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Sample records for profile cambodia laos

  1. Journalism Training in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…

  2. Promotion for renewable energy in Laos and Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauss, Matthias; Klauss-Vorreiter, Antje

    2008-07-01

    Rural areas in Laos and Cambodia have significant structural shortcomings. The REEPRO project, an advanced training activity conducted by several European and Asian partners, brings know how into these regions to sustainably overcome the deficits. (orig.)

  3. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William E. Willmott

    2012-01-01

    Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost...

  4. The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

  5. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The..., Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was inspected and paroled into the United States before October 1, 1997; (2) Was...

  6. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and..., and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was...

  7. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Buijs, M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, F.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five

  8. NEW AND RARE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE IN THE FLORA OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.

  9. Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

  10. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  11. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-04-11

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus.

  12. Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

    Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

  13. Compulsory drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos: health and human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2013-12-12

    According to official accounts, in 2012 more than 235,000 people were detained in over 1,000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia. Between July 2007 and May 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 195 individuals recently released from drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. Individuals reported being held for up to five years in drug detention centers without clinical determination of drug dependency or due process, and being denied evidence-based drug treatment as well as other basic health services. Many individuals reported being forced to perform arduous physical exercise or military-style drills. Forced labor was reported by all individuals having been detained in Vietnam, and some held in Cambodia and China. Physical—and less often, sexual—abuse was reported among those held in each country. Long-term, compulsory detention for treatment of drug dependency is counter to established principles of medical care and violates a wide range of human rights, including the right to health. Individuals held in drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos are subject to torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Copyright © 2013 Amon, Pearshouse, Cohen, and Schleifer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  14. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  15. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Hull; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces with human populations in these two countries. They were tested for the presence of coronavirus by consensus reverse transcription-PCR assay. A total of 93 samples (4.7%) from 17 genera of bats tested positive. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of potentially 37 and 56 coronavirus belonging to alpha-coronavirus (αCoV) and beta-CoV (βCoV), respectively. The βCoVs group is known to include some coronaviruses highly pathogenic to human, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. All coronavirus sequences generated from frugivorous bats (family Pteropodidae) (n=55) clustered with other bat βCoVs of lineage D, whereas one coronavirus from Pipistrellus coromandra fell in the lineage C of βCoVs which also includes the MERS-CoV. αCoVs were all detected in various genera of insectivorous bats and clustered with diverse bat αCoV sequences previously published. A closely related strain of PEDV, responsible for severe diarrhea in pigs (PEDV-CoV), was detected in 2 Myotis bats. We highlighted the presence and the high diversity of coronaviruses circulating in bats from Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three new bat genera and species were newly identified as host of coronaviruses, namely Macroglossus sp., Megaerops niphanae and Myotis horsfieldii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  17. Forest Disturbances and Regrowth Assessment Using ALOS PALSAR Data from 2007 to 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mermoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a new methodology for monitoring forest disturbances and regrowth using ALOS PALSAR data in tropical regions. In the study, forest disturbances and regrowth were assessed between 2007 and 2010 in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The deforestation rate in Vietnam has been among the highest in the tropics in the last few decades, and those in Cambodia and Lao are increasing rapidly. L-band ALOS PALSAR mosaic data were used for the detection of forest disturbances and regrowth, because L-band SAR intensities are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass loss. The methodology used here combines SAR data processing, which is particularly suited for change detection, forest detection and forest disturbances and regrowth detection using expectation maximization, which is closely related to fuzzy logic. A reliable training and testing database has been derived using AVNIR-2 and Google Earth images for calibration and validation. Efforts were made to apply masking areas that are likely to show different SAR backscatter temporal behaviors from the forests considered in the study, including mangroves, inundated forests, post-flooding or irrigated croplands and water bodies, as well as sloping areas and urban areas. The resulting forest disturbances and regrowth map (25-m resolution indicates disturbance rates of −1.07% in Vietnam, −1.22% in Cambodia and −0.94% in Lao between 2007 and 2010, with corresponding aboveground biomass losses of 60.7 Tg, 59.2 Tg and 83.8 Tg , respectively. It is expected that the method, relying on free of charge data (ALOS and ALOS2 mosaics, can be applied widely in the tropics.

  18. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Holmgren, Christopher; Buijs, Mark; van Loveren, Cor; van der Weijden, Fridus; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. Convenience samples were bought in the five countries and sent for analysis to the Netherlands. Levels of total and free available fluoride were measured. Details of the information declared on the packaging about type of fluoride and abrasives were recorded, and manufacturing and expiry dates were noted. A total of 119 samples of toothpaste were analysed. With one exception, all samples from the Netherlands complied with ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) labelling requirements and there were no differences between the fluoride content declared and that found to be present on analysis. In samples purchased in the other countries, sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) toothpastes predominantly showed a low percentage of free available fluoride and the majority of toothpastes did not follow standard labelling guidelines. This study is not representative of any of the brands analysed, yet it highlights problematic discrepancies in products across countries. These may be related to the lack of a generally accepted methodology for analysing total and free fluoride content, absence of an agreement on the minimum concentration of fluoride required to ensure efficacy, weak regulating institutions that are unable to control labelling and consumer information, as well as a possible influx of counterfeit low-quality toothpaste. Renewed international focus should be directed towards closing gaps in guidelines and standards. Consumers should use only non-expired toothpaste, which should preferably be silica-based fluoride toothpaste that does not include abrasives containing calcium and that is properly labelled. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  20. “Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    Chinese dam developers claim to construct at least every second dam worldwide. However, scholarly literature comprehensively investigating the social safeguard norms in these projects is rare. This paper analyses social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia,

  1. Private sector opportunities and threats to achieving malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion: results from malaria outlet surveys in Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phok, Sochea; Phanalasy, Saysana; Thein, Si Thu; Likhitsup, Asawin

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this paper is to review multi-country evidence of private sector adherence to national regulations, guidelines, and quality-assurance standards for malaria case management and to document current coverage of private sector engagement and support through ACTwatch outlet surveys implemented in 2015 and 2016. Over 76,168 outlets were screened, and approximately 6500 interviews were conducted (Cambodia, N = 1303; the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), N = 724; Myanmar, N = 4395; and Thailand, N = 74). There was diversity in the types of private sector outlets providing malaria treatment across countries, and the extent to which they were authorized to test and treat for malaria differed. Among outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, public sector availability of the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria was >75%. In the anti-malarial stocking private sector, first-line treatment availability was variable (Cambodia, 70.9%; the Lao PDR, 40.8%; Myanmar P. falciparum = 42.7%, P. vivax = 19.6%; Thailand P. falciparum = 19.6%, P. vivax = 73.3%), as was availability of second-line treatment (the Lao PDR, 74.9%; Thailand, 39.1%; Myanmar, 19.8%; and Cambodia, 0.7%). Treatment not in the National Treatment Guidelines (NTGs) was most common in Myanmar (35.8%) and Cambodia (34.0%), and was typically stocked by the informal sector. The majority of anti-malarials distributed in Cambodia and Myanmar were first-line P. falciparum or P. vivax treatments (90.3% and 77.1%, respectively), however, 8.8% of the market share in Cambodia was treatment not in the NTGs (namely chloroquine) and 17.6% in Myanmar (namely oral artemisinin monotherapy). In the Lao PDR, approximately 9 in 10 anti-malarials distributed in the private sector were second-line treatments-typically locally manufactured chloroquine. In Cambodia, 90% of anti-malarials were distributed through outlets that had confirmatory testing

  2. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. © 2012 APJPH.

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Rodpai

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies.

  4. Comparison of novel and standard diagnostic tools for the detection of Schistosoma mekongi infection in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Khieu, Virak; Bergquist, Robert; van Dam, Govert J; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Nickel, Beatrice; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-08-10

    Given the restricted distribution of Schistosoma mekongi in one province in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and two provinces in Cambodia, together with progress of the national control programmes aimed at reducing morbidity and infection prevalence, the elimination of schistosomiasis mekongi seems feasible. However, sensitive diagnostic tools will be required to determine whether elimination has been achieved. We compared several standard and novel diagnostic tools in S. mekongi-endemic areas. The prevalence and infection intensity of S. mekongi were evaluated in 377 study participants from four villages in the endemic areas in Lao PDR and Cambodia using Kato-Katz stool examination, antibody detection based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and schistosome circulating antigen detection by lateral-flow tests. Two highly sensitive test systems for the detection of cathodic and anodic circulating antigens (CCA, CAA) in urine and serum were utilized. Stool microscopy revealed an overall prevalence of S. mekongi of 6.4% (one case in Cambodia and 23 cases in Lao PDR), while that of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were 50.4%, 28.1%, 3.5%, 0.3% and 1.9%, respectively. In the urine samples, the tests for CCA and CAA detected S. mekongi infections in 21.0% and 38.7% of the study participants, respectively. In the serum samples, the CAA assay revealed a prevalence of 32.4%, while a combination of the CAA assay in serum and in urine revealed a prevalence of 43.2%. There was a difference between the two study locations with a higher prevalence reached in the samples from Lao PDR. The CCA, CAA and ELISA results showed substantially higher prevalence estimates for S. mekongi compared to Kato-Katz thick smears. Active schistosomiasis mekongi in Lao PDR and Cambodia might thus have been considerably underestimated previously. Hence, sustained control efforts are still needed to break transmission

  5. Impact of demographic change, socioeconomics, and health care resources on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Taylor, Beverly Joan

    2013-05-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic changes and the availability of health care resources were collected to examine the impacts on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. An ecological design collecting 29 years (1980-2008) data for three Southeast Asian countries. Life expectancy, demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources were collected. The structural equation model indicates that more available health care resources and socioeconomic advantages were more likely to increase life expectancy. By contrast, demographic change was more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. Results show that factors that had direct impacts on life expectancy in all three countries were socioeconomic status and health care resources. Demographic changes had an indirect influence on life expectancy via health care resources. These findings suggest that policymakers should be focusing on how to remove the barriers that impede access to health care services during economic downturns. In addition, how to increase preventive care for the populations that have less access to health care in communities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    By 1992, during the UN-mandated interim administra- tion, small IDRC financings were supporting consultancies for policy support and advice. IDRC co-sponsored a 1993 international conference in Cambodia ... providing strategic intelligence for IDRC decision- making and on-the-ground leadership for young projects.

  7. 'Fit for school' - a school-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme to improve child health: Results from a longitudinal study in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; Monse, Bella; Dimaisip-Nabuab, Jed; Djuharnoko, Pantjawidi; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hobdell, Martin; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin; Kunthearith, Yung; Mijares-Majini, Maria Carmela; Siegmund, Nicole; Soukhanouvong, Panith; Benzian, Habib

    2017-04-05

    The Fit for School (FIT) programme integrates school health and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene interventions, which are implemented by the Ministries of Education in four Southeast Asian countries. This paper describes the findings of a Health Outcome Study, which aimed to assess the two-year effect of the FIT programme on the parasitological, weight, and oral health status of children attending schools implementing the programme in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR. The study was a non-randomized clustered controlled trial with a follow-up period of two years. The intervention group consisted of children attending public elementary schools implementing the FIT programme, including daily group handwashing with soap and toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual school-based deworming; as well as construction of group handwashing facilities. Control schools implemented the regular government health education curriculum and biannual deworming. Per school, a random selection of six to seven-year-old grade-one students was drawn. Data on parasitological infections, anthropometric measurements, dental caries, odontogenic infections and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at baseline and at follow-up (24 months later). Data were analysed using the χ(2)-test, Mann Whitney U-test and multilevel logistic and linear regression. A total of 1847 children (mean age = 6.7 years, range 6.0-8.0 years) participated in the baseline survey. Of these, 1499 children were available for follow-up examination - 478, 486 and 535 children in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR, respectively. In all three countries, children in intervention schools had a lower increment in the number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth between baseline and follow-up, in comparison to children in controls schools. The preventive fraction was 24% at average. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection (which was unexpectedly low at baseline), the prevalence of thinness and

  8. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  9. The Impact of Health Service of the Community Hospital Located in Thailand’s Border: migrant from Burma, LAOS, and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai - Srithongtham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The denial of difficult, dangerous and dirty work done by the Thai People has been the major cause of migrant substitution in Thailand which triggered the urgent need for proper health care. This study was aim to explain the burden and impact of providing health service to the trans-national migrant in community hospital at border area of Laos, Burma and Cambodia. Therefore survey research and data collecting was used through quantitative and qualitative methods. Results: Khemarat and Klong Yai hospital: the financial burden was high however Mae Sai hospital has strong income with less expenditure. The impact of three hospitals was 1 the only way of solving the financial burden is by using the hospital’s money. 2 No data system about trans-nation’s migrant health services has been applied so far by any hospitals here in Thailand 3 Man power of hospital is depended on the Thai people which doesn’t include the migrant which is approximately 50% 4 The language and the cultural had generated several obstacles to health service 5 Problem of prevention and control of Communicable disease such as Malaria, Dengue Hemorrhagic fever, Tuberculosis, and Elephantiasis, 6 No Referral system between Thailand and neighboring countries.  Recommendations: it should be setting the strategy of AEC’s health system at nearby country, concern with the trans-national migrants, and develop the data system of health service of trans-national migrant.

  10. A functional model for monitoring equity and effectiveness in purchasing health insurance premiums for the poor: evidence from Cambodia and the Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Bigdeli, Maryam; Jacobs, Bart

    2011-10-01

    To assess the impact on equity and effectiveness of introducing targeted subsidies for the poor into existing voluntary health insurance schemes in Low Income Countries with special reference to cross-subsidisation. A functional model was constructed using routine collected financial data to analyse changes in financial flows and resulting shifts in cross-subsidization between poor and non-poor. Data were collected from two sites, in Cambodia at Kampot operational health district and in the Lao People's Democratic Republic at Nambak district. Six key variables were identified as determining the financial flows between the subsidy and the insurance schemes and with health providers: population coverage, premium rate, facility contact rate, capitation rate, cost of treatment and changes in administration costs. Negative cross-subsidization was revealed where capitation was used as the payment mechanism and where utilisation rates of the poor were significantly below the non-poor. The same level of access for the poor could have been achieved with a lower Health Equity Fund subsidy if used as a direct reimbursement of user charges by the Health Equity Fund to the provider rather than through the Community Based Health Insurance scheme. Purchasing premiums for the poor under these conditions is more costly than direct reimbursement to the provider for the same level of service delivery. Negative cross-subsidization is a serious risk that must be managed appropriately and the benefits of a larger risk pool (cross-subsidization of the poor) are not evident. Benefits from combined coverage may accrue in the longer term with an expanded base of voluntary payers or when those with subsidized premiums are lifted out of poverty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Gail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications. Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include

  12. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail; Spitzer, Denise; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2012-07-02

    The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters' access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends.The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire more staff (reducing waiting times) and to

  13. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire

  14. Creating Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren

    The existence of Laos today is taken for granted. But the crystallization of a Lao national idea and ultimately independence for the country was a long and uncertain process. This book examines the process through which Laos came into existence under French colonial rule through to the end of World...... War II. Rather than assuming that the Laos we see today was a historical given, the book looks at how Laos's position at the intersection of two conflicting spatial layouts of 'Thailand' and 'Iindochina' made its national form a particularly contested process....

  15. ‘Fit for school’ – a school-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme to improve child health: Results from a longitudinal study in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Duijster

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fit for School (FIT programme integrates school health and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene interventions, which are implemented by the Ministries of Education in four Southeast Asian countries. This paper describes the findings of a Health Outcome Study, which aimed to assess the two-year effect of the FIT programme on the parasitological, weight, and oral health status of children attending schools implementing the programme in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR. Methods The study was a non-randomized clustered controlled trial with a follow-up period of two years. The intervention group consisted of children attending public elementary schools implementing the FIT programme, including daily group handwashing with soap and toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual school-based deworming; as well as construction of group handwashing facilities. Control schools implemented the regular government health education curriculum and biannual deworming. Per school, a random selection of six to seven-year-old grade-one students was drawn. Data on parasitological infections, anthropometric measurements, dental caries, odontogenic infections and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at baseline and at follow-up (24 months later. Data were analysed using the χ2-test, Mann Whitney U-test and multilevel logistic and linear regression. Results A total of 1847 children (mean age = 6.7 years, range 6.0–8.0 years participated in the baseline survey. Of these, 1499 children were available for follow-up examination – 478, 486 and 535 children in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR, respectively. In all three countries, children in intervention schools had a lower increment in the number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth between baseline and follow-up, in comparison to children in controls schools. The preventive fraction was 24% at average. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection (which was

  16. Dollarization in Cambodia; Causes and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nombulelo Braiton

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, Cambodia has become Asia’s most dollarized economy. In contrast, dollarization in neighboring Lao P.D.R., Mongolia, and Vietnam has been either declining or broadly stable. Somewhat paradoxically, growing dollarization in Cambodia has occurred against the backdrop of greater macroeconomic and political stability. The usual motive, currency substitution, does not appear to have been a factor. As the volume of dollars increased over the years, so has the volume of riel. ...

  17. Cambodia: Country Gender Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a profile of gender equity in Cambodia. Recognizing significant achievements in reducing gender gaps, it also notes significant challenges in a country where traditional norms and low levels of education and literacy still limit girls’ and women’s options. Cambodia ranks 91st out of 109 countries, according to the Gender Empowerment Measure. The publication offers an institutional assessment of the laws, policies, and the national machinery for gender equity and wome...

  18. Laos : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chaînes de valeur mondiales, qui constituent aujourd'hui la plus importante part du commerce mondial, se composent de producteurs et d'entreprises qui créent des biens comme entrants destinés à d'autres producteurs. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, ...

  19. All projects related to Laos | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Laos, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 213,685.00. Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building Capacity in ICT Policy. Project. It is now generally accepted that affordable, effective telecommunication services ...

  20. All projects related to Laos | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, ...

  1. All projects related to Laos | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least developed countries. Project. Low-income economies depend greatly on agriculture, and growth in this sector delivers more poverty reduction than any other sectors. Region: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and Growth.

  2. All projects related to Laos | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-04-30

    Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and ... Since its inception, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: ...

  3. A checklist of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-16

    At the present, the millipede fauna of Laos comprises only 34 species from 20 genera, 13 families and 7 orders. These counts certainly represent but a minor fraction of the country's real diversity of Diplopoda even at the ordinal level, let alone at lower ones. Based on the available information from the adjacent parts of China, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and/or Cambodia, the orders Polyxenida, Sphaerotheriida, Chordeumatida, Julida and Polyzoniida must occur in Laos, may be also Glomeridesmida, Siphonocryptida and Stemmiulida, but none has been recorded there yet. Moreover, even some ubiquitous "tramp" species, such as Glyphiulus granulatus (Gervais, 1847), Trigoniulus corallinus (Gervais, 1847), Desmoxytes planata (Pocock, 1895) or Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), have hitherto not been found in Laos. This shows that a lot more collecting efforts, which have heretofore been rather strongly biased to caves, are required to amass a representative material of Diplopoda of Laos and make it available for study.

  4. All projects related to Cambodia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOUTHEAST ASIA, YOUNG WORKERS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, WOMEN WORKERS, TRAINING, WORKING CONDITIONS, POLICY MAKING. Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,029,600.00. New farm ventures improve food ...

  5. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Programme de recherche sur ...

  6. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) to coordinate a research program in support of the successful implementation (in the case of Cambodia) and ratification (in the case of Lao PDR) of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).

  7. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  8. Laos : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Asia, Cambodia, Far East Asia, Laos, Philippines. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. PAN Localization - phase II. Project. Depuis sa création, Internet est dominé par la langue anglaise et la culture nord-américaine. Date de début : 30 avril 2007. End Date: 26 juin 2012.

  9. IDRC in Laos

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began supporting research in. Laos in the late 1980s. Following decades of conflict, the country faced many challenges, including widespread poverty, linguistic isolation, and the exodus of its most educated citizens. IDRC support in Laos has responded to these challenges. Community-led research on poverty, for ...

  10. Laos : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 13 août 2010. Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00.

  11. Cambodia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Thailand, Canada. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ ...

  12. A new Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos allied to P. abditus Inger, Orlov & Darevsky, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bryan L; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Seateun, Sengvilay; Sheridan, Jennifer A

    2013-12-03

    The small rhacophorid frog Philautus abditus is geographically restricted to central Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Our fieldwork in northern Laos resulted in the discovery of a Philautus species that very closely resembles P. abditus, but is at least 330 km from the nearest known locality of that species. The Laos population differs from P. abditus in mitochondrial DNA and coloration, and is described here as a new species. Philautus nianeae sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having the combination of a hidden tympanum; no nuptial pads; smooth skin; large black spots on the hidden surfaces of the hind limbs; light venter with dark spotting; and a bronze iris. A second species of Philautus from northern Laos, P. petilus, is transferred on the basis of morphology to the genus Theloderma. 

  13. Future of hydroelectricity in Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This colloquium took place in Vientiane in 1992. The themes taken up in this text are: resources assessment, hydraulic equipment, software, environment problems, technological transfer as well as economic and financial aspects, in case of each developing country concerned. (TEC). figs., tabs., refs.

  14. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Se, Youry; Bethell, Delia; Socheat, Doung; Noedl, Harald; Sea, Darapiseth; Satimai, Wichai; Schaecher, Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Fukuda, Mark M; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Timmermans, Ans; Saunders, David L; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    .... From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50...

  15. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyner Stuart D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV, without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2 detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS, dihydroartemisinin (DHA, and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

  16. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Se, Youry; Bethell, Delia; Socheat, Doung; Noedl, Harald; Sea, Darapiseth; Satimai, Wichai; Schaecher, Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Fukuda, Mark M; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Timmermans, Ans; Saunders, David L; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-06-13

    In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed "immediate ex vivo" (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009-2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

  17. IDRC in Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Post-war Cambodia faced many chal- lenges — among them, isolation. In 1998 an IDRC grant led to the establishment of Cambodia's first Internet service provider. IDRC has since funded. Cambodian research to develop pro- grams and Web content in Khmer, thus enabling Cambodians to use computers, access the ...

  18. Cambodia Sanitation Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report synthesizes the technical assistance (TA) “Cambodia Sanitation Marketing” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) from July 2011 to February 2015 in support of developing the rural sanitation market in Cambodia. It documents the results and lessons learned and makes recommendations to government on how - with support of development partners – the effe...

  19. Volunteering in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Catriona

    2006-06-01

    In August 2004, three undergraduate nursing students from the University of Toronto's faculty of nursing travelled to Cambodia to volunteer as student nurses. Being immersed in another culture helped to develop the students' cultural competence, enhance their understanding of primary health care and strengthen clinical skills. Given the growing cultural diversity in Canada, developing s kills in these areas is particularly important. In this article, the author reflects on her experiences in Cambodia and explores the unique value that international placements offer.

  20. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global update: Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 in Cambodia, the number of blood donors who tested seropositive for HIV multiplied by 10. During March-December 1993, 30 of 4000 (0.75%) blood donors were HIV positive. These same 30 were among 91 HIV-positive cases reported to the World Health Organization [WHO] office in Phnom Penh in the last 9 months of 1992. As Cambodia attempts to recover from many years of political and social upheaval, the recent repatriation of 370,000 Khmer refugees from Thailand intensifies the increasing AIDS threat. Thailand already has a relatively high HIV prevalence. The number of tourists and visiting business professionals is increasing, and 22,000 people from the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia have been assigned to positions countrywide. In 1991, WHO officials designed a 1-year short-term AIDS prevention program aimed at people practicing high-risk behavior and the health, education, and media sectors. It targeted mainly Phnom Penh residents, WHO and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are helping the National AIDS Committee in designing a more comprehensive national plan. UNDP plans to give US$ 1 million to AIDS prevention efforts in Cambodia. 20-30% of people in Cambodia are not familiar with condoms. Government AIDS prevention efforts are intended for the general public, but they also are going to target high-risk areas, especially the provinces bordering Thailand and the pot of Kompong Som. The government is working on ways to work with the many health-centered nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia. Even though it is inundated with many other problems, the government recognizes the need to combat AIDS.

  2. Echoes of Ancient Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Nancy Click

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

  3. Incidence and spectrum of health problems among travelers to Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Sa-Ngiamsak, Nattakrit; Nasok, Piyapong; Wongchai, Sirasit; Ponam, Thitiya; Wichianprasat, Pongdej; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong

    2014-01-01

    The number of travelers visiting Laos has more than doubled in the last 5 years. Little is known about their pre-travel preparations and the incidence of health problems during their trips. At three border posts between Laos and Thailand, travelers were invited to complete a study questionnaire. They were asked about their demographic profile, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparations, and health problems during their stay in Laos. From September 2011 to April 2012, 1,205 questionnaires from Thais and 1,191 from foreigners were collected. Approximately 60% of the travelers were male; the overall median age among the Thais was 43 years, and among the foreigners was 32 years. Most foreign visitors were from Europe (66.8%), followed by other Asian countries (19.0%) and North America (7.1%). Almost half of the foreigners (47.8%) traveled as individual backpackers, whereas the majority of Thais traveled as package tourists. Foreigners were more likely to trek, cycle, and swim during their trips. There were also significant differences in the average length of stay between foreigners (16.1 days) and Thais (3.8 days, p < 0.001). Health problems were reported in 24.9% of foreigners, the most common being diarrhea, cough, animal exposure, and fever. Only 6.1% of Thais reported health problems, the most common being cough and diarrhea. The relative risk adjusted for duration of stay was 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.64). Occurrence of health problems was associated with younger age group, non-Asian nationality, length of stay, and participation in adventurous activities. Health problems are rather frequent among non-Thai travelers in contrast to Thais during their trips to Lao People's Democratic Republic. There were significant differences in terms of risk profile and prevalence of health problems between these two groups. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Laos | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The initiative developed research skills in writing, data collection and analysis, and offered small research grants. As a result, local ... Our support helps. Lao speakers access the Internet; migrant women protect their health; the Government of Laos improve trade negotiations; leaders develop sound transportation policies ...

  5. Vulnerability and Safety Nets in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Lindelow, Magnus; Fenton, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Lao PDR has experienced high levels of economic growth in recent years and the incidence of poverty has fallen dramatically since the 1990s. Yet, this report shows that Lao households continue to be highly vulnerable to regular seasonal fluctuations, as well as agricultural shocks and natural disasters. The report also highlights the importance of health shocks, injury and death for household ...

  6. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia.

  7. HIV Viral Load Testing in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Paboriboune, Phimpha; Ngin, S.; Kieffer, A.; Phimphachanh, C.; Bouchard, B; Fan, P. Ho; Steenkeste, N.; Viretto, G; Fernandez, M.; Longuet, C.; Babin, F.X.; Nerrienet, E.

    2013-01-01

    The number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos (also known as Laos PDR) is estimated at 13,600 and the number of people in need of antiretroviral therapy at 8,000. Today, around 3,200 HIV infected individuals receive treatment in seven centres throughout the country. Until recently, antiretroviral treated patients were followed-up only on the basis of clinical and immunological criteria. In 2009 the Centre d'Infectiologie Christophe Mérieux in Laos PDR (...

  8. Religion and Globalization in Laos Religion und Globalisierung in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boike Rehbein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Eurocentric sociology, modernization is supposed to make religion secular, a functional system, or a private matter. A closer analysis of the impact of contemporary globalization on religion in Laos shows that these tendencies can only be observed in certain social groups and in certain realms of religion. Some social groups preserve or reinvent religious traditions, others construct a new identity, and some do tend towards secularism or differentiation. The paper investigates these tendencies, referring to an empirical case study. It proposes to explain them within a conceptual framework adapted to societies of the global South which focuses on the concepts of social structure, division of work, socioculture, and institution. On the basis of these concepts, the paper proposes to distinguish between different religious realms, namely, belief, performance, and knowledge. In each of these three realms, different tendencies and social distributions can be observed. Der eurozentrischen Soziologie zufolge wird Religion im Zuge der Modernisierung entweder säkularisiert oder privatisiert oder in ein funktionales System verwandelt. Eine genauere Analyse des Einflusses, den die gegenwärtige Globalisierung auf die Religion in Laos ausübt, zeigt jedoch, dass diese Tendenzen auf bestimmte soziale Gruppen und Aspekte der Religion beschränkt sind. Einige soziale Gruppen bewahren oder rekonstruieren religiöse Traditionen, andere konstruieren eine neue Identität und wieder andere tendieren zu Säkularisierung oder funktionaler Differenzierung. Der Aufsatz analysiert diese Phänomene am Beispiel einer Fallstudie auf der Basis eines an den globalen Süden angepassten Begriffsapparats, der um die Begriffe Sozialstruktur, Tätigkeitsteilung, Soziokultur und Institution kreist. Der Aufsatz schlägt vor, zwischen den religiösen Sphären des Glaubens, der Performanz und des Wissens zu unterscheiden. In jeder Sphäre lassen sich unterschiedliche

  9. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Viruses Circulating in Two Rabies Endemic Provinces of Laos, 2011–2012: Regional Diversity in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. Methods We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Results Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. Conclusion There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion. PMID:25825907

  11. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamruddin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos.We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses.Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions.There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  12. Country watch: Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on the results of a study on sexuality among young people in Cambodia, a series of interactive teaching video packages that model real-life situations are being developed by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund. It is noted that the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessment of personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in situations similar to those in the videos. Each video package tells the story of problem situations and model behavior options, and provides a facilitator guide that includes suggested discussion questions. These videos include ¿Snooker Game¿, ¿At the Brothel¿, ¿The Quiet Place¿, ¿The Vulnerable Housewife¿, and ¿The Drinking Scene¿. Meanwhile, the field-tested interactive teaching videos have been indicated as extremely popular among Cambodian young people, teachers, teacher trainers, school administrators, community leaders, and nongovernmental organization community workers. However, important concerns have also been raised about the risks of focusing on real-life social norms and attitudes in Cambodia.

