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Sample records for profile body mass

  1. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  2. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  3. Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.

  4. Amino acid profiles of young adults differ by sex, body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Vargas-Morales, J M; Méndez-García, A L; López-Barradas, A M; Granados-Portillo, O; Ordaz-Nava, G; Rocha-Viggiano, A K; Gutierrez-Leyte, C A; Medina-Cerda, E; Rosado, J L; Morales, J C; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Noriega, L G

    2018-04-01

    An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19.9 ± 2.4 years who were applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. The subjects underwent a physical examination and provided a clinical history and a blood sample for biochemical, hormonal and amino acid analyses. The women had higher levels of arginine, aspartate and serine and lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, urea and valine than the men. The obese subjects had higher levels of alanine, aspartate, cysteine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine and lower levels of glycine, ornithine and serine than the normal weight subjects. Subjects with IR (defined as HOMA > 2.5) had higher levels of arginine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, taurine and valine than the subjects without IR. Furthermore, we identified two main groups in the subjects with obesity and/or IR; one group was composed of amino acids that positively correlated with the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters, whereas the second group exhibited negative correlations. This study demonstrates that young adults with obesity or IR have altered amino acid profiles characterized by an increase in alanine, aspartate, proline and tyrosine and a decrease in glycine. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  5. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  6. Pattern Of Altered Lipid Profile In Patients With Subclinical And Clinical Hypothyroidism And Its Correlation With Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humerah, S.; Siddiqui, A.; Khan, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Result: Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). An assessment of correlation of lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Hypothyroidism causes alteration of lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population. (author)

  7. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; Pprofile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.

  9. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  10. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A_2_A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO_2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  11. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  12. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,2 Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa,3 Marina Morato Stival,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,4 Leonardo Costa Pereira,1 Marja Letícia Chaves Antunes,1 Luciano Ramos de Lima,1 Jonato Prestes,4 Ricardo Jacó Oliveira,1 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,2 Vinícius Carolino Souza,1,4 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski1 1University of Brasília (UnB, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Estácio de Sá of Vitória, ES, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Objective: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI and percentage body fat (PBF for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women.Method: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein.Results: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05 and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL than did the overweight group (P≤0.05. According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005 proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003 and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0

  13. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  15. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  16. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  17. Evaluation of serum lipid profile, body mass index, and waistline in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rongtao; Qi, Zhiming; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. Glucose intolerance (insulin resistance) is the main feature of type 2 diabetes. Obesity leads to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters and measures of obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 2,273 males and 6,547 females previously healthy volunteers (aged 41-95 years old) were recruited by open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, was collected by questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profile, liver transaminase, blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were obtained after 12 hours of fasting. According to our results, diabetic patients presented serum lipid abnormality. Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels (≥1.7 mmol/L) were noted in 19.69% of males and 20.40% of females, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (≤1.15 mmol/L) were noted in 21.96% of males and 15.74% of females. The combination of elevated TG and reduced HDL-C was the most prevalent of the combined lipid abnormalities. In contrast, no differences were observed in the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in the levels of BMI and waistline between T2DM and non-T2DM participants. After adjustment for BMI, logistic regression analysis revealed that the subjects with BMI ≤20 kg/m(2) and >30 kg/m(2) had a significantly elevated hazard ratio of T2DM compared with participants having a BMI range of 20-30 kg/m(2) in both males and females. However, there was a significant difference between T2DM patients and non-T2DM patients in waistline (χ (2)=8.57, P<0.001) than in BMI parameter (χ (2)=6.29, P<0.001). The present study shows for the first

  18. Comparative study of metabolic profile of women presenting with polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya S.; Ratnaboli Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The objective was to study and compare the metabolic effects of PCOS in lean PCOS (BMI 23). Methods: Fifty healthy women who were euthyroid with age range 15-38 years who presented to gynecology OPD and diagnosed to have PCOS according to ESHRE/ASRM criteria were included in the study. BMI (body mass index) was calculated by the formula weight in kg/height ...

  19. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  20. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Results: Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anormalidades nos perfis lipídico e glicêmico entre crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e também verificar se existe correlação entre os escores-z de índice de massa corporal (z-IMC e indicadores de comorbidades ligados a esses perfis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal

  1. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  2. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  3. Eccentric knee flexor strength profiles of 341 elite male academy and senior Gaelic football players: Do body mass and previous hamstring injury impact performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane; Delahunt, Eamonn; Collins, Kieran; Gissane, Conor; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Murphy, John C; Blake, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    Report eccentric knee flexor strength values of elite Gaelic football players from underage to adult level whilst examining the influence of body mass and previous hamstring injury. Cross-sectional study. Team's training facility. Elite Gaelic football players (n = 341) from under 14 years to senior age-grades were recruited from twelve teams. Absolute (N) and relative (N·kg -1 ) eccentric hamstring strength as well as corresponding between-limb imbalances (%) were calculated for all players. Mean maximum force was 329.4N (95% CI 319.5-340.2) per limb. No statistically significant differences were observed in relative force values (4.4 N ·kg -1 , 95% CI 4.2-4.5) between age-groups. Body mass had moderate-to-large and weak associations with maximum force in youth (r = 0.597) and adult (r =0 .159) players, respectively. Overall 40% (95 CI 31.4-48.7) presented with a maximum strength between-limb imbalance >10%. Players with a hamstring injury had greater relative maximum force (9.3%, 95% CI 7.0-11.8; p > 0.05) and a 28% (95% CI 10.0-38.0) higher prevalence of between-limb imbalances ≥15% compared to their uninjured counterparts. Overlapping strength profiles across age-groups, combined with greater strength in previously injured players, suggests difficulties for establishing cut-off thresholds associated with hamstring injury risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  5. A REVIEW OF STATURE, BODY MASS AND MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE PROFILES OF U17, U20 AND FIRST DIVISION PLAYERS IN BRAZILIAN SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Diniz Da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations in the physiological demands of soccer have identified that a significant percentage of energy production in match performance is provided through the aerobic pathways. It is therefore important to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max of players in order to evaluate their aerobic fitness status and optimize their physical conditioning. However, it is also important to consider the variation of (VO2Max profiles for soccer players, with differences having been identified in terms of playing position as well as playing style. This paper reviews the academic literature between 1996 and 2006 and reports on the methodologies employed and the values obtained for stature, body mass and (VO2Max profiles of soccer players of different positions in professional Brazilian clubs at U-17, U-20 and First Division levels. Indirect measurements accounted for the majority of tests conducted at U-17 (70% and U-20 (84.6% levels whereas at First Division level almost half of the (VO2Max evaluations were performed by direct measurements (47.8%. The mean (VO2Max profiles obtained for outfield players in U-17 was 56.95 ± 3.60 ml·kg-1·min-1, 58.13 ± 3.21 ml·kg-1·min-1 for U-20 players and 56.58 ± 5.03 ml·kg-1·min-1 for First Division players. In Brazil, the U-20 players appear to have highest VO2Max values, however the profiles reported for all outfield positions in U-17 and First Division levels are often lower than those reported for the same category of players from other countries. This may be a reflection of the style of play used in Brazilian soccer. This is further emphasized by the fact that the playing position with the highest VO2Max values was the external defenders whereas most findings from studies performed in European soccer indicate that midfielders require the highest VO2Max values.

  6. Relationship between body image and somatotype profile in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodrigues Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate associations among body dissatisfaction, behaviors, feelings, and beliefs related to the body - and somatotypical profile. The sample included 142 undergraduate female students (21.81 ± 3 years who underwent to assessment of Body Mass Index and somatotype, according to the World Health Organization and Heath-Carter protocols, respectively. To assess body image the following instruments were applied: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale, Self-Subject Silhouettes To the analysis data we proceeded to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA one-way. As the main result, we find that body dissatisfaction, body avoidance and negative attitudes about appearance components are linked to each other and they are influenced by body profiles with mesomorphic and endomorphic predominance. We conclude that the somatotype profile can be an important predictor of changes in body image and is indicated for tracking risk groups.

  7. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on ...

  8. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  9. The impact of body mass index and waist circumference on healt related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors : Resultes from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Martucci, R.B.; Mols, F.; Bours, M.J.; Winkels, R.M.; Kampman, E.; Weijenberg, M.P.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Beijer, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess the association of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Methods: CRC survivors diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 completed questionnaires in August 2013 (with self-reported

  10. The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88% and 141 men (69.12%, we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI. We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05 in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05 in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001. We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food

  11. Body mass estimation from the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...

  12. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  13. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  14. Body mass index and poststroke mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients...

  15. Body mass index in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi M.; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers...

  16. Impact of body mass index on the psychopathological profile of obese women Impacto do índice de massa corporal no perfil psicopatológico de mulheres obesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Papelbaum

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a complex condition associated with a host of medical disorders. One common assumption is that obesity is also related to psychological and emotional complications. However, some studies have shown that obesity itself does not appear to be systematically associated with psychopathological outcomes.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact that the various degrees of obesity have on the psychopathological profile of obese patients. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 217 women classified as obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m² who sought medical treatment for weight loss and were consecutively invited to participate in the study. Anthropometric data were registered for all participants. Psychiatric evaluations were performed using the Beck Depression Inventory and Symptom Checklist-90. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to determine whether any of the studied variables (age, level of education, Beck Depression Inventory score and body mass index were independently correlated with the score on the different subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90. RESULTS: Only body mass index was found to correlate significantly with the score on the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 (r = 0.148, p = 0.035. This correlation remained significant after multiple regression analysis (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between body mass index and the score on any of the other subscales. CONCLUSION: The degree of obesity did not correlate with any of the psychological profiles commonly described in the medical literature, including depression and anxiety. The correlation between obesity and somatization, although weak, might simply be related to an overlapping of symptoms.OBJETIVO: A obesidade é uma condição complexa associada a uma ampla variedade de desordens médicas, incluindo alguns distúrbios emocionais e psicológicos. Entretanto, alguns estudos têm demonstrado que a obesidade, per se, n

  17. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  18. Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; de Ridder, Maria A. J.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van Slobbe, Ingrid; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Background: During childhood and adolescence, bone mass and lean body mass (LBM) increase till a plateau is reached. In this longitudinal and cross-sectional study, the age of reaching the plateau was evaluated for lumbar spine and total body bone mass measurements and lean body mass. The

  19. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  20. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H 2 with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H p and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  1. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  2. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  3. Impact of body mass on job quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2015-04-01

    The current study explores the association between body mass and job quality, a composite measurement of job characteristics, for adults. We use nationally representative data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study for the years 2005, 2007, and 2008 with 7282 person-year observations for men and 4611 for women. A Quality of Work Index (QWI) is calculated based on work content, job security, the possibilities for improvement, compensation, work conditions, and interpersonal relationships at work. The key independent variable is the body mass index (kg/m(2)) splined at 18.5, 25, and 30. For men, BMI is positively associated with the QWI only in the normal weight segment (+0.19 percentage points at the 10th, +0.28 at the 50th, +0.32 at the 75th, +0.34 at the 90th, and +0.48 at the 95th quantiles). A unit increase in the BMI for women is associated with a lower QWI at the lower quantiles in the normal weight segment (-0.28 at the 5th, -0.19 at the 10th, and -0.25 percentage points at the 25th quantiles) and at the upper quantiles in the overweight segment (-1.15 at the 90th and -1.66 percentage points at the 95th quantiles). The results imply a spill-over cost of overweight or obesity beyond its impact on health in terms of success in the labor market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  5. Predicting waist circumference from body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Samuel R; Hoaglin, David C; Burton, Tanya M; Pashos, Chris L; Ben-Joseph, Rami H; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2012-08-03

    Being overweight or obese increases risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Although both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measure the level of overweight and obesity, WC may be more important because of its closer relationship to total body fat. Because WC is typically not assessed in clinical practice, this study sought to develop and verify a model to predict WC from BMI and demographic data, and to use the predicted WC to assess cardiometabolic risk. Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). We developed linear regression models for men and women using NHANES data, fitting waist circumference as a function of BMI. For validation, those regressions were applied to ARIC data, assigning a predicted WC to each individual. We used the predicted WC to assess abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk. The model correctly classified 88.4% of NHANES subjects with respect to abdominal obesity. Median differences between actual and predicted WC were -0.07 cm for men and 0.11 cm for women. In ARIC, the model closely estimated the observed WC (median difference: -0.34 cm for men, +3.94 cm for women), correctly classifying 86.1% of ARIC subjects with respect to abdominal obesity and 91.5% to 99.5% as to cardiometabolic risk.The model is generalizable to Caucasian and African-American adult populations because it was constructed from data on a large, population-based sample of men and women in the United States, and then validated in a population with a larger representation of African-Americans. The model accurately estimates WC and identifies cardiometabolic risk. It should be useful for health care practitioners and public health officials who wish to identify individuals and populations at risk for cardiometabolic disease when WC data are unavailable.

  6. Body mass index and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association between the body mass index (BMI and serum lipid levels in adult people. Material and Methods: Observational, transversal and retrospective study. Non experimental investigation design. The population was conformed for people treated in private health centers in Metropolitan Lima. The evaluations of the BMI and the laboratorial tests to know the seric concentration of lipids were taken between October 2014 and October 2015. It was determined the association between the BMI and the seric lipid levels using the Chi2 test. People with comorbidity that could modify the seric levels of lipids were excluded. Results: 39.7% of people studied were male and 60.3% were female. The average age was 34.2 years old. 40.7% (1227/3016 of population were obese and overweight. The results show a higher level of obesity or overweight in male people over female (54.6% and 33% respectively. 19.7% (594/3016 of the tested people presented high triglycerides seric levels. 27.9% (841/3016 presented high cholesterol levels and 38.8% (1146/3016 presented low cHDL levels. The cLDL levels and cVLDL levels were similar in both groups (male and female. Conclusions: The investigation determined the significant statistical association between the BMI and triglycerides (p < 0.05, cholesterol (p < 0.05 and cHDL (p < 0.05.

  7. Obesity, Body Mass Index, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m 2 was analyzed. There were 77 males and 67 females (M:F = 1.2:1; age range 23-78 years; mean 46.7 years). The majority of deaths were natural (N = 108), with no homicides. A negative association between obesity and homicide has, therefore, been demonstrated. Reasons for the lower numbers of obese/morbidly obese individuals among homicide victims are unclear, but may include physical protection afforded by fat padding from sharp force injuries, and relative sociodemographic isolation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Solarz, Elzbieta; Wołczynski, Sławomir; Protas, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the metabolism of adipose tissue. Considering that malignancy and its treatment cans affect normal development in childhood. We analysed the correlations between serum leptin levels and body composition after anticancer treatment. We studied 33 survivors (24 boys and 9 girls) who before our study, have been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=23) and Hodgkin disease (n=10) after 7.15+/-3.5 years. Sixteen patients with ALL received cranial irradiation (12Gy). We measured body mass index (BM1) fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared these results to the results obtained from reference values (SD score). Leptin levels were measured with the RIA method. 1. Mean leptin levels were higher in girls after puberty (10.93 ng/mL+/-8.9) than in boys (3.73 ng/mL+/-3. 7). In boys no differences were found in leptin levels between T2-4 and T5 stages. In girls the leptin values increased after puberty. Leptin SD score levels were higher in boys during (1.55 +/-1.0) and after puberty (1.46+/-0.75) and in girls - after puberty (1.19 +/-1.51). We did not find any influence of cranial irradiation (12Gy) or various methotrexate doses (5 g/m(2) vs. 19/m(2)) leptin values. 2. No difference in BMI SD score was found within the whole study group. 3. FM did not change ill boys during and after puberty, although FM SD score were higher during puberty (2.98 +/-4.8). In girls FM and FM SD score were higher after puberty. In boys and girls LBM augmented with pubertal development but LBM SD score in boys were lower after puberty (-1.67 +/-1.7) in comparison to puberty (0.2 +/-1.7). No differences were found between LBM SD score in girls during and after puberty. 4. We found a correlation between leptin levels and BMI (r=0.59 p=0.001) and FM (r=0.77 p=0.0001). 5. Relation of FM to LBM in boys remained unchanged, however in girls it increased within pubertal development. l. Anticancer

  9. Predicting waist circumference from body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozeman Samuel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being overweight or obese increases risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Although both body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC measure the level of overweight and obesity, WC may be more important because of its closer relationship to total body fat. Because WC is typically not assessed in clinical practice, this study sought to develop and verify a model to predict WC from BMI and demographic data, and to use the predicted WC to assess cardiometabolic risk. Methods Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC. We developed linear regression models for men and women using NHANES data, fitting waist circumference as a function of BMI. For validation, those regressions were applied to ARIC data, assigning a predicted WC to each individual. We used the predicted WC to assess abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Results The model correctly classified 88.4% of NHANES subjects with respect to abdominal obesity. Median differences between actual and predicted WC were − 0.07 cm for men and 0.11 cm for women. In ARIC, the model closely estimated the observed WC (median difference: − 0.34 cm for men, +3.94 cm for women, correctly classifying 86.1% of ARIC subjects with respect to abdominal obesity and 91.5% to 99.5% as to cardiometabolic risk. The model is generalizable to Caucasian and African-American adult populations because it was constructed from data on a large, population-based sample of men and women in the United States, and then validated in a population with a larger representation of African-Americans. Conclusions The model accurately estimates WC and identifies cardiometabolic risk. It should be useful for health care practitioners and public health officials who wish to identify individuals and populations at risk for cardiometabolic disease when WC data are unavailable.

  10. Lean body mass as a determinant of thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Males have a larger thyroid gland than females, and this has been related to the difference in body weight. In view of the different body composition of men and women, we hypothesized that lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid volume than body weight. A cross-sectional study in an area

  11. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  12. Body mass index and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, E; Garcia, M

    1994-11-01

    The paper reviews the evidence to date on the nutritional links with productivity and then goes on to provide results from a multi-country study on the effects of increasing body mass index (BMI) on productivity. The research relating nutritional status to work capacity is more consistent than the research linking nutritional status to productivity. None of the studies to date elucidate the pathways through which improved nutrition improves economic productivity. In addition, many of the studies that have been conducted on the nutrition/wage links have been based on samples that contained a disproportionate number of male subjects. The few studies that have disaggregated data by gender report different results for men and women. Research conducted at IFPRI is presented to examine the trends in BMI for men and women across countries and for Kenya to examine the relationships between various measures of nutritional status--BMI and height--and energy expenditures in women. BMIs of men show a more consistent relationship with increasing household income than do the BMIs of women. In the case of the Gambia and Kenya, the mean BMI of women decreases with increasing household income. One reason for the apparently low response of BMI to increasing household income in Kenya is the time allocation patterns of women. Women in the Kenya sample spend the largest proportion of their day in home production activities which are energy intensive. In examining the relationship between nutritional indicators and the time devoted to work, the results suggest a significant, positive association between both BMI and height and the amount of time devoted to work. In the models presented, both BMI and height appear to increase the capacity to carry out work. It is difficult to value much of this work time since a disproportionate share is devoted to home production activities. Some of the more classic methods of measuring economic productivity, such as measuring wage rates, are not

  13. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-01

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  15. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  16. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  17. The relativistic invariant and the Galilean mass of bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1992-02-01

    We generalize the concept of the Galilean mass to the relativistic case. In the case of inequality of Galilean and inertial masses we calculate the relativistic invariant being constant along the trajectory of the moving body. It enables us to define an invariant measure of inertia of bodies. 4 refs. (author)

  18. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  19. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  20. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  1. Body mass index in the first year after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, B; Moratelli, L; Silva, L B; Paiva, A C M; Silva, A N; Carminatti, M; Bastos, M G; Sanders-Pinheiro, H

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) experience better appetite, partly due to the use of steroids, and are subjected to less severe dietetic restrictions, hence they tend to increase the uptake of calories, which favors weight gain posttransplantation. In this study, we evaluate the profile of body mass index (BMI) in the first year posttransplantation. This was a retrospective study including 131 patients who received transplants between 1991 and 2011. We collected demographic and clinical data such as body weight and height, and calculated BMI pretransplantation and at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation. Mean age was 47.1 ± 13.1 years, 64.9% were male, and 29% of patients were diabetic. Pretransplantation mean BMI was 23.04 ± 4.08 kg/m(2), and at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation it increased to 24.55 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) and 24.65 ± 4.16 kg/m(2), respectively (P importance of identifying subjects at risk for excessive weight gain posttransplantation, thus allowing an early nutritional intervention to prevent its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  3. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Krishna Tarafder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls’ high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls’ high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%, headache (73%, chest pain (69%, body ache (63%, nausea (69%, and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%. Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes.

  4. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Binoy Krishna; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Islam, Md. Tanvir; Mahmud, Sheikh Abdullah Al; Sarker, Md. Humayun Kabir; Faruq, Imtiaz; Miah, Md. Titu; Arafat, S. M. Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls' high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls' high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%), headache (73%), chest pain (69%), body ache (63%), nausea (69%), and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%). Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes. PMID:27294104

  5. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... charts for boys and girls to account for differences in growth rates and amounts of body fat as the two genders mature. That information is recorded in your child's ...

  6. Body mass reconstruction on the basis of selected skeletal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz; Vancata, Vaclav

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is: to estimate the body mass of the skeletons with the mechanical method (femoral head body mass estimation method--FH) and non-mechanical method (stature/living bi-iliac breadth body mass estimation method--ST/LBIB); to compare the reliability and potential use of results obtained with both methods. The material (46 skeletons, 26 males, 20 females) used in the study came from the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. Body mass reconstruction according to non-mechanical method was made using equations proposed by Ruff et al. (2005). Body mass estimation based on the mechanical method was calculated using formulas proposed by Ruff et al. (1995). In the mechanical body mass reconstruction method, femoral superoinferior breadth was used. Reconstruction of body weight using the non-mechanical method was based on maximum pelvic breadth and reconstructed body height. The correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height were also calculated. The significance of differences between the body mass of male and female individuals was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance of differences between body mass values obtained with the mechanical (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/ LBIB) was tested using Pearson's correlation. The same test was used for the calculation of the relationship between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and between femoral head and reconstructed body height. In contrast to females, in males there is no statistically significant correlation between body mass estimated with the mechanical method (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/LBIB). In both sexes there was not statistically significant correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements. Only in the females group the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height was statistically significant. It is worth to continue

  7. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  8. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  9. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  10. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  11. LEAN BODY MASS AS A PREDICTOR OF PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    siahkohian

    literature indicates considerable variations in the LBM of different athletes, with values ranging from a ... Olympic weightlifters are related to and predictive of indirect estimates of absolute and ... Lean body mass & weightlifter performance. 181.

