 kcal shake. Triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I and glucose concentrations were quantified. Fasting concentrations were not different after any protein supplementation. Postprandial TAG and TAG AUC increased after Soy-consumption supporting the postprandial state as a more sensitive indicator of soy ingestion effects on CVD risk factors compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the absence of isoflavones in soy protein may have deleterious consequences on purported cardio-protective effects.

  11. Random Subspace Aggregation for Cancer Prediction with Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Precisely predicting cancer is crucial for cancer treatment. Gene expression profiles make it possible to analyze patterns between genes and cancers on the genome-wide scale. Gene expression data analysis, however, is confronted with enormous challenges for its characteristics, such as high dimensionality, small sample size, and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Results. This paper proposes a method, termed RS_SVM, to predict gene expression profiles via aggregating SVM trained on random subspaces. After choosing gene features through statistical analysis, RS_SVM randomly selects feature subsets to yield random subspaces and training SVM classifiers accordingly and then aggregates SVM classifiers to capture the advantage of ensemble learning. Experiments on eight real gene expression datasets are performed to validate the RS_SVM method. Experimental results show that RS_SVM achieved better classification accuracy and generalization performance in contrast with single SVM, K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, Bagging, AdaBoost, and the state-of-the-art methods. Experiments also explored the effect of subspace size on prediction performance. Conclusions. The proposed RS_SVM method yielded superior performance in analyzing gene expression profiles, which demonstrates that RS_SVM provides a good channel for such biological data.

  12. Police officer on the frontline or a soldier? The effect of police militarization on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...

  13. Effects of sex, age, and fasting conditions on plasma lipidomic profiles of fasted Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid molecules reflect biological processes in the body and, thus, are useful tools for preclinical estimation of the efficacy and safety of newly developed drugs. However, background information on profiles of circulating lipid molecules in preclinical animal models is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple factors such as sex (fasted male vs. female, age (fasted 10 vs. 30 weeks old, and feeding conditions (feeding vs. fasting, 16 vs. 22 hr fasting, 10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection, on the global profiles of lipid molecules in plasma from Sprague-Dawley rats by using a lipidomic approach. Our assay platform determined 262 lipid molecules (68 phospholipids, 20 sphingolipids, 138 neutral lipids, and 36 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in rat plasma. Multivariate discriminant analysis (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and heat maps of statistically significant lipid molecules revealed that the plasma lipid profiles in rats are predominantly influenced by feeding conditions, followed by sex and age. In addition, the fasting duration (16 vs. 22 hr fasting or the time of blood collection (10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection has limited or no contribution on the profiles of lipid molecules in rat plasma. Our results provide useful, fundamental information for exploring and validating biomarkers in future preclinical studies and may help to establish regulatory standards for such studies.

  14. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-09-01

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (Pdonkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  15. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on netilmicin-induced lipid profile and peroxidation parameters in rabbit blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devbhuti, Pritesh; Sikdar, Debasis; Saha, Achintya; Sengupta, Chandana

    2011-01-01

    A drug may cause alteration in blood-lipid profile and induce lipid peroxidation phenomena on administration in the body. Antioxidant may play beneficial role to control the negative alteration in lipid profile and lipid peroxidation. In view of this context, the present in vivo study was carried out to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid as antioxidant on netilmicin-induced alteration of blood lipid profile and peroxidation parameters. Rabbits were used as experimental animals and blood was collected to estimate blood-lipid profiles, such as total cholesterol (TCh), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-Ch), triglycerides (Tg), phospholipids (PL), and total lipids (TL), as well as peroxidation parameters, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). The results revealed that netilmicin caused significant enhancement of MDA, HNE, TCh, LDL-Ch, VLDL-Ch, Tg levels and reduction in GSH, NO, HDL-Ch, PL, TL levels. On co-administration, ascorbic acid was found to be effective in reducing netilmicin-induced negative alterations of the above parameters.

  16. Effect of heat and alkaline hydrolysis on the amino acid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 M NaOH treated seed cake, respectively with the 2 M NaOH treated seed cake having the highest yield. The amino acid profile of the treated seed cake was similar and comparable to the values of WHO/FAO standard and those of soybeans. The seed can thus be used as an alternative protein source in animal feed ...