  13. Imaging in the Khmer’s Land: Cambodia Country Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha\tG. Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1. With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1. The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located in the southern part of the country. Other major cities include Battambang and Siem Reap, both of which have populations over 150,000. There are officially 24 provinces and one municipality (Phnom Penh. However, many consider Phnom Penh to be its own province. As a result, some research puts the number of Cambodian provinces at 25. The climate is tropical with two seasons: monsoon season (May to November and dry season (December to April. Temperatures range from approximately 70 to 95°F. Cambodia’s economy largely depends on the garment industry, tourism, construction, real estate and agriculture. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953 and was first ruled by a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk. After a five-year struggle starting in 1970, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh in 1975. Pol Pot, the leader of the Khmer Rouge, oversaw a brutal regime that, through executions and forced labor, was responsible for the deaths of at least 1.5 million Cambodians. The Vietnamese drove out the Khmer Rouge in 1979. After years of Vietnamese occupation, the 1991 Paris Peace Accords established a ceasefire and a democratic framework for the country. By 1993 elections established a new coalition government; yet, political instability and violence persisted throughout the 1990s. Cambodia most recently held elections in 2013, as a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy.The devastation caused by the Khmer Rouge has had long

  14. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Burden of stroke in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-08-01

    In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  16. [First epidemiologic data on pneumonia in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrillon, V; Ny, C; Chan, S; Souquet, P-J; Couraud, S

    2014-06-01

    About 15% of deaths in adults are related to lung infections in Cambodia. Some knowledge on microbial epidemiology is crucial for deciding first-line antibiotic treatment. However, to date, these data are not available in Cambodia. Consequently, antibiotic prescription relies on French or neighborhood's countries guidelines, which are possibly not suitable. This cases-series aimed to provide data on microbial ecology in pneumonia. Medical charts of patients newly admitted for lung infection in the pulmonology unit of Preah Kossamak Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-four patients were included and 29% had a complete microbiological diagnosis. Main germs isolated were: Gram-negative bacilli (n=20; 70.4%) and M. tuberculosis infections (n=7; 25.9%). There was one case of myeloïdosis. No S. pneumonia was isolated, possibly due to sample shipping tropical conditions. Antibiograms showed high resistance profiles. Although this study bring new data in the field, it also showed that European guidelines for antibiotic are not relevant in such countries and stress the need for further dedicated and prospective studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A renewable energy strategy for Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milattanapheng, Chantho; Sysoulath, Hatsady; Green, Joanta; Kurukulasuriya, Mahinda

    2010-09-15

    The Government of Lao PDR (GoL) has set up the vision to 2020 ''to secure an adequate power supply throughout the country to facilitate national socio-economic development objectives in an environmentally sustainable manner''. To ensure achieving this goal, the government institutions have introduced various policies and strategies for supporting energy sector development. Lao PDR is in the process of developing a renewable energy strategy. A renewable energy strategy would facilitate the increase in the overall use and more effective use of renewable energy. This paper will discuss the salient points of the new renewable energy strategy.

  18. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  19. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Developing a Mentorship Program in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Nita Catton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skills strengthening and capacity building for maternal and newborn health (MNH providers are essential to ensure quality care for mothers and newborns. There is, however, limited research regarding what constitutes an effective model in low-income countries. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos has some of the region’s worst outcomes for neonatal and maternal mortality. Moreover, with a 23-year hiatus in midwifery training, which ended approximately 7 years ago, there is a cadre of new and inexperienced midwives in practice without support systems, skills, or continuing professional development opportunities. Traditional didactic teaching methodologies prevail in Laos, but with little evidence of efficacy. As an alternative model, Save the Children International has been implementing a mentorship approach for MNH providers in two provinces in northern Laos since January 2016, with technical guidance and funding from the United States Agency for International Development-supported global Maternal Child Survival Program. This community case study will describe and reflect on the approach by highlighting the need and rationale for mentorship, followed by a description of the program’s core components and the results observed so far. Lessons learned and the application of the approach to different contexts and health-care professionals, considering both constraints and opportunities, will be discussed.

  1. Laos: a state coordinated frontier economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Andriesse (Edo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper assesses the current variety of capitalism in Laos using Hall and Soskice’s (2001) comparative approach and the emerging body of knowledge on Varieties of Asian Capitalism. In addition to a systematic discussion of the traditional capitalist elements proposed by Hall and

  2. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The

  3. Molecular Subtyping in Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithivong, Noikaseumsy; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Vongdouangchanh, Arounnapha; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Chomlasak, Khampheng; Sisavath, Lay; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Vongprachanh, Phengta; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Southalack, Kongmany; Jiyoung, Lee; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A cholera outbreak in Laos in July 2010 involved 237 cases, including 4 deaths. Molecular subtyping indicated relatedness between the Vibrio cholerae isolates in this and in a 2007 outbreak, uncovering a clonal group of V. cholerae circulating in the Mekong basin. Our finding suggests the subtyping methods will affect this relatedness. PMID:22099098

  4. Cambodia: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khin, J.A. (AFKA Co., PTE Ltd. (SG))

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the Ministry of Industry which has the that hydrocarbon potential exists in the 57,600-sq-mi sedimentary basin covering both onshore and offshore Cambodia. It is also reported that 13 foreign oil companies have contacted the government, regarding obtaining interests in Kampot and Koh Kong Provinces in the southwestern part of the country.

  5. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  6. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.

  7. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural Internal Migrants Navigating Apprenticeships and Vocational Training: Insights from Cambodia and Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chea (Lyda); R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe policy phrase Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is rapidly gaining ground across Southeast Asia (and beyond). TVET is centrally about ‘skills’ development and considered an important policy component in smoothening young people’s ‘school-to-work transition’.

  9. Forest degradation sub-national assessments: Monitoring options for Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Turner; James Halperin; Patricia Manley; Leif Mortenson

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring deforestation and associated changes to forest carbon stocks are widespread and well published. In contrast, techniques for monitoring forest degradation are relatively untested in developing countries despite their inclusion in UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations. The Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) program of the United States Agency...

  10. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  11. CULTURAL NATIONALISM IN A COLONIAL CONTEXT: LAOS IN FRENCH INDOCHINA, 1893-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies dealing with the link between French colonialism and nationalism in Laos have focused on the anti-colonial or revolutionary aspects of Lao nationalism. This is true for texts written by Western scholars as well as officially sanctioned books on Lao history published in Laos....... This chapter approaches Lao nationalism from a cultural perspective, through a discussion of how a specific idea about Laos and its culture was formed under French colonial rule in the period 1893-1940....

  12. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    OpenAIRE

    Tyner Stuart D; Lon Chanthap; Se Youry; Bethell Delia; Socheat Doung; Noedl Harald; Sea Darapiseth; Satimai Wichai; Schaecher Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt Wiriya; Fukuda Mark M; Chaorattanakawee Suwanna; Yingyuen Kritsanai; Sundrakes Siratchana; Chaichana Panjaporn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory co...

  13. Laos. Un pays en mutation, Vatthana Pholsena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Bouté

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec un regard neuf et une approche originale que Vatthana Pholsena a relevé le défi d’écrire l’ouvrage Laos. Un pays en mutation, le dernier-né de la collection « Asie Plurielle » (Belin qui a déjà proposé une longue série d’ouvrages de présentation générale des pays d’Asie. Cet ouvrage vient combler un grand manque dans la littérature sur le Laos. Aucun ouvrage généraliste en langue française n’existant jusque-là sur ce petit pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, le lecteur curieux devait se référ...

  14. Lao Tse y el Tao te Ching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Román López

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo describiremos algunos de los aspectos más reveladores de la obra y del pensamiento de Lao tse que, en cierta medida, pueden ayudarnos a entender algunas de las razones que justifican la gran influencia que el taoísmo ha tenido en el mundo oriental antiguo y, en particular, en el pensamiento de ChinaIn this article we will describe some of the most developing aspects in the book and of the thought of Lao tse that, in certain measure, they can help us to understand some of the reasons that justify the great influence that the Taoism has had in the old oriental world and, in particular, in the thought of China.

  15. The NVA in Laos: 1951-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-09

    and shipment op•e-rat ionr, w.i, the Meo tribal leader Touby Lyfoung. Touby was the head of the t- eco Lrilxil confederation located in the areas around...North Laos to operate in support of ....... iC NEAL UNCLASSIFIED 28 flC HHONN SAM NEOUA HONTONKIN NHU!UONG XN L PA KH41 OFV~I SA 8 Pq01 AOIUISNAIV CAPTAL

  16. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  17. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants of Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokvibol Kea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.

  18. Cambodia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Post-war Cambodia faced many challenges — among them, isolation. In 1998 an IDRC grant helped establish Cambodia's first Internet service provider. We have since funded Cambodian research to develop programs and web content in Khmer, the national language. This enables Cambodians to use computers, access ...

  19. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permet au Cambodia Development Resource Institute de collaborer avec sept partenaires pour poursuivre les travaux du Cambodia Development Research Forum. Les idées maîtresses du forum sont le fruit d'une rencontre, en 2007, de tous les groupes et particuliers subventionnés par le CRDI au ...

  20. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  1. Staking a Claim in Cambodia's Highlands

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Not only is the forest one of their main sources of food and income, it is also essential for their swidden system of agriculture. Moreover, although Highlanders form close to three-quarters of. Ratanakiri's population, they are a minority group in Cambodia as a whole. They had never spoken up for their rights in Cambodia's ...

  2. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  3. Development of dermatological services in Cambodia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the end of the so-called UNTAC (United. Nations Transitory Authority in Cambodia) mission. Apart from consolidating. Cambodia's full sovereignty after more than a decade of Vietnamese occupation,. UNTAC supervised comparatively free and fair elections that subsequently triggered.

  4. The assamiids harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores: Assamiidae) from Champasak Province, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Feng

    2015-06-03

    Three assamiids species are recorded from southern Laos, two of which are new: Paramaracandus dolabratus sp. nov. (male) and Simalurius suzukii sp. nov. (male and female). Mysorea thaiensis Suzuki, 1985, that was previously known only from the type locality in northern Thailand is redescribed here. The family Assamiidae was first recorded from Laos.

  5. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T.; Newton, Paul N.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.–positive and Borrelia spp.–positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  6. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  7. In Laos: Testing mobile solutions for poultry care | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite national gains in tackling poverty, hunger stubbornly persists in Laos. Some 44% of children under the age of five show signs of stunting as a result of malnutrition. Laos' National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy notes the importance of livestock and farming in its efforts to reduce poverty. Among its goals, the ...

  8. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

  9. Respiratory illness healthcare-seeking behavior assessment in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Hansana, Visanou; Sengphilom, Bouachanh; Oulay, Latsamy; Thammavongsa, Vatsana; Somphet, Vatsana; Taykeophithoune, Chansathit; Nathavong, Soudavanh; Phanthady, Johnly; Chareunvong, Kongmany; Chanthavilay, Phetsavanh; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2013-05-04

    Respiratory illness (RI) remains a public health problem in Laos, but little is known about the overall burden and people's healthcare-seeking behavior for RI. Understanding the burden of RI and community patterns of healthcare-seeking behavior would provide better guidance for Lao public health program and policy planners to improve RI public health practice, surveillance systems, and prevention strategies. A quantitative and qualitative survey was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages of two purposively selected peri-urban and two rural provinces in Laos. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on RI in household members (defined as new fever with cough and/or sore-throat in the absence of other diagnoses during the preceding 30 days) from all heads of household in each village. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted to obtain more information to support the quantitative survey. Among 1,751 households (9,114 people) studied, 3.5% (317/9,114) had experienced RI (fever, cough, and/or sore-throat) in the 30 days before the survey [6.2% in rural and 2.4% in peri-urban areas (pLaos and this is probably due to the differences in environmental and hygienic conditions, health service availability and socio-economic status between the two areas. Therefore strategies for healthcare service improvement may also need to differ between the two areas.

  10. Cambodia; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the following statistical data are presented in detail: agriculture, livestock, and fishery production, structure of revenue, monetary survey, reserve money, interest rates, central government operations, profile of the commercial bank system, consumer price index, foreign debt, status of state-owned enterprises, proposed privatization standards, gross domestic product by expenditure at current prices, interest rates, budgetary expenditure by ministry, deflators for GDP by sect...

  11. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  12. Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections in 18 villages of southern Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommasone, Koukeo; Adhikari, Bipin; Henriques, Gisela; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phongmany, Panom; von Seidlein, Lorenz; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; M Dondorp, Arjen; Newton, Paul N; Imwong, Mallika; Mayxay, Mayfong

    2016-05-27

    A large fraction of Plasmodium infections do not cause clinical signs and symptoms of disease and persist at densities in blood that are not detectable by microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. These infections may be critical as a transmission reservoir in areas of low malaria endemicity. Understanding the epidemiology of these infections would be helpful for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Thapangthong and Nong Districts of Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, to determine the prevalence of parasitaemia. A total of 888 blood samples were collected from afebrile volunteers aged ≥15 years in 18 villages during March and July 2015. Plasmodium infections were diagnosed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and high volume, ultra-sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (uPCR). uPCR detected Plasmodium infections in 175 of 888 samples (20 %). The species distribution was Plasmodium falciparum 3.6 % (32/888), Plasmodium vivax 11.1 % (99/888), mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax 1.6 % (14/888) and Plasmodium of undetermined species 3.4 % (30/888). RDT identified only 2 % (18/888) positive cases. Using uPCR as reference, the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs were 28 and 100 %, respectively, in detecting P. falciparum infections, and 3 and 99 % in detecting asymptomatic P. vivax infections. The K13 kelch propeller domain C580Y mutation, associated with reduced susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives, was found in 75 % (12/18) of P. falciparum isolates from Thapangthong and in 7 % (2/28) from Nong (p Laos and could reverse the gains achieved by the successful control of malaria in Laos and the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Rapid elimination of P. falciparum has to be a top priority in Laos as well as in the wider GMS.

  13. How Laos is moving forward with REDD+ schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithong Thongmanivong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover in Laos has decreased over the past three decades for variety of reasons. The current Laos Government has committed itself to restoring the forest cover to 70 per cent by 2020. As a result, many conservation projects and programs have been planned and implemented in different parts of the country. REDD+ was introduced in late 2007; however, progress of implementation of REDD+ has been slow. This paper examines and updates the status of REDD+ implementation in Laos, using information from literature and interviews with relevant individuals. The paper reveals that progress of REDD+ is slow not only due to external factors but also on internal factors. Currently, there are various international organisations and NGOs, from both the public and private sectors, attempting to pilot REDD+ projects. Laos faces many challenges in implementing REDD+, including institutional arrangements; appropriate methods for carbon accounting, reporting and verification; benefit sharing; and engaging local communities.

  14. [Memisa: surgical help in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierstra, J C

    1999-02-27

    In 1995 the activities of Médecins sans Frontières in the Province of Kampot, Cambodia, were handed to Memisa Medicus Mundi. This happened as a part of the co-operation between the two relief agencies. Following a request from the Cambodian Ministry of Health, Memisa sent a Dutch surgeon to Kampot in order to make an inventory of the surgical care in this province and to make recommendations for improvement. Two visits of two months each were made with an intermission of one year. Special attention was given to the most adequate treatment of a few common fractures in developing countries. By asking a fixed amount of money for a treatment all in, and by providing good service the confidence of the people in the health care facilities is increased.

  15. Dansk dyrlæge i Lao Cai

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Louise Poulsen forlod danske køer med yverbetændelse for at forske i smitsomme sygdomme blandt etniske minoriteter og deres husdyr i Lao Cai-provinsen i Vietnam......Louise Poulsen forlod danske køer med yverbetændelse for at forske i smitsomme sygdomme blandt etniske minoriteter og deres husdyr i Lao Cai-provinsen i Vietnam...

  16. All projects related to cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-11-30

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth ... Project. Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Start Date: November 30, 2007.

  17. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-11-30

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth ... Project. Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Start Date: November 30, 2007.

  18. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, ...

  19. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naman K.; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective. PMID:18826834

  20. Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2011-01-01

    The use of quality seed is a major component of increased yields in crop production. Quality seed and seed programs in a country does not emerge by happenstance; it is created by a combination of many factors that include variety development, seed production, quality control, processing, marketing, and governmental oversight. As the seed sector in a country matures, each of these factors b...

  1. Elements of effective community engagement: lessons from a targeted malaria elimination study in Lao PDR (Laos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bipin; Pell, Christopher; Phommasone, Koukeo; Soundala, Xayaphone; Kommarasy, Palingnaphone; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Henriques, Gisela; Day, Nicholas P J; Mayxay, Mayfong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Mass drug (antimalarial) administration (MDA) is currently under study in Southeast Asia as part of a package of interventions referred to as targeted malaria elimination (TME). This intervention relies on effective community engagement that promotes uptake and adherence in target communities (above 80%). Based on the experienced of designing and implementing the community engagement for TME in Laos, in this article we aim to present the elements of effective community engagement for mass antimalarial administration. The design and implementation of community engagement, which took place from September 2015 to August 2016 was recorded as field notes, meeting minutes and photographs. These data underwent qualitative content analysis. The community engagement strategy that accompanied TME in Laos was successful in terms of contributing to high levels of participation in mass anti-malarial administration (above 85%). Based on the experience of designing and implementing the community engagement, five key elements were identified: (1) stakeholder and authority engagement, which proceeded from national level, to regional/district and local level; (2) local human resources, particularly the recruitment of local volunteers who were integral to the design and implementation of activities in the study villages; (3) formative research, to rapidly gain insight into the local social and economic context; (4) responsiveness whereby the approach was adapted according to the needs of the community and their responses to the various study components; and (5) sharing control/leadership with the community in terms of decisions on the organization of TME activities. The community engagement that accompanied TME in Laos had to deal with challenges of implementing a complex study in remote and linguistically isolated villages. Despite these challenges, the study recorded high population coverage. Lessons learnt from this experience are useful for studies and intervention programs in

  2. Elements of effective community engagement: lessons from a targeted malaria elimination study in Lao PDR (Laos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bipin; Pell, Christopher; Phommasone, Koukeo; Soundala, Xayaphone; Kommarasy, Palingnaphone; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Henriques, Gisela; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Mass drug (antimalarial) administration (MDA) is currently under study in Southeast Asia as part of a package of interventions referred to as targeted malaria elimination (TME). This intervention relies on effective community engagement that promotes uptake and adherence in target communities (above 80%). Objective: Based on the experienced of designing and implementing the community engagement for TME in Laos, in this article we aim to present the elements of effective community engagement for mass antimalarial administration. Methods: The design and implementation of community engagement, which took place from September 2015 to August 2016 was recorded as field notes, meeting minutes and photographs. These data underwent qualitative content analysis. Results: The community engagement strategy that accompanied TME in Laos was successful in terms of contributing to high levels of participation in mass anti-malarial administration (above 85%). Based on the experience of designing and implementing the community engagement, five key elements were identified: (1) stakeholder and authority engagement, which proceeded from national level, to regional/district and local level; (2) local human resources, particularly the recruitment of local volunteers who were integral to the design and implementation of activities in the study villages; (3) formative research, to rapidly gain insight into the local social and economic context; (4) responsiveness whereby the approach was adapted according to the needs of the community and their responses to the various study components; and (5) sharing control/leadership with the community in terms of decisions on the organization of TME activities. Conclusions: The community engagement that accompanied TME in Laos had to deal with challenges of implementing a complex study in remote and linguistically isolated villages. Despite these challenges, the study recorded high population coverage. Lessons learnt from this

  3. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  4. A Short History of Laos, the Land in Between, Grant Evans

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Amphay

    2013-01-01

    L’ouvrage comprend une préface, des remerciements, une note sur le système de transcription et sur la définition des termes « Lao » et « Laos », un petit glossaire et une liste d’abréviations. Le texte se répartit en six chapitres : 1. « Before Laos » ; 2. « Le Laos français » ; 3. « The Royal Lao Government (RLG) » ; 4. « War and the destruction of the RLG » ; 5. « The Lao People’s Democratic Republic » ; et 6. « Laos in the modern world ». Dans sa préface, l’auteur rappelle que le Laos est ...

  5. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  6. National news. Cambodia. The future of ARH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS crisis in Cambodia underscores the importance of reproductive health programs aimed at adolescents. Although the Cambodian Government has not developed a strategy specifically aimed at reaching youth, it has initiated several related health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Such programming is especially urgent in light of rapid economic changes in Cambodia and the growing influence of the mass media on urban youth. An in-country paper prepared by a staff member of the Youth Department of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports stressed the importance of four factors: 1) designation of young couples as a target for birth spacing campaigns and services, 2) realistic HIV/AIDS educational messages in the mass media, 3) incorporation of traditional practices in adolescent reproductive health campaigns, and 4) greater sensitivity to youth culture and habits.

  7. Export Supply of Electricity from Laos to Thailand: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thongphet Lamphayphan; Toshihisa Toyoda; Chris Czerkawsk; Phouphet Kyophilavong

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, as the largest electricity market for Laos, has imported significant amounts of electricity from Laos since the operation of first hydropower plant in Laos. However, currently there have been a number of new power particularly nuclear power plants in Thailand being studied implying the possibility of reduction in Thailand’s electricity import from Laos. Since Thailand is the largest market of Laos’ electricity, the change in demand for electricity from Thailand has substantial impac...

  8. Spatial distribution of, and risk factors for, Opisthorchis viverrini infection in southern Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Forrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne trematode species that might give rise to biliary diseases and the fatal cholangiocarcinoma. In Lao PDR, an estimated 2.5 million individuals are infected with O. viverrini, but epidemiological studies are scarce and the spatial distribution of infection remains to be determined. Our aim was to map the distribution of O. viverrini in southern Lao PDR, identify underlying risk factors, and predict the prevalence of O. viverrini at non-surveyed locations. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was carried out in 51 villages in Champasack province in the first half of 2007. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water supply, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data and fed into a geographical information system. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to identify risk factors and to investigate the spatial pattern of O. viverrini infection. Bayesian kriging was utilized to predict infection risk at non-surveyed locations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of O. viverrini among 3,371 study participants with complete data records was 61.1%. Geostatistical models identified age, Lao Loum ethnic group, educational attainment, occupation (i.e., rice farmer, fisherman, and animal breeder, and unsafe drinking water source as risk factors for infection. History of praziquantel treatment, access to sanitation, and distance to freshwater bodies were found to be protective factors. Spatial patterns of O. viverrini were mainly governed by environmental factors with predictive modeling identifying two different risk profiles: low risk of O. viverrini in the mountains and high risk in the Mekong corridor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first risk map of O. viverrini infection in Champasack province, which is important for spatial targeting of control efforts. Infection with O. viverrini appears to be strongly associated

  9. Noma in Laos: stigma of severe poverty in rural Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, M Leila; Watt, Bryan; Phengdy, Bounthom; Khansoulivong, Keutmy; Harris, Jim; Bennett, Christopher; Strobel, Michel; Dupuis, Christian; Newton, Paul N

    2008-04-01

    Noma, or cancrum oris, is a debilitating necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis that destroys the mouth and face. It usually starts in early childhood and is associated with severe poverty, malnutrition, and infections. It is most frequently described from sub-Saharan Africa but is under-reported. There have been very few reports from Asia. We describe the clinical and social features of a series of 12 patients with noma from remote poor villages in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos). Noma is an ominous stigma of severe poverty and the description of this disease emphasizes the importance of poverty reduction and nutritional improvement in Lao development. In the meantime, more awareness of the problem and the importance of early therapy in acute noma by primary health care workers may reduce mortality and prevent progression to severe disfigurement.

  10. Retrospective analysis of 36 ameloblastoma cases in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsa, Souksavanh; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Thepsouvanh, Daovone; Sidaphone, Bounnhong; Ngonephady, Sengphouvanh; Sitthiphanh, Aloungnadeth; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 36 cases of ameloblastoma from the files of Mittaphap Hospital in Vientiane Capital, Laos. Clinical findings showed an average patient age of 31.0 ± 3.8 years, with a slight male preponderance. Radiographically, all of the lesions showed multicystic radiotranslucency. Twenty-four patients underwent tumor resection and 12 underwent tumor enucleation. Of those patients, four underwent additional surgery because of tumor recurrence. This is the first report in the English literature of ameloblastoma cases from Laos.

  11. Livelihood strategies and dynamics in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Pouliot, Mariéve; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2017-01-01

    and their underlying factors. The study aims to identify the classification of rural livelihood strategies, their transitions and factors influencing these processes and changes. We employ the dynamic livelihood strategy framework, and use panel data for 2008 and 2012 covering 464 households in 15 villages in Cambodia...

  12. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  13. Protecting mangrove forests in Cambodia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... ... crabs, shrimp, and mollusks. They are nesting and migratory sites for hundreds of bird species. They also provide homes for monkeys, lizards, sea turtles, and many other animals as well as countless insects. Until relatively recently, the mangroves of Koh Kong, Cambodia have remained relatively intact.

  14. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Mahmut Yaşar; Pagnarith, Yos; Akao, Kazumi; Sophearin, Dim; Sorn, Sokchea

    2017-01-01

    Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.

  15. Staking a Claim in Cambodia's Highlands

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The state of conflict that existed in Cambodia for more than 20 years perversely protected the secluded forests of Ratanakiri province in the northeast from exploitation. Only local indigenous peoples used these forests, and they did so sustainably. However, in the 1990s, this changed as the country became more secure and ...

  16. Development research in Cambodia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia has undergone a radical transition from the devastations of civil war, foreign occupation, and the ferocious misrule of the Khmer Rouge. The 1991 Paris peace agreement established a ceasefire and committed Cambodians to democratic elections. An interim administration under United Nations supervision set ...

  17. Cambodia Development Research Forum II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia's research community is still rebuilding from decades of turmoil that included civil war and a period of ethnic and intellectual cleansing under the Khmer Rouge. Its development research community remains dispersed and unconnected, though there are pockets of strong capacity. IDRC was one of the first ...

  18. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.

  19. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  20. Area Handbook for the KHMER Republic (Cambodia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others

    This handbook, one of a series designed to be useful to the military and others with an interest in foreign affairs, contains basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Cambodia. There are four major sections to the handbook. Section one describes the general character of the society and examines…

  1. Diagnosis and management of malaria by rural community health providers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phompida, Samlane; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; White, Nicholas J; Newton, Paul N

    2007-04-01

    We assessed the knowledge of malaria diagnosis and management by community health providers in rural Vientiane and Savannakhet Provinces, Lao PDR. Sixty health providers (17 pharmacy owners/drug sellers and 43 village health volunteers) were interviewed. All diagnosed malaria using symptoms and signs only; 14% were aware of >2 criteria for the diagnosis of severe malaria. Although chloroquine and quinine, the then recommended Lao national policy for uncomplicated malaria treatment, were the most common antimalarials prescribed - 65% gave incorrect doses and 70% did not know the side effects. Although not recommended by the then national policy, 27% of the health providers used combinations of antimalarials as they considered monotherapy ineffective. This study strongly suggests that further training of Lao rural health providers in malaria diagnosis and management is needed to improve the quality of health services in areas remote from district hospitals.

  2. A field study on feed supplementation, body weight and selected blood parameters in local pigs in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Jansson, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate feed allowances, body weight (BW), haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma ionised calcium (iCa), sodium, potassium, pH and glucose concentration and faecal K/Na ratio in local growing pigs, sows and piglets kept by small-holder farmers in Laos. Starting hypotheses were that (1) local pigs are under fed, (2) BW is higher in pigs receiving supplementary feed and (3) the blood profile of pigs subjected to very poor nutrition is outside the normal range. On 54 pig-keeping smallholdings in Borikhamxay province, Lao PDR, daily feed allowances were weighed and BW recorded for 27 lactating sows, 54 piglets and 27 growing pigs. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis in all pigs. Feed supplementation did not affect BW, but plasma iCa concentration was outside the normal range for all pigs. There was a tendency for lower faecal K/Na ratio in Na-supplemented sows. The results confirm that local pigs in small-scale production systems in Laos suffer from poor nutrition. The most important challenge for farmers appears to be provision of more feed, particularly feed with a high Ca content.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Takumi; Vichit, Ork; Vutthikol, Yong; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Samnang, Chham; Toda, Kohei; Grabovac, Varja; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine the genotypes of circulating Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, in Cambodia by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. DNA extracts from nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from 82 pertussis patients in 2008-2016 were analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). B. pertussis virulence-associated allelic genes (ptxA, prn, and fim3) and the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP were also investigated by DNA sequence-based typing. Forty-four DNA extracts (54%) yielded a complete MLVA profile, and these were sorted into 8 MLVA types (MT18, MT26, MT27, MT29, MT43, MT72, MT95, and MT200). MT27 and MT29, which are common in developed countries, were the predominant strain types (total 73%). The predominant profile of virulence-associated allelic genes was the combination of ptxP3/ptxA1/prn2/fim3A (48%). MT27 strains were detected during the entire study period, whereas MT29 strains were only found in 2014-2016. The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV) has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Laos: A final frontier for ICTs | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... In 1987, the first IDRC supported project in Laos improved scientific and technical library services. IDRC also helped STEA to start up the first public Internet connection for email service in 1996. A priority of the new project, which began in 2002, is to increase ICT use among national government employees ...

  5. (Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents. Lao Language.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Grace D.

    This guide for minority language parents whose primary language is Lao presents parenting information to supplement a course in English as a Second Language. It focuses on topics parents must deal with in meeting the needs of their children. Vocabulary and practice drills are presented for activities in the following areas: (1) education and…

  6. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiviorg, Kristo

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  7. First report of Sclerotium rolfsii in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Songvilay, P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Vongphachanh, P.; Sayapattha, S.; Chittarath, K.; Crous, P.W.; Burgess, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2010 basal stem rot of snake bean (long bean) (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was discovered in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR, during an ad hoc disease survey. The disease had resulted in death of some infected plants. The basal stem region had a bleached

  8. Lao Serial Verb Constructions and Their Event Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Douglas James

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of serial verb constructions in Lao (Tai-Kadai, SVO) and the events that they encode. Serial verb constructions (SVCs), structures where multiple verbs appear in a single clause, raise several important questions for syntactic theory. One issue is how the verbs are related; proposals involving coordination…

  9. English-Lao Phrasebook with Useful Wordlist (for Laotians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    English phrases with Lao translations are presented under the following headings: coping with the language barrier, useful forms of etiquette, giving information about yourself, recognizing signs, converting weights and measures, using numbers, dealing with money, dealing with time, locating things, describing things and people, doing things,…

  10. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  11. Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

  12. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  13. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate mitigation in the least carbon emitting countries. Dilemmas of Co-benefits in Cambodia and Laos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J., Email: jyrki.luukkanen@utu.fi; Kakonen, M.; Karhumaa, K. [and others

    2013-09-01

    Development has entered a time where it cannot be thought of without reference to climate change. While historically development in the industrialized countries has to a great extent been driven by a fossil fuel based economy, this option is no longer seen as viable for developing countries, which are expected to pursue different pathways of development. At the same time, the impacts of a changing climate affect the poorest countries and populations disproportionately, and multilateral policy declarations signed by most countries underline that there must be an effort to prevent and mitigate this. The effects of climate change onto development policies and practice is also reflected in donor countries' change in perception. Donor countries have begun increasingly integrating climate change objectives into development cooperation programmes and official development assistance (ODA). While significant in terms of discontinuing support to fossil fuels and attempting to increase resilience, this trend also brings into the fore new dilemmas. The main dilemma which emerges - and is explored further in this book - is when development cooperation finance is used in the least developed countries for projects and policies which are principally oriented towards climate change mitigation.

  15. Decomposition of childhood malnutrition in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite

    2015-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  17. Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots to Policy Research. In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy ...

  18. Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in Asia. About 70% of the population depends on agriculture for a living. Food insecurity affects rural people in particular, and the number of people who are food insecure is growing. Among Southeast Asian countries, Cambodia is also one of the most vulnerable to climate change.

  19. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State... Act with respect to the Government of Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  20. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  1. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  2. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total ... Sujet: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, GENDER ANALYSIS. Région: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, ...