  12. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  13. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years...

  14. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  15. Body mass index and physical fitness in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vitor P; Malina, Robert M; Gomez-Campos, Rossana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Arruda, Miguel de; Hobold, Edilson

    2018-05-05

    Evaluate the relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in a cross-sectional sample of Brazilian youth. Participants were 3849 adolescents (2027 girls) aged 10-17 years. Weight and height were measured; body mass index was calculated. Physical fitness was evaluated with a multistage 20m shuttle run (cardiovascular endurance), standing long jump (power), and push-ups (upper body strength). Participants were grouped by sex into four age groups: 10-11, 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years. Sex-specific ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in each physical fitness item among weight status categories by age group. Relationships between body mass index and each physical fitness item were evaluated with quadratic regression models by age group within each sex. The physical fitness of thin and normal youth was, with few exceptions, significantly better than the physical fitness of overweight and obese youth in each age group by sex. On the other hand, physical fitness performances did not consistently differ, on average, between thin and normal weight and between overweight and obese youths. Results of the quadratic regressions indicated a curvilinear (parabolic) relationship between body mass index and each physical fitness item in most age groups. Better performances were attained by adolescents in the mid-range of the body mass index distribution, while performances of youth at the low and high ends of the body mass index distribution were lower. Relationships between the body mass index and physical fitness were generally nonlinear (parabolic) in youth 10-17 years. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  17. The role of physical activity, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, A; Aşçı, F H; Kin-İşler, A; Güven-Karahan, B; Kelecek, S; Özkan, A; Yılmaz, A; Kara, F M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence represents a transitional period which is marked by physical, social and psychological changes. Changes in body shape and physical activity especially alter and shape the psychological well-being of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of physical activity level, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perception and self-esteem of 11-18 years old adolescents. A total of 1012 adolescents participated in this study. The "Social Physique Anxiety Scale", "Body Image Satisfaction Scale", "Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children" and "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory" were administered. Physical activity level and body mass index were assessed using the "Physical Activity Questionnaire" and "Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer", respectively. Regression analysis indicated that body mass index was the only predictor of perceived body attractiveness, social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction and self-esteem for female adolescents. For male adolescents, both physical activity and body mass index were correlated with perceived body attractiveness and social physique anxiety. Pubertal status were not correlated with self-esteem and body-related perceptions for both males and females adolescents. In summary, body mass index and physical activity plays an important role in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

  18. Body composition indices and predicted cardiovascular disease risk profile among urban dwellers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  19. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  20. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  1. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  2. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  3. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  4. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  5. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  6. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-09-01

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. The body type profile of women occupying modern pentathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It was made an attempt to define the features of the body structure athletes - members of the Polish national team in modern pentathlon (n = 11. Age athletes were in the range of 18-35 years old (23,4 ± 5,2, and training experience - 6-20 years old (12,4 ± 4,4. The five factors (Rohrera, Queteleta II, Manouvrier, height-weight, pelvic and shoulder, and the total body surface were defined. The share based on body measurements of skin-fat folds using prediction equations Piechaczka is calculated. Total fat as a percentage of body weight using the formula Brożka i Keys is calculated. At all were defined 20 indicators. On the basis of the valuation of the body structure specifies a profile of the subjects were determined. A comparison group is consisted of students of Warsaw University of Technology. The members of the women's national team of Poland in modern pentathlon are characterized, above all, significant indicators of the body length of the upper and lower extremities, with a diameter of forearm, elbow width, as well as the value of the proportion of the body.

  8. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  9. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  10. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  11. Body composition and metabolic profile in adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Murari ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the body composition and metabolic profile in individuals in terms of different concentrations of serum vitamin D, ranging from deficiency to sufficiency. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 106 adults of both genders, who were divided into three groups according to vitamin D levels: deficiency: <20ng/mL; insufficiency: 20-29.9ng/mL; and sufficiency: 30-100ng/mL. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and body circumferences. Fat mass and lean mass were assessed using the Tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were also carried out. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin index. Results: The analysis showed that the main alterations in individuals in the vitamin D deficiency group were higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, waist circumference, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin than those of the vitamin D sufficient group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D deficiency causes important body composition and metabolic changes, which may lead to diseases such as diabetes Mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Tritium depth profiling in carbon by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Pilz, W.; Sun, G.; Behrisch, R.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Bekris, N.; Penzhorn, R.-D.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium depth profiling measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry have been performed at the facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. In order to achieve a uniform erosion at the target surface inside a commercial Cs ion sputtering source and to avoid edge effects, the samples were mechanically scanned and the signals were recorded only during sputtering at the centre of the sputtered area. The sputtered negative ions were mass analysed by the injection magnet of the Tandetron. Hydrogen and deuterium profiles were measured with the Faraday cup between the injection magnet and the accelerator, while the tritium was counted after the accelerator with semiconductor detectors. Depth profiles have been measured for carbon samples which had been exposed to the plasma at the first wall of the Garching fusion experiment ASDEX-Upgrade and from the European fusion experiment JET, Culham, UK

  13. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  14. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...

  15. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  16. Clusters of galaxies compared with N-body simulations: masses and mass segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Bludman, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    With three virially stable N-body simulations of Wielen, it is shown that use of the expression for the total mass derived from averaged quantities (velocity dispersion and mean harmonic radius) yields an overestimate of the mass by as much as a factor of 2-3, and use of the heaviest mass sample gives an underestimate by a factor of 2-3. The estimate of the mass using mass weighted quantities (i.e., derived from the customary definition of kinetic and potential energies) yields a better value irrespectively of mass sample as applied to late time intervals of the models (>= three two-body relaxation times). The uncertainty is at most approximately 50%. This suggests that it is better to employ the mass weighted expression for the mass when determining cluster masses. The virial ratio, which is a ratio of the mass weighted/averaged expression for the potential energy, is found to vary between 1 and 2. It is concluded that ratios for observed clusters approximately 4-10 cannot be explained even by the imprecision of the expression for the mass using averaged quantities, and certainly implies the presence of unseen matter. Total masses via customary application of the virial theorem are calculated for 39 clusters, and total masses for 12 clusters are calculated by a variant of the usual application. The distribution of cluster masses is also presented and briefly discussed. Mass segregation in Wielen's models is studied in terms of the binding energy per unit mass of the 'heavy' sample compared with the 'light' sample. The general absence of mass segregation in relaxaed clusters and the large virial discrepancies are attributed to a population of many low-mass objects that may constitute the bulk mass of clusters of galaxies. (Auth.)

  17. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  18. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design: This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers' study. Setting and subjects: The Philani Mentor Mothers' ...

  19. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). Glycated haemoglobin was estimated using the ion exchange chromatography method. Result: A total of 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, ages ranging ...

  20. Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation in Adolescent Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children. We have so far, found no reports on studies on the relationship between BMI and puberty in patients with SCA. Objectives: To evaluate ...

  1. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  2. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small...

  3. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  4. Maternal Employment, Work Schedules, and Children's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI…

  5. Reconception and body-mass changes of energy supplemented frrst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss by an average of only 0,02 kg per day and no consistent effect on the reconception .... partum body-mass change of cows, reconception and also growth of calves. ..... No reason could be found for the five Sussex type cows which did not ...

  6. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  7. Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Meliyanni; Katayama, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Association between birthweight and later body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood ...

  9. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a long tradition of observational studies from developed societies linking overweight and obesity to low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their ...

  10. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed...

  11. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and

  12. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  13. RESEARCH NOTE POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR BREEDS OF STEERS ON DIFFERENT. NUTRITIONAL LEVELS. H.P. Eloff and C.J.F. Liidemann. Mara Research Station, Msa 0922. Receipt of MS. 4.8.1977. In South Africa there are 2O breeds of cattle which are mainly kept for the purpose of beef production (van. Marle ...

  14. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  15. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro...

  16. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  17. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM......) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor....

  18. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena; Vitriana; Irma Ruslina Defi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM) value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four ma...

  19. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Versus Lean Mass Index for Prediction of Sarcopenia in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, M J; Silva-Smith, A L

    2018-01-01

    We compared accuracy of body mass index (BMI) versus lean mass index (LMI) to predict sarcopenia in 58 community-dwelling women (74.1±0.9 years). Lean mass was measured with multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and strength was measured with Arm Curl test, Chair Stand test, and handgrip dynamometry. Sarcopenia was defined as low LMI. When categorized by BMI, normal women had less absolute lean mass (37.6±1.0 vs. 42.6±0.9 kg; Plean mass (14.1±0.2 vs. 16.1±0.2 kg/m2; Plean mass (44.0±0.7 vs. 35.7±0.7 kg; Plean mass (16.2±0.2 vs. 13.8±0.2 kg/m2; Plean mass and strength. For clinical assessment, calculation of LMI rather than BMI is appropriate.

  20. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  1. Impact of body mass index on mortality and hospitalisation of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jocasta; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Carrington, Melinda J; Wiley, Joshua F; Stewart, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation represents a substantial clinical and public health issue. The definitive impact of body mass index on prognosis of patients with chronic (persistent or permanent) atrial fibrillation remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of body mass index with health outcomes (mortality and re-hospitalisation) of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Using data from the Standard versus Atrial Fibrillation spEcific managemenT strategY (SAFETY) trial (a randomised controlled trial of home-based, atrial fibrillation-specific disease management), we performed post-hoc analyses of mortality and re-hospitalisation outcomes during minimum 24-month follow-up according to baseline body mass index profile. Of 297 participants (mean age 71±11 years, 47% female, mean body mass index 29.6±6.7 kg/m 2 ), 35.0% of participants were overweight (body mass index 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and 43.1% were obese (body mass index≥30 kg/m 2 ). During follow-up, n=42 died including 16/65 (24.6%) classified as normal body mass index, 16/104 (15.4%) classified as overweight and 10/128 (7.8%) classified as obese. Increasing body mass index was not associated with increased mortality but was associated with re-hospitalisation due to cardiovascular disease with greater length-of-stay (odds ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.09, p=0.032). Obese individuals experienced increased unplanned admissions compared to overweight individuals (incidence rate ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.96, p=0.028), and increased cardiovascular-related (incidence rate ratio 0.58; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.86, p=0.007) and all-cause admissions (incidence rate ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.89, p=0.008) compared to those classified as normal body mass index. Overweight and obesity were not associated with survival in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation but were associated with more frequent hospital care and prolonged stay.

  2. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemi...

  3. The effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in women with a body mass index more than 25 kg/m2: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Obesity is a major health problem all around the world. On the other hand, few people, especially women, are physically active to the levels recommended by Healthy People 2010 web site managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The objective of this study was to compare the potential effects of intermittent and continuous exercise programs combined with concurrent calorie restriction diets on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in overweight and obese females."n"nMethods : Forty-five women with a sedentary life style and a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (15 subjects in each group: a 40 minutes of medium-intensity intermittent exercise (64-76% of maximal heart rate, 3 bouts per day for 5 days a week, b a single bout of a 40-minute continuous exercise per day for 5 days a week, C the non-exercising control group. A self-monitored calorie restricted diet was recommended to all participants by a dietitian. The lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure of all participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention period."n"nResults : After the intervention, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of lipid profile [cholesterol (P=0.94, triglyceride (P=0.62] fasting blood sugar (P=0.054, systolic blood pressure (P=0.84 or diastolic blood pressure (P=0.30."n"nConclusion: There seems to be no significant differences between short term continuous and intermittent aerobic

  4. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profile analysis of silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, P.; Kopnarski, M.; Oechsner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Direct Bombardment Mode (DBM) of Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been applied for depth profile analysis of two different multilayer systems containing metal silicides. Due to the extremely high depth resolution obtained with low energy SNMS structural details down to only a few atomic distances are detected. Stoichiometric information on internal oxides and implanted material is supplied by the high quantificability of SNMS. (Author)

  5. THE MASS PROFILE OF THE GALAXY TO 80 kpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Star Survey presents the currently largest sample of radial velocity measurements of halo stars out to 80 kpc. We apply spherical Jeans modeling to these data in order to derive the mass profile of the Galaxy. We restrict the analysis to distances larger than 25 kpc from the Galactic center, where the density profile of halo stars is well approximated by a single power law with logarithmic slope between -3.5 and -4.5. With this restriction, we also avoid the complication of modeling a flattened Galactic disk. In the range 25 kpc c (80 kpc) lies between 175 and 231 km s -1 , with the most likely value of 193 km s -1 . Compared with the value at the solar location, the Galactic circular velocity declines by less than 20% over an order of magnitude in radius. Such a flat profile requires a massive and extended dark matter halo. The mass enclosed within 80 kpc is 6.9 +3.0 -1.2 x 10 11 M sun . Our sample of radial velocities is large enough that the biggest uncertainty in the mass is not statistical but systematic, dominated by the density slope and anisotropy of the tracer population. Further progress requires modeling observed data sets within realistic simulations of galaxy formation.

  6. Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ibrahim; Schulze, Josefa; Martakis, KyriakoS; Stark, Christina; Schoenau, Eckhard

    2018-03-07

    To assess the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI) cut-off values according to recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Obesity Federation (WOF), and the German Society for Adiposity (DAG) to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The present study was a monocentric retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among children and adolescents with CP participating in a rehabilitation programme. Excess body fat was defined as a body fat percentage above the 85th centile assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In total, 329 children (181 males, 148 females) with CP were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 12 years 4 months (standard deviation 2y 9mo). The BMI cut-off values for 'overweight' according to the WHO, WOF, and DAG showed the following sensitivities and specificities for the prediction of excess body fat in our population: WHO: sensitivity 0.768 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.636-0.870), specificity 0.894 (95% CI 0.851-0.928); WOF: sensitivity 0.696 (95% CI 0.559-0.812), specificity 0.934 (95% CI 0.898-0.960); DAG: sensitivity 0.411 (95% CI 0.281-0.550), specificity 0.993 (95% CI 0.974-0.999). Body mass index showed high specificity, but low sensitivity in children with CP. Thus, 'normal-weight obese' children with CP were overlooked, when assessing excess body fat only using BMI. Excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is less common than previously reported. Body mass index (BMI) had high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting excess body fat in children with CP. BMI evaluation criteria of the German Society for Adiposity could be improved in children with CP. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  8. A catalogue of masses, structural parameters and velocity dispersion profiles of 112 Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.; Hilker, M.

    2018-05-01

    We have determined masses, stellar mass functions and structural parameters of 112 Milky Way globular clusters by fitting a large set of N-body simulations to their velocity dispersion and surface density profiles. The velocity dispersion profiles were calculated based on a combination of more than 15,000 high-precision radial velocities which we derived from archival ESO/VLT and Keck spectra together with ˜20, 000 published radial velocities from the literature. Our fits also include the stellar mass functions of the globular clusters, which are available for 47 clusters in our sample, allowing us to self-consistently take the effects of mass segregation and ongoing cluster dissolution into account. We confirm the strong correlation between the global mass functions of globular clusters and their relaxation times recently found by Sollima & Baumgardt (2017). We also find a correlation of the escape velocity from the centre of a globular cluster and the fraction of first generation stars (FG) in the cluster recently derived for 57 globular clusters by Milone et al. (2017), but no correlation between the FG star fraction and the global mass function of a globular cluster. This could indicate that the ability of a globular cluster to keep the wind ejecta from the polluting star(s) is the crucial parameter determining the presence and fraction of second generation stars and not its later dynamical mass loss.

  9. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  10. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  11. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled A. Alswat; Abdullah D. Al-Shehri; Tariq A. Aljuaid; Bassam A. Alzaidi; Hassan D. Alasmari

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and sm...

  12. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alswat, Khaled A.; Al-shehri, Abdullah D.; Aljuaid, Tariq A.; Alzaidi, Bassam A.; Alasmari, Hassan D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent?s education, sleeping pattern, and smokin...

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and circulating microRNAs in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wander, Pandora L; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Qiu, Chunfang; Holzman, Claudia; Williams, Michelle A

    Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study. Plasma miRNA expression was characterised using epigenome-wide (319 miRNAs) profiling among 20 pregnant women in each cohort. Cohort-specific linear regression models that included the predictor (pre-pregnancy body mass index), the outcome (microRNA expression), and adjustment factors (maternal age, gestational age at blood collection, and race) were fit. Expression of 27 miRNAs was positively associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index in both cohorts (p-values pregnancy body mass index is associated with circulating miRNAs in early-mid pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Influence of Body Weight on Bone Mass, Architecture, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. While the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  15. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  16. How culture shapes the body: cultural consonance and body mass in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Oths, Kathryn S; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a model of how culture shapes the body, based on two studies conducted in urban Brazil. Research was conducted in 1991 and 2001 in four socioeconomically distinct neighborhoods. First, cultural domain analyses were conducted with samples of key informants. The cultural domains investigated included lifestyle, social support, family life, national identity, and food. Cultural consensus analysis was used to confirm shared knowledge in each domain and to derive measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance assesses how closely an individual matches the cultural consensus model for each domain. Second, body composition, cultural consonance, and related variables were assessed in community surveys. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of cultural consonance and body composition, controlling for standard covariates and competing explanatory variables. In 1991, in a survey of 260 individuals, cultural consonance had a curvilinear association with the body mass index that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In 2001, in a survey of 267 individuals, cultural consonance had a linear association with abdominal circumference that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In general, as cultural consonance increases, body mass index and abdominal circumference decline, more strongly for women than men. As individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, more closely approximate shared cultural models in socially salient domains, body composition also more closely approximates the cultural prototype of the body. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  18. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    rate of response was 85%, and the present analysis comprises 2,589 women who supplied information about their body weight and height. The period prevalence of all UI, stress UI, urge UI, and mixed stress and urge UI was 17%, 15%, 9%, and 7%, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.7 kg/m2......The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall....... Irrespective of other risk indicators, BMI was positively associated with UI prevalence (OR, 1.07/BMI unit; Pstress UI prevalence, with cystitis in predicting urge UI, and with both in predicting mixed UI. Stress UI proved to be the UI type most closely...

  19. Diagnosis of partial body radiation exposure in mice using peripheral blood gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Meadows

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI. However, in the event a radiation-mass casualty scenario, many victims will have heterogeneous exposure due to partial shielding and it is unknown whether PB gene expression profiles would be useful in predicting the status of partially irradiated individuals. Here, we identified gene expression profiles in the PB that were characteristic of anterior hemibody-, posterior hemibody- and single limb-irradiation at 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy in C57Bl6 mice. These PB signatures predicted the radiation status of partially irradiated mice with a high level of accuracy (range 79-100% compared to non-irradiated mice. Interestingly, PB signatures of partial body irradiation were poorly predictive of radiation status by site of injury (range 16-43%, suggesting that the PB molecular response to partial body irradiation was anatomic site specific. Importantly, PB gene signatures generated from TBI-treated mice failed completely to predict the radiation status of partially irradiated animals or non-irradiated controls. These data demonstrate that partial body irradiation, even to a single limb, generates a characteristic PB signature of radiation injury and thus may necessitate the use of multiple signatures, both partial body and total body, to accurately assess the status of an individual exposed to radiation.

  20. Many-body theory of effective mass in degenerate semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G. S.; Shadangi, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the many-body theory of the effective mass in the effective mass representation (EMR). In the EMR, we need to solve the equation of motion of an electron in the presence of electron-electron interactions, where the wavefunction is expanded over a complete set of Luttinger-Kohn wavefunctions. We use the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic potential and the Green’s function perturbation to derive an expression for the band effective mass by taking into account the electron-electron interactions. Both quasi-particle and the correlation contributions are considered. We show that had we considered only the quasi-particle contribution, we would have missed important cancellations. Thus the correlated motion of electrons has important effects in the renormalization of the effective mass. Considering the exchange self-energy in the band model, we derive a tractable expression for the band effective mass. We apply the theory to n-type degenerate semiconductors, PbTe and SnTe, and analyze the impact of the theory on the anisotropic effective mass of the conduction bands in these systems.

  1. Waist circumference, body mass index, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an imperfect measure of body fat. Recent studies provide evidence in favor of replacing BMI with waist circumference (WC). Hence, I investigated whether or not the association between fat mass and employment status vary by anthropometric measures. I used 15 rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which has measures of employment status in addition to measured height, weight, and WC. WC and BMI were entered as continuous variables and obesity as binary variables defined using both WC and BMI. I used multivariate models controlling for a set of covariates. The association of WC with employment was of greater magnitude than the association between BMI and employment. I reran the analysis using conventional instrumental variables methods. The IV models showed significant impacts of obesity on employment; however, they were not more pronounced when WC was used to measure obesity, compared to BMI. This means that, in the IV models, the impact of fat mass on employment did not depend on the measure of fat mass.