  17. Effect of Roasting on Fatty Acid Profile of Brown and Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To monitor changes in fatty acid profiles of brown and yellow varieties of flaxseeds in the raw and roasted states using gas chromatography .... The ratio of SFAs to USFAs is a useful index to measure edible oil quality. ..... roasting, powdering and storing irradiated soybeans on hydrocarbon detection for identifying ...

  18. Effects of Personal Intelligence Reading Instruction on personal intelligence profiles of Thai university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salila Vongkrahchang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impact of reading instruction using personal intelligence (PI on Thai university students' PI profiles. Thirty-nine undergraduates majoring in English involved in the study for ten weeks. Their PI profiles were measured twice at the pre-and post-interventions. The mixed methods research design was employed. The results showed that the students developed more personal intelligence in the post-intervention profiles (x¯ = 2.72, SD = 0.80 than in their pre-intervention ones (x¯ = 2.54, SD = 0.82. The students showed a preference for intrapersonal intelligence, in goal setting (x¯ = 2.85, SD = 0.78, monitoring (x¯ = 2.85, SD = 0.74, and evaluation strategy (x¯ = 3.21, SD = 0.77. Their interaction assessed by classroom observation and student worksheets also highlighted the PI profile findings. Personal Intelligence Reading Instruction facilitated the students setting specific and achievable goals, making overt and doable plans for their reading tasks, adjusting strategies helping them understand the text better, and identifying sources of difficulties while reading.

  19. Passive Shielding Effect on Space Profile of Magnetic Field Emissions for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has...... fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications....

  20. Effect of age and blood collection site on the metabolic profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different collection site did not affect the examined parameters, but some statistically significant differences were observed between the age groups. However, all the parameters agreed with the data reported in the literature and contribute to our knowledge of the metabolic profile of ostriches. South African Journal of Animal ...

  1. The Effect of Profile Elevation on the Relationship between Interest Differentiation and Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seongah

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the varying relationships between vocational identity and differentiation of vocational interests while taking into account levels of profile elevation as the moderator. The participants were 130 high school students who attended a vocational guidance programme at a youth counselling centre in Korea. The relationship between…

  2. Effects of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in the brain of rats during fasting and re-feeding were investigated. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (170-180 g) were divided into four groups of control, fasting, fasting + vitamin C and fasting + L-carnitine. The test groups were further ...

  3. The Effect of Mandrel Configuration on the Warpage in Pultrusion of Rectangular Hollow Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow profile is presented. Glass/polyester is used for the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) layers. The process induced residual distortions together with the temperature and degree of cure are

  4. Effect of different commercial fat sources on brain, liver and blood lipid profiles of rats in growth phase

    OpenAIRE

    Angelis-Pereira, Michel Cardoso de; Barcelos, Maria de Fátima Píccolo; Pereira, Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro; Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; Souza, Raimundo Vicente de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the fatty acid content of different fat sources and evaluate the effect of them on plasma and hepatic lipids and on the fatty acid profile of the brain tissue of Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty male albino Wistar rats received for 59 days, the following diets: diet added of margarine with low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); diet added of margarine with high content of PUFA; diet added of butter; diet added of hydrogenated vegetable fat; diet ad...

  5. The effect of acyclic retinoid on the metabolomic profiles of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acyclic retinoid (ACR is a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that selectively inhibits the growth of HCC cells (JHH7 but not normal hepatic cells (Hc. To better understand the molecular basis of the selective anti-cancer effect of ACR, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS-based metabolome analyses in JHH7 and Hc cells after treatment with ACR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NMR-based metabolomics revealed a distinct metabolomic profile of JHH7 cells at 18 h after ACR treatment but not at 4 h after ACR treatment. CE-TOFMS analysis identified 88 principal metabolites in JHH7 and Hc cells after 24 h of treatment with ethanol (EtOH or ACR. The abundance of 71 of these metabolites was significantly different between EtOH-treated control JHH7 and Hc cells, and 49 of these metabolites were significantly down-regulated in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells compared to the EtOH-treated JHH7 cells. Of particular interest, the increase in adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, the main cellular energy source, that was observed in the EtOH-treated control JHH7 cells was almost completely suppressed in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells; treatment with ACR restored ATP to the basal levels observed in both EtOH-control and ACR-treated Hc cells (0.72-fold compared to the EtOH control-treated JHH7 cells. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that ACR significantly increased the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 4 (PDK4, a key regulator of ATP production, in JHH7 cells but not in Hc cells (3.06-fold and 1.20-fold compared to the EtOH control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that ACR may suppress the enhanced energy metabolism of JHH7 cells but not Hc cells; this occurs at least in part via the cancer-selective enhancement of PDK4 expression. The cancer-selective metabolic pathways