  3. Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…

  4. Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World". Articles. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms. In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Études. Biochemical correlates of anemia in Cambodian ...

  5. Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia. The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. While there have been a number of studies of the effect of the crisis on Cambodia, there have been few on the coping strategies ...

  6. Causes of non-malarial fever in Laos : a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayxay, M.; Castonguay-Vanier, J.; Chansamouth, V.; Dubot Pérès, Audrey; Paris, D. H.; Phetsouvanh, R.; Tangkhabuanbutra, J.; Douangdala, P.; Inthalath, S.; Souvannasing, P.; Slesak, G.; Tongyoo, N.; Chanthongthip, A.; Panyanouvong, P.; Sibounheuang, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because of reductions in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Laos, identification of the causes of fever in people without malaria, and discussion of the best empirical treatment options, are urgently needed. We aimed to identify the causes of non-malarial acute fever in patients in rural Laos. Methods: For this prospective study, we recruited 1938 febrile patients, between May, 2008, and December, 2010, at Luang Namtha provincial hospital in northwest Laos (n=139...

  7. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Vientiane province and municipality, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Kotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first faunistic report on the Laotian Cladocera from diverse habitats in Vientiane province, Central Laos. We counted a total of 70 species, belonging to 37 genera, which is realistically close to an estimated 77 species. The five most common species were Diaphanosoma excisum, Ephemeroporus cf. barroisi, Anthalona harti, Macrothrix spinosa and Chydorus cf. eurynotus. The fauna is typically Oriental/Southeast (SE Asian, showing a strong similarity with neighbouring countries and especially Thailand. We discussed the current taxonomical status of the species and provided illustrations of the main taxa for future comparison. There are no surprising faunistic elements, except for a few new records for SE Asia (Matralona freyi, Ilyocryptus thailandensis. Our data is preliminary, as the fauna of Laos remains insufficiently studied. As for SE Asia as a whole, a significant number of taxa is in need of taxonomical revision.

  8. Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Bobichon, Julie; Somphong, Boutsady; Phommavan, Nothasin; Maithaviphet, Santi; Nambanya, Simone; Corbel, Vincent; Brey, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS) and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs) with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus), to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%). In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr). Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

  9. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in Laos - 'the unsought will go undetected'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaphet Rattanavong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos, probably because people have neglected to look.We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012, and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013, at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis.We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for

  10. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction and rates of drug use (demand reduction. However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.

  11. Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus, to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05% and permethrin (0.75%. In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr. Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

  12. Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Akkhavong, Kongsap; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-11-14

    Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ≥2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n = 130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a sound awareness of worm infection and the

  13. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in Laos - 'the unsought will go undetected'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N

    2014-12-01

    Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella

  14. Congenital heart disease at Laos Children's Hospital: Two year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Chang; Sisavanh, Malouny; Billamay, Somxay; Phangmanixay, Sommanikhone; Oudavong, Bounleua; Kang, Jeehoon; Kwon, Bo Sang; Kim, Gi Beom; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il; Choi, Jung Yun

    2017-03-01

    Management of congenital heart disease (CHD) in developing countries is challenging because of limited access to health-care facilities and socioeconomic limitations. The aim of this study was to describe the recent experience with CHD at Children's Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, the only pediatric referral hospital in the country. From July 2013 to November 2015, 1009 echocardiograms were carried out in 797 individuals who visited Children's Hospital, in whom CHD was identified in 213. Demographic characteristics, echocardiography and age at first CHD diagnosis on echocardiogram were compared by residential area. Among the 213 patients, the most frequent anomalies, in descending order, were ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and tetralogy of Fallot. Moderate or severe CHD requiring surgery or intervention was detected in 137 patients; median age at initial diagnosis was 6.0 months (IQR, 1.5-29.8). Among those with moderate or severe CHD, 89 patients were from rural areas and 48 from the capital area. The proportion of patients from rural areas older than 1 and 3 years at diagnosis was 46.1% and 32.6%, respectively. In contrast, patients from the capital area were diagnosed at a significantly earlier age: 16.7% at age >1 year and 6.2% at age >3 years (both P Laos, especially in rural areas. Better education and training of local medical staff, and greater access to medical advice are required to improve CHD care in Laos. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Descriptions of two new species of Torodorinae (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae), with three new records of Torodora Meyrick from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2017-05-16

    Two new species of Torodorinae: Caveana plenalinea Park, sp. nov. and Antiochtha hemitatos Park, sp. nov., are described from Laos. At the same time, three species of the genus Torodora are reported for the first time from Laos.

  16. Women's perspective of maternity care in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ith, Ponndara; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2013-03-01

    Consideration of the needs of pregnant women and their ability and willingness to attend maternal services and pay for them is central to the provision of accessible and acceptable maternal care. Women's satisfaction with maternal services is poorly understood in many developing countries, including Cambodia in South East Asia. The objective of this study was to investigate women's perceptions and experiences of private and public skilled birth attendants, including midwives, during childbirth in Cambodia. A qualitative design using a naturalistic inquiry approach was undertaken to seek sensitive personal issue. Thirty individual in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth at private and public health facilities in one province in Cambodia. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Women's choice of health facility was influenced by their perceptions of safety and staff attitudes. Reported barriers to the effective utilisation of public maternity services were costs associated with the birth, staff attitudes and a lack of supportive care during labour and in the postpartum period. Although private health care is more expensive than public health care, some women reported a preference for private birth attendants as they perceived them to provide safer and more supportive care in labour. Women expect, but do not always receive humane, professional, supportive and respectful treatment from public skilled birth attendants. While the removal of unexpected costs and geographical barriers are important to increasing public maternity care and service utilisation, improvements in maternity services should focus on addressing provider attitudes and enhancing communication skills during labour, birth and the immediate postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Un questionnement sociodidactique sur l'enseignement du français médical au Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Luanglad, Soulisack

    2014-01-01

    In the present times, the international cooperation is increasing, specially the cooperation franco-lao. The need of quality in human resource also asking for french skill. This research proposes an approach across sociolinguistics, socio-cultural and foreign language teaching to explore the french medical lesson, in the lao context. This work aims to understand global issues on the importance of the cultural aspect in Laos while relying on a case study located in Vientiane capital of Laos. T...

  18. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyda Chhinh; Andrew Millington

    2015-01-01

    Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 ...

  19. Family Stress and Cultural Adaptation: Home Economics Needs of Lao Hmong Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, William H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 24 Lao Hmong refugees in Nebraska examined need changes that occurred between 1980 and 1985 for certain areas. In 1985, Hmong reported fewer problems with housing, employment, nutrition, clothing, and family conflict and more problems with finances, homesickness, and concern for family in Laos. (Author/CH)

  20. Agrarian Land Use Transformation in Northern Laos: from Swidden to Rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2009-01-01

    Land use and farmers’ livelihoods in mountainous regions of northern Laos are rapidly moving away from subsistence to market based agricultural systems, changing farmers’ relationship with land and naturalresources. The current study examines patterns of land use change in northern Laos, especial...

  1. The Key Factors Affecting Grade 5 Achievement in Laos: Emerging Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Postlethwaite, Neville T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure to examine the key pupil- and school-level factors that influenced reading and mathematics achievement among Grade 5 primary school pupils in Laos. The data for this study were collected in 2007 as part of a major project (known as Laos Grade 5 Survey) that sought to examine the…

  2. Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…

  3. Pilot survey on dental health in 5-12-year-old school children in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, S.; Ngonephady, S.; van Wijk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The burden of dental caries in young Lao children is high. As a result, these children suffer from toothache, and school absenteeism is high. There is a need for the Lao Government to develop a strategy to prevent dental disease, such as caries. The aim of this study was to collect data on the

  4. Meelis Lao kuulutas eile sõja McDonald'sile / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Ärimees Meelis Lao lasi rendivaidlusele viidates sulgeda Viru tänava kiirtoitlustusasutuse McDonald's. Vt. samas: McDonald'si rendivaidlus küünib aastate taha; McDonald's andis asja politseisse; Meelis Lao kannab probleemide lahendaja tiitlit

  5. The Excess Funds Problem of the Savings Groups in Laos: Case Study of a Village in Vientiane Municipality ( Savings Groups in Laos from a Comparative Perspective)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    藤田, 幸一

    2015-01-01

    There is a tendency that the success of some of the village-level savings groups in Laos inevitably causes an excess funds problem, because the activity of a saving group is confined to a small village territory...

  6. Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.

  7. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. full text

  8. Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lon, C T; Tsuyuoka, R; Phanouvong, S; Nivanna, N; Socheat, D; Sokhan, C; Blum, N; Christophel, E M; Smine, A

    2006-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs can cause death and contribute to the growing malaria drug resistance problem, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since 2003 in Cambodia the quality of antimalarial drugs both in the public and private health sector is regularly monitored in sentinel sites. We surveyed 34% of all 498 known facilities and drug outlets in four provinces. We collected 451 drug samples; 79% of these were not registered at the Cambodia Department of Drugs and Food (DDF). Twenty-seven percent of the samples failed the thin layer chromatography and disintegration tests; all of them were unregistered products. Immediate action against counterfeit drugs was taken by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) and the DDF. They communicated with the Provincial Health Department about the presence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs through alert letters, a manual, annual malaria conferencing and other training occasions. Television campaigns to alert the population about counterfeit drugs were conducted. Moreover, the NMCP has been promoting the use of good quality antimalarial drugs of a blister co-packaged combination of artesunate and mefloquine in public and private sectors. Appropriate strategies need to be developed and implemented by relevant government agencies and stakeholders to strengthen drug quality assurance and control systems in the country.

  9. An epidemic of dengue-1 in a remote village in rural Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dubot-Pérès

    Full Text Available In the Lao PDR (Laos, urban dengue is an increasingly recognised public health problem. We describe a dengue-1 virus outbreak in a rural northwestern Lao forest village during the cool season of 2008. The isolated strain was genotypically "endemic" and not "sylvatic," belonging to the genotype 1, Asia 3 clade. Phylogenetic analyses of 37 other dengue-1 sequences from diverse areas of Laos between 2007 and 2010 showed that the geographic distribution of some strains remained focal overtime while others were dispersed throughout the country. Evidence that dengue viruses have broad circulation in the region, crossing country borders, was also obtained. Whether the outbreak arose from dengue importation from an urban centre into a dengue-naïve community or crossed into the village from a forest cycle is unknown. More epidemiological and entomological investigations are required to understand dengue epidemiology and the importance of rural and forest dengue dynamics in Laos.

  10. An epidemic of dengue-1 in a remote village in rural Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Denny, Justin; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Linthavong, Singharath; Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Khasing, Amphai; Xaythideth, Vimattha; Moore, Catrin E; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Sibounheuang, Bountoy; Taojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Chanthongthip, Anisone; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Newton, Paul N

    2013-01-01

    In the Lao PDR (Laos), urban dengue is an increasingly recognised public health problem. We describe a dengue-1 virus outbreak in a rural northwestern Lao forest village during the cool season of 2008. The isolated strain was genotypically "endemic" and not "sylvatic," belonging to the genotype 1, Asia 3 clade. Phylogenetic analyses of 37 other dengue-1 sequences from diverse areas of Laos between 2007 and 2010 showed that the geographic distribution of some strains remained focal overtime while others were dispersed throughout the country. Evidence that dengue viruses have broad circulation in the region, crossing country borders, was also obtained. Whether the outbreak arose from dengue importation from an urban centre into a dengue-naïve community or crossed into the village from a forest cycle is unknown. More epidemiological and entomological investigations are required to understand dengue epidemiology and the importance of rural and forest dengue dynamics in Laos.

  11. The Impact of Globalization Upon Pleng Luok-toong in Thailand and Pleng Luok-toong Banna in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapon Teerachat; Sangkom Pumipuntu; Chaloey Puminpuntu

    2013-01-01

    Pleng Luok-toong (Thai country music) and Pleng Luok-toong Banna (Lao country music) are the most appreciate form of music because they use simple lyrics, easy listening, straightforward and are unique in portraying the various aspects of society. The consequences of globalization have benefited both Pleng Luok-toong in Thailand and Pleng Luok-toong Banna in Laos. Individuals and music entrepreneurs are provided with a higher opportunity in their roles in the music industry. Entrepreneurs and...

  12. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  13. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency) and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; René, Jean Pascal; Phimmasane, Maniphet

    2015-03-01

    Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency) occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos. Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009). Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months) living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2%) were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%). In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8) died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths) was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6%) were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2%) reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4%) respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6%) had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8%) possible thiamine deficiency. Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity of

  14. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  15. All projects related to Cambodia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-27

    Start Date: September 27, 2013. End Date: December 31, 2015. Topic: HEALTH EXPENDITURE, SMOKING, TOBACCO, RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, TUBERCULOSIS, SOUTHEAST ASIA. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  16. An Impact Evaluation of Feed the Future Cambodia HARVEST project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Helping Address Rural Vulnerabilities and Ecosystem Stability (Cambodia-HARVEST) was a five-year program (2011-2016) supported under the Global Hunger and Food...

  17. Outdoor malaria transmission in forested villages of Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durnez, Lies; Mao, Sokny; Denis, Leen; Roelants, Patricia; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc

    2013-01-01

    ...), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. The present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in Cambodia...

  18. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Poverty in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Takamatsu, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The climate change is global problems. It is predicted to have more severe impact on developing country which most of population are poor. The main impact of climate change on poverty is changing crop productivity and commodity prices. However, there are few studies on the relationship between climate change and poverty. Therefore, this study will use Laos which has a high share of agriculture sector on GDP and high poverty rates as a case study to assess the impact the climate change on nati...

  20. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-08-05

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed.

  1. Gender Equality in the Labor Market in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for Cambodia. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration and treatment for women and men at work to support the development of de...

  2. Cambodia-China relations: a positive-sum game?

    OpenAIRE

    Pheakdey Heng

    2012-01-01

    China has re-emerged to become a dominant foreign player in Cambodia. Politically, Cambodia is one of China’s oldest and closest allies. Economically, China is Cambodia’s top foreign investor, a major donor, and an increasingly important trading partner. Culturally, Chinese values are deeply embedded in many aspects of Cambodian society. However, China’s dominance is surrounded by renewed controversies. While the government warmly welcomes Chinese ...

  3. A new species of Hemiphyllodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Botov, Andreas; Le, Minh Duc; Nophaseud, Liphone; Zug, George; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-07-02

    A new species of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus is described from Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Hemiphyllodactylus kiziriani sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by morphology, coloration, and a significant genetic divergence of greater than 20% (ND2 gene). The new species from Laos is characterized by the following features: SVL of adult males 35.1-40.1 mm, of adult females 36.3-40.8 mm; dorsal scale rows 18-27; ventral scale rows 11-15; chin scales bordering mental and first infralabial distinctly enlarged; digital lamellae formulae 3-4-4-4 (forefoot) and 4-4/5-4/5-4 (hindfoot); femoral pores 0-4, total precloacal pores 10-13 in males, 8-10 pitted precloacal scales in females; cloacal spurs present in both sexes; dorsal trunk pattern dark brown with two rows of irregular transverse bands; dark lateral head stripe distinct; upper zone of flank with a dark brown stripe; caecum and gonadal ducts unpigmented.

  4. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Günther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas. PMID:22153360

  5. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78). At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach.

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis genotypes in humans in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Guo, Li; Streit, Adrian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the genetic variability of the soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis, in humans. We sequenced portions of the small subunit rDNA (SSU), including the hyper variable regions (HVR) I and IV from S. stercoralis larvae derived from individuals living in a rural setting in Cambodia. We identified three polymorphic positions, including a previously reported one within the HVR I. HVR IV was invariable. Six different SSU alleles existed in our sample. Although different genotypes of S. stercoralis were found in the same individuals, no heterozygous larvae were found. This indicates that there is no or very little interbreeding between the different genotypes. Further studies are needed to examine if this is because sexual reproduction, which is facultative, is rare in our study area's S. stercoralis population or because what is considered to be S. stercoralis today is actually a complex of closely related species or subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Aerial Protection of Mekong River Convoys in Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, William A

    1971-01-01

    ...) shortages in the Khmer Republic (Cambodia) which had resulted from successful enemy attacks on commercial shipping vessels sailing the Mekong River inside Cambodia These attacks, combined with the closure of land Route 4 from the port city...

  8. Characteristics of youth sexual and reproductive health and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Jaime R; Mukaire, Pamela E; Mataya, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    .... Risky behaviors are a threat to the health of many young people in Cambodia. We studied a sample of 300 youths to describe sexual and reproductive health characteristics and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia...

  9. Recommendation of hybrid corn on mollisols of western upland areas in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, R; Sar, V.; Soueng, K.; Thy, B.; Boulakia, Stephane; Leng, V.; Huot, L.; Nhem, S; Pheav, S.; Manuel R. Reyes; Tivet, F.; Séguy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid of corn are widely grown since early 2000s by smallholders in the western areas of Cambodia. A large number of hybrids are available on the market. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  10. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Mahachai, Varocha

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010--March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes. Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively). H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.

  11. The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

    2014-05-01

    Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  13. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  14. Drug resistance in bacteria isolated from patients presenting with wounds at a non-profit Surgical Center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia from 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Boren; Oum, Chamroeun; Men, Putheavy; Vanny, Vanvathanak; Supaprom, Chonthida; Heang, Vireak; Rachmat, Agus; Prouty, Michael; Newell, Steven; Harrison, Dustin; Noor, Saqib; Gollogly, James; Tho, Ly; Kim, Yong June; Ford, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance amongst clinically significant bacteria is a public health issue of increasing significance worldwide, but it is relatively uncharacterized in Cambodia. In this study we performed standard bacterial cultures on samples from wounds at a Non-Governmental-Organization (NGO) Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Testing was performed to elucidate pathogenic bacteria causing wound infections and the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacterial isolates. All testing was performed at the Naval Medical Research Unit, No.2 (NAMRU-2) main laboratory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Between 2011-2013, a total of 251 specimens were collected from patients at the NGO hospital and analyzed for bacterial infection by standard bacterial cultures techniques. Specimens were all from wounds and anonymous. No specific clinical information accompanied the submitted specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, and phenotypic testing for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were performed and reported based on CLSI guidelines. Further genetic testing for CTX-M, TEM and SHV ESBLs was accomplished using PCR. One-hundred and seventy-six specimens were positive following bacterial culture (70 %). Staphlycoccus aureus was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Antibiotic drug resistance testing revealed that 52.5 % of Staphlycoccus aureus isolates were oxacillin resistant. For Escherichia coli isolates, 63.9 % were ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant and 96 % were ESBL producers. Resistance to meropenem and imipenem was observed in one of three Acinetobacter spp isolates. This study is the first of its kind detailing the antibiotic resistance profiles of pathogenic bacteria causing wound infections at a single surgical hospital in Cambodia. The reported findings of this study demonstrate significant antibiotic resistance in bacteria from injured patients and should serve to guide treatment modalities in Cambodia.

  15. Silent kidney disease and hypertension in Cambodia--a pilot study in Mercy Medical Center Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul Kin-shing

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing in most developed countries. In developing countries, however, there has been a lack of reliable data. To assess the frequency of unsuspected urine abnormality and hypertension in Cambodia. From April to December 2012, 1,013 new patient records of the Mercy Medical Center (MMC) in Cambodia were reviewed. 915 patients aged ≥ 18 years were included for analysis. Patients with history of hypertension (HT) were excluded for blood pressure (BP) analysis. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), chronic kidney disease (CKD), or with symptoms of renal disease were excluded for urinalysis study. 820 patients had no history of HT. Among this group, 73 (8.9%) had abnormal BP with 60 (7.3%) having BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg and 13 (1.6%) having isolated systolic HT (BP ≥ 140/ 5/high power field (HPF)), 156 (30.6%) having either significant proteinuria or hematuria; and 199 (39.0%) had urine white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 1+. Overall, 275 patients (53.9%) had 1 or more urinary abnormalities on urinalysis. Abnormal urinalysis (53.9%) and abnormal BP measurement (8.9%) were common findings among asymptomatic patients referred to the MMC. Unlike findings in other countries, no association of family history of DM, HT, or CKD and the risk of kidney disease or abnormal BP was found. A comprehensive community screening program for HT and kidney disease is urgently needed to prevent ESRD in Cambodia.

  16. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  17. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  18. A major trichinellosis outbreak suggesting a high endemicity of Trichinella infection in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Sayasone, Somphou; Odermatt, Peter; De Bruyne, Aymeric; Hongsakhone, Sitthivone; Newton, Paul N; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Martinez-Aussel, Bertrand; Strobel, Michel; Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Trichinellosis is an important and under-recognized food-borne zoonosis in Southeast Asia. After 30 years of no reports, a small outbreak was described in Central Lao PDR (Laos) in 2003. Here we report a large outbreak of at least 650 estimated patients in Udomxay (northern Laos) in June 2005. Trichinella ELISA assays on serum from 133 patients and Western blot assays on 16 patients were positive in 67.6% and 81.2%, respectively. No deaths were recorded. Consumption of uncooked or fermented pork at funeral and wedding ceremonies was the main source of infection. Larvae of Trichinella spiralis were found in 1 of 11 local pigs not involved in this outbreak. The results suggest that trichinellosis may be an under-recognized but important endemic disease in Laos and reinforces the need to urgently implement veterinary and educational programs.

  19. Laos ja tootmises piirid paika. Selge markeering tagab korra / Jaana Pikalev ; kommenteerinud OIiver Licht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    Inglismaa ekspertide hinnangul peaksid Eesti firmad oluliselt parandama tööohutust ning tootmishooneid ja töötingimusi. Lao- ja tootmispindu tuleks markeerida. Kalevi kommivabriku laokoordinaatori Siim Simsi hinnangul võiksid Eestis olla markeerimisstandardid

  20. Student motorcyclists' mobile phone use while driving in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Mayxay, Mayfong; Kimura, Akio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate mobile phone use while driving among student motorcyclists in Laos, we conducted a school-based questionnaire survey in central Vientiane in May 2014. Of the 883 high school students who reported to drive motorcycles at least once a week, 40% have ever used phones while driving motorcycles in both sexes. Those phone users had longer driving exposures than non-users, with about half engaging in phone use while driving at least 2 days a week and 70% engaging for 1 min or longer on an average day. They reported not just talking on the phone while driving but operating the phone such as dialling and text-messaging. In some instances, phone use was reportedly involved in their past crash experiences. To formulate a sound policy on this emerging distracting behaviour among motorcyclists, its contribution to the occurrence of overall crashes among motorcyclists should be investigated.

  1. Actinomycetoma in SE Asia: the first case from Laos and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanavong Sayaphet; Vongthongchit Sivay; Bounphamala Khamhou; Vongphakdy Phouvong; Gubler Jacques; Mayxay Mayfong; Phetsouvanh Rattanaphone; Elliott Ivo; Logan Julie; Hill Robert; Newton Paul N; Dance David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycetoma is a chronic, localized, slowly progressing infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues caused either by fungi (eumycetoma or implantation mycosis) or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is acquired by traumatic implantation, most commonly in the tropics and subtropics, especially in rural agricultural communities. Although well recognized elsewhere in Asia, it has not been reported from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos). Case presentat...

  2. Larval stages of medically important flukes (Trematoda) from Vientiane province, Laos. Part II. Cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, O; Nasincová, V; Scholz, T; Giboda, M

    1992-01-01

    The cercariae of five flukes, which are potential human parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini (family Opisthorchiidae), Haplorchis taichui (Heterophyidae), Schistosoma spindale (Schistosomatidae), Fasciolopsis buski, and Fasciola gigantica (Fasciolidae) were found in freshwater snails from Laos. The cercariae of the above species, recorded in Laos for the first time, are illustrated and their morphology is briefly described. The snail Helicorbis umbilicalis represents a new intermediate host of F. buski. The occurrence of medically important snails in the Vientiane province will also be discussed.

  3. Pseudoscorpions from Laos: Description of a new species and new records (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhizhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoscorpions collected from southern Laos, Champasak Province, are described. One new species of the family Chthoniidae Daday 1888 is identified and illustrated under the name of Tyrannochthonius etu sp. nov. Five species belonging to five family are reported from Laos for the first time: Apocheiridium pelagicum (Redikorzev, 1938, Lagynochthonius tonkinensis (Beier, 1951, Geogarypus longidigitatus (Rainbow, 1897, Nhatrangia dawydoffi Redikorzev, 1938, Indolpium funebrum (Redikorzev, 1938.

  4. Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommachanh, Phouvong; Naipospos, Tri Satya Putri; McKenzie, Joanna; Chanthavisouk, Chintana; Pathammavong, Som; Darnell, Daniel; Meeduangchanh, Phetlamphone; Rubrum, Adam M.; Souriya, Mahanakhone; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Webby, Richard J.; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (H5N1) of clades 2.3.4.1, 2.3.4.2, and 2.3.2.1 were introduced into Laos in 2009–2010. To investigate these viruses, we conducted active surveillance of poultry during March 2010. We detected viruses throughout Laos, including several interclade reassortants and 2 subgroups of clade 2.3.4, one of which caused an outbreak in May 2010. PMID:22710372

  5. Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at -80° in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType®HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) . Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and BMI≥ 25 kg/m2 were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMILao was significantly higher than those of non- lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.

  6. Analyses of seismic activities and hazards in Laos: A seismicity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Pailoplee Punya Charusiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic activities and hazards in People’s Democratic Republic Laos were analyzed using the most up-to-date seismicity data. Both the a- and b-values of the frequency-magnitude distribution model, including the return period of earthquake magnitude in the range of 5.0 - 6.0 Mw, were evaluated spatially in a region that ex­tends 300 km from Laos. Six seismic source zones with different seismic activities were found. Based on these seismic source zones and a suitable attenuation model, seismic hazards were then analyzed in both deterministic and probabilistic scenarios. The deterministic map showed a possible maximum ground shaking up to 0.4 g in Northern Laos, whereas the ground shaking calculated from the probabilistic ap­proach was 90, 70 - 90, and 20 - 40%, respectively, and was higher in the northern part. From these seismic activities and hazard analyses, Laos can be clearly separated into the three hazard zones of north­western, northeastern and southern Laos with a high, medium and low earthquake hazard, respectively. Therefore, effective mitigation plans to reduce the impact of seismic hazards should be formulated and in particular for a number of major prov­inces located in the northern part of Laos.

  7. Morphological and molecular variation in Tylototriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Laos, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Aowphol, Anchalee; Stuart, Bryan L

    2015-08-24

    The salamandrid genus Tylototriton is poorly known in Laos, with one described species and unverified reports of two others. We undertook new fieldwork and obtained samples of Tylototriton at six localities across northern Laos during 2009-2013. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, principal component analyses of 13 mensural characters, and qualitative morphological comparisons with samples from across the geographic range of Tylototriton were performed. Samples from Laos fell into four molecular and morphological groups, consisting of T. notialis, T. panhai, T. anguliceps, and a fourth lineage that is hypothesized here to be an undescribed species. Tylototriton podichthys sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and in characteristics of the glandular skin on the head and body, shape of the rib nodules, and coloration of the body and limbs. This study expands the number of confirmed Tylototriton species in Laos from one to four, with the description of one species and extension of the ranges of T. panhai and T. anguliceps to Laos. An improved understanding of the geographic ranges of T. podichthys sp. nov. and T. anguliceps within Laos is needed.

  8. Cambodia: From Dependency to Sovereignty - Emerging National Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mcnamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the millennium leading up to its days of glory and regional leadership under the iconic Angkor empire, and even in the centuries of dependence since, Cambodia has often benefited significantly from the influence of its patrons, starting with traders from India who sailed up the Mekong at the beginning of a magnificent water transport system including an inland sea. Most recently such benefits have been from global and multilateral sources. Equally, due to its pivotal strategic location at the centre of the South-East corner of Asia, Cambodia has also suffered, at times enormously, from the competing influences of a plethora of well-intentioned but radically different influences: religious, cultural, linguistic, imperial, political, ideological and educational. This article will review the educational system of Cambodia and the issues that come with achieving political and now psychological freedom from dependence on foreign dominance and tutelage.

  9. European Commission programmes with Asia: the case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carlos Corral Fuentes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing the historical, political, and, above all, social context of Cambodia, in which this Southeast Asian country’s progress but also its great shortfalls are shown, the author enters fully into the previous history and current situation of relations between theEU and Cambodia. For this, he analyses the different existing economic, trade and cooperation agreements, to focus on the EU-Cambodia Programme (1993-2000 concerning technical and financial assistance, restoration, disaster victims, NGOs, refugees, democracy and human rights, as well as the environment, drugs and economic cooperation. The EU, along with Japan, is one of the main contributors to Cambodia’s process of restoration and reconstruction, although the overall size of the EU’s cooperation is still considerably lower than that provided by the bilateral cooperation of its member states.

  10. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  11. Cambodia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SEATCA) de coordonner un programme de recherche pour appuyer la mise en oeuvre (dans le cas du Cambodge) et la ratification (dans le cas du Laos) de la Convention-cadre pour la lutte antitabac (CCLAT) de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé.

  12. The role of cross-shore tidal dynamics in controlling intertidal sediment exchange in mangroves in Cù Lao Dung, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karin R.; Nardin, William; Mullarney, Julia C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Mangroves are halophytic plants common in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Their roots and pneumatophores strongly affect intertidal hydrodynamics and related sediment transport. Here, we investigate the role tree and root structures may play in altering tidal currents and the effect of these currents on the development of intertidal landscapes in mangrove-dominated environments. We use a one-dimensional Delft3D model, forced using typical intertidal slopes and vegetation characteristics from two sites with contrasting slope on Cù Lao Dung within the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, to examine the vegetation controls on tidal currents and suspended sediment transport as the tides propagate into the forest. Model results show that vegetation characteristics at the seaward fringe determine the shape of the cross-shore bottom profile, with sparse vegetation leading to profiles that are close to linear, whereas with dense vegetation resulting in a convex intertidal topography. Examples showing different profile developments are provided from a variety of published studies, ranging from linear profiles in sandier sites, and distinctive convex profiles in muddier sites. As expected, profile differences in the model are caused by increased dissipation due to enhanced drag caused by vegetation; however, the reduction of flow shoreward in sparsely vegetated or non-vegetated cases was similar, indicating that shallowing of the profile and slope effects play a dominant role in dissipation. Here, tidal velocities are measured in the field using transects of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, and confirm that cross-shore tidal currents diminish quickly as they move over the fringe of the forest; they then stay fairly consistent within the outer few 100 m of the forest, indicating that the fringing environment is likely a region of deposition. An understanding of how vegetation controls the development of topography is critical to predicting the resilience of these sensitive

  13. The Hmong Come to Southern Laos: Local Responses and the Creation of Racialized Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history of Hmong migrations from the north to south. Most recently, Hmong have begun emerging in the southern-most parts of Laos, including Champasak and Attapeu Provinces, places where they never lived before, and some Hmong have tried to move south from Bolikhamxay to Khammouane Province. Southern Laos would appear to represent a new southern ‗frontier‘ for the Hmong. This article looks at the interactions between the Hmong who have attempted to migrate into southern Laos and the Lao and Mon-Khmer language-speaking peoples they have encountered. Some Hmong movements into southern Laos have been accepted, while others have not. Crucially, negative racialized stereotypes about the Hmong being aligned with anti-government resistance groups, and being inherently destructive of the environment—as unfair as they may be— have influenced the prejudiced responses in southern Laos to the arrival of the Hmong. Others simply see the Hmong as being difficult to get along with and administer (still another unfair stereotype. The cultural practices and habits of some Hmong arrivals have confused and upset some Mon Khmer language-speaking peoples in southern Laos. The movement of the Hmong from the north to the south, and the reactions of others to them, are important for understanding the ways Hmong are geographically positioning themselves, and how others are attempting to construct spaces and associated boundaries designed to restrict them. Thus, the focus of this article is on the reactions of others to the Hmong, and the way particular racialized boundaries have been developed.