  2. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  3. A Case of Pulmonary Foreign Body Reviewed as Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Javad Sayedi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Body Aspiration (FBA is a common and sometimes life-threatening problem in children and in higher age groups. FBA highest incidence rate is during the second year in children and the sixth decade of life in adults, and often foreign bodies due to their shape and size pass through larynx and trachea and place in bronchi. The most common aspirated body by children are nuts. Symptoms of aspiration can be asphyxia, cough, or cyanosis. Although in some cases patients may have no symptoms, an accurate and positive history even without clinical signs must be suspected doctor to a foreign body aspiration. However, in some cases, radiological intervention is normal and helps to diagnose and should be performed in all suspected cases to FBA. FBA definite diagnosis is by bronchoscopy, and to prevent complications and possibly death, timely removing of foreign body is vital and necessary. Most of the complications of delayed diagnosis and treatment and early detection are associated with few complications. FBA potential complications include pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, and recurrent pneumonia. Most of these complications are irreversible in people with problems diagnosed too late. Technological advances and clinical application of bronchoscopy have caused the majority of foreign bodies are removed from the respiratory system are without sequela. The removal of foreign body through undergone rigid bronchoscopy is the preferred method of treatment, but in certain cases may require surgical intervention to remove the foreign body. This report is a case of 17-month-old infant with fever, coryza, and cough symptoms with a diagnosis of pneumonia was hospitalized due to suspected pulmonary mass by chest x-ray or chest CT scan and bronchoscopy was performed and the seed was removed from the right lung.

  4. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.E. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  5. Serum antioxidant capacity, biochemical profile and body composition of breast cancer survivors in a randomized Mediterranean dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Grosomanidis, D; Massara, P; Kostara, C; Papandreou, P; Ntountaniotis, D; Xepapadakis, G

    2017-06-20

    Increasing evidence suggests that Mediterranean Diet (MD) is correlated with reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) and cancer mortality, since it modifies patients' serum antioxidant capacity, body composition and biochemical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention based on MD has a beneficial effect on these factors. In this intervention study, seventy female BC survivors were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (personalized dietary intervention based on MD) and (2) the control group (received the updated American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and ad libitum diet). Both groups were assessed twice [beginning, end of study (after 6 months)] regarding their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, serum vitamin C, vitamin A, a-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels, dietary intake and adherence to MD. An additional intermediate analysis was conducted on participants' body composition and biochemical profile. Concerning the intervention group, body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference, body mass index as well as HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased (P body weight, body fat mass and serum total cholesterol rose (P body composition, adherence to MD and glycemic profile of postmenopausal BC survivors.

  6. Further development of drag bodies for the measurement of mass flow rates during blowdown experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, E.; John, H.; Reimann, J.

    1983-01-01

    Drag bodies have already been used for sometime for the measurement of mass flow rates in blowdown experiments. Former research concerning the drag body behaviour in non-homogeneous two-phase flows frequently dealt with special effects by means of theoretical models only. For pipe flows most investigations were conducted for ratios of drag plate area to pipe cross section smaller 0.02. The present paper gives the results of experiments with drag bodies in a horizontal, non-homogeneous two-phase pipe flow with slip, which were carried through under the sponsorship of the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Special interest was layed on the behaviour of the drag coefficient in stationary flows and at various cross sectional ratios. Both design and response of various drag bodies, which were developed at the Battelle-Institut, were tested in stationary and instationary two-phase flows. The influences of density and velocity profiles as well as the drag body position were studied. The results demonstrate, that the drag body is capable of measuring mass flow rates in connection with a gamma densitometer also in non-homogeneous two-phase flows. Satisfying results could be obtained, using simply the drag coefficient which was determined from single-phase flow calibrations

  7. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  8. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. M.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Arimoto, Nobuo; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ v < 5 km s –1 ), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  9. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000, Strasbourg (France); Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peñarrubia, Jorge [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Casey, Caitlin M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ {sub v} < 5 km s{sup –1}), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  10. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  12. Associations between body mass index, ambulatory blood pressure findings, and changes in cardiac structure: relevance of pulse and nighttime pressures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedecostante, M.; Spannella, F.; Giulietti, F.; Espinosa, E.; Dessi-Fulgheri, P.; Sarzani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is central in the management of hypertension. Factors related to BP, such as body mass index (BMI), may differently affect particular aspects of 24-hour ABPM profiles. However, the relevance of BMI, the most used index of adiposity, has been

  13. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  14. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    incident pancreatic cancer cases from 1968-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: During 8,207,015 person-years of follow-up, 1,268 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI z-scores at ages 7-13 years were......Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...... from 7-13 years is positively and linearly associated with adult pancreatic cancer; the higher the BMI, the higher the risk. Excess childhood BMI may be indicative of processes initiated early in life that lead to this cancer. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the burden of pancreatic...

  15. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  16. BODY MASS STATUS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmala khan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: School going children is important part of our society. Their growth, development and body weight is of utmost significance and presents general health status of a community and nation as a whole. For the assessment of nutritional status WHO Asian cuts-off BMI for age recommended BMI less than 18.5 kg/m considered underweight, 18.5-24.9 normal weight, more than 25 overweight. The objective of this study is to access body mass status among primary school going children of Hyderabad. Methods: The study design was cross sectional study in which different school of Hyderabad were selected to collect data (semi government and private sector.This study has assessed the body mass index between 7-14 years old age group of both genders of primary school going children of Hyderabad. BMI has calculated with the help of weight and height of the body. Result: In this study out of 100 children 10%were 7-8 year old 20% were 9-10 year old, 20% were 11-12year old and 30% were 13-14 year old. The analysis shows 80% were underweight (below 18.5, 18% were normal weight (18.5-24.9 and only 2% overweight (above 25 according to the Asian cut-off value of BMI for Asian children. When it was analyzed by gender 62% of the boys and 18% of the girls were underweight, 6% of boys and 12% out of girls were normal weight, 2% of the boys were overweight no girl found overweight in the study. In the above study 80% found underweight, 18% normal weight, 2% overweight. Conclusion: Under nutrition among the school going children is currently a health problem faced by Hyderabad school going children. There is need to be taken address these problems in order to prevent nation from nutritional deficiency among school going children and buildup a strong and healthy nation in future.

  17. Maternal Body Mass Index during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy Y; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Haddow, James E

    2013-03-01

    This hypothesis generating study explores second trimester maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Mothers and offspring served as controls in two earlier studies: 101 children at age two years and 118 children at age eight years. Frequency of maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 increased from 10% in 1987-1990 to 30% in 2004-2006 ( P language scores and BMI ( P = 0.054). Among eight-year-olds, one or more WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition) scores children's neurocognitive development. Further study is indicated.

  18. Relationship between body mass index and fibromyalgia features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad B; Arslan, Sule; Aldag, Jean C

    2002-01-01

    to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and features of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). 211 female patients with FMS seen consecutively in our rheumatology clinic were analyzed. Spearman correlation was used. Further, FMS features were compared at different levels of BMI (kg/m2), e.g., or = 25.00 (normal vs overweight). P value of BMI and age (pBMI and education (pBMI (pBMI in FMS with a trend towards significance for fatigue and TP. Weight loss may improve physical functioning in this disorder.

  19. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were...

  20. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-07-01

    We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in "food deserts" in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity.

  1. Body Mass Index and Operating Times in Vascular Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durup-Dickenson

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The influence of body mass index (BMI on operating times in central and peripheral vascular surgical procedures was investigated. Report: A national cohort of Danish patients who underwent a vascular procedure between 1983 and 2012 was used for analysis. Data were analysed with pairwise comparisons of BMI groups for operating times using the independent samples Kruskall–Wallis test. Discussion: A total of 3,255 carotid endarterectomies; 6,885 central vascular procedures; and 4,488 peripheral bypasses were included for the analysis. Median operating times for carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures were, respectively, 5 and 15 minutes longer in obese patients than in normal weight patients. This represents a 7% and 10% increase in median operating times, respectively. Linear and multi-adjusted linear regressions were conducted adjusting for confounders, showing a significant correlation between BMI and operating time. Obesity significantly increased the operating times in carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures. These may have ramifications for the individual operative stress but not necessarily on logistical operation planning. Keywords: Body mass index (BMI, Obesity, Operating time, Surgery, Vascular surgical procedures

  2. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  3. Protein content and electrophoretic profile of fat body and ovary extracts from workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner T. Paes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier, 1836 develop their ovaries and lay eggs, therefore the production of vitellogenin is expected. In electrophoretic profiles only fat body extracts from nurse workers and ovary extracts from newly-emerged workers show protein with molecular mass similar to vitellogenin. However, an increase in the protein content was detected in forager fat body. This increase was attributed to storage of vitellogenin or other proteins in the previous phase and not discharged into the hemolymph or to an effect of the increased titre of juvenile hormone in this phase of worker life over the fat body functioning.

  4. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  5. Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Lopez, Priscilla M; Simons, Hannah R

    2015-06-01

    As obesity may affect the efficacy of some contraceptives, we examined weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among female contraceptive clients at 231 U.S. health centers. A secondary aim was to analyze differences in contraceptive method use by obesity status. Cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from family planning centers. We analyzed contraceptive visits made by 147,336 females aged 15-44 years in 2013. A total of 46.1% of clients had BMI ≥25. Mean body weight was 154.4 lb (S.D.=41.9); mean BMI was 26.1 (S.D.=6.6). A total of 40% had BMI ≥26, when levonorgestrel emergency contraception may become less effective. Obese clients had higher odds of using a tier 1 or tier 3 contraceptive method and had lower odds of using a tier 2 or hormonal method than non-obese clients. About half of contraceptive clients would be categorized as overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. About half of contraceptive clients in this study population were overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. All women - regardless of body size - should receive unbiased, evidence-based counseling on the full range of contraceptive options so that they can make informed choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body and brain development ... The study was aimed to explore how the prenatal EE impacts affect the ... positively promote the body and nervous system development of offspring, ...

  7. Instantaneous chemical profiles of banknotes by ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Livia S; Haddad, Renato; Sarabia Neto, Ramon C; Cosso, Ricardo G; Maia, Denison R J; Maldaner, Adriano O; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Sanvido, Gustavo B; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G; Ifa, Demian R; Dill, Allison; Cooks, R Graham; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-10-01

    Using two desorption/ionization techniques (DESI and EASI) and Brazilian real, US$ dollar, and euro bills as proof-of-principle techniques and samples, direct analysis by ambient mass spectrometry is shown to function as an instantaneous, reproducible, and non-destructive method for chemical analysis of banknotes. Characteristic chemical profiles were observed for the authentic bills and for the counterfeit bills made using different printing processes (inkjet, laserjet, phaser and off-set printers). Detection of real-world counterfeit bills and identification of the counterfeiting method has also been demonstrated. Chemically selective 2D imaging of banknotes has also been used to confirm counterfeiting. The nature of some key diagnostic ions has also been investigated via high accuracy FTMS measurements. The general applicability of ambient MS analysis for anti-counterfeiting strategies particularly via the use of "invisible ink" markers is discussed.

  8. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  9. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation

  10. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  12. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  13. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  15. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagojevic, N; Allen, B J; Baur, L; Gaskin, K

    1988-12-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value.

  16. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagojevic, N.; Allen, B.J.; Baur, L.; Gaskin, K.

    1988-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  17. High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...

  19. Contemporary labor patterns: the impact of maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Zhang, Jun; Vanveldhuisen, Paul; Troendle, James; Beaver, Julie; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-09-01

    We sought to compare labor patterns by body mass index (BMI). A total of 118,978 gravidas with a singleton term cephalic gestation were studied. Repeated-measures analysis constructed mean labor curves by parity and BMI categories for those who reached 10 cm. Interval-censored regression analysis determined median traverse times, adjusting for covariates in vaginal deliveries and intrapartum cesareans. In the labor curves, the time difference to reach 10 cm was 1.2 hours from the lowest to highest BMI category for nulliparas. Multiparas entered active phase by 6 cm, but reaching this point took longer for BMI ≥40.0 (3.4 hours) compared to BMI .05) but decreased as BMI increased for multiparas (P < .001). Labor proceeds more slowly as BMI increases, suggesting that labor management be altered to allow longer time for these differences. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic...... with normal weight. This association was limited to postmenopausal women (Wald test p = 0.08), with enhanced non-participation in underweight (2.83: 1.52-5.27) and obese women of class II and III (1.84: 1.15-2.95; 2.47: 1.20-5.06) as compared to normal weight postmenopausal women. There was no effect...... modification by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities, besides suggestive evidence of enhanced non-participation in diabetic overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and very obese postmenopausal women were significantly less likely to participate in mammographic screening than women...

  1. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46

  2. Association between Enuresis and Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutomatic release of urine at any time of a day during sleep beyond the age of five years defined enuresis as a health disorders in children. The etiology of enuresis is still not clearly understood. Body Mass Index (BMI is an indicator to evaluate the growth trend of individuals in a population for any specific age group. Evaluation of obesity in children is important and provides an opportunity to identify the problem and prevent disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enuresis and the association with BMI.Materials and MethodsThe study was a cross-sectional survey based on specific age group population to determine the prevalence of enuresis conducted on the schoolchildren in Zahedan, Iran during December 2015 and February 2016. A random, multistage sample of 2,000 students was taken from fifty schools in five districts of Zahedan city and filled out some easy questions such as age and gender along with measuring weight and height. Body Mass Index categorized after calculation accordance with the formulae of BMI= Height (kg / Weight (m 2. The classification of BMI was accordance with  percentiles  of  underweight in less than the 5th percentile, healthy level from the 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight from the 85th to less than the 97th percentile and obese equal to or greater than the 97th percentile.ResultsThe prevalence of enuresis was 17.18% for boys and 11.82% for girls, and the overall prevalence was 140 in 1000. Enuresis and non- enuresis population were different in mean of BMI (15.51±3.92 versus 17.69±5.11, so that this differential were statistically significant (P

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  4. Correlates of body mass index in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M; Calfa, Nicolina A; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may further contribute to joint pain and fatigue. However, there is little research addressing weight issues in this population. This study examined the relationship of body mass index (BMI) to quality of life. Quality of life was measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, severity of FMS, nutritional intake, Barriers to Health Promoting Behaviors for Disabled Persons Scale (BS), and self-efficacy for health-promoting behaviors (Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scale) in women with FMS. Baseline data were collected on 179 women diagnosed with FMS. Controlling for age, BMI was significantly (p < .05) correlated with 36-Item Short Form Health Survey subscales of physical functioning, bodily pain and vitality, severity of FMS using the Tender Point Index, calories, protein, fat, saturated fat, BS, and Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scale subscale for exercise. The findings support a growing body of evidence that excess weight is negatively related to quality of life and pain in women with FMS.

  5. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  6. Grading the "good" body: a poststructural feminist analysis of body mass index initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbensky-Kerber, Anne

    2011-06-01

    This article analyzes discourse surrounding Arkansas's legislation requiring public schools to measure students' body mass index (BMI) annually and to send the scores to parents on children's report cards. Using poststructural feminist sensibilities, I explore the tensions experienced by parents, children, educators, and policymakers as this mandate was debated and implemented. The discourse illuminates salient issues about disproportionate disparities in health status that exist in communities with fewer resources, and the potentially unintended gendered consequences of health policies. I explain three dominant threads of discourse: How the economic costs of childhood obesity opened a policy window for the legislation; the presence of tensions between freedom and social control; and how BMI discourses inscribe ideological visions of bodies. Ultimately, the analysis offers insight into the discursive nature of policymaking and how class and gender are implicated in health interventions.

  7. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer AB

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Belin Özer,1 Aysun Yildiz Altun,1 Ömer Lütfi Erhan,1 Tuba Çatak,2 Ümit Karatepe,1 İsmail Demirel,1 Gonca Çağlar Toprak3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Firat University Medical School, Elaziğ, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Bingol State Hospital, Bingöl, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elaziğ, Turkey Purpose: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no premedication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST, mean body temperature (MBT, vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf. MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm-Tfinger. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was

  8. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  9. Influence of body composition profile on outcomes following colorectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, G; Currie, A C; Athanasiou, T; Johns, N; Anyamene, N; Glynne-Jones, R; Kennedy, R H; Fearon, K C H; Jenkins, J T

    2016-04-01

    Muscle depletion is characterized by reduced muscle mass (myopenia), and increased infiltration by intermuscular and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis). This study examined the role of particular body composition profiles as prognostic markers for patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection. Patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgical resection between 2006 and 2011 were included. Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) surface area and mean muscle attenuation (MA) were calculated by analysis of CT images. Reduced LSMI (myopenia), increased VAT (visceral obesity) and low MA (myosteatosis) were identified using predefined sex-specific skeletal muscle index values. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to determine the role of different body composition profiles on outcomes. Some 805 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 47 (i.q.r. 24·9-65·6) months. Multivariable analysis identified myopenia as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1·53, 95 per cent c.i. 1·06 to 2·39; P = 0·041) and overall survival (HR 1·70, 1·25 to 2·31; P cancer survival for patients with colorectal cancer. Muscle depletion may represent a modifiable risk factor in patients with colorectal cancer and needs to be targeted as a relevant endpoint of health recommendations. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  11. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    . Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b......A, as predicted from body-shape changes using a Euclidean model). As many pelagic invertebrates use a large portion of their external body surface for both resource uptake and waste excretion, we predicted that body-mass scaling exponents for rates of excretion of soluble N (bN) should also then relate...... to the degree of body-shape change during growth. We tested this hypothesis using literature data on bN for 39 species of pelagic invertebrates across five different phyla, and find strong support: bN is significantly positively correlated with predicted bA, whilst also co-varying with bR. Intraspecific...

  12. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  13. Subsidence of a cementless femoral component influenced by body weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihsen, Christoph; Radl, Roman; Keshmiri, Armin; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    This trial was designed to evaluate the impact of physical characteristics such as body mass index, body weight and height on distal stem migration of a cementless femoral component, as the influence of obesity on the outcome of THA is still debated in literature and conflicting results have been found. In this retrospective cohort study, migration patterns for 102 implants were analysed using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA-FCA, femoral component analysis). In all cases the Vision 2000 stem was implanted and combined with the Duraloc acetabular component (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana). The mean follow-up was 93 months. EBRA-FCA evaluations revealed a mean subsidence of 1.38 mm after two years, 2.06 mm after five and 2.24 mm after seven years. Five stems loosened aseptically. Correlation between increased migration over the whole period and aseptic loosening was highly significant (p < 0.001). Surgical technique had a significant influence on migration and stem stability (p = 0.002) but physical patient characteristics such as body weight over 75 kg and height over 165 cm also significantly influenced stem subsidence towards progressive migration (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). However, a high BMI did not trigger progressive stem migration (p = 0.87). Being of the male gender raised the odds for increased migration (p = 0.03). Physical characteristics such as body weight and height showed significant influence on migration patterns of this cementless femoral component. The operating surgeon should be aware that body weight above 75 kg and height over 165 cm may trigger increased stem migration and the surgeon should aim to fit these prostheses as tightly as possible. However this study demonstrates that a high BMI does not trigger progressive stem migration. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings.

  14. Correlation between maternal body composition and haemodynamic changes in pregnancy: different profiles for different hypertensive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, I; Tiralongo, G M; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Farsetti, D; Vasapollo, B; Novelli, G P; Andreoli, A; Valensise, H

    2017-10-01

    To assess and correlate changes in body composition and haemodynamic function during pregnancy. To identify different haemodynamic profiles based on the onset of hypertensive diseases such as gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We enrolled 265 healthy, normotensive pregnant women throughout pregnancy (from 6+0 to 36+0weeks). They were subjected to assessment of body composition and haemodynamic function using non-invasive methods. We divided our population in three groups: group A with physiological pregnancy, group B with gestational hypertension and group C with preeclamptic patients. In patients who developed gestational hypertension we found lower total body water (TBW) percentage, higher Fat Mass (FM), associated with lower Cardiac Output (CO) and higher Total Vascular Resistance (TVR) during the second trimester. In the third trimester we didn't find haemodynamic differences, but a significative increase in extracellular water (ECW) percentage. In patients who developed preeclampsia we found since the first trimester significative higher TVR and hypodynamic circulation, associated with lower FM percentage. Assessment of body composition and maternal cardiac function may help to identify earlier in pregnancy, patients with different (mal) adaptations to pregnancy. Women with high TVR, hypodynamic circulation and low fat mass during the first trimester, might be at higher risk to develop preeclampsia. Patients with higher BMI and FM percentage, and increased TVR in the second trimester, might be at risk of gestational hypertension and excessive fluid retention at the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  16. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Flajšman

    Full Text Available We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults, hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea, although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  17. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  18. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  19. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  20. Body mass index and the risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Nissinen, A; Antikainen, R; Kivipelto, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2006-12-12

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Study cohorts included 22,367 Finnish men and 23,439 women 25 to 59 years of age without a history of PD at baseline. Hazards ratios (HRs) of incident PD were estimated for different levels of BMI. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years, 272 men and 254 women developed incident PD. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study years, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, coffee, and tea consumption), the HRs of PD at different levels of BMI ( or =30 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 1.97 (95% CI: 1.21 to 3.22), 1.83 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.99), 2.34 (95% CI: 1.45 to 3.78), and 2.44 (95% CI: 1.44 to 4.15) in men, and 1.00, 1.50 (95% CI: 0.95 to 2.37), 1.65 (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.59), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.80), and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.78) in women, and 1.00, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 2.02 (95% CI: 1.46 to 2.79), and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.85) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex). In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted direct association between BMI and the risk of PD was present both in subjects aged 25 to 49 years and 50 to 59 years, in never smokers and smokers and in participants diagnosed PD before and after 65 years of age. Body mass index is associated with a risk of Parkinson disease. The effect is graded and independent of other risk factors.

  1. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  2. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  3. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  4. Lean body mass, interleukin 18, and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how lean body mass is related to circulating Interleukin 18 (IL-18 and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS among apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1059 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was used to measure plasma IL-18, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers and high-molecular-weight (HMW-adiponectin. Fat mass index (FMI and lean mass index (LMI were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Circulating IL-18 was positively correlated with LMI after adjustment for FMI (correlation coefficient = 0.11, P<0.001. The association with the MetS (odds ratio 3.43, 95% confidence interval 2.01-5.85 was substantially higher in the highest than the lowest quartile of IL-18 after multiple adjustments including body mass index. In the stratified multivariable regression analyses, the positive association between IL-18 and MetS was independent of tertiles of FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin, but significantly interacted with tertile of LMI (P for interaction = 0.010. CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma IL-18 was associated with higher MetS prevalence in apparently healthy Chinese, independent of traditional risk factors, FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin. More studies are needed to clarify the role of lean mass in IL-18 secretion and its associated cardio-metabolic disorders.