  6. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  7. Effect of wind turbine wakes on summer-time wind profiles in the US Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.

    2011-12-01

    Wind energy is steadily becoming a significant source of grid electricity in the United States, and the Midwestern United States provides one of the nation's richest wind resources. This study examines the effect of wind turbine wakes on the wind profile in central Iowa. Data were collected using a coherent Doppler LiDAR system located approximately 2.5 rotor diameters north of a row of modern multi-MW wind turbine generators. The prevailing wind direction was from the South allowing the LiDAR to capture wind turbine wake properties; however, a number of periods existed where the LiDAR captured undisturbed flow. The LiDAR system reliably obtained readings up to 200 m above ground level (AGL), spanning the entire rotor disk (~40 m to 120 m AGL) which far surpasses the information provided by traditional wind resource assessment instrumentation. We extract several relevant parameters from the lidar data including: horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity, horizontal turbulence intensity, wind shear, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Each time period at a particular LiDAR measurement height was labeled "wake" or "undisturbed" based on the wind direction at that height. Wake and undisturbed data were averaged separately to create a time-height cross-section averaged day for each parameter. Significant differences between wake and undisturbed data emerge. During the day, wake conditions experience larger values of TKE within the altitudes of the turbine rotor disk while TKE values above the rotor disk are similar between waked and undisturbed conditions. Furthermore, the morning transition of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer commences earlier during wake conditions than in undisturbed conditions, and the evening decay of TKE persists longer during wake conditions. Waked wind shear is consistently greater than undisturbed periods at the edges of the wind turbine rotor disk (40m & 120m AGL), but especially so during the night where wind shear values during wake

  8. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pcows (2.7 ± 0.1) and also higher plasma glucose concentrations from Day -30 to Day 120 relative to parturition (4.1 ± 0.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1 log ; mg/100 ml, respectively; p cows than in Holsteins at Day -14 before calving, indicating higher mobilisation of lipid from adipose tissue already before calving. In contrast, Holstein cows had higher NEFA at Day 14 postpartum than SRB cows (p cows prioritise milk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the effectiveness of surface assimilation in probabilistic nowcasts of planetary boundary layer profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkier-Edelstein, Dorita; Hacker, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Surface observations comprise a wide, non-expensive and reliable source of information about the state of the near-surface planetary boundary layer (PBL). Operational data assimilation systems have encountered several difficulties in effectively assimilating them, among others due to their local-scale representativeness, the transient coupling between the surface and the atmosphere aloft and the balance constraints usually used. A long-term goal of this work is to find an efficient system for probabilistic PBL nowcasting that can be employed wherever surface observations are present. Earlier work showed that surface observations can be an important source of information with a single column model (SCM) and an ensemble filter (EF). Here we extend that work to quantify the probabilistic skill of ensemble SCM predictions with a model including added complexity. We adopt a factor separation analysis to quantify the contribution of surface assimilation relative to that of selected model components (parameterized radiation and externally imposed horizontal advection) to the probabilistic skill of the system, and of any beneficial or detrimental interactions between them. To assess the real utility of the flow-dependent covariances estimated with the EF and of the SCM of the PBL we compare the skill of the SCM/EF system to that of a reference one based on climatological covariances and a 30-min persistence model. It consists of a dressing technique, whereby a deterministic 3D mesoscale forecast (e.g. from WRF model) is adjusted and dressed with uncertainty using a seasonal sample of mesoscale forecasts and surface forecast errors. Results show that assimilation of surface observations can improve deterministic and probabilistic profile predictions more significantly than major model improvements. Flow-dependent covariances estimated with the SCM/EF show clear advantage over the use of climatological covariances when the flow is characterized by wide variability, when