  14. Nutritional status and functional capacity of community-dwelling elderly in Southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambooze, Joweria; Fujimura, Miho; Inaoka, Tsukasa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and functional capacity of 144 community-dwelling elderly in three rural ethnic groups, namely, the Oy, the Brau and the Lao, of southern Laos. The Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire and Determine Your Nutritional Health checklist were used to assess nutritional status. The Barthel Activities of Daily Living questionnaire and Lawton and Brody's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire were used to assess the functional capacity of the respondents. The MNA score results indicated that 92.5 % of Oy respondents, 85.4 % of Brau respondents and 60 % of Lao respondents were malnourished. Analysis of variance tests showed that the MNA scores of the Oy and Lao ethnic groups and of the Brau and Lao ethnic groups were significantly different ( both p  0.05). In terms of functional capacity, 47.2 % of Oy respondents, 43.9 % of Brau respondents and 20 % of Lao respondents had limitations in their activities of daily living, whereas 98.1 % of Oy respondents, 97.6 % of Brau respondents and 86 % of Lao respondents had limitations in their instrumental activities of daily living. Body mass index, reduced appetite, number of meals consumed daily and presence of common diseases predicted nutritional status in all three ethnic groups; the remaining factors differed by ethnicity. This result implies that ethnic differences and other factors, such as location of the village, services, resources within the village and respondents' lifestyles, can affect nutritional status. Because predictors of nutritional status varied by ethnicity, there is a need for area-specific interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of the elderly in these areas.

  15. Randomized Soil Survey of the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Rice Fields in Laos ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Langla, Sayan; Amornchai, Premjit; Sirisouk, Joy; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    Melioidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, where the causative organism (Burkholderia pseudomallei) is present in the soil. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), B. pseudomallei is a significant cause of sepsis around the capital, Vientiane, and has been isolated in soil near the city, adjacent to the Mekong River. We explored whether B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soil distant from the Mekong River, drawing three axes across northwest, northeast, and southern Laos to create nine sampling areas in six provinces. Within each sampling area, a random rice field site containing a grid of 100 sampling points each 5 m apart was selected. Soil was obtained from a depth of 30 cm and cultured for B. pseudomallei. Four of nine sites (44%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all three sites in Saravane Province, southern Laos. The highest isolation frequency was in east Saravane, where 94% of soil samples were B. pseudomallei positive with a geometric mean concentration of 464 CFU/g soil (95% confidence interval, 372 to 579 CFU/g soil; range, 25 to 10,850 CFU/g soil). At one site in northwest Laos (Luangnamtha), only one sample (1%) was positive for B. pseudomallei, at a concentration of 80 CFU/g soil. Therefore, B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soils beyond the immediate vicinity of the Mekong River, alerting physicians to the likelihood of melioidosis in these areas. Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity. PMID:21075883

  16. Biomass energy in Cambodia, ecological catastrophe or major factor in the sustainable development of rural areas?; La biomasse-energie au Cambodge, catastrophe ecologique ou composante majeure du developpement durable de son milieu rural?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozis, J.F. [Groupe Energies Renouvelables et Environnement (Cambodia). Programme sur la strategie nationale en matiere de biomasse-energie

    2007-04-15

    In Cambodia, 4.5 million tons of biomass are consumed every year to meet the country's thermal needs. Ninety per cent of households in Cambodia use wood and its derivatives for cooking. In the absence of proper forest management, the country's energy needs have been largely responsible for the deforestation of an estimated 1,427,000 hectares in the past 20 years. The most serious problem affecting the environment has been the production of illegal coal for domestic cooking. Since 1997, the European Commission-sponsored project known as Bois-Energie au Cambodge, has worked to validate a series of new approaches and equipment to lower wood consumption. Since wood consumption was highest for domestic cooking it was imperative that a new cooking system be designed and chosen for energy conservation. This paper described the New Lao Stove which provided a 25 per cent savings in wood coal compared to traditional cooking systems. The new system is more expensive but costs are recuperated after two or three months of use. The lifespan of the stove has been improved to two years instead of one year. The 35 per cent energy gain over traditional cooking systems can be attributed to the production of pyroligneous acid which provides better efficiency for the same amount of wood mass and a higher calorific value than coal. This product has a large capacity for utilization, but is presently under used on a national and international scale. It was concluded that biomass energy can provide an opportunity for long-term development for Cambodia with pragmatic approaches that combine social and economic reality. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Diphtheria in Lao PDR: Insufficient Coverage or Ineffective Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthavong, Naphavanh; Black, Antony P; Nouanthong, Phonethipsavanh; Souvannaso, Chanthasone; Vilivong, Keooudomphone; Muller, Claude P; Goossens, Sylvie; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    During late 2012 and early 2013 several outbreaks of diphtheria were notified in the North of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The aim of this study was to determine whether the re-emergence of this vaccine-preventable disease was due to insufficient vaccination coverage or reduction of vaccine effectiveness within the affected regions. A serosurvey was conducted in the Huaphan Province on a cluster sampling of 132 children aged 12-59 months. Serum samples, socio-demographic data, nutritional status and vaccination history were collected when available. Anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus IgG antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Overall, 63.6% of participants had detectable diphtheria antibodies and 71.2% tetanus antibodies. Factors independently associated with non-vaccination against diphtheria were the distance from the health centre (OR: 6.35 [95% CI: 1.4-28.8], p = 0.01), the Lao Theung ethnicity (OR: 12.2 [95% CI:1,74-85, 4], p = 0.01) and the lack of advice on vaccination given at birth (OR: 9.8 [95% CI: 1.5-63.8], (p = 0.01) while the level of maternal edu-cation was a protective factor (OR: 0.08 [95% CI: 0.008-0.81], p = 0.03). Most respondents claimed financial difficulties as the main reason for non-vaccination. Out of 55 children whose vaccination certificates stated that they were given all 3 doses of diphtheria-containing vaccine, 83.6% had diphtheria antibodies and 92.7% had tetanus antibodies. Furthermore, despite a high prevalence of stunted and underweight children (53% and 25.8%, respectively), the low levels of anti-diphtheria antibodies were not correlated to the nutritional status. Our data highlight a significant deficit in both the vaccination coverage and diphtheria vaccine effectiveness within the Huaphan Province. Technical deficiencies in the methods of storage and distribution of vaccines as well as unreliability of vaccination cards are discussed. Several hypotheses are advanced to explain such a decline in immunity against

  18. Toxicity assessment for the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngy, Laymithuna; Yu, Chun-Fai; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we assessed the toxicity of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia within two successive months during rainy (April-May) and dry (December-January) seasons, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the collected specimens by standard mouse bioassay showed marked individual variation, and their toxin profiles by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) revealed tetrodotoxin (TTX) was the main toxin while no paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were detected. All specimens were toxic and the highest toxicity values were 315, 113, 60, 47, 44 and 38 mouse units (MU)/g in the tissues of hepatic caecum, egg, viscera, muscle, intestine and testis, respectively. Although the current findings showed that the Cambodian C. rotundicauda was a moderately toxic species, they are not suitable for human consumption due to their toxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific study on toxic marine seafood ever investigated in Cambodian territorial waters.

  19. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Chaorattanakawee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Methods Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai–Cambodian and Thai–Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2 assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. Results IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai–Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA, though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Conclusions Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in

  20. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Jongsakul, Krisada; Gawee, Jariyanart; Sok, Somethy; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Thamnurak, Chatchadaporn; Chann, Soklyda; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Praditpol, Chantida; Buathong, Nillawan; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Smith, Philip; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Huy, Rekol; Prom, Satharath; Fukuda, Mark M; Bethell, Delia; Walsh, Douglas S; Lanteri, Charlotte; Saunders, David

    2016-10-21

    The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV) histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2) assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai-Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA), though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in this region, and urgently requires alternative therapy. The temporary re

  1. Women and the Justice System in Cambodia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Although laws have been promulgated to protect the rights of women, enforcement remains a concern. This project hypothesizes that weak governance and lack of transparency in the legal system ...

  2. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  3. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  4. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  5. cambodia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Emplois aux frontières ...

  6. Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy development for digital inclusion of poor rural areas. This project will support collaboration ...

  7. Stakeholder Involvement in the Higher Education Sector in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Chanphirun; Dahles, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how stakeholders involve themselves in the higher education (HE) sector in donor-dependent Cambodia and to what extent and with what result these stakeholders succeed to collaborate, or fail to do so. This study is based on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 46 key research participants from relevant…

  8. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juil. 2014 ... In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Since 1998, Helen Keller International (HKI) has supported women in homestead-level production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods. In 2012, rearing ...

  9. All projects related to cambodia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-09

    Region: Cambodia, Canada, United States. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 4,500,000.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Project. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments in the Mekong Region of Southeast Asia. Start Date: January 9, 2013.

  10. Health Care Costs Attributable to Tobacco in Cambodia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In developing countries like Cambodia, it is often assumed that the cost of tobacco-related disease to national economies and households is low, despite a high number of male smokers. There are a number of reasons for this. Reporting of tobacco-related disease is low. Treatment for anything other than infectious disease ...

  11. Securing land rights defuses conflicts in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... The hill people in Cambodia's Ratanakiri province set a powerful precedent that has served as a model for the country's land tenure laws. With IDRC support, they protected their livelihoods — under threat from logging and land-clearing — by establishing legal rights to their land and its resources.

  12. Women and the Justice System in Cambodia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. ... nongovernmental organization staff, traditional leaders, women defendants, women victims of crime, rural women and men - on women's access to justice. ... Legal Support for Children and Women.

  13. A first report of pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overtoom, Rob; Khieu, Virak; Hem, Sopheak; Cavailler, Philippe; Te, Vantha; Chan, Sarin; Lau, Phea; Guillard, Bertrand; Vong, Sirenda

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis has never been officially reported from Cambodia. Here we report two cases, a 58-year-old male (case 1) and a 49-year-old female (case 2) who presented with respiratory illnesses featuring multiple lung abscesses. The sputum culture of both patients, taken in the framework of a laboratory-based study on aetiologies of (sub-)acute respiratory infections among hospitalized patients in southern Cambodia, grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. The most striking aspect of these case stories was the extent of the delays in diagnosis. Presenting with a 1-month history of respiratory symptoms, case 1 was first suspected of tuberculosis (TB) infection, and then misdiagnosed as 'metastatic lung cancer' in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Case 2 suffered from pulmonary infections for >10 years, during which time she was treated for TB four times. Neither patient ever produced acid-fast-bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum. Following our laboratory confirmation, the patients were traced for re-admission. Under the 'classical' trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and doxycycline treatment, their clinical status improved considerably within 2 weeks. The two study cases illustrate issues relating to the misdiagnosis of melioidosis in Cambodia; an unfamiliarity of clinicians with the disease, which is associated with a high prevalence of TB. Therefore, a heightened awareness of melioidosis among clinicians would have a substantial impact on public health as the non-septicaemic form of the disease is potentially treatable with antibiotics that are available in Cambodian public hospitals.

  14. Funding mobilization strategies of nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khieng, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to map strategies for resource mobilization of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in different sectors in heavily aid-dependent Cambodia and analyse the past and future trends of each of the evolving strategies. The data used is the product of a national survey

  15. The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neau, Vira

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

  16. Nutrition from aquaculture and home gardens in Cambodia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Cambodia produces enough rice to feed its population but maternal and child under-nutrition remains high because of a lack of crop diversity beyond rice, and a lack of nutrient- rich food. This over reliance on rice has resulted in a diet that is about 76% carbohydrate, only 10% protein, and only 14% fat.

  17. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Since 1998, Helen Keller International (HKI) has supported women in homestead-level production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods. In 2012, rearing ...

  18. All projects related to Cambodia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment factories in Southeast Asia. Project. In Asia, garment factories play a dominant role in the employment opportunities for women, yet these factories have some of the harshest working conditions in the region. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam.

  19. Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. While there have been a number of studies of the effect of the crisis on Cambodia, there have been few on the coping strategies of the poor at the household level. This project seeks to ...

  20. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-04

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51-46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ~63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic-modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ~50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.

  1. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannamahaxay, Soulasack; Vongkhamchanh, Souliya; Intanon, Montira; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2017-05-01

    The global emergence of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) has been well documented. In the present study, 139 rectal swab samples collected from diarrheic dogs living in Vientiane, Laos, in 2016 were tested for the presence of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene by PCR. The results showed that 82.73% (115/139) of dogs were CPV positive by PCR. The partial VP2 gene was sequenced in 94 of the positive samples; 91 samples belonged to CPV-2c (426Glu) subtype, while 3 samples belonged to the CPV-2a (426Asn) subtype. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences revealed a close relationship between Laotian isolates and novel Chinese CPV-2c isolates. In Laotian CPV isolates, aligned protein sequences indicated a high rate of residue substitutions at positions 305, 324, 345, 370, 375, and 426 in the GH loop. The mutation at residue 370 (Q370R), a single mutation, was characterized as a unique mutant residue specific to the Laotian CPV-2c variant.

  2. Clinically unapparent infantile thiamin deficiency in Vientiane, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengmanivong Khounnorath

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Beriberi occurs in Vientiane, Lao PDR, among breastfed infants. Clinical disease may be the tip of an iceberg with subclinical thiamin deficiency contributing to other illnesses. Thiamin treatment could improve outcome.A cohort of 778 sick infants admitted during one year without clinical evidence of beriberi were studied prospectively and erythrocyte transketolase assays (ETK performed. Biochemical thiamin deficiency was defined both in terms of the activation coefficient (α>31% and basal ETK activity 31% and 13.4 % basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb. Infants≥2 months old had a higher frequency of biochemical markers of thiamin deficiency. Mortality was 5.5% but, among infants ≥2 months old, mortality was higher in those with basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (3/47, 6.4% than in those with basal ETK≥0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (1/146, 0.7% (P=0.045, relative risk=9.32 (95%CI 0.99 to 87.5. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that infant age≥2 months and fewer maternal years of schooling were independently associated with infant basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb.Clinically unapparent thiamin deficiency is common among sick infants (≥2 months old admitted to hospital in Vientiane. This may contribute to mortality and a low clinical threshold for providing thiamin to sick infants may be needed.

  3. Human Trichostrongylus colubriformis Infection in a Rural Village in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Phanhanan, Vilayphone; Boupha, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-01-01

    In Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Laos, 125 of 253 villagers (49.4%) were found by fecal examination to harbor hookworm eggs. The eggs were heterogeneous in morphology and size, suggesting infections of mixed nematode species. To confirm the hookworm egg species, on a voluntary basis, 46 hookworm egg–positive participants were treated with albendazole, and post-treatment adult worms were collected from purged fecal samples. The common human hookworm was found in only 3 participants; 1 case of Necator americanus, and 2 cases of Ancylostoma duodenale. In contrast, adult Trichostrongylus worms were expelled from most participants (43 of 46, 93.5%). The Trichostrongylus species were confirmed by morphology and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences; all worms were of the same species (T. colubriformis). In addition, some Trichostrongylus worms were obtained from a goat in the same village and identified as T. colubriformis. The results suggested that T. colubriformis was the main zoonotic species causing hookworm infections in the village. PMID:21212201

  4. Serologic Study of Pig-Associated Viral Zoonoses in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lunt, Ross A.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a serologic survey of four high-priority pig-associated viral zoonoses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), Nipah virus (NiV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), in Laos. We collected blood from pigs at slaughter during May 2008–January 2009 in four northern provinces. Japanese encephalitis virus hemagglutination inhibition seroprevalence was 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.5–77.9%), JEV IgM seroprevalence was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.2–3.2%), and HEV seroprevalence was 21.1% (95% CI = 18.1–24.0%). Antibodies to SIV were detected in 1.8% (95% CI = 0.8–2.8%) of pigs by screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and only subtype H3N2 was detected by hemagglutination inhibition in two animals with an inconclusive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. No NiV antibody–positive pigs were detected. Our evidence indicates that peak JEV and HEV transmission coincides with the start of the monsoonal wet season and poses the greatest risk for human infection. PMID:22665622

  5. Forest reference emission level and carbon sequestration in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Paris Agreement suggests the urgent need for developing countries to establish a forest reference emission level (FREL if they wish to seek financial support to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Analysis of past trends of deforestation is important for establishing a FREL, but so far only a handful of studies exist on such analysis at the commune level. We used the available data of forest cover in 2002 and 2006 and forest inventory data to analyze forest cover and carbon stock changes according to seven forest types at commune level in Cambodia. Carbon stocks were estimated in four carbon pools, namely aboveground, belowground, litter and deadwood pools. This analysis formed the basis for determining the FREL at national and provincial levels in Cambodia. We found that carbon emissions due to deforestation were 82.2 TgCO2 yr−1, but carbon sinks (removals due to increase of forest cover were 72.3 TgCO2 yr−1, representing the net emission loss of 9.9 TgCO2 yr−1 between 2002 and 2006. Taking the trend of deforestation between 2002 and 2006 as a baseline, FREL for a 30-year timeframe was estimated for six time intervals. FRELs at national level were estimated to be 26.8 to 69.2 TgCO2 yr−1 or up to 36% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Cambodia. Our study provides a first look at how to set subnational and national FRELs for Cambodia using a retrospective approach. Such a framework could form a useful basis for Cambodia to adopt the national and subnational FRELs, for which effective policies can be developed to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.

  6. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  7. A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key

  8. The bark louse family Stenopsocidae (Psocodea: Psocomorpha) newly recorded from Laos, with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feiyang

    2017-03-16

    The order Psocodea is poorly known from Laos. Here three new species of Stenopsocidae were described, i.e., Malostenopsocus lacteus sp. nov., Stenopsocus abnomis sp. nov., and Stenopsocus wangi sp. nov. Stenopsocus externus Banks, 1937 is also newly recorded from Laos.

  9. Rice Fermentation Starters in Cambodia: Cultural Importance and Traditional Methods of Production

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sota; Matsumoto, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes of producing fermentation starters in Cambodia, in order to explore the dispersal routes of starters in Southeast Asia. Spices, herbs, and a sweet ingredient are widely used to make starters in Cambodia, and many people put new starters on rice husks or straw. These widely distributed techniques may have originated in one place and later dispersed throughout Southeast Asia. Two different production processes are used in Cambodia: one based on a “rice wine c...

  10. Morphological and molecular review of the Gekko diversity of Laos with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-07-17

    A review of the taxonomy, phylogeny, zoogeography, and ecology of the genus Gekko in Laos is provided based on morphological and molecular datasets. Three new species, which are both morphologically distinctive and molecularly divergent from described congeners, are described from Khammouane Province, central Laos: two members of the G. japonicus group, Gekko bonkowskii sp. nov. and Gekko sengchanthavongi sp. nov., and another member of the G. petricolus group, Gekko boehmei sp. nov. Gekko bonkowskii sp. nov. is closely related to the recently described G. thakekensis, which also occurs in Khammouane Province. Gekko sengchanthavongi sp. nov. is supported as a sister taxon to G. scientiadventura and Gekko boehmei sp. nov. is recovered as a sister species to G. petricolus. In addition, a key to the currently recognized members of the genus Gekko from Laos is provided.

  11. Causes of non-malarial fever in Laos: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Paris, Daniel H; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Douangdala, Phouvieng; Inthalath, Saythong; Souvannasing, Phoutthalavanh; Slesak, Günther; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Panyanouvong, Phonepasith; Sibounheuang, Bountoy; Phommasone, Koukeo; Dohnt, Michael; Phonekeo, Darouny; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Xayadeth, Sinakhone; Ketmayoon, Pakapak; Blacksell, Stuart D; Moore, Catrin E; Craig, Scott B; Burns, Mary-Anne; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Corwin, Andrew; de Lamballerie, Xavier; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva Maria; Cawthorne, Amy; Bell, David; Newton, Paul N

    2013-07-01

    Because of reductions in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Laos, identification of the causes of fever in people without malaria, and discussion of the best empirical treatment options, are urgently needed. We aimed to identify the causes of non-malarial acute fever in patients in rural Laos. For this prospective study, we recruited 1938 febrile patients, between May, 2008, and December, 2010, at Luang Namtha provincial hospital in northwest Laos (n=1390), and between September, 2008, and December, 2010, at Salavan provincial hospital in southern Laos (n=548). Eligible participants were aged 5-49 years with fever (≥38°C) lasting 8 days or less and were eligible for malaria testing by national guidelines. With conservative definitions of cause, we assigned 799 (41%) patients a diagnosis. With exclusion of influenza, the top five diagnoses when only one aetiological agent per patient was identified were dengue (156 [8%] of 1927 patients), scrub typhus (122 [7%] of 1871), Japanese encephalitis virus (112 [6%] of 1924), leptospirosis (109 [6%] of 1934), and bacteraemia (43 [2%] of 1938). 115 (32%) of 358 patients at Luang Namtha hospital tested influenza PCR-positive between June and December, 2010, of which influenza B was the most frequently detected strain (n=121 [87%]). Disease frequency differed significantly between the two sites: Japanese encephalitis virus infection (p=0·04), typhoid (p=0·006), and leptospirosis (p=0·001) were more common at Luang Namtha, whereas dengue and malaria were more common at Salavan (all pLaos. Empirical treatment with doxycycline for patients with undifferentiated fever and negative rapid diagnostic tests for malaria and dengue could be an appropriate strategy for rural health workers in Laos. Wellcome Trust, WHO-Western Pacific Region, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  12. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza viruses circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srey Viseth Horm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009-2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the

  13. Outcome of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate operated at Mahosoth, Mitthaphab and Setthathirath Hospitals in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthavong, Nalin; Pradabwong, Suteera; Luvira, Varisara; Khansoulivong, Kuetmy; Chowcheun, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate or both are the most common orofacial congenital malformations found among live births. The causes of which are not clear but have a trend that includes 2 etiological factors, genetic and environmental. The incidence rate of cleft lip and palate is similar in every country worldwide and it stands at approximately 1-2/1,000 newborn. For instance, it is 1.09/1,000 in India, South Korea and Thailand. Estimate, in Lao PDR could be 0.02/1,000 newborn. Cleft lip and cleft palate and craniofacial anomalies are congenital defects with numerous sequels in dental, speech, hearing, body-image and psychosocial realms. Cleft lip and palate operation is still limited in many parts of Lao PDR. To study the outcome of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate, particularly the nasolabial appearance and quality of life, who were operated in Lao People 's Democratic Republic. The present study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics for Human Research, Khon Kaen University in Thailand and National Ethics Committee for Health Research in Lao PDR. This was a cross-sectional study of 50 persons who were chosen as samples and were divided into two age groups, group A, which included subjects between 5 and 15 years of age (31 persons) and group B composed of those above 15 years (19 persons). Data collection was done by means of a questionnaire and the latter was divided into three main headings: demographic characteristics, quality of life and nasolabial appearance. The list of patients with cleft lip and palate was obtained from the 3 Hospitals in Vientiane, the capital, and then entered directly as samples. Demographic data and quality of life were analyzed by means of percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation with the help of SPSS for Window. Similarly, inter-rater reliability using kappa statistics was done for the evaluation of nasolabial appearance. The inter-rater reliability for Nasolabial appearance was 0.2044 or 20.44% (p-value appearance

  14. Diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Carolyn; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Macneil, Adam; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soulaphy, Chanthavy; Souliphone, Phouthone; Reyburn, Rita; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Watkins, Margaret; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-05

    Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease. When vaccination coverage and population immunity are low, outbreaks can occur. We investigated a diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic that occurred during 2012-2013 and highlighted challenges in immunization services delivery to children in the country. We reviewed diphtheria surveillance data from April 1, 2012-May 31, 2013. A diphtheria case was defined as a respiratory illness consisting of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, or laryngitis, and an adherent tonsillar or nasopharyngeal pseudomembrane. To identify potential risk factors for diphtheria, we conducted a retrospective case-control study with two aged-matched neighborhood controls per case-patient in Houaphan Province, using bivariate analysis to calculate matched odds ratio (mOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Reasons for non-vaccination among unvaccinated persons were assessed. Sixty-two clinical cases of diphtheria and 12 diphtheria-related deaths were reported in seven of 17 provinces. Among case-patients, 43 (69%) were diphtheria case-patients from Houaphan province and 79 matched-controls were enrolled. Five (12%) case-patients and 20 (25%) controls had received DTP3 (mOR=0.4, CI=0.1-1.7). No diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was received by 20 (48%) case-patients and 38 (46%) controls. Among case-patients and controls with no DTP dose, 43% of case-patients and 40% of controls lacked access to routine immunization services. Suboptimal DTP3 coverage likely caused the outbreak. To prevent continued outbreaks, access to routine immunization services should be strengthened, outreach visits need to be increased, and missed opportunities need to be minimized. In the short term, to rapidly increase population immunity, three rounds of DTP immunization campaign should be completed, targeting children aged 0-14years in affected provinces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stakeholders' opinions about a tobacco policy in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkhavong Kongsap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global epidemic of tobacco smoking is expected to impact hardest in low- and middle- income countries (LMIC. There is a lack of understanding regarding the policy environments within which tobacco control policies are being introduced particularly in LMIC. This study aims at exploring key stakeholders' beliefs about a tobacco policy in Lao PDR. This is a qualitative case study with a standardised open-ended questionnaire answered by eleven stakeholders in leading positions within different ministries and the media, donors and NGOs. Themes included the perception of tobacco among professionals, awareness of tobacco as a public health issue, importance of inter-sectoral cooperation, and obstacles faced in implementing policies. The research team included both outsiders and an insider. Analysis was done using the case and cross-case analysis. Among the respondents there was consensus regarding the positive impact of a national tobacco policy with the exception of the representative from the Ministry of Agriculture. Stakeholders identified education, awareness creation through media and law enforcement as important interventions, followed by taxation. Education should be diversified in the way it should be delivered. It was emphasized that people in rural areas and minority groups need tailored made approaches. A major limiting factor in moving tobacco control forward in LMIC was stated to be the lack of funding. The refusal by tobacco industry to participate in the study is noteworthy. It is essential to draft a national tobacco policy that can help the government to increase taxes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco laws and regulations.

  16. Practices and gendered impacts of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS): Adoption among smallholders in the Philippines and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    M.E.C. Javier; Tangcalagan, K.C.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents gendered impacts of the adoption of CAPS in the project sites in Cambodia and the Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  17. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO system at 1773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Phase relationships in the LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs’ phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH)3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs’ phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram. PMID:27877506

  18. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO system at 1773 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships in the LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs' phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs' phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram.

  19. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5-SiO2-MgO system at 1773 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Phase relationships in the LaO 1.5 -SiO 2 -MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs' phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO 1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH) 3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs' phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram.

  20. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: Novel insights on species distribution and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doung Socheat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. Methods A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Results Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10–33% of malaria cases, and 23–33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. Conclusion These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the

  1. Malaria and the mobile and migrant population in Cambodia: a population movement framework to inform strategies for malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, Philippe; Canavati, Sara E; Chea, Nguon; Ly, Po; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Yeung, Shunmay

    2015-06-20

    The relationships between human population movement (HPM) and health are a concern at global level. In the case of malaria, those links are crucial in relation to the spread of drug resistant parasites and to the elimination of malaria in the Greater Mekong sub-Region (GMS) and beyond. The mobile and migrant populations (MMP) who are involved in forest related activities are both at high risk of being infected with malaria and at risk of receiving late and sub-standard treatment due to poor access to health services. In Cambodia, in 2012, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) identified, as a key objective, the development of a specific strategy for MMPs in order to address these challenges. A population movement framework (PMF) for malaria was developed and operationalized in order to contribute to this strategy. A review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Based on a synthesis of the results, information was presented and discussed with experienced researchers and programme managers in the Cambodian NMCP and led to the development and refinement of a PMF for malaria. The framework was "tested" for face and content validity with national experts through a workshop approach. In the literature, HPM has been described using various spatial and temporal dimensions both in the context of the spread of anti-malarial drug resistance, and in the context of malaria elimination and previous classifications have categorized MMPs in Cambodia and the GMS through using a number of different criteria. Building on these previous models, the PMF was developed and then refined and populated with in-depth information relevant to Cambodia collected from social science research and field experiences in Cambodia. The framework comprises of the PMF itself, MMP activity profiles and a Malaria Risk Index which is a summation of three related indices: a vulnerability index, an exposure index and an access index which allow a qualitative ranking of malaria

  2. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-10-06

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n.

  3. Microgomphus alani (Odonata, Gomphidae) sp. nov. from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2016-05-24

    Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand.

  4. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    , determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles......This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios...

  5. Emergence of pediatric melioidosis in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnarith, Yos; Kumar, Varun; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Sin, Lina; Day, Nicholas P; Peacock, Sharon J

    2010-06-01

    We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.

  6. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  7. Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weigong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.

  8. Options for enforcing labor standards: Lessons from Bangladesh and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Günseli; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana

    2008-01-01

    This study examines labor standards enforcement and compliance in two Asian economies (Bangladesh and Cambodia) that have amongst the lowest labor costs in the world but are experiencing strong pressures to improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, focus group, and inspection data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While extremely low wages and poor working conditions have persisted in Bangladesh, complia...

  9. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections at a Provincial Reference Hospital, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >= 12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease ...