  5. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  6. Association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S A; Shim, H S; Jung, J Y; Kim, H J; Kim, S H; Byun, J Y; Park, M S; Yeo, S G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be involved in recovery from Bell's palsy, no study has investigated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and obesity. This study therefore evaluated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were classified into five groups based on BMI (kg/m 2 ). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among these groups. Assessed factors included sex, age, time from paralysis to visiting a hospital, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, degree of initial facial nerve paralysis by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade and neurophysiological testing, and final recovery rate. Based on BMI, 37 subjects were classified as underweight, 169 as normal weight, 140 as overweight, 155 as obese and 42 as severely obese. Classification of the degree of initial facial nerve paralysis as moderate or severe, according to H-B grade and electroneurography, showed no difference in severity of initial facial paralysis among the five groups (P > 0.05). However, the final recovery rate was significantly higher in the normal weight than in the underweight or obese group (P < 0.05). Obesity or underweight had no effect on the severity of initial facial paralysis, but the final recovery rate was lower in the obese and underweight groups than in the normal group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Individual differences in fornix microstructure and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Metzler-Baddeley

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI, within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53-93 years old. Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively, relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain.

  8. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Alswat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA using the grade point average (GPA. Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved >90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p<0.05, live with their parents (p=0.013, having educated parents (p=0.037, getting optimal sleep (p<0.05, and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p<0.05. Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.

  9. Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    .57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively. Further......BACKGROUND: A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs. METHODS: 75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median......-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-≤25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5...

  10. Body Mass Index Development and Asthma Throughout Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Sandra; Magnusson, Jessica; Kull, Inger; Andersson, Niklas; Bottai, Matteo; Besharat Pour, Mohsen; Melén, Erik; Bergström, Anna

    2017-07-15

    Several studies have found an association between overweight and asthma, yet the temporal relationship between their onsets remains unclear. We investigated the development of body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence among 2,818 children with and without asthma from a Swedish birth cohort study, the BAMSE (a Swedish acronym for "children, allergy, milieu, Stockholm, epidemiology") Project, during 1994-2013. Measured weight and height were available at 13 time points throughout childhood. Asthma phenotypes (transient, persistent, and late-onset) were defined by timing of onset and remission. Quantile regression was used to analyze percentiles of BMI, and generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between asthma phenotypes and the risk of high BMI. Among females, BMI development differed between children with and without asthma, with the highest BMI being seen among females with persistent asthma. The difference existed throughout childhood but increased with age. For example, females with persistent asthma had 2.33 times' (95% confidence interval: 1.21, 4.49) greater odds of having a BMI above the 85th percentile at age ≥15 years than females without asthma. Among males, no clear associations between asthma and BMI were observed. In this study, persistent asthma was associated with high BMI throughout childhood among females, whereas no consistent association was observed among males. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  11. Body Mass Index and Menstrual Patterns in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Quinn, Bridget J; Geminiani, Ellen; Kinney, Susan; McCrystal, Tara; Owen, Michael; Pepin, Michael J; Stein, Cynthia J

    2016-04-18

    Questionnaires were distributed to investigate body mass index (BMI) and menstrual patterns in female dancers aged 12 to 17 years. The study cohort consisted of 105 dancers, mean age 14.8 ± 1.1 years, and mean BMI 19.5 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 In all, 92% were healthy weight for height. First menses age ranged from 10 to 15 years (mean 12.9 ± 1.1 years). A total of 44% reported irregular menses; of those, 14% described irregularity as "every other month," 37% as "every 3 months," and 49% as "skips a month occasionally." A total of 36% of the dancers stop getting their menses during times of increased activity/dance, and 30% have gone >3 months at any time without getting their menses. A significant negative correlation between BMI and age of first menses was found with lower BMI associated with increased age of first menses (linear regression, β = -0.49,P= .021). This study supports an association between BMI and age of menarche among young female dancers. Given bone health reliance on hormonal milieu in female dancers, future research is warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  13. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  14. Metabolomics by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: the combination of targeted and untargeted profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics is ideal for identifying and quantitating small molecular metabolites (metabolomics easily allows integrating targeted assays for absolute quantification of specific metabolites with untargeted metabolomics to discover novel compounds. Complemented by database annotations using large spectral libraries and validated, standardized standard operating procedures, GC-MS can identify and semi-quantify over 200 compounds per study in human body fluids (e.g., plasma, urine or stool) samples. Deconvolution software enables detection of more than 300 additional unidentified signals that can be annotated through accurate mass instruments with appropriate data processing workflows, similar to liquid chromatography-MS untargeted profiling (LC-MS). Hence, GC-MS is a mature technology that not only uses classic detectors (‘quadrupole’) but also target mass spectrometers (‘triple quadrupole’) and accurate mass instruments (‘quadrupole-time of flight’). This unit covers the following aspects of GC-MS-based metabolomics: (i) sample preparation from mammalian samples, (ii) acquisition of data, (iii) quality control, and (iv) data processing. PMID:27038389

  15. Beyond Body Mass Index. Is the Body Cell Mass Index (BCMI) a useful prognostic factor to describe nutritional, inflammation and muscle mass status in hospitalized elderly?: Body Cell Mass Index links in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Talluri, Jacopo; Peroni, Gabriella; Donelli, Chiara; Guerriero, Fabio; Ferrini, Krizia; Riggi, Emilia; Sauta, Elisabetta; Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of Body Cell Mass Index (BCMI) as a prognostic index of (mal)nutrition, inflammation and muscle mass status in the elderly. A cross-sectional observational study has been conducted on 114 elderly patients (80 women and 34 men), with mean age equal to 81.07 ± 6.18 years. We performed a multivariate regression model by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) framework. We detected the effects over a Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) stratification, by performing a multi-group multivariate regression model (via SEM) in two MNA nutritional strata, less and bigger (or equal) than 17. BCMI had a significant effect on albumin (β = +0.062, P = 0.001), adjusting for the other predictors of the model as Body Mass Index (BMI), age, sex, fat mass and cognitive condition. An analogous result is maintained in MNAelderly patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI. PMID:22384179

  17. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Amos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate.

  19. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  20. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y Krakauer

    Full Text Available Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI, it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC.We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 18 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths. We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI ≡ WC/(BMI(2/3height(1/2. ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of +33% per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: +20%-+48%, whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. 22% (8%-41% of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to 15% (3%-30% for BMI and 15% (4%-29% for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity, and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up.Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.

  1. What kind of Relationship is Between Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Sukić, Enes; Rankov, Olivera; Katić, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (B F %) are well known as indicators of nutritional status, there are insuficient data whether the relationship between them is linear or not. There are appropriate linear and quadratic formulas that are available to predict B F % from age, gender and BMI. On the other hand, our previous research has shown that artificial neural network (ANN) is a more accurate method for that. The aim of this study is to analyze relationship between BMI and B F % by using ANN and big dataset (3058 persons). Our results show that this relationship is rather quadratic than linear for both gender and all age groups. Comparing genders, quadratic relathionship is more pronounced in women, while linear relationship is more pronounced in men. Additionaly, our results show that quadratic relationship is more pronounced in old than in young and middle-age men and it is slightly more pronounced in young and middle-age than in old women.

  2. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  3. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  4. Body Mass Index at onset of Puberty in Rats Exposed to Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    ... Index Medicus (WHO), CAB Abstracts, Index Copernicus, Global Health Abstracts, Asian Science Index, Index ... has any effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and weights of some ... detrimental when nutrition was more abundant in.

  5. Association of Body Mass Index and Body Mass Index Change with Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although high body mass index (BMI appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI. Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54, but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80% during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95 and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84, which was independent of baseline BMI values.

  6. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2. Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.. The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed.

  7. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  8. Interrelationships Between Walkability, Air Pollution, Greenness, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Hart, Jaime E; Banay, Rachel F; Kloog, Itai; Laden, Francine

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have linked urban environmental factors and body mass index (BMI); however, such factors are often examined in isolation, ignoring correlations across exposures. Using data on Nurses' Health Study participants living in the Northeastern United States in 2006, we estimated associations between neighborhood walkability (a composite of population density, street connectivity, and business access), greenness (from satellite imagery), and ambient air pollution (from satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved PM2.5 predictions and weighted monthly average concentrations of NO2 from up to five nearest monitors) and self-reported BMI using generalized additive models, allowing for deviations from linearity using penalized splines. Among 23,435 women aged 60-87 years, we observed nonlinear associations between walkability and BMI and between PM2.5 and BMI in single-exposure models adjusted for age, race, and individual- and area-level socioeconomic status. When modeling all exposures simultaneously, only the association between walkability and BMI remained nonlinear and nonmonotonic. Increasing walkability was associated with increasing BMI at lower levels of walkability (walkability index walkability was linked to lower BMI in areas of higher walkability (walkability index >1.8). A 10 percentile increase in walkability, right above 1.8 was associated with a 0.84% decrease in log BMI. The relationship between walkability and BMI existed only among younger participants (walkability was nonlinearly linked to lower BMI independent of air pollution and greenness. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for nonlinear confounding by interrelated urban environmental factors when investigating associations between the environment and BMI.

  9. Analysis of fall injuries by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Waclawczyk, Amanda; Hartfield, Doug; Yu, Shicheng; Kuang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Hongrui; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-05-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and fall injuries. Data were derived from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included subjects aged 45 years and older from Texas. The outcome was self-reported falls that resulted in injury to the respondents. Analysis of fall injuries by BMI was conducted and standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and coefficients of variation were reported. Complex sample multivariate Poisson regression was used to examine the association of BMI and fall injuries. A total of 18,077 subjects were surveyed in 2010, and 13,235 subjects were aged 45 years old and older. The mean BMI was higher (29.94 vs 28.32 kg/m(2)) among those who reported fall injuries compared with those who did not. The fall injuries reported by obese respondents (relative risk [RR] 1.67) were found to be significantly (P = 0.031) higher compared with normal-weight respondents in the multivariate regression. Other risk factors that had significant association with fall injuries (when adjusted for BMI) were activity limitations (RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.36-7.46) compared with no limitations, and not having formal employment (homemaker: RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.33-5.37; unable to work: RR 5.01, 95% CI 1.87-13.29; out of work and students: RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.41-7.29) compared with the employed population. There is a significant association between obesity and fall injuries in adults aged 45 years old and older in Texas. Interventions in fall prevention, although generally targeted at present to older adults, also should take into account the weight status of the subjects.

  10. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  11. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.

  12. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  13. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad, E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Packianathan, Satya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  14. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT ± indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: 30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT ± indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: 30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0× (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06–1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT ± indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  15. Correlation of Gastrophageal Reflux Disease symptoms with Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, Israr U.; Tayyab, Ghias U.N.; Rehman, Ameed U.; Rehman, Adeel U.; Chaudhry, NusratU.

    2008-01-01

    Aim was to find a correlation between symptoms of gastrophageal refluxdisease (GERD) and body mass index (BMI). A total of 603 patients whopresented at Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital and Surgimed Hospital Lahore withsymptoms of GERD, were included and interviewed according to a validated GERDquestionnaire. It included questions regarding GERD symptoms and theirseverity/frequency. Symptoms were defined: frequent if occurred daily;occasional if weekly and severe if they were sufficiently intense to changelife style. Height and weight were also recorded and their BMI calculated. Weused logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associationbetween the presence of each specific GI symptom and BMI. The odds ratios(OR) for a given specific symptom and 95% confidence intervals (CI) werecomputed from the coefficients in logistic regression models. The prevalenceof obesity was 25.3%, while 38.1% were overweight. There was an increase inreporting of GI symptoms in obese individuals compared to those with normalBMI who were taken as reference group. Frequent nausea, vomiting, earlysatiety, epigastric pain, heart burn, regurgitation, postprandial fullnessand dysphagia were present in 10.4, 5.6, 8.9, 17.2, 10.2, 22.1, 23.5 and21.7%, respectively, of obese subjects compared to 7.9, 1.2, 6.5, 3.5, 4.4,17.1 and 16.6% of normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a positive relationshipwith frequent vomiting (P=0.02), epigastric pain (P=0.03), regurgitation offood (P=0.02) and postprandial fullness (0.01). The majority of GERD symptomshave a greater likelihood of occurring with increasing BMI. (author)

  16. For better or worse: relationship status and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Sikora, Asia; Argys, Laura M

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. This paper examines the link between these two outcomes. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The selection hypothesis suggests that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health as a result of the increased social support and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations which may arise because of marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union-or on the other hand, adults may enhance their prospects in the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of longitudinal data and complete marriage histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects models to examine associations between the change in log BMI and the incidence of overweight and obesity, and changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses-BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and in the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status across these groups.

  17. Association between Body Mass Index and Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Mojaver Borabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI can affect cardiac morphology; however, the relationship between BMI and valvular heart diseases has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to determine the relationship between BMI and mitral valve prolapse (MVP as one of the most common valve diseases worldwide. It can help us to better understand pathophysiology of this common disease. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study we enrolled 200 patients with isolated MVP. This patient was referred from 2014 to 2015 to our cardiology clinic in Mashhad, Iran, with chief complaint of chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. We document the patients’ height, weight, and demographics data. BMI distribution was categorized as higher and lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Chi- square and independent samples t-test were performed using SPSS version 19 to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that 92 (46% and 108 (54% of the samples were male and female, respectively, and their mean age was 24.29±3.75 years. Most of the patients(n=110 had low BMI (55% of the patients had BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Left atrial and ventricular diameters had a significant relationship with BMI of all the underweight patients(n=110 (P=0.026 and 0.032, respectively. The main complaints were chest pain (n=55,50% and dyspnea (n=58,64.44% in the patients with low and normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Symptoms and echocardiographic features in MVP patients vary with BMI. While mitral valve annulus diameter was the same in both BMI groups, the results showed that left atrial and ventricular diameters in the underweight patients were less than those with normal BMI.

  18. Body mass index and dynamic lung volumes in office workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.A.; Shirwany, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    To measure the association of body mass index (BMI) to lung volumes assessed by spirometer. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from February to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and twenty-five apparently healthy adult office workers of either gender aged > 20 years were recruited. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Subjects were categorized as normal (BMI=18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2); overweight (BMI=25 to 29.9 kg/m2); and obese Class 1 (BMI=30 to 34.9 kg/m2) on the basis of BMI. Lung volumes were measured by digital spirometer and were reported as percentage of predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1%) and ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC). Groups were compared using t-test and ANOVA, correlation was assessed by Pearson's 'r'. Results: Significant differences in lung volumes were found in different BMI categories. Obese subjects had significantly lower FVC% (p < 0.0001), as well as significantly lower FEV1% (p = 0.003) as compared to normal subjects. There were significant linear relationships between obesity and PFTs. BMI had significant negative linear association with FVC% in overweight (r = -0.197) and obese (r = - 0.488); and with FEV1% in obese subjects (r = -0.510). Gender and age had no significant effect on mean values of PFTs. Conclusion: Obese individuals in this sample had significant decline in lung volumes. (author)

  19. BODY MASS INDEX AND SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTH KOREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses differential labour performance by body mass index (BMI), focusing on heterogeneity across three distinct employment statuses: unemployed, self-employed and salaried. Data were drawn from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. The final sample included 15,180 person-year observations (9645 men and 5535 women) between 20 and 65 years of age. The findings show that (i) overweight/obese women are less likely to have salaried jobs than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men are more likely to be employed in both the salaried and self-employed sectors than underweight/normal men, (ii) overweight/obese women have lower wages only in permanent salaried jobs than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men earn higher wages only in salaried temporary jobs than underweight/normal weight women, (iii) overweight/obese women earn lower wages only in service, sales, semi-professional and blue-collar jobs in the salaried sector than underweight/normal weight women, whereas overweight/obese men have lower wages only in sales jobs in the self-employed sector than underweight/normal weight women. The statistically significant BMI penalty in labour market outcomes, which occurs only in the salaried sector for women, implies that there is an employers' distaste for workers with a high BMI status and that it is a plausible mechanism for job market penalty related to BMI status. Thus, heterogeneous job characteristics across and within salaried versus self-employed sectors need to be accounted for when assessing the impact of BMI status on labour market outcomes.

  20. Genetic and environmental transmission of body mass index fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Jocilyn E; Neale, Michael C; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C; Maes, Hermine H

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) fluctuation and cardiovascular disease phenotypes, diabetes, and depression and the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences in BMI fluctuation using the extended twin-family model (ETFM). This study included 14,763 twins and their relatives. Health and Lifestyle Questionnaires were obtained from 28,492 individuals from the Virginia 30,000 dataset including twins, parents, siblings, spouses, and children of twins. Self-report cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression data were available. From self-reported height and weight, BMI fluctuation was calculated as the difference between highest and lowest BMI after age 18, for individuals 18-80 years. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between BMI fluctuation and disease status. The ETFM was used to estimate the significance and contribution of genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission, and assortative mating components to BMI fluctuation, while controlling for age. We tested sex differences in additive and dominant genetic effects, parental, non-parental, twin, and unique environmental effects. BMI fluctuation was highly associated with disease status, independent of BMI. Genetic effects accounted for ~34 % of variance in BMI fluctuation in males and ~43 % of variance in females. The majority of the variance was accounted for by environmental factors, about a third of which were shared among twins. Assortative mating, and cultural transmission accounted for only a small proportion of variance in this phenotype. Since there are substantial health risks associated with BMI fluctuation and environmental components of BMI fluctuation account for over 60 % of variance in males and over 50 % of variance in females, environmental risk factors may be appropriate targets to reduce BMI fluctuation.

  1. The association between body mass index and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah D; Aljuaid, Tariq A; Alzaidi, Bassam A; Alasmari, Hassan D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent's education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded.  Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved greater than 90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved less than 90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved greater than 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p less than 0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p less than 0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p less than 0.05).  Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.

  2. Association between dental caries and body mass in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikramenou, V; Dimitraki, D; Zoumpoulakis, M; Verykouki, E; Kotsanos, N

    2016-06-01

    This was to explore the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) by conducting a cross-sectional study of a sample of preschool children from a major Greek city. The sample consisted of 2180 children aged 2.5-5.9 years from 33 private day care centres of Thessaloniki. The examinations were performed on site in ample day light by one examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. Oral examinations included recording of dental caries by dmfs index. Subject's height and weight were measured using a portable measuring unit and a digital scale, respectively. The overall prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children in each BMI-based weight category was 11.8, 72.2, 12.8, and 3.2 %, respectively. The mean age of the total sample was 50.09 (±10.28) months, mean dmfs was 0.36 (±1.9) and the caries-free children were 90.0 %. Overweight children were 1.36 times and obese children 1.99 times more likely to have higher dmfs than normal weight children. The mean dmfs values of underweight children did not significantly differ than that of children with normal weight. The relatively higher dmfs of the obese and overweight children was mostly evident in the older (60-71 months) age group. Caries prevalence in this sample of Greek children attending private day care centres was low. Overweight and obese preschool children were at higher risk of dental caries than normal- and underweight children.

  3. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  4. RESEARCH OF THE METABOLIC AGE AND BODY MASS INDEX FOR FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Petrova Dyakova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic age - this feature takes into account, the basic metabolism and all the basic physical parameters and the determining of age, which corresponds to this type of metabolism. The aim of the research is to establish a metabolic age and the index of the body mass (Body Mass Index for students. Anthropometric measurement was applied. The analyzer was used for the composition of body weight (body composition analyzer, BC-420MA “Tanita” for determining the metabolic age and body mass index. The conducted monitoring of the metabolic age reveals opportunities to improve students' motivation for healthy lifestyle.

  5. Is what Filipino children eat between meals associated with body mass index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B; Lee-Pineda, Karen; Caralipio, Nenita D; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Sibug, Eleanor O; Velasco, Zenaida F

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between childhood obesity and snacking. A total of 396 students in grades 4 to 6 enrolled in an elementary school in the Philippines were the participants in this study. Demographic profile; anthropometric measures of height, weight, body mass index; and information about snacking were gathered. Obese group had statistically more servings of sweetened drinks and low-quality snacks. Female obese subjects have statistically more servings at nighttime and greater total snack servings. For the whole cohort, the odds ratio of being overweight with high total snack servings was 2.12 (95% confidence interval = 1.25-3.62) whereas the odds ratio of being obese with calories obtained from snacking was 2.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-4.26). Nighttime snacks and bad-quality foods should be minimized. Moreover, reducing food portions at any snack time will protect children from being overweight. © 2013 APJPH.