  10. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. The paper narrows down its analytical focus on the efforts of the Kremlin to affect the public opinion in its neighbourhood and to counter Western soft power. It is argued that the Ukraine crisis has affected Russia’s perception of soft power, re-constructed its counter-revolutionary agenda, and increased the profile of propaganda in its foreign policy. The paper concludes that the soft power competition between Russia and West and the policies of the two powers to win over the hearts and minds of people in the shared neighbourhood re-define the character of geopolitical games in the Former Soviet Union.

  11. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Toyoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles

  12. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezu, Toyoshi, E-mail: umechan2@nies.go.jp; Shibata, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yshibata@nies.go.jp

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles.

  13. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  14. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster's Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group but it was not significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment.

  15. Metabolic Profiling Analysis of the Alleviation Effect of the Fractions of Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet on Realgar Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT is a classical formula in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and so on. In the formula, significant level of Realgar as a potentially toxic element is contained. Our previous experiments revealed that it was less toxic for combined Realgar in NJT. However, the active fraction of this prescription with toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar was still obscure. NJT was divided into five different polar fractions (NJT-PET, NJT-25, NJT-50, NJT-75, and NJT-95, and we explored the toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar. Based on 1H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA and PLS-DA were performed to identify different metabolic profiles. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis were also performed. With pattern recognition analysis of metabolites in urine and serum, Realgar group showed a clear separation from control group, while the metabolic profiles of NJT-PET, NJT-25, NJT-50, and NJT-95 groups were similar to Realgar group, and the metabolic profiles of NJT and NJT-75 groups were very close to control group. Statistics results were confirmed by the histopathological examination and biochemical assay. The present work indicated that 75% EtOH fraction of NJT was the most valid fraction with the toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar.

  16. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko

    2017-01-01

    To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d = 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  17. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ryu, Ho Kyung

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism.

  18. Impeccable Timing: The Political Efficiency of Prc-U.S. Surveillance Confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    trends highlight festering PRC-U.S. tensions leading up to the 2001 confrontations. 51 “ Semaphore : July 2006, the Western Pacific Naval Symposium...Royal Australian Navy, accessed April 28, 2014, http://www.navy.gov.au/media-room/publications/ semaphore -july-2006. 52 Redden, “Managing Sino-U.S.,” 9...Politics, February 21, 2009. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2009/02/secretary_clintons_press_confe. html. “ Semaphore : July 2006, the

  19. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  20. Early and late effects of prenatal corticosteroid treatment on the microRNA profiles of lung tissue in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, HONG-REN; LI, SUNG-CHOU; TSENG, WAN-NING; TAIN, YOU-LIN; CHEN, CHIH-CHENG; SHEEN, JIUNN-MING; TIAO, MAO-MENG; KUO, HO-CHANG; HUANG, CHAO-CHENG; HSIEH, KAI-SHENG; HUANG, LI-TUNG

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been administered to mothers at risk of premature delivery to induce maturation of preterm fetal lungs and prevent the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Micro (mi)RNAs serve various crucial functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and organ development; however, few studies have demonstrated an association between miRNAs and lung development. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissue following prenatal glucocorticoid therapy for fetal lung development. The differences in miRNA expression profiles were compared between postnatal days 7 (D7) and 120 (D120) rat lung tissues, followed by validation using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues following prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) therapy were also investigated. miRNAs with 2-fold changes were selected for further analysis. At D120, 6 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs were detected, compared with D7. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-101-3p and miR-99b-5p were associated with the lowest and highest expressions of miRNA at D7, respectively. A limited impact on the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues was observed following prenatal DEX treatment, which may help to further clarify the mechanisms underlying normal lung development. However, the results of the present study cannot entirely elucidate the effects of prenatal DEX treatment on the lung development of premature infants, and further studies investigating the impact of prenatal corticosteroids on fetal lung miRNA profiles are required. PMID:26997989