  10. Typhoid fever among hospitalized febrile children in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study.

  11. Conservation Agriculture for Food Security in Cambodia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Boulakia, B.; Hok, L.; Phally, K.; Manuel R. Reyes; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Ella, Victor B.; Edralin, Don Immanuel

    2012-01-01

    Degraded landscapes are expanding annually in Southeast Asia. Rural poverty in upland communities increases pressure on natural resources like forest, soil and water . These are the last “capital” for the poor and they are rapidly diminishing due to non-sustainable management. Such practices reduce agricultural productivity, which in turn heightens food insecurity and exacerbates poverty. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  12. Survey on Pacific area energy policies by information collection. Laos and Myanmar; Taiheiyo energy seisaku joho nado genchi shushu chosa. Laos, Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For planning the Pacific area energy policy of Japan, the field survey on energy situations was carried out in Laos and Myanmar. Since Laos is rich in hydraulic resources, the future electric power development is expected. Development of oil and coal resources is yet in a planning stage. Electricite du Laos (EdL) is in charge of electricity business, and its power generation capacity amounts to 220MW (including hydroelectric one of 93%), and a half of it is exported. Based on the predicted growth rate of 9%/y for domestic power demand, development of the capacity to 440MW by fiscal 2002 is scheduled. Myanmar has natural gas and various mineral resources, and is rich in hydroelectric resources. Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE) is in charge of electricity business. The power generation capacity amounts to 1.34GW (including private one of 26%). The power generation facility is composed of gas turbine one of 53% and hydroelectric one of 33%. Based on the predicted growth rate of 11.5%/y for domestic power demand, development of the capacity to 1.6GW by 2001 is scheduled. For the present, conversion of previous gas-firing power plants to efficient combined cycle ones is a main issue. 21 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  14. Breastfeeding in Cambodia: mother knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Hilary; Chambers, Lori

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a knowledge, attitudes and practices study of breastfeeding in the province of Krong Kep, Cambodia. Mothers' breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered in Khmer to women with at least one child less than 60 months of age. Women meeting the eligibility requirements (N = 141) answered questions regarding their infant feeding practices, including initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In Cambodia, the decision to breastfeed is rooted in a history of poverty. Twenty-five percent of women sampled initiated breastfeeding within the first hour post-delivery. In total, 82% of women initiated breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, and 53% of women breastfed exclusively for exactly the recommended 6 months' duration. Nine women who reported exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months did not initiate breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, likely because of the cultural practice of "roasting." Professional breastfeeding support programs do not exist in Krong Kep, Cambodia.

  15. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grunfeld

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as there is a shortage of teachers in the country. Thus, understanding how ODL can achieve learning and other objectives has important implications for both formal education and NFE. If it can be found to be effective, ODL has the potential of reaching a large number of people at comparatively lower average costs. This paper reports on a project where the same content was taught to farmers in Cambodia via traditional face-to-face and via ODL and compares outcomes between the different training methods. Exploring the extent to which farmers had adopted new farm practices taught in the course, our results indicate that the outcomes did not vary considerably between those trained using the different approaches.

  16. The commercialization of traditional medicine in modern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  17. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  18. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VII: Nervilia kasiensis, a new Lao endemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gale, S.W.; Phaxaysombath, T.

    2017-01-01

    A new species belonging to the terrestrial orchid genus Nervilia is described from Kasi District, Vientiane Province, northern Laos. Referable to the widespread and species-rich N. adolphi/punctata alliance on account of its solitary flower, slender white and violet-marked labellum and glabrous,

  19. Investigating Learning English Strategies and English Needs of Undergraduate Students at the National University of Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriyavongsa, Thongma; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol; Sam, Rany; Mei, Leong Lai; Aloysius, Ithayaraj Britto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate learning English strategies and the requirement of English needs of the undergraduate students at the National University of Laos (NUOL). The study employed a survey design which involved in administering questionnaires of rating scales, and adapting the items from (Barakat, 2010; Chengbin, 2008; Kathleen A, 2010;…

  20. Ohtlike jäätmete lao põleng Irus / Priit Orusalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orusalu, Priit

    2004-01-01

    4. juunil 2004. a. Iru ohtlike ainete laos toimunud tulekahju tõi välja kitsaskohad päästeteenistuste tegevuses. Kommenteerivad Päästeameti operatiivteenistuse osakonna juhataja Mart Haljaste ja Põhja-Eesti häirekeskuse juhataja Eva Rinne

  1. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  2. Energy Efficiency Road Mapping in Three Future Scenarios for Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Sasaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. These problems are no longer issues in particular countries but international issues. Several framework conventions on these issues are now in place throughout the world, and developing countries are no exception. Energy efficiency is one of the important issues for developing countries. Lao PDR is one such country. This paper proposes a technology roadmap and policy recommendations for Lao PDR with consideration given to a wide range of economic and social impacts of prospective technologies. For the implementation of technology assessment in the formulation of an energy efficiency roadmap, we first elaborate the social and economic conditions of Lao PDR through preliminary research and field research, and then design three scenarios for a future Lao PDR. These three scenarios are as follows: 1. The "Poverty Reduction" scenario is for electrification rate improvement; 2. The "Industrial Creation" scenario is for stable domestic energy supply; and 3. The "GMS Integration" scenario is for the acquisition of foreign exchange by energy export.

  3. Health Information in Lao (Laotian) (ພາສາລາວ )

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Protect Your Baby for Life: When a Pregnant Woman Has Hepatitis B - ພາສາລາວ (Lao (Laotian)) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention W Expand Section Women's Health Checkup How to Prepare for a Mammogram ...

  4. Orientation to Employment in the U.S. for Refugees--Lao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    One of a series of refugee orientation materials, this guide to employment is intended to assist Laotian refugees in their understanding of the employment situation in the United States and to give them necessary information for obtaining work. The text is in Lao followed by an English-language version, which is not an exact translation but which…

  5. Developing and Implementing a Mobile Conservation Education Unit for Rural Primary School Children in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Troy; Phimmavong, Somvang; Phengsopha, Kaisone; Phompila, Chitana; Homduangpachan, Khiaosaphan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the implementation and success of a mobile conservation education unit targeting primary schools in central Lao PDR (People's Democratic Republic). The mobile unit conducted 3-hour interactive programs for school children focused on the importance of wildlife and biodiversity around the primary schools in rural…

  6. Paragonimiasis in a person whose symptoms were shown 22 years after emigrating to Japan from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Mizuki; Komase, Yuko; Morita, Akane; Yamaguchi, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Takahito

    2010-02-01

    We report a patient, a 52-year-old man from Laos, who had come to Japan at 30 years of age, but had maintained a habit of eating raw freshwater crabs. The patient visited a physician for left chest pain in January 2007. Infiltration and mass-like shadows were noted in the left superior and inferior lobes on chest X-ray. Diagnosis could not be made by bronchial brushing, but eggs were present in sputum cytology 3 days after bronchoscopy. Therefore, paragonimiasis was diagnosed. The peripheral eosinophil count had increased to 2550/μl and the serum IgE level was elevated, at 71000 IU/ml. Multiple-dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgG antibodies in serum was positive for Paragonimus westermani and P. miyazakii. Paragonimiasis may have been caused by the style of Laotian cooking without heating. Because the habit of eating raw freshwater crabs is common in Laos, Laos is one of the countries where paragonimiasis is prevalent. For patients from Laos with lung diseases, differentiation including paragonimiasis is required.

  7. Actinomycetoma in SE Asia: the first case from Laos and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanavong Sayaphet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycetoma is a chronic, localized, slowly progressing infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues caused either by fungi (eumycetoma or implantation mycosis or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma. It is acquired by traumatic implantation, most commonly in the tropics and subtropics, especially in rural agricultural communities. Although well recognized elsewhere in Asia, it has not been reported from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos. Case presentation A 30 year-old female elementary school teacher and rice farmer from northeast Laos was admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, with a massive growth on her left foot, without a history of trauma. The swelling had progressed slowly but painlessly over 5 years and multiple draining sinuses had developed. Ten days before admission the foot had increased considerably in size and became very painful, with multiple sinuses and discharge, preventing her from walking. Gram stain and bacterial culture of tissue biopsies revealed a branching filamentous Gram-positive bacterium that was subsequently identified as Actinomadura madurae by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. She was treated with long-term co-trimoxazole and multiple 3-week cycles of amikacin with a good therapeutic response. Conclusion We report the first patient with actinomycetoma from Laos. The disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and bone infections in patients from rural SE Asia.

  8. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting...

  9. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) of Acrylic Emulsion-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sipei; Nakatani, Alan; Griffith, William

    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) testing has recently taken on renewed interest in the rheological community. It is a very useful tool to probe the viscoelastic response of materials in the non-linear regime. Much of the discussion on polymers in the LAOS field has focused on melts in or near the terminal flow regime. Here we present a LAOS study conducted on a commercial rheometer for acrylic emulsion-based pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) films in the plateau regime. The films behaved qualitatively similar over an oscillation frequency range of 0.5-5 rad/s. From Fourier transform analysis, the fifth or even the seventh order harmonic could be observed at large applied strains. From stress decomposition analysis or Lissajous curves, inter-cycle elastic softening, or type I behavior, was observed for all films as the strain increases, while intra-cycle strain hardening occurred at strains in the LAOS regime. Overall, as acid content increases, it was found that the trend in elasticity under large applied strains agreed very well with the trend in cohesive strength of the films.

  10. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  11. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important tree species from Laos and Vietnam enables the user to identify the included taxa with user-friendly keys. It includes scientific names, botanical descriptions of families, genera, and species. Specific information on distribution,

  12. Actinomycetoma in SE Asia: the first case from Laos and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Vongthongchit, Sivay; Bounphamala, Khamhou; Vongphakdy, Phouvong; Gubler, Jacques; Mayxay, Mayfong; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Elliott, Ivo; Logan, Julie; Hill, Robert; Newton, Paul N; Dance, David

    2012-12-12

    Mycetoma is a chronic, localized, slowly progressing infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues caused either by fungi (eumycetoma or implantation mycosis) or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is acquired by traumatic implantation, most commonly in the tropics and subtropics, especially in rural agricultural communities. Although well recognized elsewhere in Asia, it has not been reported from the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos). A 30 year-old female elementary school teacher and rice farmer from northeast Laos was admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, with a massive growth on her left foot, without a history of trauma. The swelling had progressed slowly but painlessly over 5 years and multiple draining sinuses had developed. Ten days before admission the foot had increased considerably in size and became very painful, with multiple sinuses and discharge, preventing her from walking. Gram stain and bacterial culture of tissue biopsies revealed a branching filamentous Gram-positive bacterium that was subsequently identified as Actinomadura madurae by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. She was treated with long-term co-trimoxazole and multiple 3-week cycles of amikacin with a good therapeutic response. We report the first patient with actinomycetoma from Laos. The disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and bone infections in patients from rural SE Asia.

  13. The millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893 in Laos (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, with descriptions of new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natdanai Likhitrakarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orthomorpha is currently represented in Laos by nine species, including three, O. paviei Brölemann, 1896, O. communis Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2011 and O. cambodjana (Attems, 1953, which are new to the fauna of the country, and further three new to science: O. suberectoides sp. n., O.gladiata sp. n. and O. sutchariti sp. n.

  14. Massive intra-alveolar hemorrhage caused by Leptospira serovar Djasiman in a traveler returning from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héry, Guillaume; Letheulle, Julien; Flécher, Erwan; Quentin, Charlotte; Piau, Caroline; Le Tulzo, Yves; Tattevin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most common pathogens responsible for life-threatening tropical disease in travelers. We report a case of massive intra-alveolar hemorrhage caused by Leptospira serovar Djasiman in a 38-year-old man returning from Laos, who was cured with antibiotics and salvage treatment with extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. A new species of the genus Pygophora Schiner from Laos (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Tachi, Takuji; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Suzuki, Dai

    2015-02-24

    Two species of the genus Pygophora Schiner are recognized from Laos. This is the first time the genus is recorded to the country. A new species, Pygophora laoensis sp. nov., is described and P. immaculipennis Frey is newly recorded. Male and female terminalia of both species are illustrated.

  16. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N; Feil, Edward J; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections.

  17. Subtle to severe hepatobiliary morbidity in Opisthorchis viverrini endemic settings in southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayé Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong; Rajpho, Virasack; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Hattendorf, Jan; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Rasaphon, Oroth; Sripa, Banchob; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Hatz, Christoph; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of severe hepatobiliary morbidity associated with Opisthorchis viverrini liver fluke infection including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is scarce in Laos although O. viverrini infection is highly prevalent. We assessed hepatobiliary morbidity using abdominal ultrasonography (US) in O. viverrini adult patients in Saravan province, Southern Laos. A random sample of 431 O. viverrini patients from 10 villages underwent abdominal US. Mild, moderate and markedly advanced periductal fibrosis was diagnosed in 7.0%, 66.5%, and 17.0% of patients, respectively. Normal liver parenchyma was seen in only 9.5% of patients. Presence of gall stones (13.2%), sludge (1.4%), gall wall thickening (1.2%), bile duct dilatation (1.6%), fatty liver (12.0%), kidney stones (8.6%) and cysts (7.9%) were diagnosed in considerable frequencies. In five patients (1.2%) hepatobiliary lesions suggesting CCA were diagnosed. Tumour markers, i.e. Interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were within normal range. The number of CCA suspected liver masses and hepatobiliary morbidity diagnosed among clinically asymptomatic adult patients in O. viverrini endemic area presents a major public health concern in Laos. However, definitive diagnosis of Opisthorchis-related severe sequelae including CCA is urgently needed to gauge the burden of this deadly disease in Laos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lao Newcomers and Mennonite Settlers: A Case Study of Local Cultural and Language Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Mary Phillips; Keller, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Bluff Creek is a prairie town of less than 2000 people. During the period of this study, the families of 20% of the children in its schools were Lao from families who immigrated to the United States in the 1980's, following the Vietnam War. The families of a majority of European-heritage children in the schools were Mennonites whose forebears had…

  19. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  20. Ecological Knowledge and the Making of Plantation Concession Territories in Southern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Barney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how new forms of ecological knowledge are produced and mobilised through a sustainability-oriented, commercial tree plantation project in Lao PDR. As Gavin Bridge has noted, the establishment of primary resource sector projects are often not simply based upon a discursive emptying and erasure of local social and environmental histories. More nuanced forms of selective re-encoding, and performance can occur, incorporating what Maureen Sioh has called a "reconfiguration and imaginative recuperation of the physical landscape." In this case study, a commercial forestry company in Laos pays close attention to community environmental livelihood practices and local poverty indicators, and to the material remainders of the Second Indochina War embedded in the landscape. I argue that the production and circulation of new ecological knowledge through this project, and the interventions of new knowledge-actors in this area of the former Ho Chi Minh Trail zone of southern Laos, establishes a moral theatre of environmental sustainability and national development. The inscription and dissemination of new ecological and local knowledges can be understood as related to particular development-expert subjectivities in Laos. It is also connected to a competitive strategy employed by this company to gain access to concession land, within the broader context of non-scripted regulation and contested governance in Laos′s plantation sector.

  1. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos, and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST, phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST. These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections.

  2. Oral health behaviour of urban and semi-urban schoolchildren in the Lao PDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour....

  3. Health information systems and disability in the Lao PDR: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Rodney, Anna; Gouda, Hebe N; Richards, Nicola; Rampatige, Rasika; Whittaker, Maxine

    2016-10-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides an opportunity to strengthen disability-related health information. This study analysed the health information system in Lao PDR and sought evidence of interventions to improve disability-related health information. The study was based on a literature review and key informant interviews (N = 17) informed by the Health Metrics Network's Framework and Standards and the Performance of Routine Information System Management framework. The Lao health information system is in an embryonic stage with health data often incomplete, inaccurate and poorly used. Indicators related to disability or functioning are not included, and capacity to diagnose the health condition of disability is limited. No studies of health information interventions were found. As a State Party to the CRPD, the Lao PDR has a legal obligation to collect health-related information on people with disabilities. Given the nascent stage of development of the health information system in the Lao PDR and diagnostic capacity, indicators related to basic functioning and access to services should be integrated into household level surveys. As the health information system further develops, small, incremental changes in the type of disability information and rehabilitation and the way it is collected can be implemented. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Coping with uncertainty during healthcare-seeking in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvesson, Helle M; Lindelow, Magnus; Khanthaphat, Bouasavanh; Laflamme, Lucie

    2013-06-19

    Uncertainty is regarded as a central dimension in the experience of illness and in the processes of alleviating it. Few studies from resource-poor settings have investigated this and how it interacts with other factors. This study aims to shed light on how healthcare-seeking develops in the context of multiple medical alternatives and to understand what bearing uncertainty has on this process. The study was conducted in six purposively selected rural communities in Lao PDR. In each community, two focus group discussions were held: first with mothers and then with fathers of children younger than five years old. Eleven in-depth interviews with caregivers of severely sick children were conducted. Subsequently, traditional healers, drug vendors, community health workers, nurses and medical doctors were recruited for interviews or group discussions. The data were transcribed and key themes and similarities were identified. Additional readings were conducted to better understand the interactions of factors during which uncertainty was identified as one of several factors mentioned during interviews and focus group discussions. Care-seekers expressed a strong preference for initially seeking local providers. Subsequently, multiple providers were consulted to increase the chances of recovery. This resulted in patients leaving the health facilities before recovery and in ending the recommended treatment regime prematurely. These healthcare-seeking decisions reflect the social significance of being a responsible caregiver and of showing respect for household norms. In general, healthcare-seeking was shrouded in uncertainty when it came to selecting the right provider, the likelihood of finding the real cause of the illness, spending savings on treatments and ultimately the likelihood of recovery. Care-seekers' initial strong preference for local providers irrespective of the providers' legitimacy indicates the need for a robust primary healthcare system. Care

  5. Association between indoor air pollution measurements and respiratory health in women and children in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengersen, K; Morawska, L; Wang, H; Murphy, N; Tayphasavanh, F; Darasavong, K; Holmes, N S

    2011-02-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the association between measured air pollutants and the respiratory health of resident women and children in Lao PDR, one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia. The study, commissioned by the World Health Organisation, included PM(10), CO and NO(2) measurements made inside 181 dwellings in nine districts within two provinces in Lao PDR over a 5-month period (12/05-04/06), and respiratory health information (via questionnaires and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements) for all residents in the same dwellings. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated separately for each health outcome using binary logistic regression. There was a strong and consistent positive association between NO(2) and CO for almost all questionnaire-based health outcomes for both women and children. Women in dwellings with higher measured NO(2) had more than triple of the odds of almost all of the health outcomes, and higher concentrations of NO(2) and CO were significantly associated with lower PEFR. This study supports a growing literature confirming the role of indoor air pollution in the burden of respiratory disease in developing countries. The results will directly support changes in health and housing policy in Lao PDR. This is the first study that investigated indoor air quality and its impact within residential dwellings in Lao PDR, which is one of the poorest and least developed countries in south-east Asia, with a life-expectancy of 56 years in 2008. While there have been other studies published on indoor air quality in other developing countries, the situation in Laos is different because the majority of houses in Laos used wood stoves, and therefore, emissions from wood burning are the dominant sources of indoor air pollution. In other countries, and studies, while emission from wood burning was investigated, wood was rarely the main or the only fuel used, as the houses used in addition (or solely) dung, kerosene or

  6. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  7. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  8. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  9. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  10. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  11. Community participation during two mass anti-malarial administrations in Cambodia: lessons from a joint workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peto, Thomas J.; Debackere, Mark; Etienne, William; Vernaeve, Lieven; Tripura, Rupam; Falq, Gregoire; Davoeung, Chan; Nguon, Chea; Rekol, Huy; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Sanann, Nou; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; de Smet, Martin; Pell, Christopher; Kindermans, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Two mass drug administrations (MDA) against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015-16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Medecins Sans Frontieres and the

  12. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Moriuchi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs.

  14. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  15. Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia,…

  16. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  17. Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Cha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Ms. Dia Cha – then a graduate student in anthropology at Northern Arizona University – traveled to Chieng Kham Refugee and Napho Repatriation Camps in Thailand, and the village of Ban KM 52, inVientiane Province, Laos, to research issues concerning the repatriation to Laos of Lao Lum and Hmong women refugees. This article, originally written upon the return from these travels and in partial fulfillment of the requirements for her Master of Arts degree in Applied Anthropology, considers the findings made and the insights achieved on this journey of discovery. In particular, the work discusses changes and continuity in the lives of Lao Lum and Hmong refugee women in the camps. Also addressed in considerable detail is the impact of the author’s status as an educated Hmong-American woman and former refugee on her interactions with female and male informants residing in the two refugee camps. Ms. Cha, who spent much of her early life in such refugee camps as are herein described, has, in the intervening period, become Dr. Dia Cha, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies at St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA. The research project she describes was funded by the United Nations Development Fund for Women and executed by the American Friends Service Committee (The Quaker Services. Ms. Jacquelyn Chagnon joined Ms. Cha during the second phrase ofthe research, in Napho Repatriation Center, and later in Laos; however, the following article, produced originally in 1992, was written solely by Ms. Cha.

  18. Southeast Asian diversity: first insights into the complex mtDNA structure of Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Röck, Alexander; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sengchanh, Sourideth; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Horst, Jürgen; Krämer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

    2011-02-18

    Vast migrations and subsequent assimilation processes have shaped the genetic composition of Southeast Asia, an area of close contact between several major ethnic groups. To better characterize the genetic variation of this region, we analyzed the entire mtDNA control region of 214 unrelated donors from Laos according to highest forensic quality standards. To detail the phylogeny, we inspected selected SNPs from the mtDNA coding region. For a posteriori data quality control, quasi-median network constructions and autosomal STR typing were performed. In order to describe the mtDNA setup of Laos more thoroughly, the data were subjected to population genetic comparisons with 16 East Asian groups. The Laos sample exhibited ample mtDNA diversity, reflecting the huge number of ethnic groups listed. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages in this dataset and surrounding populations. The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation. Notable differences in the maternal relationship to the major indigenous Southeast Asian ethnolinguistic groups were detected. In this study, we portray the great mtDNA variety of Laos for the first time. Our findings will contribute to clarify the migration history of the region. They encourage setting up regional and subpopulation databases, especially for forensic applications. The Laotian sequences will be incorporated into the collaborative EMPOP mtDNA database http://www.empop.org upon publication and will be available as the first mtDNA reference data for this country.

  19. Southeast Asian diversity: first insights into the complex mtDNA structure of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vast migrations and subsequent assimilation processes have shaped the genetic composition of Southeast Asia, an area of close contact between several major ethnic groups. To better characterize the genetic variation of this region, we analyzed the entire mtDNA control region of 214 unrelated donors from Laos according to highest forensic quality standards. To detail the phylogeny, we inspected selected SNPs from the mtDNA coding region. For a posteriori data quality control, quasi-median network constructions and autosomal STR typing were performed. In order to describe the mtDNA setup of Laos more thoroughly, the data were subjected to population genetic comparisons with 16 East Asian groups. Results The Laos sample exhibited ample mtDNA diversity, reflecting the huge number of ethnic groups listed. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages in this dataset and surrounding populations. The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation. Notable differences in the maternal relationship to the major indigenous Southeast Asian ethnolinguistic groups were detected. Conclusions In this study, we portray the great mtDNA variety of Laos for the first time. Our findings will contribute to clarify the migration history of the region. They encourage setting up regional and subpopulation databases, especially for forensic applications. The Laotian sequences will be incorporated into the collaborative EMPOP mtDNA database http://www.empop.org upon publication and will be available as the first mtDNA reference data for this country.

  20. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmony Hong

    Full Text Available Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities.Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014. Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital, mother's age at birth (<20, 20-35, 35+, birth interval (long, short and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+. Socio-economic variables included: mother

  1. Limited diagnostic capacities of two commercial assays for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Smythe, Lee; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Dohnt, Michael; Hartskeerl, Rudy; SymondS, Meegan; Slack, Andrew; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Davong, Viengmone; Lattana, Olay; Phongmany, Simmaly; Keolouangkot, Valy; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of immunochromatographic (Leptotek) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio) tests for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies was assessed in febrile adults admitted in Vientiane, Laos. Both tests demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy using

  2. Review of the millipede genus Kronopolites Attems, 1914 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, with the description of a new species from Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natdanai Likhitrakarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The millipede genus Kronopolites currently comprises 11 species, including a new species from northern Laos: K. lunatus sp. n. The generic diagnosis is updated, a key given to all known species, and their distributions are mapped.

  3. Meelis Lao astub kohtu ette McDonald's Eesti ründamise eest / Martin Hanson, Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2005-01-01

    Prokuratuur süüdistab Meelis Laod McDonald'si omavolilises sulgemises rendivaidluse tõttu. Skeem: Meelis Laoga seotud firmad. Vt. samas: Omakohus kohut ei mõjutanud; Mõis: Lao tegutseb efektiivselt

  4. High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwat, Nuananong; Angkittitrakul, Sunpetch; Coulson, Kari F; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Meunsene, Dethaloun; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine occurrence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. The samples were collected from pigs, carcasses and workers in slaughterhouses, retail pork and butchers in fresh markets and patients in hospitals in Thailand (n=729) and Laos (n=458). A total of 295 of 729 samples (34.6 %) collected in Thailand and 253 of 458 (47.4 %) samples collected in Laos were positive for Salmonella. A total of 548 Salmonella isolates from Thailand (n=295) and Laos (n=253) were further analysed. Serovar Typhimurium was the most common serotype in Thai (34 %) and Laos (20.6 %) samples. Approximately 2.4 % of Thai isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). All the ESBL producers possessed blaCTX-M-14, some of which were horizontally transferred. Class 1 integrons were common in Thai (31.9 %) and Laos (39.1 %) isolates, but none were associated with SGI1. The resistance cassette dfrA12-aadA2 was the most common, while the least common was aadA2-linG (n=1). The dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette in five isolates and aadA2-linG were located on conjugative plasmid. Three pork isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant and carried an amino acid substitute, Ser-83-Tyr, in GyrA. The qnrS gene was found in 7.1 and 5.5 % of the Thai and Laos isolates, respectively, while qnrB was carried in another Laos isolate (1.9 %). All ESBL producers carried qnrS. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella was common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species.

  5. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother's age at birth (gender inequities became almost non-existent (for all measures of equality); inequity related to mother's education decreased for all time periods

  6. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  7. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  8. Iodized salt in Cambodia: trends from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-05-29

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement.

  9. Using wood residues as biomass for cooking energy in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sophanarith; Koike, Masao (Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)); Nophea Sasaki (Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    Due to rapid deforestation and fast growing population over the last three decades, a future shortfall of wood supply (wood and firewood) is expected in Cambodia. Therefore, alternative source of wood supply for cooking energy are needed. This alternative could potentially come from wood residues such as onsite and offsite residues. The aim of this report is to develop a modeling tool that can be used to estimate wood residues from logging (onsite) and wood processing (offsite), and to explore an appropriate system for distributing the wood residues in Cambodia. We analyze potential wood residues in evergreen, mixed and deciduous forests in Cambodia. For comparison, total wood residues are analyzed under three forest management scenarios: Business as usual (BAUSU), long-term economic gains (LEGA) and climate beneficial option (CLIBO). Under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO the potential onsite biomass is totally estimated at 1.67, 1.00, and 0.35 million Mg year' (1 Mg = 106 g = 1 ton), respectively. Total offsite (SW and VW) biomass per year is estimated at 1.00, 0.60, and 0.20 million Mg under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Total potential forest biomasses (onsite and offsite) are estimated at 2.68, 1.61 and 0.53 million Mg year' under BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Our results suggested that, regardless of management scenarios forest biomasses are potentially available. Due to the fact that approximately 95% of Cambodian population depend mainly on fuel wood for daily cooking energy, effective system for distributing forest biomasses to the needed local population could greatly reduce the pressure on natural forest, which has been deforested and overexploited since the last few decades. (orig.)

  10. Chikungunya outbreak--Cambodia, February-March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV causes fever and usually is not fatal, but can cause debilitating joint pains or, in rare instances, severe illness. The East/Central/South African strain of chikungunya has been emerging in Asia since 2006, first in the Indian subcontinent, then Thailand. This report describes the characteristics of a local outbreak linked with chikungunya reemergence in a rural Asian setting. Sporadic cases of chikungunya were identified in Cambodia in 2011. Antibodies to CHIKV have been detected in serum collected in Cambodia in 2007, but the strain could not be identified for those cases (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2, unpublished data, 2012). On March 7, 2012, several cases of rash with fever were reported among village residents of Trapeang Roka in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. Subsequent field investigation revealed that four of six blood samples from affected persons were positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2 in Phnom Penh. Investigators from the Cambodian Communicable Disease Control Department, National Malaria Center, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), local health centers, and village authorities conducted a seroprevalence study of village residents on March 26 to gather information for response planning and control efforts. The outbreak affected families throughout the village, and 44.7% of the population tested had evidence of infection by CHIKV, which affected all age groups. Public health agencies and policymakers in affected and nearby unaffected areas of Asia and elsewhere should be alert to the potential spread and reemergence of CHIKV.

  11. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  13. Skin Test for Paragonimiasis among Schoolchildren and Villagers in Namback District, Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Youthanavanh, Vonghachack; Daluny, Bouakhasith; Sengdara, Vongsouvan; Virasack, Banouvong; Bounlay, Phommasak

    2008-01-01

    As a part of a broader effort to determine the status of Paragonimus species infection in Lao PDR, an epidemiological survey was conducted on villagers and schoolchildren in Namback District between 2003 and 2005. Among 308 villagers and 633 primary and secondary schoolchildren, 156 villagers and 92 children evidenced a positive reaction on a Paragonimus skin test. Only 4 schoolchildren out of 128 skin test-positive cases had Paragonimus sp. eggs in their sputum, all of which was collected on 1 day. Several types of crabs, which were identified as the second intermediate host of the Paragonimus species, were collected from markets and streams in a paragonimiasis endemic area for the inspection of metacercariae. Among the examined crabs, only "rock crabs" (Indochinamon ou) harbored Paragonimus sp. metacercariae, and it is speculated that the life cycle of Paragonimus sp. was maintained via rock crabs in Namback District, Lao PDR. PMID:18830059

  14. Laos Organization Name Using Cascaded Model Based on SVM and CRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Shaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of Laos organization name, this paper proposes a two layer model based on conditional random field (CRF and support vector machine (SVM for Laos organization name recognition. A layer of model uses CRF to recognition simple organization name, and the result is used to support the decision of the second level. Based on the driving method, the second layer uses SVM and CRF to recognition the complicated organization name. Finally, the results of the two levels are combined, And by a subsequent treatment to correct results of low confidence recognition. The results show that this approach based on SVM and CRF is efficient in recognizing organization name through open test for real linguistics, and the recalling rate achieve 80. 83%and the precision rate achieves 82. 75%.

  15. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-01-30

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus based on two adult specimens from Khammouane Province, Laos. Cyrtodactylus jaegeri sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: a moderately sized Cyrtodactylus with a maximum SVL reaching 68.5 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of a dark nuchal loop and four narrow brown body bands between limb insertions; dorsal tubercles in 15-17 irregular rows; ventrals in 31-32 longitudinal rows at midbody; lateral skin folds present with interspersed tubercles; precloacal-femoral pores 44 in the male, in a continuous series; enlarged femoral scales and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 3-6; subcaudals transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus jaegeri sp. nov. is the ninth species of Cyrtodactylus known from Laos.