  6. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  7. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum......Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  8. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  9. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  10. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  11. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  12. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  13. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  14. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  15. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Nicolás E; Evans, David C

    2012-07-10

    Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial quadrupeds, which is important for a

  16. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione Nicolás E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in

  17. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  18. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05. BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05. Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068 and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227 (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of

  19. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Haro

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI. Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001. However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019 and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026 in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041. Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  20. Assessing the accuracy of body mass estimation equations from pelvic and femoral variables among modern British women of known mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mariel; Johannesdottir, Fjola; Poole, Ken; Shaw, Colin; Stock, J T

    2018-02-01

    Femoral head diameter is commonly used to estimate body mass from the skeleton. The three most frequently employed methods, designed by Ruff, Grine, and McHenry, were developed using different populations to address different research questions. They were not specifically designed for application to female remains, and their accuracy for this purpose has rarely been assessed or compared in living populations. This study analyzes the accuracy of these methods using a sample of modern British women through the use of pelvic CT scans (n = 97) and corresponding information about the individuals' known height and weight. Results showed that all methods provided reasonably accurate body mass estimates (average percent prediction errors under 20%) for the normal weight and overweight subsamples, but were inaccurate for the obese and underweight subsamples (average percent prediction errors over 20%). When women of all body mass categories were combined, the methods provided reasonable estimates (average percent prediction errors between 16 and 18%). The results demonstrate that different methods provide more accurate results within specific body mass index (BMI) ranges. The McHenry Equation provided the most accurate estimation for women of small body size, while the original Ruff Equation is most likely to be accurate if the individual was obese or severely obese. The refined Ruff Equation was the most accurate predictor of body mass on average for the entire sample, indicating that it should be utilized when there is no knowledge of the individual's body size or if the individual is assumed to be of a normal body size. The study also revealed a correlation between pubis length and body mass, and an equation for body mass estimation using pubis length was accurate in a dummy sample, suggesting that pubis length can also be used to acquire reliable body mass estimates. This has implications for how we interpret body mass in fossil hominins and has particular relevance

  1. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lean body mass predicts long-term survival in Chinese patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced lean body mass (LBM is one of the main indicators in malnutrition inflammation syndrome among patients on dialysis. However, the influence of LBM on peritoneal dialysis (PD patients' outcomes and the factors related to increasing LBM are seldom reported. METHODS: We enrolled 103 incident PD patients between 2002 and 2003, and followed them until December 2011. Clinical characteristics, PD-associated parameters, residual renal function, and serum chemistry profiles of each patient were collected at 1 month and 1 year after initiating PD. LBM was estimated using creatinine index corrected with body weight. Multiple linear regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were used to define independent variables and compare survival between groups. RESULTS: Using the median LBM value (70% for men and 64% for women, patients were divided into group 1 (n = 52; low LBM and group 2 (n = 51; high LBM. Group 1 patients had higher rates of peritonitis (1.6 vs. 1.1/100 patient months; p<0.05 and hospitalization (14.6 vs. 9.7/100 patient months; p<0.05. Group 1 patients also had shorter overall survival and technique survival (p<0.01. Each percentage point increase in LBM reduced the hazard ratio for mortality by 8% after adjustment for diabetes, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI. Changes in residual renal function and protein catabolic rate were independently associated with changes in LBM in the first year of PD. CONCLUSIONS: LBM serves as a good parameter in addition to BMI to predict the survival of patients on PD. Preserving residual renal function and increasing protein intake can increase LBM.

  4. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  5. Body mass index is a poor predictor of malnutrition in hospitalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Comparison between Subjective Global Assessment and Body Mass Index to determine the nutritional status in patients admitted in an Internal Medicine Service. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal,observational study of a population of 152 patients,using the Subjective Global Assessment and Body Mass Index.

  6. Body mass index of children aged 2 to 15 years in Enugu Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of adiposity and has been used in many countries for assessment of overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity in children is increasing and is recognized as risk indicator of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The study aimed was to document the Body Mass ...

  7. Recurrent neck mass after carotid body tumour excision: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARCH 2018 SAJS. Case Report. A 53-year-old woman was referred to our vascular unit with a two-year history of a non-trauma related slow growing, painful left neck mass. The mass ... duration. During that period, she was diagnosed as HIV ... propose a classification for recurrences after CBT to aid further management.

  8. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  10. Physical condition of female students with different level of body mass deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the features of morphofunctional and motor characteristics of female students with body mass deficiency and with normal body mass. Material : it was examined 17-21-year-old female students (n=1937. All students were in the main medical group according to the health condition and attended classes on discipline Physical culture. It was carried out the anthropometrical and physiometric examination of female students. Results : It was determined the low integrated criterion of physical fitness of female students with body mass deficiency. It was defined the dependence between the decrease in level of physical fitness and decrease in body mass of female students. It was determined reliable differences between the morphofunctional parameters and results of motor tests of female students with different body mass. Conclusions : The obtained data allow to correct educational process on physical training of students using integrative pedagogical methods and methods of training.

  11. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  12. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Characteristics of infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction and their relation to body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Waqar, F.; Akhtar, T.; Sultana, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is a group of disorders with variable clinical presentations occasionally having serious long-term adverse effects. It accounts for 30% of female fertility problems. Evidence suggests an association between an individual's weight and disorders of ovulation. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical and hormonal profile of subfertile women with ovulatory dysfunction in relation to their body mass index (BMI). Methods: This prospective, descriptive study was carried out in Mother and Child Health Centre, PIMS, Islamabad and Railway hospital, Rawalpindi from April 2001 to March 2007. One hundred and thirty eight infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction were included. The clinical data including BMI of each patient was recorded in addition to reports of investigations comprised of cervical smear, pelvic ultrasound and hormonal profile. Results: Primary infertility was found in 61% while secondary in 39% of the patients. The mean age was 29 years and mean duration of infertility was 6 years. Menstrual pattern was normal in 56.5%. BMI was normal in 30.4% while most patients were overweight and obese. Prolonged cycles, history of systemic endocrine disorders, abnormal vaginal discharge, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian morphology and hormonal abnormalities were more frequent in patients with increased BMI. During the study period, 21.7% of the women conceived. Conclusion: Infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction present more frequently with primary infertility. They usually have higher than required BMI. Oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea, hirsutism and hormonal abnormalities are more frequent in overweight than infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction having a normal BMI. (author)

  14. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mohammadi, Farhad; Shidfar, Farzad; Sormaghi, Mohammadhossein Salehi; Heidari, Iraj; Golestan, Banafshe; Amiri, Fatemehsadat

    2012-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Traditional herbs and spices can be used to control blood glucose concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the daily intake of three grams cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic status, lipid profiles and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 44 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a three g/day cinnamon supplement (n=22) or a placebo (n=22) for eight weeks. Weight, height, body fat mass and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and after intervention. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL C, HDL C, Apo lipoprotein A I and B were measured at baseline and endpoint. From 44 subjects participated in this study 37 completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity between groups. In the treatment group, the levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride, weight, BMI and body fat mass decreased significantly compared to baseline, but not in placebo group. No significant differences were observed in glycemic status indicators, lipid profile and anthropometric indicators between the groups at the end of intervention. These data suggest that cinnamon may have a moderate effect in improving glycemic status indicators.

  15. Delineation of a volcanic ash body using electrical resistivity profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Ludvigson, Greg; Miller, Richard D; Mayer, Lindsay; Haj, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Four lines of electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) were performed to define the extent of a shallow Quaternary volcanic ash deposit being mined in the United States. Inversion results of ERP proved suitable for defining the thickness and lateral extent of the volcanic ash deposit at this testing site. These interpretations were confirmed by shallow borehole drilling. The model sensitivity information indicates that inverted models possess sufficient resolving power down to a depth of 7 m and are fairly consistent in terms of horizontal resolution along the four ERP lines. The bottom of most of the volcanic ash deposit in the study area is less than 7 m in depth. Based on synthesis of the ERP and drill information, the limits of the mineable ash bed resources were clearly defined. Moreover, by integrating the ERP results with a minimal number of optimally placed borings, the volume of the volcanic ash deposit was established at a lesser cost, and with greater accuracy than would be possible with a traditionally designed grid drilling programme

  16. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  18. Body girth as an alternative to body mass for establishing condition indexes in field studies: a validation in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre; Criscuolo, François; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Saraux, Claire; Pardonnet, Sylvia; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Prud'homme, Onésime; Handrich, Yves; Massemin, Sylvie; Groscolas, René; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Body mass and body condition are often tightly linked to animal health and fitness in the wild and thus are key measures for ecophysiologists and behavioral ecologists. In some animals, such as large seabird species, obtaining indexes of structural size is relatively easy, whereas measuring body mass under specific field circumstances may be more of a challenge. Here, we suggest an alternative, easily measurable, and reliable surrogate of body mass in field studies, that is, body girth. Using 234 free-living king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at various stages of molt and breeding, we measured body girth under the flippers, body mass, and bill and flipper length. We found that body girth was strongly and positively related to body mass in both molting (R(2) = 0.91) and breeding (R(2) = 0.73) birds, with the mean error around our predictions being 6.4%. Body girth appeared to be a reliable proxy measure of body mass because the relationship did not vary according to year and experimenter, bird sex, or stage within breeding groups. Body girth was, however, a weak proxy of body mass in birds at the end of molt, probably because most of those birds had reached a critical depletion of energy stores. Body condition indexes established from ordinary least squares regressions of either body girth or body mass on structural size were highly correlated (r(s) = 0.91), suggesting that body girth was as good as body mass in establishing body condition indexes in king penguins. Body girth may prove a useful proxy to body mass for estimating body condition in field investigations and could likely provide similar information in other penguins and large animals that may be complicated to weigh in the wild.

  19. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  20. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  1. Body mass index predicts risk for complications from transtemporal cerebellopontine angle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantravadi, Avinash V; Leonetti, John P; Burgette, Ryan; Pontikis, George; Marzo, Sam J; Anderson, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk for specific complications from transtemporal cerebellopontine angle (CPA) surgery for nonmalignant disease. Case series with chart review. Tertiary-care academic hospital. Retrospective review of 134 consecutive patients undergoing transtemporal cerebellopontine angle surgery for nonmalignant disease from 2009 to 2011. Data were collected regarding demographics, body mass index, intraoperative details, hospital stay, and complications including cerebrospinal fluid leak, wound complications, and brachial plexopathy. One hundred thirty-four patients were analyzed with a mean preoperative body mass index of 28.58. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant difference in body mass index between patients with a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and those without (P = .04), as well as a similar significant difference between those experiencing postoperative brachial plexopathy and those with no such complication (P = .03). Logistical regression analysis confirmed that body mass index is significant in predicting both postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak (P = .004; odds ratio, 1.10) and brachial plexopathy (P = .04; odds ratio, 1.07). Elevated body mass index was not significant in predicting wound complications or increased hospital stay beyond postoperative day 3. Risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak and brachial plexopathy is increased in patients with elevated body mass index undergoing surgery of the cerebellopontine angle. Consideration should be given to preoperative optimization via dietary and lifestyle modifications as well as intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring of the brachial plexus to decrease these risks.

  2. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  3. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  4. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  5. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  6. The effects of phosphorus supplementation on body mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weaning mass of calves and their average daily growth (ADG) showed significant differences ... exists, because of the difficulty of determining the p intake of ..... intake by the cows. Although it requires additional facilities. (e.g. creep feeding type enclosures for calves and elevated troughs for cows), it would be better to ...

  7. Body Mass Bias in a Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Allometric scaling of isokinetic peak torque: The Nebraska Wrestling Study. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, 240–248. White, C. R...applied to the Movement and 3-mi run times after converting times to velocity (in meters ). The estimated metabolic rate mass coefficients were

  8. Effects of exogenous human insulin dose adjustment on body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycaemic control by frequent exogenous insulin injections. To maintain fasting ... mass index in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Kalafong Hospital ..... The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial cited in the review by Kaufman[2] also .... in obese insulin-resistant children: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes ...

  9. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10−8) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143

  11. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders-target body mass index percentiles for their resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occurred at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder - two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25-50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50-75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified.

  12. Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C.T.; Hanley, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hibernation and reproductive status on changes in body mass and composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. This information is fundamental to understanding nutritional ecology of wild brown bear populations. Six adult females handled in the fall and following spring (paired samples) lost 73 ± 22 kg (x̄ ± SD; 32 ± 10%) of fall body mass over 208 ± 19 days. Of this mass loss, 56 ± 22% (55 ± 22 kg) was lipid and 44 ± 22% (43 ± 21 kg) was lean body mass. Catabolism of lipid stores accounted for 88.4 ± 8.1% of the body energy used to meet maintenance demands. Overwinter differences in body composition of adult females assessed only once in either the fall (n = 21) or spring (n = 32) were similar to those of paired samples. Relative fatness of bears entering the den was positively related to the contribution of fat (%) to body mass (P < 0.01) and body energy (P < 0.01) losses during hibernation. Thus, relative fatness at the onset of fasting influences the relative proportion of lipid stores and lean body mass catabolized to meet protein and energy demands during hibernation. In the spring, lone females had greater body and lean masses than females with cubs of the year or yearlings. Lipid content was greatest in lone females in the fall. Studies using body mass and composition as indices of population health should consider season or reproductive class.

  13. Comparison of Body Image and its Relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI in High School Students of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Behdarvandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not clearly specified that which of the components of body mass index (BMI affect body image and which of them do not. Given that having information in this regard is of special importance as a basis for future planning for adolescents, the present research aimed to compare body image in female and male adolescents and study its relationship with body mass index in high school students of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province in the academic year 2015-2016.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive-analytic study, 200 high school students were selected as the sample using the random cluster sampling method. The required data were collected using demographic questionnaire, anthropometric data checklist (height and weight, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. All descriptive and inferential statistics tests were performed using SPSS-17 at a confidence level of 95%.Results: The students ranged from 15 to 18 years old. Equal distribution was employed among all four grades of high school. Body mass index (BMI in male students showed a significant inverse relationship only with appearance orientation (P

  14. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  15. Does body mass play a role in the regulation of food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2002-11-01

    It is widely believed that body fatness (and hence total body mass) is regulated by a lipostatic feedback system. This system is suggested to involve at least one peripheral signalling compound, which signals to the brain the current size of body fat stores. In the brain the level of the signal is compared with a desirable target level, and food intake and energy expenditure are then regulated to effect changes in the size of body fat stores. There is considerable support for this theory at several different levels of investigation. Patterns of body-mass change in subjects forced into energy imbalance seem to demonstrate homeostasis, and long-term changes in body mass are minor compared with the potential changes that might result from energy imbalance. Molecular studies of signalling compounds have suggested a putative lipostatic signal (leptin) and a complex network of downstream processing events in the brain, polymorphisms of which lead to disruption of body-mass regulation. This network of neuropeptides provides a rich seam of potential pharmaceutical targets for the control of obesity. Despite this consistent explanation for the observed phenomena at several different levels of enquiry, there are alternative explanations. In the present paper we explore the possibility that the existence of lipostatic regulation of body fatness is an illusion generated by the links between body mass and energy expenditure and responses to energy imbalance that are independent of body mass. Using computer-based models of temporal patterns in energy balance we show that common patterns of change in body mass following perturbation can be adequately explained by this 'non-lipostatic' model. This model has some important implications for the interpretations that we place on the molecular events in the brain, and ultimately in the search for pharmaceutical agents for alleviation of obesity.

  16. Classification of terverticillate Penicillia by electrospray mass spectrometric profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    429 isolates of 58 species belonging to Penicillium subgenus Penicillium are classified from direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (diMS) analysis of crude extracts by automated data processing. The study shows that about 70% of the species can be classified correctly into species using...

  17. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  18. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , including fasting serum triglyceride (β = 0.98% mmol/L, P = 3.33 × 10(-) (8) ) and Matsuda index (β = -0.74%, P = 1.29 × 10(-) (4) ). No similar associations for Clusters 2 and 3 were found. The three clusters showed different patterns of association with waist circumference, hip circumference, and height......OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters...... risk scores and anthropometry and blood samples at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test were tested. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: Cluster 1 associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR = 1.05, P = 2.74 × 10(-) (4) ) and with a poor metabolic profile...

  19. Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Ruzbarska; Martin Zvonar; Piotr Oleśniewicz; Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska; Krzysztof Widawski; Daniel Puciato

    2016-01-01

    Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepub...

  20. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and childhood cardiac outcomes: role of childhood body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toemen, L; Gishti, O; van Osch-Gevers, L; Steegers, E A P; Helbing, W A; Felix, J F; Reiss, I K M; Duijts, L; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2016-07-01

    Maternal obesity may affect cardiovascular outcomes in the offspring. We examined the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with childhood cardiac outcomes and explored whether these associations were explained by parental characteristics, infant characteristics or childhood body mass index. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4852 parents and their children, we obtained maternal weight before pregnancy and in early, mid- and late pregnancy. At age 6 years, we measured aortic root diameter (cm) and left ventricular dimensions. We calculated left ventricular mass (g), left ventricular mass index (g m(-2.7)), relative wall thickness ((2 × left ventricular posterior wall thickness)/left ventricular diameter), fractional shorting (%), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling. A one standard deviation score (SDS) higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with higher left ventricular mass (0.10 SDS (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08, 0.13)), left ventricular mass index (0.06 SDS (95% CI 0.03, 0.09)) and aortic root diameter (0.09 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.12)), but not with relative wall thickness or fractional shortening. A one SDS higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with an increased risk of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.21 (95% CI 1.03, 1.41)), but not of concentric remodeling. When analyzing the effects of maternal weight in different periods simultaneously, only maternal prepregnancy weight and early pregnancy weight were associated with left ventricular mass, left ventricular mass index and aortic root diameter (P-valuesMaternal prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain in early pregnancy are both associated with offspring cardiac structure in childhood, but these associations seem to be fully explained by childhood body mass index.

  2. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling as diagnostic tool in oncology: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis has been heralded as a novel tool for identifying new and specific biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and monitoring of various disease states. Recent years have brought a number of proteomics profiling technologies. Although proteomics profiling has resulted in the detection of disease-associated differences and modification of proteins, current proteomics technologies display certain limitations that are hampering the introduction of these new technologies into clinical laboratory diagnostics and routine applications. In this review, we summarize current advances in mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery. The promises and challenges of this new technology are discussed with particular emphasis on diagnostic perspectives of mass-spectrometry based proteomics profiling for malignant diseases.

  3. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammassi, Marwa; Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Hadj-Taieb, Sameh; Feki, Moncef; Thivel, David; Bouassida, Anissa

    2018-02-01

    Although High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown its effectiveness in improving body composition, cardio-respiratory fitness and lipid profile in obese adults, evidences remain limited in overweight/obese youth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a 12-week HIIT program without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile among young overweight/obese men. Twenty healthy obese youth were randomly allocated into two groups; experimental group (HIIT) and control group. The HIIT program consisted in 3 exercises sessions per week (30 sec of work at 100% maximal aerobic velocity [MAV]) interspersed by 30 sec of active recovery at 50% MAV, starting by 15 repetitions to reach 27 by the end of the program. Aerobic capacity (MAV and maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max]), body composition (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and fat mass percent) and lipid profile (triglycerides [TG] and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were determined before and after the HIIT program. Following 12 weeks of HIIT, WC, BMI ( P HIIT group, only. Total cholesterol ( P HIIT group, while LDL and HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged in both groups. HIIT may be particularly useful in overweight/obese youth to improve body composition, aerobic fitness and lipid profile.

  4. Human brain mass: similar body composition associations as observed across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Thomas, Diana; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A classic association is the link between brain mass and body mass across mammals that has now been shown to derive from fat-free mass (FFM) and not fat mass (FM). This study aimed to establish for the first time the associations between human brain mass and body composition and to compare these relations with those established for liver as a reference organ. Subjects were 112 men and 148 women who had brain and liver mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging with FM and FFM measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain mass scaled to height (H) with powers of ≤0.6 in men and women; liver mass and FFM both scaled similarly as H(~2) . The fraction of FFM as brain thus scaled inversely to height (P FFM was independent of height. After controlling for age, brain, and liver mass were associated with FFM while liver was additionally associated with FM (all models P ≤ 0.01). After controlling for age and sex, FFM accounted for ~5% of the variance in brain mass while levels were substantially higher for liver mass (~60%). Brain mass was significantly larger (P FFM. As across mammals, human brain mass associates significantly, although weakly, with FFM and not FM; the fraction of FFM as brain relates inversely to height; brain differs in these relations from liver, another small high metabolic rate organ; and the sexual dimorphism in brain mass persists even after adjusting for age and FFM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Anthropometry profiles of elite rugby players: quantifying changes in lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, G M; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Livingstone, S; Hooper, S L

    2006-03-01

    To demonstrate the utility of a practical measure of lean mass for monitoring changes in the body composition of athletes. Between 1999 and 2003 body mass and sum of seven skinfolds were recorded for 40 forwards and 32 backs from one Super 12 rugby union franchise. Players were assessed on 13 (7) occasions (mean (SD)) over 1.9 (1.3) years. Mixed modelling of log transformed variables provided a lean mass index (LMI) of the form mass/skinfolds(x), for monitoring changes in mass controlled for changes in skinfold thickness. Mean effects of phase of season and time in programme were modelled as percentage changes. Effects were standardised for interpretation of magnitudes. The exponent x was 0.13 for forwards and 0.14 for backs (90% confidence limits +/-0.03). The forwards had a small decrease in skinfolds (5.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) between preseason and competition phases, and a small increase (7.8%, 90% confidence limits +/-3.1%) during the club season. A small decrease in LMI (approximately 1.5%) occurred after one year in the programme for forwards and backs, whereas increases in skinfolds for forwards became substantial (4.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) after three years. Individual variation in body composition was small within a season (within subject SD: body mass, 1.6%; skinfolds, 6.8%; LMI, 1.1%) and somewhat greater for body mass (2.1%) and LMI (1.7%) between seasons. Despite a lack of substantial mean changes, there was substantial individual variation in lean mass within and between seasons. An index of lean mass based on body mass and skinfolds is a potentially useful tool for assessing body composition of athletes.