  1. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Degradation effects ad Si-depth profiling in photoresists using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijzendoorn, L.J. van; Schellekens, J.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of silicon-containing vapour with a photoresist layer, as used in dry developable lithographic processes, was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Degradation of the polymer layer was observed, but the total amount of incorporated Si was found to be constant during the measurement. Si-depth profiles were found to be independent of dose and in agreement with profiles obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The detection of hydrogen by elastic recoil detection (ERD) was used to study the degradation in detail. The decrease in hydrogen countrate from a layer of polystyrene on Si in combination with the shift of the Si-substrate edge in the corresponding RBS spectra was used for a model description. Only one degradation cross-section for hydrogen and one for carbon, both independent of beam current and dose, were required for a successful fit of the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. EFFECT OF PROFILES AND SHAPE ON IDEAL STABILITY OF ADVANCED TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKOWSKI,MA; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/

    {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (> 2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  4. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-07-07

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/{l_angle}P{r_brace} {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  5. Effects of Rubber Loading on the Ultrasonic Backward Radiation Profile of Leaky Lamb Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Jung, Min Ho; Kim, Young H.; Kwon, Sung Duk

    2002-01-01

    The characterization of adhesive property in multi-layer materials has been hot issue for a long time. In order to evaluate adhesive properties, we constructed fully automated system for the backward radiation of leaky Lamb wave. The backward radiation profiles were obtained for the bare steel plate and plates with rubber-loading. The rf waveforms and frequency spectra of backward radiation show the characteristics of involved leaky Lamb wave modes. As the thickness of rubber-loading increased, the amplitude of profile at the incident angle of 13.4' exponentially decreased. Scanning the incident position over the partially rubber-loaded specimen shows good agreement with the actual rubber-loading. The backward radiation of leaky Lamb wave has great potential to evaluate the adhesive condition as well as material properties of plates

  6. EFFECT OF PROFILES AND SHAPE ON IDEAL STABILITY OF ADVANCED TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKOWSKI, M.A.; CASPER, T.A.; FERRON, J.R.; TAYLOR, T.S.; TURNBULL, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation (κ), triangularity ((delta)), and squareness (ζ), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P 0 / ∼ 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q min (> 2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs

  7. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-01-01

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation (κ), triangularity ((delta)), and squareness (ζ), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P 0 /(l a ngle)P} ∼ 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q min (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs

  8. Distance effects on regional discriminants along a seismic profile in Northwest Nevada; NPE and nuclear results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, D.A. [AWE Blacknest, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Priestley, K.F. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    To address questions of discriminant transportability, it is important to understand how discriminants based on regional seismic phases are affected by regional variations in velocity structure. To examine this issue, we have recorded two explosions, the nuclear explosion Kinibito and the Non-Proliferation Experiment along a 300 km-long profile through western Nevada. We use these data to investigate the stability with distance of several proposed seismic discriminants. In this study we first estimate the apparent attenuation of the regional phases. We compare attenuation corrected amplitude ratios for P{sub n}/L{sub g} and P{sub g}/L{sub g}, and spectral ratios for P{sub n}, P{sub g}, and L{sub g}, as a function of distance along the profile. We make these comparisons for the vertical component and for the total vector resultant using all three components of motion.

  9. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, James K; Athersuch, Toby J; Thomas, Laura DK; Teichert, Friederike; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Singh, Rajinder; Järup, Lars; Bundy, Jacob G; Keun, Hector C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ‘exposome’ represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Topdown strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics) defines an individual’s metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers...