  16. Transmission and Preservation of music of the Laos Vieng Ethnics Group at Tumbol Don kha, U-thong Distric SuphanBuri province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapot Pocharoen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Music Vieng, Laos, Vientiane, Lao ethnic group identity. And this is something that represents the cultural and traditional beliefs from the past, which is very important and plays a role in Vientiane, Lao ethnic group. Today This research aims to 1. To study the music of ethnic Lao Wiang Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha 2. To study the musical heritage and preservation of ethnic groups in Laos Vieng Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha. The results showed that the music of ethnic Lao Wiang Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha. Originally a folk music as well as the East. Originally, Canada is the main instrument. Vientiane, Laos ethnic group influenced society. And culture outside to inside. The group of friends and was popular with the younger generation. Lack of support from local organizations People who know less. Make music, ethnic Vieng, Laos began to fade with time. ceremony, a ritual is believed the disease. Similar to the medium by a worship of ancestors. Conservation and musical heritage of ethnic groups in Laos Don Kha Vieng Thong, Suphan Buri. Are passed down from generation to generation through teaching, saying to each other in kinship. There are performances at various events Playing music in various applications And shows for visitors to watch.

  17. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VII: Nervilia kasiensis, a new Lao endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, S.W.; Phaxaysombath, T.

    2017-01-01

    A new species belonging to the terrestrial orchid genus Nervilia is described from Kasi District, Vientiane Province, northern Laos. Referable to the widespread and species-rich N. adolphi/punctata alliance on account of its solitary flower, slender white and violet-marked labellum and glabrous, angular leaf, N. kasiensis is morphologically most closely allied to N. muratana of southern China and northern Vietnam. As in that species, the flowering and leafing phases overlap, an unusual featur...

  18. Four new spider species of the family Theridiosomatidae (Arachnida, Araneae from caves in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the spider family Theridiosomatidae are described from caves in Laos: Alaria cavernicola sp. n. (♂♀, A. navicularis sp. n., (♂♀ A. bicornis sp. n. (♂♀, Chthonopes thakekensis sp. n. (♀. Diagnoses and illustrations for all new taxa are given. All holotypes are deposited in the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMF.

  19. The electronic structure of LaO: Ligand field versus ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamps, Joël; Bencheikh, Mohammed; Barthelat, Jean-Claude; Field, Robert W.

    1995-11-01

    The potentially pathological example of LaO has been chosen to test the application of ligand field theory (LFT) to metal monoxides. The test consists of a comparison of closed-shell ligand LFT (CSLLFT) results (in which a 2+/2- ionic M2+O2- model is a priori postulated with a point-charge ligand) against ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-field-multireference configuration interaction (MCSCF-MRCI) results (in which no ionicity is assumed a priori and an internal structure is allowed for the ligand). Special care has been devoted to the determination of a La3+ pseudopotential and its associated atomic basis set in order to keep the ab initio model close to the LFT one, yet at the same time capable of clearly exhibiting the consequences and the importance of the restrictions imposed in the CSLLFT model. The ab initio calculations reveal that the effective (Mulliken) ionicity in LaO is not La2+O2- but quite close to La+O-. Despite this, the (2+/2-) ionic CSLLFT model leads to the correct orbital occupations in the ground state but this model cannot account for the significant covalency contribution via the nominal 2pσ and 2pπ oxygen orbitals. The CSLLFT calculations correctly reproduce the excitation energies of the four lowest-lying observed states of LaO: these states are calculated to within 2000 cm-1 and globally better than via ab initio calculations. However, the (2+/2-) ionic CSLLFT model is shown to ignore the existence of a manifold of low-lying quartet (and doublet) states of (1+/1-) ionicity that might be relevant for interpreting features of the spectrum. This result exemplifies the need for developing, beyond the first attempts made in this direction, a computationally manageable open-shell ligand theory for the frequently encountered case of predominantly ionic structures with an open-shell ligand.

  20. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Ash, Amanda; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Hobbs, Emma; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Thomas, Lian; Allen, John

    2014-03-28

    The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic "hotspot" of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other "hotspots" of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.

  1. Identification of the human paragonimiasis causative agent in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, S; Habe, S; Duong, V; Odermatt, P; Barennes, H; Strobel, M; Nakamura, S

    2008-10-01

    To assess the species of human paragonimiasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic, 6 ovum samples from 6 native confirmed paragonimiasis patients were examined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The PCR products were sequenced, and a homology search was performed using the GenBank. All 6 sequences were identical with Paragonimus heterotremus ITS2. Our work suggests that P. heterotremus may be the main etiological agent of human paragonimiasis in this locality.

  2. Serosurveillance of vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C in healthcare workers from Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony P Black

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCW have an increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases and are a potential source of infections for their patients. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR has no national policy regarding HCW vaccinations and routine vaccination coverage is low within the general population. This cross-sectional serostudy determines the level of exposure and risk of infection in Lao HCW against 6 vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C.1128 HCW were recruited from 3 central, 2 provincial and 8 district hospitals. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies and antigens to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, rubella, varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria.Only 53.1% of the HCW had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti-HBs with 48.8% having anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc, indicating previous exposure and 8.0% were hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. 3.9% were hepatitis C seropositive. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected in 95.4% and 86.2% of the HCW, with 11.9% of females being unprotected against rubella. Antibodies against varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria were detected in 95%, 78.8% and 55.3%, respectively. Seroprevalence varied according to age, gender and number of children.An unacceptably high proportion of Lao HCW remain susceptible to infection with hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus and rubella. Furthermore, a high number of healthcare workers are chronically infected with hepatitis B and C viruses. These data emphasize the need for a robust HCW vaccination policy in addition to increased awareness within this subpopulation.

  3. Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommachanh, Phouvong; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Chanthavisouk, Chintana; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Bingham, John; Davies, Kelly R.; Cooke, Julie; Eagles, Debbie; Phiphakhavong, Sithong; Shan, Songhua; Stevens, Vittoria; Williams, David T.; Bounma, Phachone; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Morrissy, Christopher; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Morzaria, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, avian influenza in poultry in Laos was caused by an emergent influenza A(H5N6) virus. Genetic analysis indicated that the virus had originated from reassortment of influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1b, variant clade 2.3.4, and influenza A(H6N6) viruses that circulate broadly in duck populations in southern and eastern China. PMID:25695754

  4. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J; Panyanivong, Phonepasith; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Blacksell, Stuart D; Dance, David A B; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Sengduangphachanh, Amphone; Phoumin, Phonelavanh; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-02-01

    Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens in patients with CNS disease in endemic countries. Laos is representative of vast economically poor rural areas in Asia with little medical information to guide public health policy. We assessed whether these pathogens are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Between Jan 10, 2003, and Nov 25, 2011, we enrolled 1112 consecutive patients of all ages admitted with CNS symptoms or signs requiring a lumbar puncture at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. Microbiological examinations (culture, PCR, and serology) targeted so-called conventional bacterial infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, S suis) and O tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi/Rickettsia spp, and Leptospira spp infections in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We analysed and compared causes and clinical and CSF characteristics between patient groups. 1051 (95%) of 1112 patients who presented had CSF available for analysis, of whom 254 (24%) had a CNS infection attributable to a bacterial or fungal pathogen. 90 (35%) of these 254 infections were caused by O tsutsugamushi, R typhi/Rickettsia spp, or Leptospira spp. These pathogens were significantly more frequent than conventional bacterial infections (90/1051 [9%] vs 42/1051 [4%]; pLaos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention. Wellcome Trust UK. Copyright © 2015 Dittrich et al. Open Access article published under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All

  5. The Glyptothorax of the Bolaven Plateau, Laos (Teleostei: Sisoridae): new and endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Kottelat, Maurice

    2017-03-05

    Glyptothorax forabilis, new species, and G. porrectus, new species, are described from the Bolaven Plateau in southern Laos. Both species closely resemble G. laosensis, but can be distinguished from it and other Indochinese congeners by combinations of color pattern, morphometry (with particular regards to the eye, body depth, and caudal peduncle) and thoracic adhesive apparatus morphology. Both species are endemic to the Bolaven Plateau, have a very limited distribution and are threatened by hydropower and agricultural activities.

  6. Assessment the Effect of Free Trade Agreements on Exports of Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Bounlert Vanhnalat; Phouphet Kyophilavong; Alay Phonvisay; Bouason Sengsourivong

    2015-01-01

    This research paper focuses on estimating the impact of free trade agreements (FTAs) between Lao PDR and 32 trading partners. The panel gravity model has been applied over the period of 1996-2011. The overall findings indicate that the preferential utilization is relatively low and is highly concentrated in natural resource products. Since most exporters have difficulty complying with the various local content requirements, the information of preferential utilization is limited, lack of expor...

  7. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  8. Subtype identification of human Blastocystis spp. isolated from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2017-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is the most common protist found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Blastocystis subtypes (STs) are classified based on the molecular phylogeny of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA). At least 17 Blastocystis STs have been reported and, of these, STs 1-9 have been found in humans. This study revealed the presence of human Blastocystis STs in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy people from the central province of Khammouane and the southern province of Champasak. Fresh fecal samples, found to be positive for Blastocystis using microscopy, were individually cultured in Jones' medium and each sample was used for the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of SSU rDNA. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the distribution of four Blastocystis STs: ST1 (64%), ST2 (8%), ST3 (24%) and ST7 (4%). This is the first report to provide molecular data revealing the prevalence of Blastocystis STs in apparently healthy people from Lao PDR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of bacteremia in young hospitalized infants in Vientiane, Laos, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margot; Luangxay, Khonesavanh; Sisouk, Kongkham; Vorlasan, Latdavan; Soumphonphakdy, Bandith; Sengmouang, Vanmaly; Chansamouth, Vilada; Phommasone, Koukeo; Van Dyke, Russell; Chong, Euming; Dance, David A B; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N

    2014-02-01

    As data about the causes of neonatal sepsis in low-income countries are inadequate, we reviewed the etiology and antibiotic susceptibilities of bacteremia in young infants in Laos. As Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bacteremia in Lao infants, we also examined risk factors for this infection, in particular the local practice of warming mothers during the first weeks postpartum with hot coals under their beds (hot beds). Clinical and laboratory data regarding infants aged 0-60 days evaluated for sepsis within 72 h of admission to Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane, Laos, were reviewed, and 85 of 1438 (5.9%) infants' blood cultures grew a clinically significant organism. Most common were S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Whereas no methicillin-resistant S. aureus was found, only 18% of E. coli isolates were susceptible to ampicillin. A history of sleeping on a hot bed with mother was associated with S. aureus bacteremia (odds ratio 4.8; 95% confidence interval 1.2-19.0).

  10. New species and records of linyphiid spiders from Laos (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasevitch, Andrei V

    2014-07-24

    Recent linyphiid collections from Laos as well as some additional specimens from Thailand and West Malaysia are examined. Six species and two genera are described as new to science: Bathyphantes paracymbialis n. sp., Nematogmus asiaticus n. sp., Theoa hamata n. sp.; Asiagone n. gen. is erected for Asiagone signifera n. sp. (type species) and A. perforata n. sp.; Laogone n. gen. is established for Laogone cephala n. sp. The following new synonyms are proposed: Gorbothorax Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Nasoona Locket, 1982; Paranasoona Heimer, 1984 n. syn. and Millplophrys Platnick, 1998 n. syn. = Atypena Simon, 1894; Gorbothorax ungibbus Tanasevitch, 1998 n. syn. = Oedothorax asocialis Wunderlich, 1974; Hylyphantes birmanicus (Thorell, 1895) n. syn. = H. graminicola (Sundevall, 1830). The following new combinations are proposed: Atypena cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984) n. comb. ex from Paranasoona; A. pallida (Millidge, 1995) and A. crocatoa (Millidge, 1995) both n. comb. ex Millplophrys; Nasoona asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974) n. comb. ex Oedothorax Bertkau, 1883; N. asocialis (Wunderlich, 1974), N. comata (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. conica (Tanasevitch, 1998), N. setifera (Tanasevitch, 1998) and N. wunderlichi (Brignoli, 1983), all n. comb. ex Gorbothorax. Eight linyphiid species are newly recorded from Laos: A. cirrifrons (Heimer, 1984), Bathyphantes floralis Tu & Li, 2006, Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830), Nasoona asocialis, N. crucifera (Thorell, 1895), Nasoonaria sinensis Wunderlich & Song, 1995, Neriene birmanica (Thorell, 1887), and N. oxycera Tu & Li, 2006. The linyphiid spider fauna of Laos currently contains 15 species and is unusually highly specific. All species, except the Palearctic H. graminicola, are probably represented by Southeastern Asian or Oriental autochthons. 

  11. Attitudes and experiences regarding induced abortion among female sex workers, Savannakhet Province, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeve, Amanda; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions (IAs). This study aimed to describe attitudes towards and experiences of IA among FSWs in Laos. 258 FSWs were interviewed in Kaysone Phomvihan, Laos. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Overall, 24% of the respondents reported experience of IA. Fifteen percent reported experience of unintended pregnancy after entering sex work, whereof all had ended in IA. Thirty-six percent had self-induced the last IA and 64% were carried out in private clinics. The main reasons for having IAs were paternity denial and lack of financial and social support. A majority agreed or strongly agreed that IA should not be legal in Laos and that women who undergo IA are immoral, but also that IA is the only option a FSW has when experiencing an unintended pregnancy. A positive attitude towards IA was associated with longer duration of sex work and being unmarried. IAs were common. Respondents' attitudes and practices reflected limited options when experiencing an unintended pregnancy, and were influenced by negative social perceptions. Interventions targeting FSWs should raise awareness of IA and post-abortion care, and promote dual contraceptive use with highly effective contraceptives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bleach treatment of sputum samples aids pulmonary tuberculosis screening among HIV-infected patients in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammavong, C; Paboriboune, P; Bouchard, B; Harimanana, A; Babin, F-X; Phimmasone, P; Berland, J-L; Buisson, Y

    2011-10-01

    Laos has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and a slowly increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Sputum smear microscopy is the only method currently available for routine screening of pulmonary TB, although it only detects one in three cases among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Bleach treatment of sputum samples (bleach method) has been shown to significantly improve the sensitivity of the test; however, its effectiveness in PLWH remains to be determined in Laos. To determine the performance of the bleach method as a diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB in PLWH and to assess its cost-effectiveness in Laos. Of 174 sputum samples collected from 92 patients, 29 were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 17 patients. The sensitivity of the direct method and the bleach method was respectively 59% and 93%, and specificity was 100% for both methods. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for screening an additional case was US$17.40. The bleach method is simple, cheap, easy to perform and cost-effective in PLWH. Its implementation in laboratories involved in routine screening of pulmonary TB among PLWH would allow practitioners to start the treatment of this life-threatening co-infection earlier.

  13. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 from northern Laos (Squamata: Natricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teynié, Alexandre; Lottier, Anne; David, Patrick; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Vogel, Gernot

    2014-03-05

    Two specimens, a male and a female, of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 were collected in a karst formation of northern Louangphabang (or Luang Prabang) Province, North Laos. These specimens are assigned to the genus Opisthotropis on the basis of their morphology, dentition and cephalic scalation. However, they differ from all other known species of Opisthotropis by a combination of the following characters: (1) 21-19 scale rows on the fore part of the body, (2) 17 scale rows at midbody, (3) 22/23 maxillary teeth, (4) 177-181 ventrals, (5) 1 loreal on each side, in contact with internasal, (6) 7 supralabials, 4th entering orbit, (7) dorsum dark bronze-brown, with upper part of dorsum darker than lateral sides, without bands or crossbars, and (8) chin and throat blackish-brown with a sharp, transversal limit with the ventral colour crossing the posterior part of the throat. As a consequence, these specimens are here referred to a new species, Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. The new species is compared with other species of the genus, especially the most similar species O. spenceri Smith, 1918 and O. atra Günther, 1872, the type species of the genus. An updated key to the genera Opisthotropis is provided. Opisthotropis durandi spec. nov. represents the first confirmed record of a species of Opisthotropis sensu stricto from Laos and it is the 108th snake species currently recorded from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

  14. Rabies surveillance in dogs in Lao PDR from 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Chomdara, Keo; Phiphakhavong, Sithong; Khounsy, Syseng; Mukaka, Mavuto; Dance, David A B; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is a fatal viral disease that continues to threaten both human and animal health in endemic countries. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is a rabies-endemic country in which dogs are the main reservoir and continue to present health risks for both human and animals throughout the country. Passive, laboratory-based rabies surveillance was performed for suspected cases of dog rabies in Vientiane Capital during 2010-2016 and eight additional provinces between 2015-2016 using the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT). There were 284 rabies positive cases from 415 dog samples submitted for diagnosis. 257 cases were from Vientiane Capital (2010-2016) and the remaining 27 cases were submitted during 2015-2016 from Champassak (16 cases), Vientiane Province (4 cases), Xieng Kuang (3 cases), Luang Prabang (2 cases), Saravan (1 case), Saisomboun (1 case) and Bokeo (1 case). There was a significant increase in rabies cases during the dry season (p = 0.004) (November to April; i.e., rabies cases. The use of laboratory-based rabies surveillance is a useful method of monitoring rabies in Lao PDR and should be expanded to other provincial centers, particularly where there are active rabies control programs.

  15. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Art and theatre for health in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, Chea; Dysoley, Lek; Davoeung, Chan; Sovann, Yok; Sanann, Nou; Sareth, Ma; Kunthea, Pich; Vuth, San; Sovann, Kem; Kol, Kayna; Heng, Chhouen; Sary, Rouen; Peto, Thomas J; Tripura, Rupam; Lim, Renly; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2018-01-01

    This article describes our experience using art and theatre to engage rural communities in western Cambodia to understand malaria and support malaria control and elimination. The project was a pilot science-arts initiative to supplement existing engagement activities conducted by local authorities. In 2016, the project was conducted in 20 villages, involved 300 community members and was attended by more than 8000 people. Key health messages were to use insecticide-treated bed-nets and repellents, febrile people should attend village malaria workers, and to raise awareness about the risk of forest-acquired malaria. Building on the experience and lessons learnt in the year prior, the 2017 project which was conducted in 15 villages involved 600 community members and attracted more than 12,000 people. In addition to the malaria theme, upon discussion with local health authorities, secondary theme (infant vaccination) was added to the 2017 project. We learnt the following lessons from our experience in Cambodia: involving local people including children from the beginning of the project and throughout the process is important; messages should be kept simple; it is necessary to take into consideration practical issues such as location and timing of the activities; and that the project should offer something unique to communities.

  17. Research as a visiting doctor in Afghanistan and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, F H

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes research I conducted into health care and its difficulties while working as a visiting doctor in two developing countries. The research was conducted in the Departments of Medicine, University Hospital, Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in 1994 and 1995, and Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in 1997 and 1998. In Afghanistan I did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at the Department of Medicine, and a survey of drugs sold in pharmacies in Jalalabad. In Cambodia I surveyed hemoglobin concentrations of medical patients, and did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at Calmette Hospital. I surveyed the body weight of medical patients in relation to drug doses, and used a questionnaire to survey prescribing practices of physicians. Each project was conducted by me alone and was completed within 1-3 months. The support by the hospital was good and there where no ethics committees that had to approve the projects. Only verbal consent from the patients had to be obtained and no national laws or regulations affected the research. Small clinical research projects in developing countries are relatively easy to perform, if conducted by one researcher working in a hospital and not relying on special equipment such as a computer.

  18. Cost and disease burden of Dengue in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauté Julien

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million, a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct and productive costs, and DALYs. Health seeking behaviors were taken into account in cost estimates. Specific age group incidence estimates were used in DALYs calculation. Results The mean cost per dengue case varied from US$36 - $75 over 2006-2008 respectively, resulting in an overall annual cost from US$3,327,284 in 2008 to US$14,429,513 during a large epidemic in 2007. Patients sustain the highest share of costs by paying an average of 78% of total costs and 63% of direct medical costs. DALY rates per 100,000 individuals ranged from 24.3 to 100.6 in 2007-2008 with 80% on average due to premature mortality. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed the high societal and individual family burden of dengue. Total costs represented between 0.03 and 0.17% of Gross Domestic Product. Health seeking behavior has a major impact on costs. The more accurate estimate used in this study will better allow decision makers to account for dengue costs particularly among the poor when balancing the benefits of introducing a potentially effective dengue vaccine.

  19. Echinostoma ilocanum Infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2011-01-01

    Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278

  20. Acid violence in Cambodia: the human, medical and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Nick R; Kennifer, Devan; Bourgois, Erin; Vanna, Keo; Noor, Saqib; Gollogly, James

    2014-12-01

    Acid violence is the deliberate use of acid to attack another human being. Such attacks leave a terrible human, medical and surgical legacy. This study, from one of the largest cohorts of acid attack victims to date, provides insights into Cambodia's unique demographics of such attacks, as well as the human cost and necessary surgical interventions. A retrospective cohort consisting of all patients presenting to the Children's Surgical Centre, Phnom Penh with acid burns from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2013 was identified and information retrieved from their hospital records. 254 patients were identified. Males and females were almost equally likely to be victims of an acid attack (48.4% and 51.6% respectively). There was no significant association between victim and assailant gender (p=0.475). The face (78.0%), neck (51.5%) and chest (49.0%) were the most frequently affected body areas. The median total surface body area affected by acid burns was 7.0%. The mortality rate from acid assault was 2.0%. Patients required an average of 2.0 operations, ranging from 0 to 18. Acid violence in Cambodia has a complex demographic which is different to many other developing countries and requires more investigation. Tougher legislation is required to reduce the incidence of these horrific crimes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections at a Provincial Reference Hospital, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18.3%) patients had TB. Of 197 smear-positive patients, 171 (86.8%) had TB confirmed (167 by culture and 4 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay only) and 11 (5.6%) had NTM isolates. HIV infection and past TB were independently associated with having NTM isolates. Improved detection of NTM isolates in Cambodia might require more systematic use of mycobacterial culture and the use of Xpert MTB/RIF to confirm smear-positive TB cases, especially in patients with HIV infection or a history of TB.

  2. APOE Genotype in the Ethnic Majority and Minority Groups of Laos and the Implications for Non-Communicable Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Midorikawa

    Full Text Available Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD. The apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population.Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3% than among Lao Loum (12.6%. In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups.A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent.

  3. APOE Genotype in the Ethnic Majority and Minority Groups of Laos and the Implications for Non-Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Southivong, Bouavanh; Rattanavong, Oudayvone; Sengkhygnavong, Vikham; Pyaluanglath, Amphay; Sayasithsena, Saymongkhonh; Nakamura, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Murata, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population. Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3%) than among Lao Loum (12.6%). In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups. A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent.

  4. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  5. Malaria elimination in Lao PDR: the challenges associated with population mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Gopinath, Deyer; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Khamkong, Chanthalone; Sichanthongthip, Odai

    2017-04-25

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is comparatively small landlocked country with patterns of both in- and out-migration, its human migration situation has been poorly studied. This is despite all of the country's 18 provinces sharing both official and unofficial border checkpoints with neighboring countries. Economic reforms in the last decade have seen a gradual increase in the promotion of foreign investment, and main towns and transportation networks have been expanding thus offering new opportunities for livelihoods and economic activities.In the last decade, there has also been a significant reduction of reported malaria cases in Lao PDR and while this is an important prerequisite for eliminating malaria in the country, malaria outbreaks reported in the last four years suggest that population mobility, particularly in the south, is an important factor challenging current control efforts.Bolder investment in social sector spending should be geared towards improving health service provision and utilization, ensuring equitable access to primary health care (including malaria) through efforts to achieve universal health coverage targets. This should be extended to populations that are mobile and migrants. The local government plays a critical role in supporting policy and enforcement issues related to private sector project development in the provinces. Cross-border initiatives with neighboring countries, especially in terms of data sharing, surveillance, and response, is essential. Mechanisms to engage the private sector, especially the informal private sector, needs to be explored within the context of existing regulations and laws. Existing and new interventions for outdoor transmission of malaria, especially in forest settings, for high-risk groups including short- and long-term forest workers and their families, mobile and migrant populations, as well as the military must be combined into integrated packages with innovative delivery

  6. Technical Modifications for the Quality Improvement of Rice Liquor (Sraa Sar) in Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAMANO, Mitsuru; MATSUMOTO, Tetsuo; ITO, Kasumi

    2013-01-01

    One of the key strategies for economic development and poverty alleviation, especially in rural areas of Cambodia, is brought about by adding value to local agricultural products by agro-processing...

  7. Developments in immunization planning in Cambodia - rethinking the culture and organisation of national program planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McArthur, A; Soeung, S; Grundy, J; Kamara, L

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: As part of its health system reconstruction following decades of civil war, Cambodia undertook a program of health sector reform in 1996 to expand coverage of essential health services...

  8. The debate on labor standards and international trade: Lessons from Cambodia and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Günseli; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the status and enforcement of labor standards in two Asian economies (Cambodia and Bangladesh) that are experiencing strong pressures to cut labor costs and improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, interview, and compliance data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While problems persist in Bangladesh, compliance has improved in Cambodia following a trade agreement with the United State...

  9. ABUSED AND ALONE : How to Meet the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ryengen, Marius; Mørch, Grete Reinsberg

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM’s “Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking Project” has worked to prevent child mental health problems in the Rattanak/Mondul District of Cambodia. In the year of 2004 it was stated by the Program Director Dr. Eng Samnang that one of their ...

  10. Melioidosis in lower provincial Cambodia: A case series from a prospective study of sepsis in Takeo Province.

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin L Schully; Berjohn, Catherine M.; Prouty, Angela M.; Amitha Fitkariwala; Tin Som; Darith Sieng; Gregory, Michael J.; Andrew Vaughn; Sim Kheng; Vantha Te; Duplessis, Christopher A.; Lawler, James V; Danielle V Clark

    2017-01-01

    Author summary In spite of the fact that Cambodia shares borders with well-known hyper-endemic areas for Burkholderia pseudomallei where thousands of melioidosis cases occur each year, only a handful of melioidosis cases have been described in Cambodia. This is due, in part, to the lack of appropriate diagnostic resources there and the fact that physicians are not familiar with the appropriate diagnostic and treatment algorithms. As a result, the true burden of melioidosis in Cambodia is dras...

  11. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-08

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  12. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4 who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  13. Two Ways to Examine Differential Constitutive Equations: Initiated on Steady or Initiated on Unsteady (LAOS Shear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zelenkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT, Giesekus, Leonov, and modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP differential constitutive models are evaluated in two ways: with regard to steady shear characteristics and with regard to large amplitude oscillatory shear characteristics of a solution of poly(ethylene oxide in dimethyl sulfoxide. Efficiency of the models with nonlinear parameters optimized with respect to steady shear measurements is evaluated by their ability to describe large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS characteristics. The reciprocal problem is also analyzed: The nonlinear parameters are optimized with respect to the LAOS measurements, and the models are confronted with the steady shear characteristics. In this case, optimization is based on the LAOS measurements and equal emphasis is placed on both real and imaginary parts of the stress amplitude. The results show that the chosen models are not adequately able to fit the LAOS characteristics if the optimization of nonlinear parameters is based on steady shear measurements. It follows that the optimization of nonlinear parameters is much more responsible if it is carried out with respect to the LAOS data. In this case, when the optimized parameters are used for a description of steady shear characteristics, efficiency of the individual models as documented differs.

  14. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  15. First trial of cervical cytology in healthy women of urban Laos using by self-sampling instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabandith, Viengvansay; Pholsena, Vatsana; Mounthisone, Phouthasone; Shimoe, Kyoko; Kato, Saiko; Aoki, Kunio; Noda, Sadamu; Takamatsu, Reika; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Laos women and a screening programme, even with the PAP smear test (PAP test), has yet to be established for routine use. The Pap test is accepted as the most appropriate for cervical cancer screening in some settings but it is not commonly available in Laos hospitals, because there are few cytopathologists and gynecologists have little experience. As a pilot program, seminars for the PAP test were given in 2007 and 2008, and then PAP tests were carried out using self-sampling instrument (Kato's device) with 200 healthy volunteers in Setthathirath hospital, Laos, in 2008. The actual examination number was 196, divided into class I 104 (53.1%), class II 85 (43.3%), class IIIa 4 (2.0%), class IIIb 1 (0.5%), and class V 1 (0.5%) by modified Papanicolau classification. Four cases had menstruation. There were 6 cases with epithelial cell abnormalities including malignancy. There were 7 cases with fungus and 2 cases with trichomonas in Class II. More than 70% volunteers felt comfortable with the Kato's device and wanted to use it next time, because of the avoidance of the embarrassment and a low cost as compared with pelvic examination by gynecologists. This first trial for PAP test for healthy Laos women related to a hospital found three percent to have abnormal cervical epithelial cells. Therefore, this appraoch using a self-sampling device suggests that it should be planned for cervical cancer prevention in Laos.

  16. Scenarios of land system change in the Lao PDR: Transitions in response to alternative demands on goods and services provided by the land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ornetsmüller, C.; Verburg, P.H.; Heinimann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden and gradual land use changes can result in different socio-ecological systems, sometimes referred to as regime shifts. The Lao PDR (Laos) has been reported to show early signs of such regime shifts in land systems with potentially major socio-ecological implications. However, given the

  17. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand.......A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  18. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  19. Factors associated with child passenger motorcycle helmet use in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Hasan S; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2017-07-10

    This study examines factors associated with child passenger helmet use in five Cambodian provinces. We performed an analysis of periodic roadside observations of helmet use over a four-year period. A total of 62,039 child passengers 12 years of age and younger met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Overall, 1369 (2.1%) of child passengers were observed to be wearing a helmet. Most significantly, children were six times more likely to wear a helmet if the driver was wearing a helmet (OR 6.2; 95% CI 5.1-7.5). In addition, the odds of helmet use were noted to be significantly different depending on province, day of the week, time of day and number of passengers on the motorcycle. This study highlights the extremely low rate of child passenger helmet use in Cambodia, and provides priorities for interventions and enforcement to ensure all children are protected from head injury.

  20. Combining continuing education with expert consultation via telemedicine in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Xavier; Aird, James; Tho, Ly; Bintcliffe, Fiona; Monsell, Fergal; Gollogly, Jim; Noor, Saqib

    2014-04-01

    Telemedicine has the potential to increase access to both clinical consultation and continuing medical education in Cambodia. We present a Cambodian surgical centre's experience with a collaboration in which complicated orthopaedic cases were presented to a panel of consultants using free online videoconferencing software, providing a combined opportunity for both continuing education and the enhancement of patient care. Effects of the case conference on patient care were examined via a retrospective review and clinician perspectives were elicited via a qualitative survey. The case conference altered patient care in 69% of cases. All Cambodian staff reported learning from the conference and 78% reported changes in their care for patients not presented at the conference. Real-time videoconferencing between consultants in the developed world and physicians in a developing country may be an effective, low-cost and easily replicable means of combining direct benefits to patient care with continuing medical education.