  6. A model of social influence on body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A; Ornstein, Joseph T

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of social influence on body weight. The model's assumptions are grounded in theory and evidence from physiology, social psychology, and behavioral science, and its outcomes are tested against longitudinal data from American youth. We discuss the implementation of the model, the insights it generates, and its implications for public health policy. By explicating a well-grounded dynamic mechanism, our analysis helps clarify important dependencies for both efforts to leverage social influence for obesity intervention and efforts to interpret clustering of BMI in networks. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We simulate neutralino dark matter (χDM) haloes from their initial collapse, at ˜ earth mass, up to a few percent solar. Our results confirm that the density profiles of the first haloes are described by a ˜r-1.5 power law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average ˜r-1, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. Using non-cosmological controlled simulations, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by major mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile. This transformation is more significant for shallower initial profiles and for a higher number of merging systems. Depending on the merger details, the resulting profiles can be shallower or steeper than NFW in their inner regions. Interestingly, mergers have a much weaker effect when the profile is given by a broken power law with an inner slope of -1 (such as NFW or Hernquist profiles). This offers an explanation for the emergence of NFW-like profiles: after their initial collapse, r-1.5 χDM haloes suffer copious major mergers, which progressively shallows the profile. Once an NFW-like profile is established, subsequent merging does not change the profile anymore. This suggests that halo profiles are not universal but rather a combination of (1) the physics of the formation of the microhaloes and (2) their early merger history - both set by the properties of the dark matter particle - as well as (3) the resilience of NFW-like profiles to perturbations.

  8. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    ) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix was made from each substrate by transferring the complete centroid mass spectrum from 200 to 700 amu as 501 variables to individual columns. No attempt was made to identify ions in the mass......A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA...

  9. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I

    2010-01-01

    in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators...

  10. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  11. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass

  12. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  14. The effect of elevated body mass index on ischemic heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Palmer, Tom M; Benn, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal.......Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal....

  15. Body mass index influences prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Makoto; Kawakami, Satoru; Numao, Noboru; Matsuoka, Yoh; Yokoyama, Minato; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yonese, Junji; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori

    2013-07-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men, and to compared the risk with that of Caucasian men. We retrospectively evaluated 3966 men with prostate-specific antigen levels from 2.5 to 19.9 ng/mL who underwent an initial extended prostate biopsy. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of each body mass index category for risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) were estimated after controlling for age, prostate-specific antigen, %free prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, digital rectal examination findings, family history of prostate cancer and the number of biopsy cores. Patients were divided into six categories according to their body mass index (kg/m(2) ) as follows: body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy, with an increased risk observed in men whose body mass index was ≥27.0 compared with the reference group. A significantly increased risk starting at body mass index ≥25.0 was found in high-grade disease. In contrast to our results, there has been no reported increase in the risk of prostate cancer at biopsy in Caucasians within the overweight range (body mass index of 25.0-29.9 based on World Health Organization classification). Japanese men within the overweight body mass index range who have an elevated prostate-specific antigen level also have a significant risk of harboring prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease. Overweight Japanese might be at greater prostate cancer risk at biopsy than overweight Caucasians. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestat...

  17. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  18. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire

    2016-01-01

    to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B, and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index...

  19. The CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: the influence of body mass index on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index.......In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index....

  20. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anne-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population.......To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population....

  1. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  2. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN GREEK ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrovounioti, Chr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight and obesity, in Greek adults. In the presentstudy, 110 men and women, 19- to 60 years old, took part. Measurements of subject’s height, body weight, andwaist circumference (WC were performed. BMI was used for the evaluation of the degree of overweight andobesity and WC for the evaluation of the degree of central obesity, according to the values for adults set byWorld Health Organisation (WHO. For the statistical analysis the statistic packet SPSS/PC version 12.0 forwindows was used. From data statistical analysis, it was found out that men had BMI 24.94+3.22 kg/m2 and WC90.78+13.24cm, while women had BMI 22.99+4.75 kg/m2 and WC 80.64+11.19cm. T-tests showed that theobserved differences between men and women in both BMI and WC were significant (t=2.51, p<0.05 andt=4.34, p<0.001, respectively. Additionally, it was found out that more than half of the men were overweightand/or obese (51.9%, while approximately the 1/5th of women were overweight and/or obese (21.5%. Chisquaretest showed that sex affects significantly the degree of overweight and obesity (x2=18.14, p<0.001.Moreover, men presented central obesity to a percentage of 11.1%, while women presented central obesity to a smaller percentage (3.60%. Consequently, in the present study, there were observed high percentages of overweight and obesity, as well as of central obesity, especially on men. Thus, a combination of an exercise program with a balanced diet is suggested in order to lead to a normal body weight and normal abdominal fat quantity for an enhanced quality of life without health disorders due to obesity.

  4. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  5. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat and Mass Transfer with Condensation in Capillary Porous Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Larbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this present work is related to wetting process analysis caused by condensation phenomena in capillary porous material by using a numerical simulation. Special emphasis is given to the study of the mechanism involved and the evaluation of classical theoretical models used as a predictive tool. A further discussion will be given for the distribution of the liquid phase for both its pendular and its funicular state and its consequence on diffusion coefficients of the mathematical model used. Beyond the complexity of the interaction effects between vaporisation-condensation processes on the gas-liquid interfaces, the comparison between experimental and numerical simulations permits to identify the specific contribution and the relative part of mass and energy transport parameters. This analysis allows us to understand the contribution of each part of the mathematical model used and to simplify the study.

  7. Heat and mass transfer with condensation in capillary porous bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Salah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this present work is related to wetting process analysis caused by condensation phenomena in capillary porous material by using a numerical simulation. Special emphasis is given to the study of the mechanism involved and the evaluation of classical theoretical models used as a predictive tool. A further discussion will be given for the distribution of the liquid phase for both its pendular and its funicular state and its consequence on diffusion coefficients of the mathematical model used. Beyond the complexity of the interaction effects between vaporisation-condensation processes on the gas-liquid interfaces, the comparison between experimental and numerical simulations permits to identify the specific contribution and the relative part of mass and energy transport parameters. This analysis allows us to understand the contribution of each part of the mathematical model used and to simplify the study.

  8. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  9. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  10. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases or sham (controls acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia.

  11. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  12. A Public Presentations of Gendered Bodies: A Look at Gay and Lesbian Online Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Latinsky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.

  13. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  14. Relationship of Waist-Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index to Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between two anthropometric measurements for obesity – body mass index (BMI) and ... the physiological and metabolic functions of the body, ..... Norfolk cohort of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study. ... Annals of Epidemiology 3, pp.35-.

  15. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  16. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  17. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  18. Better Body Composition and Lipid Profile Can Be Associated with Vitamin D Status in Spanish Elderly? The PHYSMED Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W N; Aparicio-Ugarriza, R; Bibiloni, M M; Palacios, G; Aguilar, I; Tur, J A; González-Gross, M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for lipid metabolism disorders, but this relationship has provided inconsistent results in elderly. Thus the aim was to assess the association between body composition and blood lipid profile levels on serum 25-hydrovitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in Spanish elderly. A cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out in 383 participants (58.2% females) aged of 55-88 years. Fasting blood samples analyzed serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). Body composition parameters (fat mass, fat free mass) were obtained by bioimpedance, waist circumference (WC), physical activity and vitamin D intake were also evaluated. BMI, fat mass and total fat mass were lower in vitamin D sufficient subjects than vitamin D insufficient and deficient subjects, but this difference was not significant (p>0,05). Those with vitamin D adequate levels also showed lower TC/HDL ratio than those who had inadequate (insufficient or deficient) vitamin D levels (p=0.04). Significant association between 25(OH)D and BMI, waist circumference, total muscle mass, TC/HDL-c ratio, HDL and TG (for all p≤ 0.05) was found after controlling for some confounders. Subjects with inadequate HDL levels (vitamin D deficiency than those with adequate HDL levels (>60mg/dL) (95% CI= 1.10 to 2.85 p= 0.017) and WC was negatively associated with vitamin D status odds ratio of 0.98 (0.96 to 1.00; p= 0.04). Vitamin D concentration was positively correlated with HDL-c and total muscle mass, as well as negatively correlated with WC, LDL-c/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c independently of age, gender and some confounders.

  19. Accuracy of Body Mass Index-defined Obesity Status in US Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem affecting United States (US) firefighters. While body mass index (BMI) is widely used to diagnose obesity, its use for this occupational group has raised concerns about validity. We examined rates and types of misclassification of BMI-based obesity status compared to body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). Male career firefighters (N = 994) from 20 US departments completed all three body composition assessments. Mean BMI, BF%, and WC were 29 kg...

  20. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  1. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I. M.; Mølgaard, C.; Main, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    predictor of kidney volume was lean body mass, overruling height, weight, and surface area. When total kidney volume was related to lean body mass as a ratio, the gender difference in kidney size was no longer significant. A strong negative correlation was found between fat body mass and kidney volume...

  2. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-08-01

    Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life.

  3. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity is presently increasing worldwide and has created enormous concern for researchers working in the field of obesity related diseases with special interest in child health and development. Selected anthropometric measurements including stature, body mass, and skinfolds are globally accepted sensitive indicators of growth patterns and health status of a child. The present study was therefore aimed not only at evaluating the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, body fat percentage (%fat) in obese school going boys of West Bengal, India, but also aimed to compare these data with their non-obese counterparts. Ten to sixteen year old obese boys (N = 158) were separated from their non-obese counterparts using the age-wise international cut-off points of BMI. Skinfolds were measured using skinfold calipers, BMI and %fat were calculated from standard equations. Body mass, BMI, skinfolds and %fat were significantly (Pimportance in order to identify or categorize obese boys, and to take preventative steps to minimise serious health problems that appear during the later part of life.

  4. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as Predictor of Body Mass Index and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis: Neuroplasticity and the Metabolic Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Coplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and promotes neurogenesis. We reported an inverse correlation between adult body mass and neurogenesis in nonhuman primates. Here we examine relationships between physiological levels of the neurotrophic incretin, plasma GLP-1 (pGLP-1, and body mass index (BMI in adolescence to adult neurogenesis and associations with a diabesity diathesis and infant stress. Morphometry, fasting pGLP-1, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles were measured in early adolescence in 10 stressed and 4 unstressed male bonnet macaques. As adults, dentate gyrus neurogenesis was assessed by doublecortin staining. High pGLP-1, low body weight, and low central adiposity, yet peripheral insulin resistance and high plasma lipids, during adolescence were associated with relatively high adult neurogenesis rates. High pGLP-1 also predicted low body weight with, paradoxically, insulin resistance and high plasma lipids. No rearing effects for neurogenesis rates were observed. We replicated an inverse relationship between BMI and neurogenesis. Adolescent pGLP-1 directly predicted adult neurogenesis. Two divergent processes relevant to human diabesity emerge—high BMI, low pGLP-1, and low neurogenesis and low BMI, high pGLP-1, high neurogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid elevations. Diabesity markers putatively reflect high nutrient levels necessary for neurogenesis at the expense of peripheral tissues.

  5. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  6. Body shape indices are predictors for estimating fat-free mass in male athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Toru; Komori, Daisuke; Oyamada, Kazuyuki; Murata, Kensuke; Fujita, Eiji; Akamine, Takuya; Urita, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured. BM-to-W and W-to-BH ratios were calculated as indices of body shapes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that BM/W and W/BH were selected as explainable variables for predicting FFM. The equation developed in the validation group was FFM (kg) = 0.883 × BM/W (kg/m) + 43.674 × W/BH (cm/cm)– 41.480 [R2 = 0.900, SEE (%SEE) = 2.3 kg (3.8%)], which was validated in the cross-validation group. Thus, the current results demonstrate that an equation using BM/W and W/BH as independent variables is applicable for predicting FFM in male athletes. PMID:29346452

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its relation with body mass index in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Ming; Sun, Yan; Joo, Jungsoo; Wan, Xingyong; Yu, Chaohui; Wang, Qunyan; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming; Coleman, William G

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed among adults who underwent health checkups at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was examined by (13)C urea breath tests, and the association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and BMI was analyzed. Of the 8820 participants enrolled, 3859 (43.8%) were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori-positive participants had a more unfavorable metabolic profile than H. pylori-negative participants. Overweight/obese participants showed a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that of lean participants, and a positive linear correlation between BMI and prevalence of H. pylori infection was observed. Both unadjusted and adjusted analysis revealed that BMI was significantly associated with risk factors of H. pylori infection. Our results showed that BMI was significantly and positively associated with H. pylori infection, and a high BMI was associated with an increased risk of the infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Romo-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.

  9. Decreased physical activity attributable to higher body mass index influences fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Clauw, Daniel; Oh, Terry H; Whipple, Mary O; Toussaint, Loren L

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies report associations between increased body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia symptoms, there is uncertainty as to whether this relationship is driven by physical factors, psychological factors, or both. To assess these relationships in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care facility. A total of 686 patients from an existing national fibromyalgia registry. Patients completed a demographic form and self-report questionnaires including the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the 30-item Profile of Mood States (30-item POMS). FIQ-R overall impact subscale. BMI was significantly correlated with fibromyalgia impact (P BMI and fibromyalgia impact was almost fully accounted for by physical factors and not by psychological factors. Despite patient report that pain hinders physical activity, clinicians who encounter patients with fibromyalgia, particularly patients with increased BMI, should be cognizant of the need to invest time and resources to counsel patients on physical factors (ie, physical activity) that could improve the patients' symptom experience. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight, reduction in the sense of hunger, reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile. The scientific substantiation...... that whereas the diet that is the subject of the claim, very low calorie diet, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the following claimed effects: reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), and reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass (ID 1412...... that formula foods for use in very low calorie diets should contain. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship cannot be established between the consumption of a very low calorie diet and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1414) and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile (ID...

  12. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  13. Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI into two groups (normal and overweight and based on their body shape′s type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.

  14. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  15. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 2064 apparently healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18 to 19 years from Damascus city, in Syria, was performed. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the national criteria for each determined metabolic risk factor. Individuals with a body mass index 25 to 29.9 were classified as overweight, whereas individuals with a body mass index ≥30 were classified as obese. A receiver operating characteristics curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index for defining overweight and obesity, and to indicate the performance of body mass index as a predictor of risk factors. The obtained data showed that blood pressure and the overall mean concentrations of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly higher in overweight and obese adolescent groups (p index and some metabolic risks, the data suggest the best body mass index cut-offs ranged between 23.25 and 24.35 kg/m 2 . A strong association between overweight and obesity as determined by body mass index and high concentrations of metabolic syndrome

  16. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  19. Childhood body mass index in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Staci A; Witt, Ashley A; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet; Lowe, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Although weight history is relevant in predicting eating disorder symptom severity, little is known about its role in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to determine whether BMI or BMI trajectory differed between individuals who later developed adolescent-onset AN and a comparison group of HCs between school grades 1 through 6. This study was based on longitudinal data that identified 51 adolescents with AN and 51 matched HCs. Cases were identified through community screening in Sweden and included individuals born in 1969 through 1977. Measured weights and heights were retrieved and BMIs and weight trajectories of the AN and HC groups were compared using growth curve analysis. Main outcome measures included measured BMI and BMI trajectories from grades 1-6. Secondary outcomes examined included ponderal index at birth and maternal body weight. Individuals who later developed AN had higher BMIs than HCs between grades 1 and 6, by an average of 1.42 BMI-units. There was no difference in rate of weight gain between groups. Ponderal index at birth was higher for the AN as compared with HC group. Maternal weight did not differ significantly between groups. These findings, combined with those previously reported on the premorbid BMIs of those with bulimia nervosa, suggest that a predisposition toward elevated premorbid BMIs during childhood characterizes those who later develop anorexia or bulimia nervosa. These findings are consistent with a transdiagnostic perspective and suggest shared risk factors for AN and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1002-1009). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Relation between lean body mass and thyroid volume in competition rowers before and during intensive physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid size than body weight as demonstrated in a previous crosssectional study. We now evaluated if intra-individual changes in body composition and especially changes in lean body mass, due to physical training, could give rise to changes in thyroid

  1. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schanz

    Full Text Available To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA and gait analysis for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight.

  2. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  4. Evaluation of fat-free mass by whole-body counter in Japanese healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)

  5. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  6. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  7. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of breast cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has achieved attention as a promising technology in oncoproteomics. We performed a systematic review of published reports on protein profiling as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for original...... studies reporting discriminatory protein peaks for breast cancer as either protein identity or as m/ z values in the period from January 1995 to October 2006. To address the important aspect of reproducibility of mass spectrometry data across different clinical studies, we compared the published lists...... of potential discriminatory peaks with those peaks detected in an original MALDI MS protein profiling study performed by our own research group. A total of 20 protein/peptide profiling studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 3 reports included information on protein identity...

  8. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Chou, Wen-Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S; Smith, Albert V; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Buchman, Aron S; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A; Cawthon, Peggy M; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R; De Jager, Philip L; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Diatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S; Feitosa, Mary F; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hanson, Robert L; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hubal, Monica J; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M; Husted, Lise B; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John-Olov; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S L; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kraus, William E; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L; Launer, Lenore J; Lee, Jong-Young; Lerch, Markus M; Lewis, Joshua R; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D; Morris, Andrew P; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Orwoll, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephen C J; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L; Räikkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M A; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N; Welch, Ryan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M K; Wilson, James F; Wright, Nicole C; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C; Döring, Angela; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Econs, Michael J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S; Psaty, Bruce M; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn; Loos, Ruth J F; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-07-19

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.

  9. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  10. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record—all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

  11. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pself-esteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, plife satisfaction and self-esteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  12. Body Mass Dynamics of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) During Stopover on Autumn Migration in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Ove Martin; Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Body mass accumulation is a widely used measure of waterfowl condition and predictor of fitness. So far, however, post-breeding changes in body mass affecting autumn and winter condition have been largely unexplored. Here, changes in body mass of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were...... adult body mass did not vary between years. During the stopover, juveniles of both sexes increased their body mass substantially (11.4 ± 2.8 g/day), while adult birds showed sex-specific differences. Adult males took on an average of 6.1 ± 2.4 g/day, whereas adult females showed no increase during...

  13. Temporal divergence of percent body fat and body mass index in pre-teenage children: the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Abhayaratna, W P

    2014-12-01

    The index of body mass related to stature, (body mass index, BMI, kgm(-2) ), is widely used as a proxy for percent body fat (%BF) in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. BMI does not distinguish between lean and fat mass and in children, the cross-sectional relationship between %BF and BMI changes with age and sex. While BMI increases linearly with age from age 8 to 12 years in both boys and girls, %BF plateaus off between 10 and 12 years. Repeated measures in children show a systematic decrease in %BF for any given BMI from age 8 to 10 to 12 years. Because changes in BMI misrepresent changes in %BF, its use as a proxy of %BF should be avoided in longitudinal studies in this age group. Body mass index (BMI, kgm(-2) ) is commonly used as an indicator of pediatric adiposity, but with its inability to distinguish changes in lean and fat mass, its use in longitudinal studies of children requires careful consideration. To investigate the suitability of BMI as a surrogate of percent body fat (%BF) in pediatric longitudinal investigations. In this longitudinal study, healthy Australian children (256 girls and 278 boys) were measured at ages 8.0 (standard deviation 0.3), 10.0 and 12.0 years for height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of change in the means of %BF and BMI were different (P < 0.001). While mean BMI increased linearly from 8 to 12 years of age, %BF did not change between 10 and 12 years. Relationships between %BF and BMI in boys and girls were curvilinear and varied with age (P < 0.001) and gender (P < 0.001); any given BMI corresponding with a lower %BF as a child became older. Considering the divergence of temporal patterns of %BF and BMI between 10 and 12 years of age, employment of BMI as a proxy for %BF in absolute or age and sex standardized forms in pediatric longitudinal investigations is problematical. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association

  14. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players.

  15. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  18. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  19. Chemical profiles of body surfaces and nests from six Bornean stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Blüthgen, Nico; Schmitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) are the most diverse group of Apid bees and represent common pollinators in tropical ecosystems. Like honeybees they live in large eusocial colonies and rely on complex chemical recognition and communication systems. In contrast to honeybees, their ecology and especially their chemical ecology have received only little attention, particularly in the Old World. We previously have analyzed the chemical profiles of six paleotropical stingless bee species from Borneo and revealed the presence of species-specific cuticular terpenes- an environmentally derived compound class so far unique among social insects. Here, we compared the bees' surface profiles to the chemistry of their nest material. Terpenes, alkanes, and alkenes were the dominant compound groups on both body surfaces and nest material. However, bee profiles and nests strongly differed in their chemical composition. Body surfaces thus did not merely mirror nests, rendering a passive compound transfer from nests to bees unlikely. The difference between nests and bees was particularly pronounced when all resin-derived compounds (terpenes) were excluded and only genetically determined compounds were considered. When terpenes were included, bee profiles and nest material still differed, because whole groups of terpenes (e.g., sesquiterpenes) were found in nest material of some species, but missing in their chemical profile, indicating that bees are able to influence the terpene composition both in their nests and on their surfaces.