  10. Soil moisture and temperature profile effects on microwave emission at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.; Chanzy, A.; Wigneron, J.P.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.; Laguerre, L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture and temperature vertical profiles vary quickly during the day and may have a significant influence on the soil microwave emission. The objective of this work is to quantify such an influence and the consequences in soil moisture estimation from microwave radiometric information. The analysis is based on experimental data collected by the ground-based PORTOS radiometer at 1.4, 5.05, and 10.65 GHz and data simulated by a coherent model of microwave emission from layered media [Wilheit model (1978)]. In order to simulate diurnal variations of the brightness temperature (TB), the Wilheit model is coupled to a mechanistic model of heat and water flows in the soil. The Wilheit model is validated on experimental data and its performances for estimating TB are compared to those of a simpler approach based on a description of the soil media as a single layer (Fresnel model). When the depth of this single layer (hereafter referred to as the sampling depth) is determined to fit the experimental data, similar accuracy in TB estimation is found with both the Wilheit and Fresnel models. The soil microwave emission is found to be strongly affected by the diurnal variations of soil moisture and temperature profiles. Consequently, the TB sensitivity to soil moisture and temperature profiles has an influence on the estimation, from microwave observations, of the surface soil moisture in a surface layer with a fixed depth (05): the accuracy of θs retrievals and the optimal sampling depth depends both on the variation in soil moisture and temperature profile shape. (author)

  11. Modelling the effect of boundary scavenging on Thorium and Protactinium profiles in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy-Barman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The 'boundary scavenging' box model is a cornerstone of our understanding of the particle-reactive radionuclide fluxes between the open ocean and the ocean margins. However, it does not describe the radionuclide profiles in the water column. Here, I present the transport-reaction equations for radionuclides transported vertically by reversible scavenging on settling particles and laterally by horizontal currents between the margin and the open ocean. Analytical solutions of these equations are compared with existing data. In the Pacific Ocean, the model produces 'almost' linear 230 Th profiles (as observed in the data) despite lateral transport. However, omitting lateral transport biases the 230 Th based particle flux estimates by as much as 50%. 231 Pa profiles are well reproduced in the whole water column of the Pacific Margin and from the surface down to 3000 m in the Pacific subtropical gyre. Enhanced bottom scavenging or inflow of 231 Pa-poor equatorial water may account for the model-data discrepancy below 3000 m. The lithogenic 232 Th is modelled using the same transport parameters as 230 Th but a different source function. The main source of the 232 Th scavenged in the open Pacific is advection from the ocean margin, whereas a net flux of 230 Th produced in the open Pacific is advected and scavenged at the margin, illustrating boundary exchange. In the Arctic Ocean, the model reproduces 230 Th measured profiles that the uni-dimensional scavenging model or the scavenging-ventilation model failed to explain. Moreover, if lateral transport is ignored, the 230 Th based particle settling speed may by underestimated by a factor 4 at the Arctic Ocean margin. The very low scavenging rate in the open Arctic Ocean combined with the enhanced scavenging at the margin accounts for the lack of high 231 Pa/ 230 Th ratio in arctic sediments. (authors)

  12. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  13. Effect of Administration of Withania somnifera on Some Hematological and Immunological Profile of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mushtaq*, F. R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, Umer Sadique1, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar2 and S. Ahmad3

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of broiler chickens based on some hematological and immunological profile, upon inclusion of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera in their drinking water. For this purpose, 240 a-day-old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into four groups i.e. WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III. Group WST-0 was kept as control, while chicks in group WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were offered in their drinking water with an extract of W. somnifera at 10, 20 and 30g/L for 35 days, starting from day 1 of age. Feed intake and body weight were recorded on regular basis and hematological and immunological profile of the birds was analyzed at the end of experiment. Administration of W. somnifera extract resulted in significantly higher feed intake and body weight of birds in all treated groups. An increase in the values of Hb, PCV and TLC was noted in the treatment groups. A non significant difference was noted in the counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes in all treatment groups as compared to control. Antibodies titers against IB and IBD were significantly higher in all treatment groups as compare to the values shown by the chicks in control group. Findings of this study indicated that administration of W. somnifera extract to broiler chicks improve their feed intake, body weight gain, hematological profile and immunological status.