  1. Health worker effectiveness and retention in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhea, Chhordaphea; Warren, Narelle; Manderson, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    A decade after health sector reform, public health services in rural Cambodia remain under-utilised for multiple reasons related to financial, structural and personnel factors. Ineffectiveness of rural public health services has led to a significant increase in private providers, often the same people who staff public facilities. Public health clinics are often portrayed as low quality, with long waiting times and unexpected costs; in contrast, private clinics are seen to provide more convenient health care. Several strategies, including contract management and health equity funds, have been introduced to improve public sector performance and encourage utilization; these efforts are ongoing. However, the feasibility of these strategies remains in question, particularly in terms of cost-effectiveness and sustainability. In this article the strategies of and barriers met by health workers who remain in rural areas and deliver public health services are elucidated. Ethnographic research conducted in 2008 with health providers involved in treating tuberculosis patients in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia is drawn on. Participants were recruited from the provincial health department, provincial hospital and four health centres. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, participation in meetings and workshops aimed at health workers, and observation of daily activities at the health facilities. Data were transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo software (www.qsrinternational.com) for management, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Primary healthcare service delivery in rural Cambodia was reliant on the retention of mid-level of health staff, primarily midwives and nurses. Its performance was influenced by institutional characteristics relating to the structure of the health system. Personal factors were impacted on by these structural issues and affected the performance of health staff. Institutional factors worked against the provision of high

  2. Prevalence of Pediculus capitis in schoolchildren in Battambang, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Cheng, Po-Ching; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chiu, Kuan-Chih; Chiang, I-Chen; Kuo, Juo-Han; Tu, Yun-Hung; Fan, Yu-Min; Jiang, Hai-Tao; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-10-23

    Pediculus capitis is the most common human ectoparasite. When it feeds on the blood through the scalp of its host, the anticoagulant in its saliva causes scalp inflammation and itching, and consequent scratching by the host causes further inflammation from bacterial infection. P. capitis infestation is currently a common parasitic dermatosis and a critical public health concern in underdeveloped countries. Through naked eye inspection of P. capitis on or in the hair from 323 school children in Cambodia. A total of 143 children (44.3%) were found to have P. capitis infestation. Univariate analysis revealed that girls had a significantly higher infection rate than boys. Overall, young aged schoolchildren (10 yrs old ≤) showed significantly higher infection rate than old aged schoolchildren (>10 yrs old). Groups stratified by time revealed that schoolchildren studied at the afternoon classes than morning classes in Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School had a significantly higher risk in acquisition of P. capitis infestation. Multivariate analysis results indicated that relative to the boys, the girls were at a significantly higher risk of contracting P. capitis infection. When stratified by inspection time with the Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School morning classes as the reference, the Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School afternoon classes exhibited a significantly higher risk of P. capitis infection. Primary school children in Cambodia have a high P. capitis infection rate and thus require effective treatment and prevention measures to treat symptoms and lower the infection rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Bolstering medical education to enhance critical care capacity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin

    2015-04-01

    The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact.

  4. Occurrence of arsenicosis in a rural village of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, D N Guha; Majumdar, K K; Santra, S C; Kol, Hero; Vicheth, Chan

    2009-04-01

    Ninety-seven subjects belonging to 40 families in a village in Cambodia were examined in a health camp where all the cases with skin disease assembled. These people had evidences of chronic arsenic exposure from reports of testing of water samples and of hair and/or nail studied. Seventy cases were diagnosed to be suffering from arsenicosis (Clinically and laboratory confirmed according to WHO criteria) as all these cases had evidences of pigmentation and/or keratosis characteristic of arsenicosis and history of exposure of arsenic contaminated water and/or elevated level of arsenic in hair and/or in nail. Highest number of cases belonged to age group of 31 to 45 yrs, both the sexes are more or less affected equally. Evidence of both pigmentation and keratosis were found in 60 cases (85.7%) while only pigmentation and only keratosis was found in 6 (8.5%) and 4 (5.7%) cases respectively. It was interesting to find 37.04% of children below the age of 16 years had skin lesions of arsenicosis. The youngest child having definite evidence of keratosis and pigmentation was aged 8 years, though two children aged 4 and 5 yrs had feature of redness and mild thickening of the palms. The minimum and maximum arsenic values detected in the nails were 1.06 and 69.48 mg/Kg respectively and the minimum and maximum arsenic values in hair were 0.92 and 25.6 mg/Kg respectively. No correlation was observed between arsenic concentration in drinking water and arsenic level in nail and hair. This is the first report of clinical and laboratory confirmed cases of arsenicosis in Cambodia.

  5. Genetic diversity of Taenia saginata (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Lao People's Democratic Republic and northeastern Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Maleewong, Wanchai; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-11

    Taenia saginata is a tapeworm found in cattle worldwide. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographical populations of T. saginata not only helps to understand the origin, transmission and spread of this organism, but also to evaluate the selection pressures acting on T. saginata and how it is responding to them. However, there are few reports of the genetic variability of T. saginata populations in different regions of the world, including Lao PDR and Thailand. We report the genetic diversity of T. saginata populations in Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand together with sequences of T. saginata from other countries deposited in GenBank. Mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis revealed that 15 and 8 haplotypes were identified in 30 and 21 T. saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand, respectively. Fifty-three haplotypes were identified from 98 sequences. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses revealed that global isolates of T. saginata were genetically divided into five groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D). Taenia saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand belonged to either Group A or B. Taenia saginata from western Thailand clustered in groups C1, C2 and D, and populations from the northeast and western Thailand were found to be genetically distinct. Taenia saginata isolates in Lao PDR and Thailand were also found to be genetically diverse but the degree of genetic differentiation was low. Taenia saginata populations from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand are genetically distinct from the population in western Thailand and it is proposed that T. saginata has been dispersed by different transmission routes in Southeast Asia.

  6. Health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement. PMID:22998748

  7. Health policymakers' knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Mayxay, Mayfong; Tomson, Tanja

    2012-09-21

    In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers' knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians' behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

  8. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is

  9. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Ha, Hoang; Thanh, Le; Marchand, Ron P; Nonaka, Daisuke; Tojo, Bumpei; Phongmany, Panom; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun

    2012-08-03

    In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively), household interviews (n = 400, both sides) and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2%) than in Vietnam (1.8%) and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90%) in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the

  10. Reaching across the Mekong: Local Socioeconomic and Gender Effects of Lao-Thai Crossborder Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgardo Gomez, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following trade agreements between ASEAN states, the expansion of cross-border roads and bridges between Laos and Thailand has linked local communities and distant markets in increasingly diverse ways. Although the planned impacts of such integration are expected to be beneficial, effects on the ground vary, as witnessed at a sleepy outpost in Xayabury and a more vibrant crossing in Savannakhet. This paper discusses first the physical setting of such border facilities, and then explores their actual local effects on traders’ activities, highlighting changes in gender roles and perceptions of entrepreneurial competition participated in by women in the two research sites.

  11. Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Panyanouvong, Xouchai; Chen, Judy; Kays, Megan B

    2011-11-16

    Although HIV prevalence has remained low in Laos thus far, there is reason to be concerned that Lao male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons (kathoy) and their partners may facilitate the spread of HIV. Little is known about how to most effectively reach kathoy with HIV prevention programming. This paper evaluates an intervention with Lao kathoy with the objective of increasing safe sex with regular and casual partners. Quantitative surveys were administered in November 2004 (n = 288) and June 2006 (n = 415) using time location sampling at venues where kathoy were known to congregate. Respondents were aged 15-35 and from three urban centers in Laos. UNIANOVA tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up survey data and to evaluate the impact of PSI's kathoy-specific interventions on items that changed significantly over time. Exposure to the intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use at last anal sex with casual partners and greater use of water-based lubricant. Exposure was also linked to improved perceptions of product availability for condoms and water-based lubricant. Knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use improved over time as well as the need to use condoms with regular partners. Some HIV knowledge decreased over time and the intention to use condoms with casual partners when water-based lubricant is available also declined. Study results demonstrate the feasibility of reaching kathoy with an integrated social marketing approach; combining product promotion, peer education, and other types of interpersonal communication. The approach was successful at increasing condom use with casual partners and water-based lubricant use, but the importance of using condoms along with water-based lubricant must be emphasized and modified strategies are required for improving condom use with boyfriends. Future messages should emphasize consistent condom use with all types of partners as well as improve knowledge and correct

  12. Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfield Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV prevalence has remained low in Laos thus far, there is reason to be concerned that Lao male-to-female (MtF transgender persons (kathoy and their partners may facilitate the spread of HIV. Little is known about how to most effectively reach kathoy with HIV prevention programming. This paper evaluates an intervention with Lao kathoy with the objective of increasing safe sex with regular and casual partners. Methods Quantitative surveys were administered in November 2004 (n = 288 and June 2006 (n = 415 using time location sampling at venues where kathoy were known to congregate. Respondents were aged 15-35 and from three urban centers in Laos. UNIANOVA tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up survey data and to evaluate the impact of PSI's kathoy-specific interventions on items that changed significantly over time. Results Exposure to the intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use at last anal sex with casual partners and greater use of water-based lubricant. Exposure was also linked to improved perceptions of product availability for condoms and water-based lubricant. Knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use improved over time as well as the need to use condoms with regular partners. Some HIV knowledge decreased over time and the intention to use condoms with casual partners when water-based lubricant is available also declined. Conclusions Study results demonstrate the feasibility of reaching kathoy with an integrated social marketing approach; combining product promotion, peer education, and other types of interpersonal communication. The approach was successful at increasing condom use with casual partners and water-based lubricant use, but the importance of using condoms along with water-based lubricant must be emphasized and modified strategies are required for improving condom use with boyfriends. Future messages should emphasize consistent condom use with all types

  13. A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

    1997-01-01

    Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)

  14. Violence Against Women in Cambodia: Towards a Culturally Responsive Theory of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-01-17

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The research draws on an ethnographic study carried out in Cambodia with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual VAW and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. The eight 'cultural attractors' identified in the author's prior research highlight the cultural barriers to acceptance of the current Theory of Change. ToC for VAW prevention in Cambodia seems to assume that local culture promotes VAW and that men and women must be educated to eradicate the traditional gender norms. There is a need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The cultural epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of VAW.

  15. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quet, Fabrice; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control. PMID:26229186

  16. Malaria education from school to community in Oudomxay province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine; Vilaysouk, Bounsou; Tsukamoto, Katsuyuki; Kano, Shigeyuki; Phommasack, Bounlay; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Waikagul, Jitra; Tateno, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2008-03-01

    School-based malaria education has been shown to be effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school children toward malaria control. However, little has been reported about the effect of such education on communities in developing countries. To evaluate the influence of school-based malaria education on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the community toward malaria, we conducted a school-based intervention in Oudomxay province, Lao PDR, and compared scores obtained before and after the intervention. Participants were 130 school children in grades 3-5 at two primary schools, 103 guardians of these children, and 130 married women who did not have children in the target grades. The intervention included presentation of a flipchart at home and a 1-day campaign conducted by the school children and aimed at the community. The flipchart presentation was conducted at villages where school children of both primary schools resided. The 1-day campaign was, however, conducted only at one village. Before and after the intervention, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey of community women that pertained to malaria. Our main finding was that, in married women without children in the target grades, particularly those who were presented with the flipchart and participated in the campaign, the scores of the mean knowledge, attitudes and practices were significantly increased 1 month after the intervention. In conclusion, our results suggest that school children can act as health information messengers from schools to communities for malaria control in Lao PDR.

  17. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  18. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quet, Fabrice; Vlieghe, Erika; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control.

  19. Tuberculosis in Laos, who is at risk: the mahouts or their elephants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassausaie, J; Bret, A; Bouapao, X; Chanthavong, V; Castonguay-Vanier, J; Quet, F; Mikota, S K; Théorêt, C; Buisson, Y; Bouchard, B

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has the potential to infect humans and is an increasing public health concern. Lao PDR is one of the last countries where elephants are still used for timber extraction and where they live in close contact with their mahouts. There are 500 animals at work in the country, some interacting with wild herds. Although human TB prevalence is known to be high in Laos, studies on elephant TB had yet to be undertaken. From January to July 2012, screening was performed using the ElephantTB Stat-Pak assay on 80 elephants working around the Nam Pouy National Park in Sayaboury Province. This represents more than 18% of the total registered national working elephant population. Here we report that 36% of the elephants were seroreactive to the test. Of these, 31% had contacts with wild individuals, which suggests potential transmission of mycobacteria to the local wild herds. Clinical examination, chest X-rays, sputum microscopy and culture were performed on their 142 mahouts or owners. Despite high TB seroreactivity in elephants, no participant was smear- or culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis, although atypical mycobacteria were isolated from 4% of participants.

  20. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syhavong, Bounkong; Rasachack, Bouachanh; Smythe, Lee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Soukkhaserm, Vimone; Phongmany, Simmaly; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Soukkhaserm, Sune; Thammavong, Te; Mayxay, Mayfong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Barnes, Eleanor; Parola, Philippe; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Raoult, Didier; Humphreys, Isla; Klenerman, Paul; White, Nicholas J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary There is little information on the diverse infectious causes of jaundice and hepatitis in the Asiatic tropics. Serology (hepatitis A, B, C and E, leptospirosis, dengue, rickettsia), antigen tests (dengue), PCR assays (hepatitis A, C and E) and blood cultures (septicaemia) were performed on samples from 392 patients admitted with jaundice or raised transaminases (≥ × 3) to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos over 3 years. Conservative definitions suggested diagnoses of dengue (8.4%), rickettsioses (7.3%), leptospirosis (6.8%), hepatitis B (4.9%), hepatitis C (4.9%), community-acquired septicaemia (3.3%) and hepatitis E (1.6%). Although anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody results suggested that 35.8% of patients had acute HAV infections, anti-HAV IgG antibody avidity and HAV PCR suggested that 82% had polyclonal activation and not acute HAV infections. Scrub typhus, murine typhus or leptospirosis were present in 12.8% of patients and were associated with meningism and relatively low AST and ALT elevation. These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis. PMID:20378138

  1. Patterns of Flavivirus Seroprevalence in the Human Population of Northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Jarman, Richard G; Gibbons, Robert V; Fenwick, Stanley G; Thompson, R C A; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-11-01

    A total of 1,136 samples from 289 households in four provinces in northern Laos were subjected to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus hemagglutination inhibition (DENV HI). Overall, antibodies to JEV were detected by HI in 620 (54.6%) of 1,136 people; of which 217 (19.1%) had HI activity against JEV only. Antibodies to DENV4 were detected by HI in 526 (46.3%) of 1,136 people; of which 124 (10.9%) had HI activity against DENV4 only. Antibodies to DENV1-3 were detected by HI in 296 (26.1%), 274 (24.1%), and 283 (24.9) of 1,136 people, respectively; of which 7, 1, and 0, respectively, had HI activity against DENV1-3 only. JEV was the most prevalent Flavivirus in Oudomxay, Luangprabang, and Huaphan provinces and DENV4 was the most prevalent in Xiengkhouang province. Seroprevalence for JEV increased with increasing age and wealth and was higher in villages where rice was cultivated in paddy fields and highest for people of Lao-Tai ethnicity. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Identification of a Newly Isolated Getah Virus in the China-Laos Border, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Fu, Shi Hong; Guo, Xiao Fang; Lei, Wen Wen; Li, Xiao Long; Song, Jing Dong; Cao, Lei; Gao, Xiao Yan; Lyu, Zhi; He, Ying; Wang, Huan Yu; Ren, Xiao Jie; Zhou, Hong Ning; Wang, Gui Qin; Liang, Guo Dong

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we isolated a virus strain (YN12031) from specimens of Armigeres subalbatus collected in the China-Laos border. BHK-21 cells infected with YN12031 exhibited an evident cytopathic effect (CPE) 32 h post-infection. The virus particles were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and enveloped; they also featured surface fibers. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that YN12031 was closely related to alpha viruses such as Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus, and located in the same clade as MM2021, the prototype of Getahvirus (GETV) isolated in Malaysia in 1955. Phylogenetic analysis of the E2 and capsid genes further revealed that YN12031 was located in the same clade as the Russian isolate LEIV/16275/Mag. Analysis of the homology of nucleotides and amino acids in the coding area and E2 gene demonstrated that the YN12031 isolated from the China-Laos border (tropical region) was related closest to the LEIV/16275/Mag isolate obtained in Russia (North frigid zone area) among other isolates studied. These results suggest that GETV can adapt to different geographical environments to propagate and evolve. Thus, strengthening the detection and monitoring of GETV and its related diseases is very crucial. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the limestone forest of Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of three specimens from Khammouane Province, Laos. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by the combination of the following characters: adult SVL 69.2-70.0 mm; dorsal head and neck with dark blotches; nuchal loop present; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions; 19 or 20 irregular rows of dorsal tubercles; 32 or 33 ventral scale rows; ventrolateral folds present, with distinct tubercles; dorsal surface of hind limbs with tubercles; 29 precloacal and femoral pores in a continuous row in males, precloacal pores absent in the female; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; 4 or 5 postcloacal tubercles; and subcaudals transversely enlarged. The new species most closely resembles Cyrtodactylus jaegeri and Cyrtodactylus roesleri in overall coloration and pattern. However, they can be clearly distinguished from each other in the number of dorsal tubercle rows, ventral scales, and femoral and precloacal pores. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki is the 16th species of Cyrtodactylus known from Laos.

  4. An industry compatible low-damage nano-patterning process for LAO/STO heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minhas, Mohsin Zamir; Blaschek, Hans-Helmuth [Institut fuer Physik, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle (Saale) (Germany); Heyroth, Frank [Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schmidt, Georg [Institut fuer Physik, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle (Saale) (Germany); Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of an electron gas at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) has initiated a huge effort to study this interface in detail. Later on other interesting properties such as induced ferromagnetism and superconductivity have been reported which make the LAO/STO interface a model system to study the fundamental physics of strongly correlated electronic system and also a candidate for future multifunctional oxide electronics. A reproducible nano-patterning technique is required to develop this unique interface into useful technologies. Here we present a reliable technique to physically pattern the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG) down to lateral dimensions as small as 100nm while maintaining its conducting properties. The fully industry compatible process uses electron beam lithography in combination with reactive ion etching. Temperature dependent transport properties of patterned Hall bars of various widths show a small size dependence of conductivity. The deviation can be explained by a narrow lateral depletion region.

  5. No Evidence for Spread of Plasmodium falciparum Artemisinin Resistance to Savannakhet Province, Southern Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Chanthongthip, Odai; Imwong, Mallika; Lee, Sue J.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Soonthornsata, Bongkot; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phompida, Samlane; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Ringwald, Pascal; White, Nicholas J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an open-label, randomized clinical trial to assess parasite clearance times (PCT) and the efficacy of 4 mg/kg (group 1, n = 22) and 2 mg/kg (group 2, n = 22) of oral artesunate for three days followed by artemether-lumefantrine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Xepon Interdistrict Hospital, Savannakhet Province in southern Laos. Slides were read in duplicate. The overall mean (95% confidence interval; range) PCT in hours was 23.2 (21.2–25.3; 12–46) and 22.4 (20.3–24.5; 12–46) for the first and second microscopists, respectively (P = 0.57). Ten (23%) patients remained parasitemic on day 1 after treatment (4 [18%] in group 1 and 6 [27%] in group 2; P = 0.47). No patient had patent asexual parasitemia on the second and third days of treatment. The 42-day polymerase chain reaction–corrected cure rates were 100% in both treatment groups. Serious adverse events did not develop during or after treatment in any patients. In conclusion, no evidence of P. falciparum in vivo resistance to artesunate was found in southern Laos. PMID:22403308

  6. Investigating baseline red meat slaughter operator capacity and directions for development in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joanne C; Young, James R; Schemann, Kathrin; Chankhamthong, Phaivanh; Khounsy, Syseng; Nampanya, Sonevilay; Windsor, Peter A; Bush, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    A study of operator knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) in red meat slaughter premise operations in northern Laos was conducted and compared with international best practice, to inform future industry development. The survey interviewed 68 (of 94 possible participants) employees from all ten commercial slaughter premises in six districts in three northern Laos provinces. This was supported by observations of slaughter premises, processes and the conduct of personnel. Descriptive analysis and linear regression modelling identified significant KAP predictor factors, and a gap analysis supported or rejected inferences from the generally low KAP scores for human and animal health, animal welfare, good manufacturing practices (GMP), work conditions and economics. The median proportion of correctly/desirably answered knowledge-related questions was 35.2% (interquartile range [IQR] = 22.2-51.9%) with 27.3% (IQR = 15.9-31.8%) for the attitude-related questions and 21.4% (IQR = 14.3-35.7%) for the practice-related questions. Two districts had significantly lower KAP scores than other districts, and staff had the lowest and meat inspectors had the highest scores. This study indicates that the current KAP for red meat processing falls short of international standards and that training programmes on disease risks and prevention are important in facilitating red meat industry development.

  7. A New Black Fly Species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Maleewong, Wanchai; Low, Van Lun

    2017-11-07

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) laosense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Laos. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein. It is characterized by the pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as 3 + 3 + 2 from dorsal to ventral, of which an inner filament of the ventral pair is slightly longer than its counter filament, and is 1.7-1.8 times as long as filaments of the middle triplet. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from Simulium (G.) johorense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob from Peninsular Malaysia and four other related species. The phylogenetic position of this new species in the S. batoense species-group is also presented based on the mitochondrial COI gene. This new species represents the second species known from Laos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mika; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Phongsavath, Khampe; Phommasack, Bounlay; Makino, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. PMID:25695095

  9. [Medical exchange between faculty of medicine, university of the Ryukyus and Laos country. Medical support with a cleft lip and palate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunakawa, Hajime

    2013-09-01

    The Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, started a "Public Health Project in Lao P.D.R.", which is one of the JICA projects, in 1992, and has been carrying out the "Sethathirath Hospital Improvement Project" since 1999 to improve medical treatment and health care in Lao P.D.R. Marked progress has been made. In addition, the projects of "Medical support for cleft lip and palate patients" performed by both the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the University of the Ryukyus Hospital and Okinawa-Laos Cleft Lip and Palate Support Center have continued since 2001. So far, 231 cleft lip and palate patients have benefited from these projects, and favorable effects of medical education and technology transfer for medical staff in Laos have been obtained. Furthermore, during the 3-year period of another JICA project, called "From tooth brushing to oral health--Oral care education for Laos children", the dental caries rate of children in Donkoi Elementary School in Laos reduced from 92.5 to 61.8%, showing a decrease of 30.7%. Based on these encouraging results, in 2012, the JICA started a larger partnership project named 'Cha-ganzyu', which is from the dialect of Okinawa meaning health forever, focusing on oral health improvement of school children and local people of Laos.

  10. Sediment accumulation owing to backwater effect in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Kubo, Sumiko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Egashira, Shinji

    2017-11-01

    We examined channel bars at two sites in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, which flows into Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia, to identify sediment transport and accumulation processes during monsoon-related flood events and to investigate how sediment transport capacity changes as a result of enhanced backwater effect of the lake. Channel bars in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River that emerge in the dry season were classified into type A (lateral bars), type B (point bars), type C (concave-bank benches) and type D (diagonal and island bars, or fluvial dunes) based on Nagumo et al.'s previous study. Type B, type C, and type D channel bars were at our study sites of SEN-01 and SEN-02, about 83 and 77 km from the river mouth respectively. Computation of water surface profiles showed that sediment transport capacity of the Stung Sen River decreased abruptly after the peak flow stage because of the backwater effect from Lake Tonle Sap during the decreasing flow stage. Our observations suggest that alternating layers of sand and silt to clay layers accumulate to form type C channel bars, corresponding to changes in sediment transport capacity controlled by backwater effects from Lake Tonle Sap and by changes in flow depths and associated slackwater systems. The accumulation of alternating silt and sand layers of type B channel bars results from lateral sediment transportation that is accelerated with an increase of secondary flow, whereas development of type D channel bars is related to bedload mobility.

  11. Partner-Drug Resistance and Population Substructuring of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, Christian M; Parr, Jonathan B; Brazeau, Nicholas F; Lon, Chanthap; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Barnett, Eric J; Norris, Lauren D; Meshnick, Steven R; Spring, Michele D; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Saunders, David L; Lin, Jessica T; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia has developed resistance to artemisinin and its partner drugs, causing frequent treatment failure. Understanding this evolution can inform the deployment of new therapies. We investigated the genetic architecture of 78 falciparum isolates using whole-genome sequencing, correlating results to in vivo and ex vivo drug resistance and exploring the relationship between population structure, demographic history, and partner drug resistance. Principle component analysis, network analysis and demographic inference identified a diverse central population with three clusters of clonally expanding parasite populations, each associated with specific K13 artemisinin resistance alleles and partner drug resistance profiles which were consistent with the sequential deployment of artemisinin combination therapies in the region. One cluster displayed ex vivo piperaquine resistance and mefloquine sensitivity with a high rate of in vivo failure of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Another cluster displayed ex vivo mefloquine resistance and piperaquine sensitivity with high in vivo efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The final cluster was clonal and displayed intermediate sensitivity to both drugs. Variations in recently described piperaquine resistance markers did not explain the difference in mean IC90 or clinical failures between the high and intermediate piperaquine resistance groups, suggesting additional loci may be involved in resistance. The results highlight an important role for partner drug resistance in shaping the P. falciparum genetic landscape in Southeast Asia and suggest that further work is needed to evaluate for other mutations that drive piperaquine resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Reconstruction of the past flow channels in the early Holocene at Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Shimoda, I.

    2013-05-01

    Lake Tonle Sap is located at the central part of Cambodia, South-East Asia. In rainy season, the water body swells with the water depth accordingly increasing from 1 up to 10 meters due to a pulsive intrusion from the Mekong River. The lake is therefore a vital reservoir that protects the region from flooding. It is paleolimnologically important to better understand how the lake has gained the function controlling water balance of this region. We undertook an extensive echo-sounding exploration at the lake in order to clarify the subsurface structure of Lake Tonle Sap. The survey was conducted in rainy seasons from 2009 to 2012. Sediment cores were collected at three sites at the middle part of the lake. Echo sounding was undertaken over the whole part of the lake using a single-channel sub-bottom profiling system (Stratabox, SyQwest Inc.). A prominent sound frequency of 10 KHz was selected in order to observe structure of reflectance planes up to the 40-m depth. In consequence, we discovered deposited valleys forming a complex network of past flow channels. The subsurface structure of the lake bed was mostly complacent showing a strongly reflecting plane observed at the depth of 1-2 meters; the sediments mainly consisted of mud. A number of valley-shaped reflecting planes were observed at the depth of 10-14 meters. Radiocarbon dates of carbonaceous materials collected at the vally bottom were around 10 ka calBP. A 3-D reconstruction presented a complex network of deposited flow channels.

  13. MLVA polymorphism of Salmonella enterica subspecies isolated from humans, animals, and food in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarthou Jean

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella (S. enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis therefore need to be reliably discriminated. Due to the limitations of serotyping, molecular genotyping methods have been developed, including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA. In our study, 11 variable number tandem-repeats markers were selected from the S. enterica Typhimurium LT2 genome to evaluate the genetic diversity of 206 S. enterica strains collected in Cambodia between 2001 and 2007. Findings Thirty one serovars were identified from three sources: humans, animals and food. The markers were able to discriminate all strains from 2 to 17 alleles. Using the genotype phylogeny repartition, MLVA distinguished 107 genotypes clustered into two main groups: S. enterica Typhi and other serovars. Four serovars (Derby, Schwarzengrund, Stanley, and Weltevreden were dispersed in 2 to 5 phylogenic branches. Allelic variations within S. enterica serovars was represented using the minimum spanning tree. For several genotypes, we identified clonal complexes within the serovars. This finding supports the notion of endemo-epidemic diffusion within animals, food, or humans. Furthermore, a clonal transmission from one source to another was reported. Four markers (STTR3, STTR5, STTR8, and Sal20 presented a high diversity index (DI > 0.80. Conclusions In summary, MLVA can be used in the typing and genetic profiling of a large diversity of S. enterica serovars, as well as determining the epidemiological relationships of the strains with the geography of the area.

  14. Piperaquine Population Pharmacokinetics and Cardiac Safety in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; Sok, Sommethy; Ta-Aksorn, Winita; Kodchakorn, Chanikarn; Pann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; So, Mary; Youdaline, Theng; Milner, Erin; Wojnarski, Mariusz; Lanteri, Charlotte; Manning, Jessica; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis; Saunders, David

    2017-05-01

    Despite the rising rates of resistance to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), DP remains a first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in many parts of Cambodia. While DP is generally well tolerated as a 3-day DP (3DP) regimen, compressed 2-day DP (2DP) regimens were associated with treatment-limiting cardiac repolarization effects in a recent clinical trial. To better estimate the risks of piperaquine on QT interval prolongation, we pooled data from three randomized clinical trials conducted between 2010 and 2014 in northern Cambodia. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to compare exposure-response relationships between the 2DP and 3DP regimens while accounting for differences in regimen and sample collection times between studies. A 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination without covariates best fit the data. The linear slope-intercept model predicted a 0.05-ms QT prolongation per ng/ml of piperaquine (5 ms per 100 ng/ml) in this largely male population. Though the plasma half-life was similar in both regimens, peak and total piperaquine exposures were higher in those treated with the 2DP regimen. Furthermore, the correlation between the plasma piperaquine concentration and the QT interval prolongation was stronger in the population receiving the 2DP regimen. Neither the time since the previous meal nor the baseline serum magnesium or potassium levels had additive effects on QT interval prolongation. As electrocardiographic monitoring is often nonexistent in areas where malaria is endemic, 2DP regimens should be avoided and the 3DP regimen should be carefully considered in settings where viable alternative therapies exist. When DP is employed, the risk of cardiotoxicity can be mitigated by combining a 3-day regimen, enforcing a 3-h fast before and after administration, and avoiding the concomitant use of QT interval-prolonging medications. (This study used data from three clinical trials that are registered at Clinical

  15. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  16. Evaluation of the Standard Diagnostics Leptospira IgM ELISA for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smythe, Lee; Dohnt, Michael; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Davong, Viengmone; Lattana, Olay; Newton, Paul N.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of the Standard Diagnostics Leptospira IgM ELISA for detection of acute leptospirosis was assessed in febrile adults admitted in Vientiane, Laos. Using the cut-off suggested by the manufacturer [optical density (OD) >= 0.75], the assay demonstrated limited diagnostic capacity

  17. Floristic characteristics and affinities in Lao PDR, with a reference to the biogeography of the Indochina peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhu

    Full Text Available The flora of Laos is composed of 5,005 species in 1,373 genera and 188 families of seed plants. Floristic and geographical attributes of the flora were analyzed. Tropical floristic elements at the family and generic levels contributed a majority (62.23% of the families and 82.30% of the genera of the flora, of which the dominant geographical elements were pantropical distribution (42.02% of families and tropical Asian distribution (30.08% of genera. This revealed that the flora of Lao PDR is tropical in nature and has a conspicuously tropical Asian affinity. Compared with the neighbouring countries of the Indochina peninsula, the flora of Laos has similar floristic composition and geographical elements. The floras of these Indochinese countries have similarities of more than 77.84% at the generic level, which suggests that they compose an affiliated biogeographical region. However, the flora of Laos showed the highest similarity to the flora of Vietnam (92.13%, followed by Myanmar (86.01% at the generic level, but has less East Asian and North Temperate elements than Vietnam, and less North Temperate elements than Myanmar. These differences among the compared countries could be explained by the extrusion of the Indochinese block with the uplift of the Himalayas.