  20. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T

    2017-11-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi ( ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis ( ca 100-60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo . At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in

  1. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Amendola, L. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Umetsu, K. [5 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, P. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Mu\\' nchen (Germany); Caminha, G.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Frye, B. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mercurio, A., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de [Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  2. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  3. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  4. Standardized uptake value of FDG corrected by lean body mass measured by DEXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirao, M.A.; Sanchez, A.M.; Saravi, F.D.; Mosconi, S.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluating the metabolic activity of tumor lesion sometimes becomes important to evaluate grading of malignancy, prognosis, or response to therapy. The most used measure of the metabolic activity of [18F]-Fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) in clinical PET is the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV). It relates the activity measured by the PET scan to the injected dose of FDG divided by the body mass. This approach overestimates SUV in 'heavy' patients, as the proportion of the 'low avid of FDG' fat mass increases. For this reason, different approaches are being evaluated to obtain a more accurate SUV measure. Aims: to compare the measured lean body mass by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry with the previous methods of correction, to assess the more independent to the body constitution. Material and Methods: FDG metabolism was studied to 15 patients of both sexes, age between 28 and 72 y.o., body weight 55 to 92 Kg. One hour after the IV injection of 0.0045mCi/Kg of FDG, a whole body emission and transmission scan was performed to each subject in a positron emission tomograph (QUEST 250, GE-UGM, USA) for over 1 hour. Body lean mass composition was measured the same or next day by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L, USA.) ROIs were drawn on brain, liver and muscle. SUVbw =[(corrected mCi/g of tissue) / (mCi injected / body weight in grams)] was calculated for each tissue, and then recalculated replacing body weight with the measured lean body mass (SUVlm), calculated lean mass (SUVlc), body mass index (SUVmi) and body surface area (SUVsa). Corrected SUVs were normalized to each SUVbw average for a comparable visualization of results. Results: obtained data was analyzed by linear regression and curve estimation for each case in all tissues with the SPSS statistical software. A positive correlation between SUVbw and subject weight was confirmed for the 3 tissues. In Muscle and liver there was no significant correlation. The liver scanning time was variable ( 90 to 123 minutes after injection). Relating liver

  5. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  6. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  7. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P metabolism (r = 0.471; P creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  8. A combined morphometric analysis of foot form and its association with sex, stature, and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of footprints is a classic means for orthopedic diagnosis. In forensics and physical anthropology, it is commonly used for the estimation of stature and body mass. We studied individual variation and sexual dimorphism of foot dimensions and footprint shape by a combination of classic foot measurements and geometric morphometric methods. Left and right feet of 134 healthy adult males and females were scanned twice with a 3D optical laser scanner, and stature as well as body mass were recorded. Foot length and width were measured on the 3D scans. The 2D footprints were extracted as the plantar-most 2 mm of the 3D scans and measured with 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Both foot size and footprint shape are sexually dimorphic and relate to stature and body mass. While dimorphism in foot length largely results from dimorphism in stature, dimorphism in footprint shape partly owes to the dimorphism in BMI. Stature could be estimated well based on foot length (R(2)  = 0.76), whereas body mass was more closely related to foot width (R(2)  = 0.62). Sex could be estimated correctly for 95% of the individuals based on a combination of foot width and length. Geometric morphometrics proved to be an effective tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape. However, for the estimation of stature, body mass, and sex, shape variables did not considerably improve estimates based on foot length and width. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Food away from home and body mass outcomes: taking heterogeneity into account enhances quality of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Han, Euna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the heterogeneous association of consumption of food away from home (FAFH) with individual body mass outcomes including body mass index and waist circumference over the entire conditional distribution of each outcome. Information on 16,403 adults obtained from nationally representative data on nutrition and behavior in Korea was used. A quantile regression model captured the variability of the association of FAFH with body mass outcomes across the entire conditional distribution of each outcome measure. Heavy FAFH consumption was defined as obtaining ≥1400 kcal from FAFH on a single day. Heavy FAFH consumption, specifically at full-service restaurants, was significantly associated with higher body mass index (+0.46 kg/m2 at the 50th quantile, 0.55 at the 75th, 0.66 at the 90th, and 0.44 at the 95th) and waist circumference (+0.96 cm at the 25th quantile, 1.06 cm at the 50th, 1.35 cm at the 75th, and 0.96 cm at the 90th quantiles) with overall larger associations at higher quantiles. Findings of the study indicate that conventional regression methods may mask important heterogeneity in the association between heavy FAFH consumption and body mass outcomes. Further public health efforts are needed to improve the nutritional quality of affordable FAFH choices and nutrition education and to establish a healthy food consumption environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  11. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  12. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  14. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  15. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Knapp

    Full Text Available In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.

  16. The role of lean body mass and physical activity in bone health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Fátima; Barrigas, Carlos; Vieira, Filomena; Santa-Clara, Helena; Homens, Pedro Mil; Fragoso, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of physical education curricula, markers of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, and body mass index or body fat) are usually evaluated in reference to health standards. Despite their possible mediating role in the relationship between weight-bearing or muscle forces and features of bone tissue, these attributes of fitness may not be the most relevant to predict skeletal health. It is therefore important to analyze the relative contribution of these factors to the variability in bone tissue of different parts of the skeleton, and to analyze it by gender, as sensitivity to mechanical loading can diverge for boys and girls. We compared the effects of habitual physical activity (PA) and lean mass, as surrogates of weight-bearing and muscle forces, and of physical fitness (aerobic and muscle capacity of lower and upper limbs) on bone mineral content (BMC) and size of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius in 53 girls and 64 boys from 7.9 to 9.7 years of age. After controlling for bone age, body mass, body height, and calcium intake, lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineral in both genders (p  608 counts/min/day (~105 min/day of moderate and vigorous intensity) showed 13-20% more BMC than those with less physical activity, and girls with a lean mass >19 kg showed 12-19% more BMC than those with less lean mass. These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineralization in both genders, while habitual weight-bearing PA appears to positively impact on bone mineral in prepubertal boys and that both lean mass and PA need to be considered in physical education curricula and other health-enhancing programs.

  17. The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Sharp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training protocol. Twenty male college athletes were equally assigned to MIPS and placebo (PLA groups for supplementation (three pills, twice daily in conjunction with resistance training and specialized sports training (e.g., nine total sessions/week for six weeks. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry determined body composition at weeks 0 and 6. Serum samples collected at weeks 0 and 6 determined free testosterone (FT, total testosterone (TT, IGF-1 and total estrogen (TE levels. PLA experienced a significant decline in lean body mass (LBM (−1.5 kg; p < 0.05 whereas the MIPS sustained LBM. The MIPS increased TT 21.9% (541.5 ± 48.7 to 639.1 ± 31.7 and increased FT 15.2% (13.28 ± 1.1 to 15.45 ± 1.3 ng/dL (p < 0.05. Conversely, PLA decreased TT 7.9% (554.5 ± 43.3 to 497.2 ± 39.1 ng/dL, decreased FT 17.4% (13.41 ± 1.8 to 11.23 ± 2.55 ng/dL, and decreased FT:E 12.06% (p < 0.05. These findings suggest the MIPS can prevent decrements in LBM and anabolic hormone profiles during intense training periods.

  18. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  19. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  20. Morphologic changes in the body of the pancreas secondary to a mass in the pancreatic head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Toru

    1990-01-01

    CT scans of 279 normal subjects and 78 patients with a pancreatic head mass were reviewed. The mean width of the pancreatic body in normal subjects was 15.8±2.9 mm, but the width decreased with age. The pancreatic head to body width ratio (H/B ratio) was constant (1.45±0.03). In 56 patients with carcinoma, the pancreatic body width decreased as tumor size increased and uniform atrophy with continuous beading duct was common in large carcinomas. The H/B ratio in small carcinomas (<2 cm), however, was significantly smaller than normal (p<0.05) and an enlarged pancreatic body was seen in 55 percent of these cases. The pancreatic body width in focal inflammatory masses was large compared to that in carcinomas of comparable size; the H/B ratio (1.57) was close to normal and the duct caliber to gland width ratio was low (0.16), even with large lesions. Non-uniform pancreatic body with discontinuous duct was most commonly associated with pseudocyst. Characterization of the CT appearance of secondary changes in the pancreatic body may help to improve the diagnosis of pancreatic head mass. (orig.)

  1. Correlation of total body potassium and leukemic cell mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P.; Sawitsky, A.; Chanana, A.D.; Chikkappa, G.; Cohn, S.H.; Rai, K.R.; Cronkity, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Total body leukemic mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was measured by quantitation of total body potassium (TBK) with a whole-body counter. In addition, the predicted normal total body potassium (Kp) for each patient was calculated from an empirically derived relationship involving height, weight age, and sex. Both the absolute TBK and the relative excess of total body potassium (TBK/Kp) were related to the stage of disease. Patients in the early stages of CLL were found to have lower TBK and TBK/Kp than patients in the late stages of disease. Both of these parameters increased with the successively advanced stages of the disease. The clinically monitored reduction of leukemic cell mass following therapy was accompanied by reductions in TBK and TBK/Kp. Data presented support the notion that TBK/Kp is a useful indicator of the total body leukemic mass. Futhermore, the results of these studies quantitatively validate the proposed clinical staging system for CLL. Quantitation of TBK by a whole-body counter is an accurate and noninvasive procedure and does not require administration of isotopes

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. THE WEIGHT OF SUCCESS: THE BODY MASS INDEX AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Martin

    2013-10-01

    We show that body mass increases with economic resources among most Southern Africans, although not all. Among Black South Africans the relationship is non-decreasing over virtually the entire range of incomes/wealth. Furthermore in this group other measures of "success" (e.g., employment and education) are also associated with increases in body mass. This is true in both 1998 (the Demographic and Health Survey) and 2008 (National Income Dynamics Survey). A similar relationship holds among residents of Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Malawi, and Namibia. This suggests that body mass can be used as a crude measure of well-being. This allows us to examine the vexed question in South African labor economics whether there is involuntary unemployment. The fact that the unemployed are lighter than the employed, even when we control for household fixed effects, suggests that they are not choosing this state.

  4. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  5. The importance of body satisfaction to physical self-concept and body mass index in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; González, Juan José Pulido; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Alonso, Diana Amado; Leo, Francisco Miguel

    2018-04-06

    This research examines the association between measured body mass index (BMI) and the perception of BMI by young students. Moreover, this research tests the importance of BMI and self-concept, in order to predict body dissatisfaction in high school students. The sample consisted of 2087 individuals from different high schools in Extremadura, Spain, both males (n = 1046) and females (n = 1041), ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = 0.86). Initially, participants' BMIs were assessed through anthropometry. Later, all individuals were asked about their weight and height, and their self-reported BMI was calculated. Participants also answered a questionnaire about their perception of self-concept, as well as completed a test about body image perception using Stunkard images. Outcomes revealed that factors concerning self-concept and perceived BMI explained body dissatisfaction. Finally, results are discussed with the aim of improving knowledge in body dissatisfaction context. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus - Relation to body fat mass and disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Katarzyna Anna; Majewski, Dominik; Skowrońska, Bogda; Stankiewicz, Witold; Fichna, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines presenting a wide range of impacts, including glycemic balance regulations. Insulin is one of the main regulators of adipose tissue function. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) endogenous insulin secretion is replaced by the exogenous supply, which is not regulated naturally. The aim of the study was to establish serum leptin and adiponectin levels, and their relations to body fat mass and disease course in children with T1DM. The study included 75 children with T1DM and the control group of 20 healthy coevals. All children had estimated serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations, lipid profile, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum leptin concentrations in children with T1DM were not significantly different from the control group (p=0.067, mean values±SD: 3.11±2.98 vs. 5.29±5.06μg/l, respectively), and related positively to body fat mass in both groups. Adiponectin serum concentrations were significantly higher in children with T1DM than in the control group (pfat content in the study group. Both, leptin and adiponectin, showed no relation to any of the analyzed parameters of the disease course. Differences observed between children with T1DM and their healthy coevals, when similar in terms of age, body weight, and body fat mass, seem not to depend directly on the disease duration, its metabolic control or insulin supply. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  8. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  9. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Cardiorespiratory and Musculoskeletal Fitness among South African Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Emmanuel; Ferguson, Gillian; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2018-05-28

    Background : Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness are important health indicators that support optimal physical functioning. Understanding the relationship between body mass index and these health markers may contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to address obesity-related complications. The relationship between body mass index, cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness has not been well explored, particularly in female adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index, cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness among South African adolescent girls in low-income communities. Methods : This cross-sectional study included 151 adolescent girls, aged 13⁻16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle run test and musculoskeletal fitness was assessed using a variety of field-based tests. Height and weight were measured with standardised procedures and body mass index (BMI) was derived by the formula [BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)²]. Participants were categorised into three BMI groups using the International Obesity Task Force age- and gender-specific cut-off points. Pearson correlations were used to determine the association between body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of musculoskeletal fitness at p ≤ 0.05. Results : Overweight and obese girls were found to have lower cardiorespiratory fitness, decreased lower extremity muscular strength, greater grip strength, and more hypermobile joints compared to normal-weight peers. BMI was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and lower extremity muscular strength. Conclusions : The findings indicate that increased body mass correlates with decreased cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness. Interventions should be developed to target these important components of physical fitness in this demographic group.

  10. The impact of body mass index on the prevalence of low back pain: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuch, Ingrid; Hagen, Knut; Heuch, Ivar; Nygaard, Øystein; Zwart, John-Anker

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional population-based study. To examine the association between body mass index and chronic low back pain, with adjustment for potential confounders. Although many studies have investigated this association, it is still unclear whether there is a general relationship between body mass index and low back pain which applies to all populations. This study is based on data collected in the HUNT 2 study in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway between 1995 and 1997. Among a total of 92,936 persons eligible for participation, 30,102 men and 33,866 women gave information on body mass index and indicated whether they suffered from chronic low back pain (69% participation rate). A total of 6293 men (20.9%) and 8923 women (26.3%) experienced chronic low back pain. Relations were assessed by logistic regression of low back pain with respect to body mass index and other variables. In both sexes, a high body mass index was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. In men the estimated OR per 5 kg/m increase in body mass index was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12) and in women 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14-1.21), after adjustment for age, with a significantly stronger association in women. Additional adjustment for education, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, employment status, and activity at work hardly affected these associations. No interactions were found with most other factors. This large population-based study indicates that obesity is associated with a high prevalence of low back pain. Further studies are needed to determine if the association is causal.

  11. Association between body mass index and activities of daily living in homecare patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Guzin Zeren; Egici, Memet Taskın; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Toprak, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Overweight or obesity may cause many chronic illnesses. Furthermore, several studies have shown that high body mass index is associated with mortality and morbidity among the elderly. Therefore, obesity or being overweight could adversely affect the performance of activities of daily living. In this study our aim was to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living in Homecare Patients. The records of 2016 from the homecare unit of Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. During this period, 1105 patients visited this facility. Unconscious or bedridden patients (hemiplegia, hemiparesia, and tetraparesis) and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Therefore, the survey was completed with 250 files, which included all the data needed for our research. Age, gender, Body Mass Index and Barthel Index scores were recorded to the statistical program; p≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. One hundred fifty one (60.4%) were women, and 99 (39.6%) were men. The relations between gender and age, weight, and Barthel index scores were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and Barthel index scores as well as between Body Mass Index and Barthel index scores (r = 0.190; p = 0.003). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-I (underweight and normal weight) and Group-II (overweight and obese). Group-II exhibited a much higher ability to perform Activity of Daily Living than Group-I (p = 0.002). Some studies report that obesity is protective against Activity of Daily Living, but the opposite is reported in some others. Our study showed increased values of Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living ability, which are indicative of protective effects. The relationship between Body Mass Index and physical disability is not yet proven to be linear.

  12. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD] in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p < 0.001. A 6 kg increase (1 SD in gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p < 0.001. The positive effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on birth weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p < 0.001, but the negative indirect effect was small (SC = -0.076, p < 0.001 and partially mediated by the lower weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p < 0.001. The positive effect of weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p < 0.001, with a small indirect effect of cesarean delivery (SC = 0.011; p < 0.001. Women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index gained less weight during pregnancy (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The effect of gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  13. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Love, Oliver P

    2016-03-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Cardiorespiratory and Musculoskeletal Fitness among South African Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bonney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness are important health indicators that support optimal physical functioning. Understanding the relationship between body mass index and these health markers may contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to address obesity-related complications. The relationship between body mass index, cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness has not been well explored, particularly in female adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index, cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness among South African adolescent girls in low-income communities. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 151 adolescent girls, aged 13–16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle run test and musculoskeletal fitness was assessed using a variety of field-based tests. Height and weight were measured with standardised procedures and body mass index (BMI was derived by the formula [BMI = weight (kg/height (m2]. Participants were categorised into three BMI groups using the International Obesity Task Force age- and gender-specific cut-off points. Pearson correlations were used to determine the association between body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of musculoskeletal fitness at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Overweight and obese girls were found to have lower cardiorespiratory fitness, decreased lower extremity muscular strength, greater grip strength, and more hypermobile joints compared to normal-weight peers. BMI was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and lower extremity muscular strength. Conclusions: The findings indicate that increased body mass correlates with decreased cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness. Interventions should be developed to target these important components of physical fitness in this demographic group.

  15. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M G; Brinkman, P; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Bos, L D; de Heer, K; Meijer, M; Janssen, H-G; de Cock, H; Wösten, H A B; Visser, C.E.; van Oers, M H J; Sterk, P J

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  17. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  18. Profiling Changes in Histone Post-translational Modifications by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Zhang, Zhaorui; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-11-11

    Top-down mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for charactering post-translational modifications on histones for understanding of gene control and expression. In this protocol, we describe a top-down workflow using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for fast global profiling of changes in histone proteoforms between a wild-type and a mutant of a fungal species. The proteoforms exhibiting different abundances can be subjected to further targeted studies by other mass spectrometric or biochemical assays. This method can be generally adapted for preliminary screening for changes in histone modifications between samples such as wild-type vs. mutant, and control vs. disease.

  19. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  1. The many-body content of quantum gauge theories and its connection to mass generation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natoli, C.R.; Palumbo, F.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to get more knowledge about many-body systems and their properties, about many-body content of quantum gauge theories and its connection with mass generation mechanisms. The way to achieve this is to perform the galilean limit of the relativistic theory by sending the speed of light c to infinity. This limiting process exposes the low energy behaviour of the relativistic theory

  2. Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Research has shown a U-shaped pattern in the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality. Although average BMI has increased over time in most countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors may also be decreasing among obese individuals over time. Thus, the BMI...... came first. EXPOSURES: For observational studies, BMI was modeled using splines and in categories defined by the World Health Organization. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Main outcome was all-cause mortality...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF THE BODY MASS INDEXES ON THE DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES IN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 39 tested male students of the Faculty of Physical Education at the University in East Sarajevo, who were 22 years +-6 months old in 2007/08 academic year, there has been done the research on the effects of the body mass indexes on the different sections in swimming. The results gained using the measures of the central tendencies and regression analysis showed the different effects of the body mass indexes in swimming. The results were in the relation with stylistic ways of moving at 50m and 100m swimming the crawl.

  4. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  5. Cumulus cell mitochondrial activity in relation to body mass index in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Gorshinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have considered the negative influence of obesity on fertility in both genders. In the present study, we assessed mitochondrial activity expressed as the mitochondrial potential index (MPI in cumulus cells from obese women and women with a normal body mass index (BMI during assisted reproductive therapy. The results revealed a significant reduction of MPI with increased body mass. The lower MPI levels in cumulus cells from obese women may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, which can affect the cumulus-oocyte complex and have an impact on oocyte development.

  6. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224 individu......Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339......, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis....

  7. Collateral fattening: When a deficit in lean body mass drives overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Abdul G

    2017-02-01

    In his last review entitled "Some Adventures in Body Composition," Gilbert Forbes reminded us that "lean body mass and body fat are in a sense companions." To what extent the lean body mass (or fat-free mass) component in this companionship impacts on energy intake is rarely a topic for discussion, amid a dominant adipocentric view of appetite control. Yet an analysis of the few human studies that have investigated the relationships between objectively measured food intake and body composition reveals a potentially important role for both an increase and a decrease in fat-free mass in the drive to eat. These studies are highlighted here, together with the implications of their findings for research directed as much toward the elucidation of peripheral signals and energy-sensing mechanisms that drive hunger and appetite, as toward understanding the mechanisms by which dieting and sedentariness predispose to fatness. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  8. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  9. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  10. Steroid Profiling by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for Adrenal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Matthew, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis. PMID:22170384

  11. Lean body mass and creatine kinase are associated with reduced inflammation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkelund, Svein I; Jorde, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation, but the role of lean mass and creatine kinase (CK) on the inflammatory process is less known. We investigated the associations between lean mass, CK and fat mass upon inflammatory parameters in an overweight and obese adult population. Body composition examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), CK and supplementary clinical parameters were measured in 454 overweight and obese individuals. This is a secondary analysis from a cohort of obese individuals treated with Vitamin D. Mean age was 47·6 ± 11·4 years and mean body mass index 34·6 ± 3·9 kg/m 2 . Lean mass correlated negatively with hs-CRP (r = -0·127, P = 0·042) and ESR (r = -0·381, P lean mass in the lower ESR quartile was significantly higher than in the upper quartile (P lean mass and CK in an overweight and obese population. Hypothetically, lean mass has a favourable effect on obesity-related inflammation, and CK may play a role as an inhibitor of inflammation in obesity. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Body size and lean mass of brown bears across and within four diverse ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Grant V.; Gustine, David; Mangipane, Buck A.; Joly, Kyle; Leacock, William; Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Erlenbach, Joy; Sorum, Mathew; Cameron, Matthew; Belant, Jerrold L.; Cambier, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Variation in body size across populations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) is largely a function of the availability and quality of nutritional resources while plasticity within populations reflects utilized niche width with implications for population resiliency. We assessed skull size, body length, and lean mass of adult female and male brown bears in four Alaskan study areas that differed in climate, primary food resources, population density, and harvest regime. Full body-frame size, as evidenced by asymptotic skull size and body length, was achieved by 8 to 14 years of age across populations and sexes. Lean body mass of both sexes continued to increase throughout their life. Differences between populations existed for all morphological measures in both sexes, bears in ecosystems with abundant salmon were generally larger. Within all populations, broad variation was seen in body size measures of adults with females displaying roughly a 2-fold difference in lean mass and males showing a 3- to 4-fold difference. The high level of intraspecific variation seen across and within populations suggests the presence of multiple life-history strategies and niche variation relative to resource partitioning, risk tolerance or aversion, and competition. Further, this level of variation indicates broad potential to adapt to changes within a given ecosystem and across the species’ range.

  13. Body Mass Disorders in Healthy Short Children and in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Majcher, Anna; Pyrżak, Beata; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We found that there were no significant differences in %FAT and the incidence of body weight disorders depending on gender or diagnosis. %FAT deficit was observed in 12-21% of the participants and underweight in almost every fourth child. Overweight involved 3-14% of the participants and obesity was diagnosed in isolated cases (0-3%); both were considerably lower compared to the estimates based on %FAT. Using the cut-off points of WHtR, abdominal adiposity was observed in 3-15% of the participants. In conclusion, quite a large number of short children (between 25 and 50%) are characterized by abnormal body fat or body mass index values. The results indicate a limited usefulness of BMI in evaluating the incidence of overweight and obesity in children characterized by a height deficit.