  14. Analysis of Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Beams and Isoeffective Dose Profiles Using Geant4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of RBE quantity in the treatment of cancer tumors with proton beams in treatment planning systems (TPS is of high significance. Given the significance of the issue and the studies conducted in the literature, this quantity is fixed and is taken as equal to 1.1. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess RBE quantity of proton beams and their variations in different depths of the tumor. This dependency makes RBE values used in TPS no longer be fixed as they depend on the depth of the tumor and therefore this dependency causes some changes in the physical dose profile. Materials and Methods: The energy spectrum of protons was measured at various depths of the tumor using proton beam simulations and well as the complete simulation of a cell to a pair of DNA bases through Monte Carlo GEANT4. The resulting energy spectrum was used to estimate the number of double-strand breaks generated in cells. Finally, RBE values were calculated in terms of the penetration depth in the tumor. Results and Conclusion: The simulation results show that the RBE value not fixed terms of the depth of the tumor and it differs from the clinical value of 1.1 at the end of the dose profile and this will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose profile. Therefore, to create a uniform impact dose area, deep-finishing systems need to be designed by taking into account deep RBE values.

  15. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln, L-glutamic acid (Glu, L-methionine (Met and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  16. Effect of abnormal outflow from end stages on concentration profile in uranium-stripping bank of PUREX flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the abnormal outflow from the end stages on the concentration profile was studied for the uranium-stripping bank to consider the design and the operation of the solvent extraction process, which eases the undesirable effects due to such abnormal flow. The abnormal outflow affected the concentration profile in the same manner as the decrease in the rate of the corresponding liquid flow rate entering the bank. The results suggested that the solvent extractor at the aqueous inlet stage in stripping banks and the solvent extractor at the organic inlet stage in extraction banks should be carefully designed to restrict the respective abnormal aqueous and organic outflows within the normal operational liquid flow rate range. Combining the result and the inherent phase separation behavior of the extractor suggested the possibility of designing the process with the self-controlled function of throughput, which eases the change of the concentration profile due to the undesirable increase in the rate of liquid flow rate entering the bank. Basically the proposed approaches are probably applicable to other general extraction and stripping processes. (author)

  17. Comparison between the effect of γ-irradiation and roasting on the profile and antioxidant activity of wheat germ lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, M.F.; El-Said Showky, H.; Abd el Rahman, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize wheat germ, a nutrient-dense byproduct of the wheat milling industry, in various food products, different treatments are used to investigate and stabilize its influence on lipid characteristics. However, there are no reports on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid profile of wheat germ. In this study, the impact of gamma-irradiation (at radiation doses 1/4, 1/2 and 1 kGy) and roasting at (160 deg C for 20 min) on the lipid constituents of wheat germ was examined. Both thermal and irradiation treatments did not have a significant effect on the total lipid recovery or the fatty acid composition of wheat germ lipids. The fatty acid profile was found to be made up of linoleic followed by oleic and palmitic as the major fatty acids. An increase in the content of free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated wheat germ samples. Antiradical properties of lipids from roasted and irradiated samples were analyzed using the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Lipids from irradiated samples exhibited relatively stronger radical scavenging potential than lipids from roasted wheat germ. It has been concluded that gamma-irradiation could be applied for wheat germ preservation, where it might be limited to a dose of 1/4 kGy in the processing

  18. THE EFFECT OF WEIGHT LOSS ON PLASMA MDA, LIPIDS PROFILE AND APOA AND APOB IN OBESE WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ramezani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   INTRODUCTION: Obesity increased reactive oxygen species generation that it result in oxidative injury on lipids profile and lipoproteins that all of which insert atherosclerotic effect. Nutritional intervention by means of a hypocaloric diet could produce protective effects against the redox unbalance.  In this context, the aim of this intervention trial was to estimate the ability of weight loss to improve oxidative stress biomarkers related to lipids peroxidation and lipid profile and apoproteins concentrations of serum in obese women.   METHODS: Thirties eight obese women, 15-45 years old, with body mass index (BMI <30 kg/m2 were recruited. The obese women were assigned to energy-restricted dietary treatments for 12 week. Before and after nutritional intervention and 10% weight reduction, anthropometric measurements were taken and fasting blood was drawn. Plasma levels of (MDA determined with TBAR and triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Keywords: MDA, lipid profile, obese woman, Weight loss.

  19. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  20. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.