  18. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  19. Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni new species (Hydropsychidae: Trichoptera) with species list of Trichoptera from Li Phi Falls, Mekong River, southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudee, Pongsak; Malicky, Hans

    2017-03-10

    A new species named Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni n. sp. is presented along with a list of Trichoptera from Li Phi falls, Mekong River, southern Laos. Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni n. sp. is described and figured based on adult males and females. It is distinguished from the others by its forewing pattern and color, which is yellowish brown.

  20. Evaluation of Molecular Methods To Improve the Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil and Water Samples from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappik, Michael; Dance, David A B; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Pierret, Alain; Ribolzi, Olivier; Davong, Viengmon; Silisouk, Joy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Newton, Paul N; Dittrich, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe and potentially fatal disease of humans and animals. It is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and is found in soil and surface water. The environmental distribution of B. pseudomallei worldwide and within countries where it is endemic, such as the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), remains unclear. However, this knowledge is important to our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of B. pseudomallei and to facilitate public health interventions. Sensitive and specific methods to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples are therefore needed. The aim of this study was to compare molecular and culture-based methods for the detection of B. pseudomallei in soil and surface water in order to identify the optimal approach for future environmental studies in Laos. Molecular detection by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was attempted after DNA extraction directly from soil or water samples or after an overnight enrichment step. The positivity rates obtained by qPCR were compared to those obtained by different culture techniques. The rate of detection from soil samples by qPCR following culture enrichment was significantly higher (84/100) than that by individual culture methods and all culture methods combined (44/100; P Lao environmental samples and is recommended as the preferred method for future surveys. Copyright © 2015, Knappik et al.

  1. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  2. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  3. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province......, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most...... common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies...

  4. Observed and projected changes in temperature and rainfall in Cambodia

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    Heng Chan Thoeun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and rainfall patterns in Cambodia are governed by monsoons and characterized by two major wet and dry seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1400 mm in the central low land regions and may reach 4000 mm in certain coastal zones or in highland areas. The annual average temperature is 28 °C, with an average maximum temperature of 38 °C in April and an average minimum temperature of 17 °C in January. This paper presents the climate change scenarios using MAGICC–SCENGEN program, which links emissions scenarios with global and regional climate change and has adopted the regional climate model (PRECIS in combination with a number of GCM models with resolution of 50×50 km, using observation data and two historical and future climate data sets generated by RCM model downscaling under the two emission scenarios SRES A2 and SRES B2. Projections of maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall patterns from 2008 to 2099 are described. For future studies, daily data are required perform vulnerability and adaptation assessments.

  5. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  6. [Dermatology in Cambodia: Sustainable establishment of a medical discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendick, Ch

    2015-05-01

    After almost 25 years of dictatorship and civil war, in the mid 1990s, Cambodia was in dire need of improvement of its medical infrastructure on all levels. Attention had already been focused on establishing primary care services such as emergency surgery, paediatrics and gynaecology/obstetrics; however dermatovenereology services had so far not been addressed. Using a comprehensive approach aiming at sustainable development, German, French and Cambodian institutions worked together to identify four core areas in need of improvement: postgraduate training, development of skin clinics, quality management, and integration of dermatology services into the health insurance scheme. Since 2005, this "Masterplan Dermatology" was financially supported by the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) based in Frankfurt am Main and Else Kröner Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS) based in Bad Homburg auf der Höhe. Significant improvements have been made due to the efforts of the above institutions with the support of the donors; however challenges of this complex endeavor still remain.

  7. Financial sustainability planning for immunization services in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-07-01

    The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.

  8. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine

    2006-08-11

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.

  9. The Holocene history and development of the Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Dan

    2006-02-01

    The Tonle Sap, the 'Great Lake' of central Cambodia, is the central component of wetland ecosystems in the lower Mekong River basin, and is of enormous conservation value. The lake's unusual hydraulic relationship with the Mekong River, and its consequent sensitivity to monsoon variability, makes the Tonle Sap sensitive to climate change. Exploring the dynamics and development of this system under different climate regimes of the past offers a perspective on possible future impacts, which is critical for sound management. Biostratigraphic and sedimentological data derived from cores of lake sediment indicate that during the period >7000 to ca. 5500 14C years Before Present the lake was less variable than present in terms of depth during the annual cycle of flood, and may have been strongly influenced by saline tidal waters associated with higher-than-present seas levels. As regional environments became drier and more seasonal in the late Holocene, more sediment was re-suspended during the increasingly marked dry season lake level minimum, lowering the effective sediment accumulation rate. Contrary to current interpretations of the history of the lake and associated wetland ecosystems, the data presented here imply that regional hydraulic connections between the lake and the Mekong River existed from at least the early Holocene.

  10. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

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    Volker KLEINHENZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production, its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity, low farmer income and rural poverty. The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June, 2011. It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement. Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies. At distances greater than 10 km, transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails. This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH ( 4.0. Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April. Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines. Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59% and yields average 3.2 t/hm2. Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system. Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies, using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality. Along with rice, farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  11. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD = 3.87) and 4.63 (SD = 3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p = .012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p =. 063) and consistent condom use with clients (p = .053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Laos toward the discovery of bioactive compounds as potential candidates for pharmaceutical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Kadushin, M.R.; Southavong, B.; Sydara, K.; Bouamanivong, S.; Xaiveu, M.; Zhang, H.-J.; Franzblau, S.G.; Tan, Ghee T.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Riley, M.C.; Elkington, B.G.; Waller, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 8000–11,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria. PMID:22136442

  13. Investigation of infectious reproductive pathogens of large ruminants: Are neosporosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis and BVDV of relevance in Lao PDR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, L; Dye, M T; Reichel, M P; Young, J R; Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Thomson, P C; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2018-01-01

    N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo are globally significant reproductive pathogens that cause abortion and reproductive loss in large ruminants. Prevalence information is lacking in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) despite the poor reproductive performance of cattle and buffalo. Serological examination of frozen cattle (n=90) and buffalo (n=61) sera by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided the first reported screening of some of these pathogens in Laos. Seroprevalence differed amongst these large ruminant species, with N. caninum, BVDV and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo antibodies found in 68.9% (95% CI±11.6), 4.9% (95% CI±5.4) and 3.3% (95% CI±4.5) of buffalo sera, respectively, and in 7.8% (95% CI±5.5), 10.0% (95% CI±6.2) and 22.2% (95% CI±8.6) of cattle sera, respectively. Buffalo sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of N. caninum compared to cattle (p<0.001) and cattle sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of L. interrogans serovar Hardjo compared to buffalo (p=0.003). Variability was also observed across provinces for N. caninum in buffalo (p=0.007) and for L. interrogans serovar Hardjo in cattle (p=0.071), suggesting provincial risk factors conducive to pathogen transmission. BVDV and N. caninum seropositivity were negatively associated in buffalo (p=0.018) and cattle (p=0.003). In buffalo, L. interrogans serovar Hardjo and BVDV seropositivity were associated (p=0.035, p=0.039). The identification of antibodies against three major abortifacient pathogens in Laos prompts further research to determine if infection is associated with low reproductive efficiency and the risk factors for infection. This is needed for the development of evidence based prevention strategies for improved large ruminant reproductive management among smallholders in Laos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying orchid hotspots for biodiversity conservation in Laos: the limestone karst vegetation of Vang Vieng District, Vientiane Province

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    Pankaj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A project to study the phytodiversity of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot (IBBH was initiated by Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, in 2011, with the aim of surveying primary forest fragments and identifying conservation priorities within this expansive but highly threatened ecoregion. Vang Vieng District of Vientiane Province, northern Laos, was chosen as a focus for a pilot expedition, since it features an extensive karst landscape that has barely been explored. Together with officials from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Lao PDR, surveys of three sites were conducted in April 2012, at the end of the dry northeast monsoon season. Emphasis was placed on Orchidaceae because it is among the most species-rich and commercially exploited flowering plant families in the region. A total of 179 specimens were collected, of which approximately 135 were unique taxa accounting for 29.6% of the orchids found in Laos and 5.8% of those found in IBBH as a whole, and equivalent to 0.27 species/hectare within the area surveyed, substantially higher than published figures for other limestone areas in the region, such as Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam (0.0055 species/hectare and Perlis State in Peninsular Malaysia (0.0036 species/hectare.  At least one is a species new to science, nine represent new distributional records for Laos and a further nine are new records for Vientiane Province. A list of the species encountered during the study is presented and the significance of the findings is discussed. Major threats to the natural environment in northern Laos are highlighted.

  15. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  16. Dichomeris Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Dichomeridinae)  from Cambodia, including associated Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengnan; Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop; Li, Houhun

    2017-06-02

    In a faunal study of the micromoths in Cambodia, thirteen species of the genus Dichomeris (Gelechiidae, Dichomeridinae) are recognized, including associated Chinese species. Eight species are described as new: D. arcuata sp. nov., D. splendiptera sp. nov., D. samkosensis sp. nov., D. foliforma sp. nov., D. magnimacularis sp. nov., D. hainanensis sp. nov., D. cambodiensis sp. nov., D. acutivalvata sp. nov. Five species are newly recorded for Cambodia: D. orientis Park & Hodges, D. fuscusitis Li & Zheng, D. obsepta (Meyrick), D. microsphena Meyrick, and D. matsumurai Ponomarenko & Ueda. . Images of adults and genitalia are provided.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Rural Incentive Packages for Graduating Medical Students in Lao PDR

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    Eric Keuffel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The dearth of health workers in rural settings in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR and other developing countries limits healthcare access and outcomes. In evaluating non-wage financial incentive packages as a potential policy option to attract health workers to rural settings, understanding the expected costs and effects of the various programs ex antecan assist policy-makers in selecting the optimal incentive package. Methods We use discrete choice experiments (DCEs, costing analyses and recent empirical results linking health worker density and health outcomes to estimate the future location decisions of physicians and determine the costeffectiveness of 15 voluntary incentives packages for new physicians in Lao PDR. Our data sources include a DCE survey completed by medical students (n = 329 in May 2011 and secondary cost, economic and health data. Mixed logit regressions provide the basis for estimating how each incentive package influences rural versus urban location choice over time. We estimate the expected rural density of physicians and the cost-effectiveness of 15 separate incentive packages from a societal perspective. In order to generate the cost-effectiveness ratios we relied on the rural uptake probabilities inferred from the DCEs, the costing data and prior World Health Organization (WHO estimates that relate health outcomes to health worker density. Results Relative to no program, the optimal voluntary incentive package would increase rural physician density by 15% by 2016 and 65% by 2041. After incorporating anticipated health effects, seven (three of the 15 incentive packages have anticipated average cost-effectiveness ratio less than the WHO threshold (three times gross domestic product [GDP] per capita over a 5-year (30 year period. The optimal package’s incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is $1454/QALY (quality-adjusted life year over 5 years and $2380/QALY over 30 years. Capital intensive components

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Rural Incentive Packages for Graduating Medical Students in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffell, Eric; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Theppanya, Khampasong; Tulenko, Kate

    2016-10-29

    The dearth of health workers in rural settings in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) and other developing countries limits healthcare access and outcomes. In evaluating non-wage financial incentive packages as a potential policy option to attract health workers to rural settings, understanding the expected costs and effects of the various programs ex ante can assist policy-makers in selecting the optimal incentive package. We use discrete choice experiments (DCEs), costing analyses and recent empirical results linking health worker density and health outcomes to estimate the future location decisions of physicians and determine the cost-effectiveness of 15 voluntary incentives packages for new physicians in Lao PDR. Our data sources include a DCE survey completed by medical students (n = 329) in May 2011 and secondary cost, economic and health data. Mixed logit regressions provide the basis for estimating how each incentive package influences rural versus urban location choice over time. We estimate the expected rural density of physicians and the cost-effectiveness of 15 separate incentive packages from a societal perspective. In order to generate the cost-effectiveness ratios we relied on the rural uptake probabilities inferred from the DCEs, the costing data and prior World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that relate health outcomes to health worker density. Relative to no program, the optimal voluntary incentive package would increase rural physician density by 15% by 2016 and 65% by 2041. After incorporating anticipated health effects, seven (three) of the 15 incentive packages have anticipated average cost-effectiveness ratio less than the WHO threshold (three times gross domestic product [GDP] per capita) over a 5-year (30 year) period. The optimal package's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is $1454/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) over 5 years and $2380/QALY over 30 years. Capital intensive components, such as housing or facility improvement

  19. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos.

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    Vilada Chansamouth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos.This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10-14 and were monitored until delivery.250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range gestational age on admission was 24 (4-43 weeks. The median (range tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5-40.5°C. Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60% were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53% had a single disease and 17 (7% had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum

  20. Financial Impacts of Foot-and-Mouth Disease at Village and National Levels in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Young, J R; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2016-10-01

    To assist policies on Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control in Laos and the Mekong region, the financial impact of recent outbreaks at village and national levels was examined. Village-level impacts were derived from recent research on financial losses due to FMD per smallholder household and number of households with FMD-affected livestock in the village. National-level impacts of FMD were determined from examination of 2011-2013 FMD reported to the Lao Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), with the 2011 epidemic reported separately due to the large number and size of outbreaks of FMD in that year. Estimates of the national financial impact of FMD were based on (i) total FMD financial losses at the village level and (ii) the costs of FMD responses and other related costs at the DLF, provincial and district levels where FMD was reported, but excluding the costs of revenue forgone. A Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to account for likelihood of FMD over- and under-reporting. Foot-and-mouth disease was recorded in four provinces of Phonsaly, Bokeo, Xayyabouli and Champasak in three consecutive years from 2011 to 2013. However, the FMD epidemic in 2011 was more widely distributed and involved 414 villages in 14 provinces, with thousands of cases of morbidity in cattle and buffalo and some mortalities. The estimated financial losses due to FMD in 2011 were USD 30 881(±23 176) at the village level and USD 13 512 291 at the national level based on the number of villages with FMD outbreaks reported. However, when the likelihood of FMD under-reporting was accounted for, the estimated financial losses at the national level could potentially increase to USD 102 094 464 (±52 147 261), being almost 12% of the estimated farm gate value of the national large ruminant herd. These findings confirm that FMD causes substantial financial impacts in villages and to the national economy of Laos, providing justification for sustained investments in FMD control

  1. Health care expenditure for hospital-based delivery care in Lao PDR

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    Douangvichit Daovieng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA in a hospital is advocated to improve maternal health; however, hospital expenses for delivery care services are a concern for women and their families, particularly for women who pay out-of-pocket. Although health insurance is now implemented in Lao PDR, it is not universal throughout the country. The objectives of this study are to estimate the total health care expenses for vaginal delivery and caesarean section, to determine the association between health insurance and family income with health care expenditure and assess the effect of health insurance from the perspectives of the women and the skilled birth attendants (SBAs in Lao PDR. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two provincial hospitals in Lao PDR, from June to October 2010. Face to face interviews of 581 women who gave birth in hospital and 27 SBAs was carried out. Both medical and non-medical expenses were considered. A linear regression model was used to assess influencing factors on health care expenditure and trends of medical and non-medical expenditure by monthly family income stratified by mode of delivery were assessed. Results Of 581 women, 25% had health care insurance. Health care expenses for delivery care services were significantly higher for caesarean section (270 USD than for vaginal delivery (59 USD. After adjusting for the effect of hospital, family income was significantly associated with all types of expenditure in caesarean section, while it was associated with non-medical and total expenditures in vaginal delivery. Both delivering women and health providers thought that health insurance increased the utilisation of delivery care. Conclusions Substantially higher delivery care expenses were incurred for caesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Three-fourths of the women who were not insured needed to be responsible for their own health care payment. Women who had higher family

  2. The malaria testing and treatment landscape in the southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanalasy, Saysana

    2017-04-25

    In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals. A 2015 outlet survey conducted in five provinces of the southern Lao PDR was the first of its kind to study the total market for malaria treatments and diagnostics. The sub-national outlet survey was designed to describe the market and to assess public and private sector readiness and performance for malaria case management. Additionally, key indicators were estimated among private outlets within districts with and without a Public Private Mix (PPM) programme. Over half of anti-malarial stockists were public sector (65.1%). In the private sector, pharmacies most commonly stocked anti-malarials, although anti-malarials were also found in private health facilities, drug stores, general retailers, and itinerant drug vendors. Nearly all anti-malarial stocking public health facilities had AL (99.5%) and 90.8% had confirmatory testing. Fewer than half of anti-malarial stocking private outlets stocked AL (40.8%) and malaria testing (43.5%). Chloroquine has not been a first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria since 2005 and Plasmodium vivax since 2011 yet private sector availability was 77.6% and chloroquine accounted for 62.2% of the total anti-malarial market share. AL and confirmatory testing availability were higher in private outlets in PPM (68.1, 72.6%) versus non-PPM districts (2.5, 12.1%). Chloroquine was available in 63.6% of PPM and 96.7% of non-PPM-district outlets, and was the most commonly distributed anti-malarial among private outlets in both PPM (61

  3. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E; Blacksell, Stuart D; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N

    2016-04-01

    Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10-14 and were monitored until delivery. 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4-43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5-40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum malaria

  4. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos

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    Lorvongseng Somchay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%. The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. Methods During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Results Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6% received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. Conclusion We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to

  5. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Harimanana, Aina N; Lorvongseng, Somchay; Ongkhammy, Somvay; Chu, Cindy

    2010-10-12

    In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%). The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6%) received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to HPAI training and message misinterpretation. Future educational

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  7. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-01-01

    ... from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos...

  8. Khub traditions in Northern Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Conservation and transmission

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    Dome Swangarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research was conducted in three Northern provinces of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic with the aim of investigating the traditional art of khub music and its conservation and inheritance. Data were collected from documents and field research using interviews, observation and focus group discussions as data collection tools. The results show that Morkhub, musicians, teachers, students and audiences all contribute to the success or failure of conservation and inheritance of traditional Laotian music. The majority of problems with conservation stem from a lack of interest and the dilution of local culture with modern Western influences. As a result of this investigation, a four-point plan was proposed to standardize and support future conservation of khub traditions by inclusion in the education system.

  9. Corporate social responsibility: Benefits for youth in hydropower development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  10. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Lee, Sue J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi), and leptospirosis are common causes of febrile illness in Asia; meningitis and meningoencephalitis are severe complications. However, scarce data exist for the burden of these pathogens...... infections (p=0·076). INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that R typhi/Rickettsia spp, O tsutsugamushi, and Leptospira spp infections are important causes of CNS infections in Laos. Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, needed for the treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus, are not routinely advised...... for empirical treatment of CNS infections. These severely neglected infections represent a potentially large proportion of treatable CNS disease burden across vast endemic areas and need more attention. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust UK....

  11. The Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment from Thailand and Export on the Economic Growth of Laos

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    Thanet Wattanakul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between Laos’s GDP, Thailand’s direct investment to Laos and Laos’s export to Thailand by using 44 quarters of data from 2005 Q1 to 2015 Q4. All relationships were studied using the vector error correction model (VECM. The results presented long run relationship from Laos’ GDP and Laos’ export to Thailand as well as from Thailand’s direct investment to Laos’s GDP and Laos’s export to Thailand. In the short run, there was only unidirectional relationship from Laos’s GDP to Laos’s exports to Thailand. This study indicates that Laos’s exporters receive benefits from Thailand’s direct investment contribution to accelerate economic growth in the short term. Therefore, Laos’s government should distribute income from the exporters to other economy sectors or spread the types of export goods into a larger range.

  12. Roadside observation of secondary school students' commuting to school in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Mayxay, Mayfong; Kimura, Akio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate modes of secondary school students' commuting to school and their unsafe driving practices in Laos, we conducted a roadside observation in front of the gate of a selected school in central Vientiane in December 2011. Of the 544 students observed, the majority came to school on foot (43%), followed by motorcycle (36%), and bicycle (14%). Of the 195 students who commuted by motorcycle, 45 (23%) drove it themselves. Of the 150 students who commuted as pillion riders, 35 (23%) were driven by a student or another child driver. The prevalence of helmet use among students (3%) was much lower than adults (66%). It was common for adult drivers to wear a helmet but to leave student pillion riders unhelmeted on the same motorcycle. Carrying two or three pillion riders was also often observed. The study revealed the necessity for measures to promote safe travel to school.

  13. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Nophaseud, Liphone; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-07-09

    We describe a new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of two specimens collected from limestone forests of Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners by a combination of the following diagnostic characters: maximum SVL 86.1 mm; supralabials 9 or 10; infralabials 7-9; dorsal tubercles in 15 or 16 rows at midbody; ventral scale rows 34-36 at midbody; precloacal groove absent; femoral scales not distinctly enlarged; precloacal pores absent in females (unknown in males); subdigital lamellae under the fourth finger 18 or 19, under the fourth toe 18-20; subcaudals not transversally enlarged; dorsal bands white, 4 or 5 between limb insertions plus another one between hind limbs; tail banded. Based on molecular analyses, the new species is clustered in the same clade with C. wayakonei and two other species from Luang Prabang and Houaphan provinces.

  14. Are health shocks different? Evidence from a multishock survey in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Lindelow, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    Using primary data from Laos, we compare a broad range of different types of shocks in terms of their incidence, distribution between the poor and the better off, idiosyncrasy, costs, coping responses, and self-reported impacts on well-being. Health shocks are more common than most other shocks, more concentrated among the poor, more idiosyncratic, more costly, trigger more coping strategies, and highly likely to lead to a cut in consumption. Household members experiencing a health shock lost, on average, 0.6 point on a five-point health scale; the wealthier are better able to limit the health impacts of a health shock. Copyright © 2013 The World Bank Group.

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Laos: A Community-Wide Cross-Sectional Study of Humans and Dogs in a Mass Drug Administration Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V.; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8–44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3–49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4–10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation. PMID:22492147

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Alicia D; Woods, Kate; Dance, David A B; Pichon, Bruno; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Davong, Viengmon; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N; Shetty, Nandini; Kearns, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages. Median patient age was 19.5 years (interquartile range 2-48.5 years); 52% (50) were female. Forty-three spa types, representing 17 lineages, were identified. Fifty-eight percent (56) of all isolates encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing six lineages: half of these patients had abscesses and three had positive blood cultures. The dominant lineage was CC121 (39; 41%); all but one isolate encoded PVL and 49% (19) were from children under five. Staphyococcus argenteus was identified in six (6%) patients; mostly adults > 50 years and with diabetes. Six isolates (6%) belonged to rare lineage ST2885; two possibly indicate cross-infection in a neonatal unit. One isolate from a previously undescribed lineage, ST1541, was identified. Antibiotic resistance was uncommon except for penicillin (93; 97%) and tetracycline (48; 50%). Seven (7%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), belonging to ST239-MRSA-III, CC59-MRSA-V(T) Taiwan Clone, ST2250-MRSA-IV, ST2885-MRSA-V and CC398-MRSA-V. Globally widespread CC5 and CC30 were absent. There are parallels in S. aureus molecular epidemiology between Laos and neighboring countries and these data highlight the prominence of PVL and suggest infiltration of MRSA clones of epidemic potential from surrounding countries.

  17. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money. PMID:23164407

  18. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

  19. Carbon Stock Assessment Using Remote Sensing and Forest Inventory Data in Savannakhet, Lao PDR

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    Phutchard Vicharnakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannakhet Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR, is a small area that is connected to Thailand, other areas of Lao PDR, and Vietnam via road No. 9. This province has been increasingly affected by carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted from the transport corridors that have been developed across the region. To determine the effect of the CO2 increases caused by deforestation and emissions, the total above-ground biomass (AGB and carbon stocks for different land-cover types were assessed. This study estimated the AGB and carbon stocks (t/ha of vegetation and soil using standard sampling techniques and allometric equations. Overall, 81 plots, each measuring 1600 m2, were established to represent samples from dry evergreen forest (DEF, mixed deciduous forest (MDF, dry dipterocarp forest (DDF, disturbed forest (DF, and paddy fields (PFi. In each plot, the diameter at breast height (DBH and height (H of the overstory trees were measured. Soil samples (composite n = 2 were collected at depths of 0–30 cm. Soil carbon was assessed using the soil depth, soil bulk density, and carbon content. Remote sensing (RS; Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was used for land-cover classification and development of the AGB estimation model. The relationships between the AGB and RS data (e.g., single TM band, various vegetation indices (VIs, and elevation were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the total carbon stock assessments from the ground data showed that the MDF site had the highest value, followed by the DEF, DDF, DF, and PFi sites. The RS data showed that the MDF site had the highest area coverage, followed by the DDF, PFi, DF, and DEF sites. The results indicated significant relationships between the AGB and RS data. The strongest correlation was found for the PFi site, followed by the MDF, DDF, DEF, and DF sites.

  20. Use of antenatal services in Kampung District, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Ahmed A; Ehiri, John E; Anyanwu, Ebere C

    2003-11-03

    This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas) were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001). Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01). Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001). Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001). Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.

  1. Use of Antenatal Services in Kampung District, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Zafar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001. Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01. Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001. Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001. Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.

  2. Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Elaine

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%; human rights considerations (71%; study protocol concerns (46%; general suspicions regarding trial location (37% and inadequate prevention counseling (29%. The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%; participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%; inadequate number of staff (46%; participants being exploited (46% and an unethical study design (38%. Only 3/23 (13% reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8% reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media

  3. Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

  4. Factors associated with caesarean sections in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Clémence; Sim, Kruy Leang; Petit, Véronique; Rany, Heng; Goyet, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    C-sections are an increasingly performed medical practice which can save lives but may also lead to major complications. Through a mixed methods study conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, we aimed to analyze the reasons for requesting a c-section and to explore factors that are associated with c-sections. 60% of the women in the cohort who gave birth by c-section reported having requested it. Through 31 in-depth interviews, we determined the reasons given by women for requesting a c-section before and during labour. Before labour, reasons for requesting a c-section were: choosing the delivery date; bringing luck and joy to the family; protecting the genitals, and the belief that c-section is safer for the mother and for the baby. Reasons given during labour were fear, pain, and having no more energy. We also observed two major factors driving the women's request for a c-section: family support for requesting a c-section, and the over-usage of ultrasound examinations. Our multivariate analysis of the interviews of 143 women before and after delivery showed that having a previous c-section, delivering in a private facility, being older than median at the time of sexual debut, residing outside of Phnom Penh and having the delivery costs covered by the family were all factors independently and significantly associated with a higher chance of c-section delivery. We conclude that women are not well informed to give consent for c-delivery, and that their request is often affected by false belief and poor knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An observational study of adults seeking emergency care in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lily D; Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Yore, Mackensie; Pirrotta, Elizabeth A; Woods, Joan; Somontha, Koy; Sovannra, Yim; Raman, Maya; Cornell, Erika; Grundmann, Christophe; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    To describe the characteristics and chief complaints of adults seeking emergency care at two Cambodian provincial referral hospitals. Adults aged 18 years or older who presented without an appointment at two public referral hospitals were enrolled in an observational study. Clinical and demographic data were collected and factors associated with hospital admission were identified. Patients were followed up 48 hours and 14 days after presentation. In total, 1295 hospital presentations were documented. We were able to follow up 85% (1098) of patients at 48 hours and 77% (993) at 14 days. The patients' mean age was 42 years and 64% (823) were females. Most arrived by motorbike (722) or taxi or tuk-tuk (312). Most common chief complaints were abdominal pain (36%; 468), respiratory problems (15%; 196) and headache (13%; 174). Of the 1050 patients with recorded vital signs, 280 had abnormal values, excluding temperature, on arrival. Performed diagnostic tests were recorded for 539 patients: 1.2% (15) of patients had electrocardiography and 14% (175) had diagnostic imaging. Subsequently, 783 (60%) patients were admitted and 166 of these underwent surgery. Significant predictors of admission included symptom onset within 3 days before presentation, abnormal vital signs and fever. By 14-day follow-up, 3.9% (39/993) of patients had died and 19% (192/993) remained functionally impaired. In emergency admissions in two public hospitals in Cambodia, there is high admission-to-death ratio and limited application of diagnostic techniques. We identified ways to improve procedures, including better documentation of vital signs and increased use of diagnostic techniques.

  6. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  7. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  8. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  9. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  10. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  11. Lost in translation? How project actors shape REDD+ policy and outcomes in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2015-01-01

    of benefits. This paper draws on a case study in northern Cambodia to analyse how conservation practitioners and the local forest management committees engaged in implementing REDD+ actively translate and influence the policy and its implementation in accordance with their respective interests through...

  12. Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Darren C.

    2010-01-01

    The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

  13. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  14. The Ethics of Survival: Teaching the Traditional Arts to Disadvantaged Children in Post-Conflict Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…

  15. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  16. Conservation agriculture improves yield and reduces weeding activity in sandy soils of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage in many less-developed countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources and sustainability. With limited available data, long-term conventional tillage system (CT) and conservation agriculture system (CA) can affect changes in soil pr...

  17. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    to be learned about resin yield, harvest techniques, and the importance of resin to local livelihoods. This study quantifies yields from one of the most intensively tapped resin species, Dipterocarpus alatus, and estimates household incomes from resin extraction in Cambodia. A total of 43 resin tappers were...

  18. Rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy in rural Cambodia: parental perceptions of family-centred practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, F; Tan, B-K

    2011-03-01

    Rehabilitation service providers in Cambodia are increasingly adopting family-centred practices when working with children with cerebral palsy and their families. This study examined the perceptions of parents living in rural Cambodia regarding family-centred rehabilitation practices. This qualitative study used in-depth semi-structured individual and small group interviews with a convenience sample of 24 parents of children with cerebral palsy from three rural provinces. Participants were drawn from Cambodia Trust's client database and had been involved in a rehabilitation planning process which incorporated family-centred practices. Twenty-four parents and carers of children with cerebral palsy aged 3-12 years were interviewed. Almost all parents valued family-centred practices in rehabilitation, with many of the needs and preferences of parents living in rural Cambodia similar to those of parents in Western contexts. Family-centred approaches to paediatric rehabilitation were found to be valued in and appropriate for a rural Cambodian context. Social and cultural mechanisms to be considered when adapting a Western, family-centred model of rehabilitation planning to the rural Cambodian context include the hierarchical nature of Cambodian culture, the emphasis on group relational patterns rather than individual needs and the context of chronic poverty. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Can vouchers deliver? An evaluation of subsidies for maternal health care in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); G. Flores (Gabriela); P. Ir (Por); O. O'Donnelld (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. Methods The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and

  20. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…