  14. microMS: A Python Platform for Image-Guided Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Troy J.; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Do, Thanh D.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2017-09-01

    Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) profiling provides a facile framework for analyzing samples ranging from single cells to tissue sections. The fundamental workflow utilizes a whole-slide microscopy image to select targets of interest, determine their spatial locations, and subsequently perform MS analysis at those locations. Improving upon prior reported methodology, a software package was developed for working with microscopy images. microMS, for microscopy-guided mass spectrometry, allows the user to select and profile diverse samples using a variety of target patterns and mass analyzers. Written in Python, the program provides an intuitive graphical user interface to simplify image-guided MS for novice users. The class hierarchy of instrument interactions permits integration of new MS systems while retaining the feature-rich image analysis framework. microMS is a versatile platform for performing targeted profiling experiments using a series of mass spectrometers. The flexibility in mass analyzers greatly simplifies serial analyses of the same targets by different instruments. The current capabilities of microMS are presented, and its application for off-line analysis of single cells on three distinct instruments is demonstrated. The software has been made freely available for research purposes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  16. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  17. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillikens, M.C.; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Chou, Wen Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, J.A.; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S.; Smith, Albert V.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J.; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Buchman, Aron S.; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H.; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R.; Jager, De Philip L.; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M.; DIatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W.; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L.; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok Ghee; Hanson, Robert L.; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P.; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen Chi; Hubal, Monica J.; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M.; Husted, Lise B.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John Olov; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kilpelaïnen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kraus, William E.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lee, Jong Young; Lerch, Markus M.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N.; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephan; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L.; Raïkkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E.; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M.A.; Tan, Sian Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schoor, van Natasja M.; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N.; Welch, Ryan; Wichman, H.E.; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M.K.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Nicole C.; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C.; Döring, Angela; Duijn, Van Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray

  18. Breeding limits foraging time : Evidence of interrupted foraging response from body mass variation in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima J.; Dietz, Maurine W.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Cresswell, Will

    Birds should store body reserves if starvation risk is anticipated; this is known as an ‘interrupted foraging response’. If foraging remains unrestricted, however, body mass should remain low to limit the predation risk that gaining and carrying body reserves entails. In temperate environments mass

  19. Evaluation of the relationship and genetic overlap between Kashin-Beck disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Hao, J; Xiao, X; Guo, X; Wang, W; Yang, T; Shen, H; Tian, Q; Tan, L; Deng, H-W; Zhang, F

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is one of the major factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis (OA) but there is currently no information available regarding the relationship between BMI and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship and genetic overlap between BMI and KBD. A total of 2050 Han Chinese subjects participated in this study. Using a cohort of 333 grade I KBD patients, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between BMI and KBD. Another independent sample of 1717 subjects was genotyped for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 Arrays. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis (SECA) was applied to the GWAS summaries of KBD and BMI for pleiotropy analysis. Genome-wide bivariate association analysis (GWBAA) of KBD and BMI was carried out to identify the genes with pleiotropic effects on KBD and BMI. The relevance of identified genes with KBD was validated by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. BMI correlated positively with knee movement disorder in KBD (coefficient β = 0.068, p = 0.045). SECA identified a significant pleiotropic effect (empirical p = 0.021) between KBD and BMI. In the GWBAA, the rs1893577 of the ADAMTS1 gene achieved the most significant association signal (p = 7.38 × 10 -9 ). ADAMTS1 was also up-regulated in KBD vs. normal (ratio = 2.64 ± 2.80) and KBD vs. OA (ratio = 2.31 ± 2.01). The rate of ADAMTS1-positive chondrocytes in KBD was significantly higher than that in OA (p < 0.05) and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that ADAMTS1 is a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.

  20. Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Duncan, Glen E; Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the classical twin model, with the MZ twin correlation greater than twice the DZ correlation. This study aimed to decompose twin correlations for BMI using more general skew-t distributions. Same sex MZ and DZ twin pairs (N = 7,086) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry were included. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to decompose twin correlations for BMI into multiple mixture distributions. LPA was performed using the default normal mixture distribution and the skew-t mixture distribution. Similar analyses were performed for height as a comparison. Our analyses are then replicated in an independent dataset. A two-class solution under the skew-t mixture distribution fits the BMI distribution for both genders. The first class consists of a relatively normally distributed, highly heritable BMI with a mean in the normal range. The second class is a positively skewed BMI in the overweight and obese range, with lower twin correlations. In contrast, height is normally distributed, highly heritable, and is well-fit by a single latent class. Results in the replication dataset were highly similar. Our findings suggest that two distinct processes underlie the skew of the BMI distribution. The contrast between height and weight is in accord with subjective psychological experience: both are under obvious genetic influence, but BMI is also subject to behavioral control, whereas height is not.

  1. Mathematical Models for the Apparent Mass of the Seated Human Body Exposed to Vertical Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Griffin, M. J.

    1998-05-01

    Alternative mathematical models of the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body are developed. The optimum parameters of four models (two single-degree-of-freedom models and two two-degree-of-freedom models) are derived from the mean measured apparent masses of 60 subjects (24 men, 24 women, 12 children) previously reported. The best fits were obtained by fitting the phase data with single-degree-of-freedom and two-degree-of-freedom models having rigid support structures. For these two models, curve fitting was performed on each of the 60 subjects (so as to obtain optimum model parameters for each subject), for the averages of each of the three groups of subjects, and for the entire group of subjects. The values obtained are tabulated. Use of a two-degree-of-freedom model provided a better fit to the phase of the apparent mass at frequencies greater than about 8 Hz and an improved fit to the modulus of the apparent mass at frequencies around 5 Hz. It is concluded that the two-degree-of-freedom model provides an apparent mass similar to that of the human body, but this does not imply that the body moves in the same manner as the masses in this optimized two-degree-of-freedom model.

  2. A Body Shape Index and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Indians with Low Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sowmya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One third of Indian population is said to be suffering from chronic energy deficiency (CED, with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A new anthropometric measure called A Body Shape Index (ABSI is said to be a better index in predicting risks for premature mortality. ABSI is also in part said to be a surrogate of visceral fat. Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between indices of HRV (heart rate variability, BMI, WC, and ABSI in healthy Indian males with low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 and to compare with normal BMI group (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. Methodology. ABSI and BMI were derived from anthropometric parameters, namely, height, weight, and waist circumference in 178 males aged 18 to 78 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their BMI. Results and Conclusions. Power spectral analysis of HRV demonstrated a significant negative correlation between Log HF (high frequency and ABSI in both low BMI [−24.2 (9.4, P<0.05] and normal BMI group [−23.41 (10.1, P<0.05] even after controlling for age. Thus even with slight increase in BMI among low BMI individuals, there could be a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Mass profile and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Biviano, A.; Adami, C.; Limousin, M.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Mamon, G. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Gavazzi, R.; Cypriano, E. S.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Allam, S.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Cappi, A.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Johnston, D.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Kubo, J. M.; Márquez, I.; Marshall, P.; Martinet, N.; Maurogordato, S.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Schrabback, T.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are currently not very strong. Aims: We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies that is characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Methods: Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging as well as optical spectroscopy, collected with various instruments, which we complemented with archival data. We modeled the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters were constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intracluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. Results: We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods based on kinematics (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics, and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius, ≃1.3 Mpc and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly higher than, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is significantly lower than the kinematics and strong lensing estimates. Theoretical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology for the concentration-mass relation agree with our observational results, when taking into account the uncertainties in the observational and theoretical estimates. There appears to be a central deficit in the intracluster gas mass fraction compared with nearby clusters. Conclusions: Despite the relaxed appearance of this cluster, the determinations of its mass profile by different probes show substantial discrepancies, the origin of which remains to be determined. The extension of a dynamical analysis similar to that of other clusters of the DAFT/FADA survey with multiwavelength data of sufficient quality will allow shedding light on the possible systematics that affect the determination of mass

  4. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  5. Full Two-Body Problem Mass Parameter Observability Explored Through Doubly Synchronous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex Benjamin; Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The full two-body problem (F2BP) is often used to model binary asteroid systems, representing the bodies as two finite mass distributions whose dynamics are influenced by their mutual gravity potential. The emergent behavior of the F2BP is highly coupled translational and rotational mutual motion of the mass distributions. For these systems the doubly synchronous equilibrium occurs when both bodies are tidally-locked and in a circular co-orbit. Stable oscillations about this equilibrium can be shown, for the nonplanar system, to be combinations of seven fundamental frequencies of the system and the mutual orbit rate. The fundamental frequencies arise as the linear periods of center manifolds identified about the equilibrium which are heavily influenced by each body’s mass parameters. We leverage these eight dynamical constraints to investigate the observability of binary asteroid mass parameters via dynamical observations. This is accomplished by proving the nonsingularity of the relationship between the frequencies and mass parameters for doubly synchronous systems. Thus we can invert the relationship to show that given observations of the frequencies, we can solve for the mass parameters of a target system. In so doing we are able to predict the estimation covariance of the mass parameters based on observation quality and define necessary observation accuracies for desired mass parameter certainties. We apply these tools to 617 Patroclus, a doubly synchronous Trojan binary and flyby target of the LUCY mission, as well as the Pluto and Charon system in order to predict mutual behaviors of these doubly synchronous systems and to provide observational requirements for these systems’ mass parameters

  6. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Measured versus self-reported body height and body mass in patients after an acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagała Zygmunt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic anthropometric data describing a person in the broadest context are body weight and height, two of the most frequently analyzed somatometric parameters. The same is true I in relation to clinical patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the self-reported and actual body weight, height and BMI in patients suffering from coronary artery disease and undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. The study sample consisted of 100 patients treated for coronary artery disease. The patients were asked to state their body weight and height. At the same time a three-person study team took measurements, which were later the basis for verification and objective assessment of the data provided by the patients. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistics 11.0 PL software. The analysis of mean results for the assessed group of patients has shown the presence of statistically significant differences between declared and actual data. The differences were observed for both male and female study population. It has been proven that the subjects declare greater body height (mean value 1.697 m vs. 1.666 m and lower body weight (80.643 kg vs. 82.051 kg. Based on the data from surveys and direct measurements, the body mass index for the self-reported and actual data was calculated. A comparison of these values has shown considerable statistically significant differences. The differences between declared and actual data point to highly subjective self-assessment, which disqualifies the declared data in the context of monitoring of treatment and rehabilitation processes. The authors believe that actual data should be used in direct trial examination of patients suffering from coronary artery disease who presented with acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  9. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Huttenlocker

    Full Text Available The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1 active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2 geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  10. Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the ‘Lilliput effect,’ a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  11. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  12. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD, while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively. No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  13. Inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality in older nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronese, N; Cereda, E; Solmi, M

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and mortality in old adults from the general population have been related in a U-shaped or J-shaped curve. However, limited information is available for elderly nursing home populations, particularly about specific cause of death. A systematic PubMed/EMBASE/CINAHL/SCOPUS...

  14. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  15. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  16. Effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) On Degree of Angular Knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aetiology of Blount\\'s disease remains unknown, but it is generally agreed that weight bearing plays a role in the pathogenesis of knee deformity in these patients. Our aim was to analyze the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) on the degree of angular knee deformity in children with clinical and radiological features of ...

  17. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  18. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  19. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.; Justice, Anne E.; Pers, Tune H.; Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Asa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancakova, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blueher, Matthias; Bohringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Jurgen; Gronberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaeelle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Qinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Asa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Noethen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wrightl, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gadin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hypponen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Laic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramines, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Waeber, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; Maerz, Winfried; Melbve, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnu R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijri, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, Andre; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Ines; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Peeters, P; Broekmans, FJM; van Gils, CH; van der Schouw, YT; Fauser, BCJM; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Bots, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224

  20. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, A.E.; Kahali, B.; Berndt, S.I.; Justice, A.E.; Pers, T.H.; Day, F.R.; Powell, C.; Vedantam, S.; Buchkovich, M.L.; Yang, J.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Esko, T.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Kutalik, Z.; Luan, J.; Maegi, R.; Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Workalemahu, T.; Faul, J.D.; Smith, J.A.; Zhao, J.H.; Zhao, W.; Chen, J.; Fehrmann, R.; Hedman, A.K.; Karjalainen, J.; Schmidt, E.M.; Absher, D.; Amin, N.; Anderson, D.; Beekman, M.; Bolton, J.L.; Bragg-Gresham, L.; Buyske, S.; Demirkan, A.; Deng, G.; Ehret, G.B.; Feenstra, B.; Feitosa, M.F.; Fischer, K.; Goel, A.; Gong, J.; Jackson, A.U.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Lim, U.; Lotay, V.; Mangino, M.; Leach, I.M.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Medland, S.E.; Nalls, M.A.; Palmer, C.D.; Pasko, D.; Pechlivanis, S.; Peters, MJ; Prokopenko, I.; Shungin, D.; Stancakova, A.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Sung, Y.J.; Teumer, A.; Trompet, S.; van der Laan, S.W.; van Settee, J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Wang, Z.; Yengo, L.; Zhang, W.; Isaacs, A.; Albrecht, E.; Arnlov, J.; Arscott, G.M.; Attwood, A.P.; Bandinelli, S.; Barrett, A.; Bas, I.N.; Bellis, C.; Bennett, A.J.; Berne, C.; Blagieva, R.; Blueher, M.; Bohringer, S.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Boettcher, Y.; Boyd, H.A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Caspersen, I.H.; Chen, Y.I.; Clarke, R.; Daw, E.W.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Delgado, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Doney, A.S.F.; Eklund, N.; Estrada, K.; Eury, E.; Folkersen, L.; Fraser, R.M.; Garcia, M.E.; Geller, F.; Giedraitis, V.; Gigante, B.; Go, A.S.; Golay, A.; Goodall, A.H.; Gordon, S.D.; Gorski, M.; Grabe, H.; Grallert, H.; Grammer, T.B.; Graessler, J.; Gronberg, H.; Groves, C.J.; Gusto, G.; Haessler, J.; Hall, P.; Haller, T.; Hallmans, G.; Hartman, C.A.; Hassinen, M.; Hayward, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Helmer, Q.; Hengstenberg, C.; Holmen, O.; Hottenga, J.J.; James, A.L.; Jeff, J.M.; Johansson, A.; Jolley, J.; Juliusdottir, T.; Kinnunen, L.; Koenig, W.; Koskenvuo, M.; Kratzer, W.; Laitinen, J.; Lamina, C.; Leander, K.; Lee, N.R.; Lichtner, P.; Lind, L.; Lindstrom, J.; Lo, K.S.; Lobbens, S.; Lorbeer, R.; Lu, Y.; Mach, F.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahajan, A.; McArdle, W.L.; McLachlan, S.; Menni, C.; Merger, S.; Mihailov, E.; Milani, L.; Moayyeri, A.; Monda, K.L.; Morken, M.A.; Mulas, A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Musk, A.W.; Nagaraja, R.; Noethen, M.M.; Nolte, I.M.; Pilz, S.; Rayner, N.W.; Renstrom, F.; Rettig, R.; Ried, J.S.; Ripke, S.; Robertson, N.R.; Rose, L.M.; Sanna, S.; Scharnagl, H.; Scholtens, S.; Schumacher, F.R.; Scott, W.R.; Seufferlein, T.; Shi, J.; Smith, A.V.; Smolonska, J.; Stanton, A.V.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Stirrups, K.; Stringham, H.M.; Sundstrom, J.; Swertz, M.A.; Swift, A.J.; Syvanen, A.; Tan, S.; Tayo, B.O.; Thorand, B.; Thorleifsson, G.; Tyrer, J.P.; Uh, H.; Vandenput, L.; Verhulst, F.C.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Verweij, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Waite, L.L.; Warren, H.R.; Waterworth, D.; Weedon, M.N.; Wilkens, L.R.; Willenborg, C.; Wilsgaard, T.; Wojczynski, M.K.; Wong, A.; Wrightl, A.F.; Zhang, Q.; Brennan, E.P.; Choi, M.; Dastani, Z.; Drong, A.W.; Eriksson, P.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Gadin, J.R.; Gharavi, A.G.; Goddard, M.E.; Handsaker, R.E.; Huang, J.; Karpe, F.; Kathiresan, S.; Keildson, S.; Kiryluk, K.; Kubo, M.; Lee, J.; Liang, L.; Lifton, R.P.; Ma, B.; McCarroll, S.A.; McKnight, A.J.; Min, J.L.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Murabito, J.M.; Nicholson, G.; Nyholt, DR; Okada, Y.; Perry, J.R.B.; Dorajoo, R.; Reinmaa, E.; Salem, R.M.; Sandholm, N.; Scott, R.A.; Stolk, L.; Takahashi, A.; Tanaka, T.; van 't Hooft, F.M.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Westra, H.; Zheng, W.; Zondervan, K.T.; Heath, A.C.; Arveiler, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Beilby, J.; Bergman, R.N.; Blangero, J.; Bovet, P.; Campbell, H.; Caulfield, M.J.; Cesana, G.; Chakravarti, A.; Chasman, D.I.; Chines, P.S.; Collins, F.S.; Crawford, D.C.; Cupples, L.A.; Cusi, D.; Danesh, J.; de Faire, U.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Dominiczak, A.F.; Erbel, R.; Erdmann, J.; Eriksson, J.G.; Farrall, M.; Felix, S.B.; Ferrannini, E.; Ferrieres, J.; Ford, I.; Forouhi, N.G.; Forrester, T.; Franco, O.H.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Gejman, P. V.; Gieger, C.; Gottesman, O.; Gudnason, V.; Gyllensten, U.; Hall, A.S.; Harris, T.B.; Hattersley, A.T.; Hicks, A.A.; Hindorff, L.A.; Hingorani, A.D.; Hofman, A.; Homuth, G.; Hovingh, G.K.; Humphries, S.E.; Hunt, S.C.; Hypponen, E.; Illig, T.; Jacobs, K.B.; Jarvelin, M.; Joeckel, K.; Johansen, B.; Jousilahti, P.; Jukema, J.W.; Jula, A.M.; Kaprio, J.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Knekt, P.; Kooner, J.S.; Kooperberg, C.; Kovacs, P.; Kraja, A.T.; Kumari, M.; Kuusisto, J.; Lakka, T.A.; Langenberg, C.; Le Marchand, L.; Lehtimaki, T.; Lyssenko, V.; Mannisto, S.; Marette, A.; Matise, T.C.; McKenzie, C.A.; McKnight, B.; Moll, F.L.; Morris, A.D.; Morris, A.P.; Murray, J.C.; Nelis, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ong, K.K.; Madden, P.A.F.; Pasterkamp, G.; Peden, J.F.; Peters, A.; Postma, D.S.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Price, J.F.; Qi, L.; Raitakari, O.T.; Rankinen, T.; Rao, D.C.; Rice, T.K.; Ridker, P.M.; Rioux, J.D.; Ritchie, M.D.; Rudan, I.; Salomaa, V.; Samani, N.J.; Saramines, J.; Sarzynski, M.A.; Schunkert, H.; Schwarz, P.E.H.; Sever, P.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Sinisalo, J.; Stolk, R.P; Strauch, K.; Toenjes, A.; Tregouet, D.; Tremblay, A.; Tremoli, E.; Virtamo, J.; Vohl, M.; Voelker, U.; Waeber, G.; Willemsen, G.; Witteman, J.C.; Zillikens, M.C.; Adair, L.S.; Amouyel, P.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Assimes, T.L.; Bochud, M.; Boehm, B.O.; Boerwinkle, E.; Bornstein, S.R.; Bottinger, E.P.; Bouchard, C.; Cauchi, S.; Chambers, J.C.; Chanock, S.J.; Cooper, R.S.; de Bakker, P.I.W.; Dedoussis, G.; Ferrucci, L.; Franks, P.W.; Froguel, P.; Groop, L.C.; Haiman, C.A.; Hamsten, A.; Hui, J.; Hunter, D.J.; Hveem, K.; Kaplan, R.C.; Kivimaki, M.; Kuh, D; Laakso, M.; Liu, Y.; Martin, N.G.; Maerz, W.; Melbve, M.; Metspalu, A.; Moebus, S.; Munroe, P.B.; Njolstad, I.; Oostra, B.A.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Pedersen, N.L.; Perola, M.; Perusse, L.; Peters, U.; Power, C.; Quertermous, T.; Rauramaa, R.; Rivadeneira, F.; Saaristo, T.E.; Saleheen, D.; Sattar, N.; Schadt, E.E.; Schlessinger, D.; Slagboom, P.E.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.D.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.R.; Stumvoll, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Uusitupa, M.; van der Harst, P.; Walker, M.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wareham, N.J.; Watkins, H.; Weir, D.R.; Wichmann, H.-.; Wilson, J.F.; Zanen, P.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Heid, I.M.; O'Connell, J.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijri, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Franke, L.; Frayling, T.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Visscher, P. M.; Scherag, A.; Willer, C.J.; Boehnke, M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Lindgren, C.M.; Beckmann, J.S.; Barroso, I.; North, K.E.; Ingelsson, E.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Loos, R.J.F.; Speliotes, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224

  1. The U-shaped association of body mass index with mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Osler, Merete; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult...

  2. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  3. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  4. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  5. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Willer, Cristen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Monda, Keri L.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jackson, Anne U.; Allen, Hana Lango; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heid, Iris M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Ferreira, Teresa; Weyant, Robert J.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Estrada, Karol; Liang, Liming; Nemesh, James; Park, Ju-Hyun; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kilpelaenen, Tuomas O.; Yang, Jian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Esko, Tonu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Mangino, Massimo; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Scherag, Andre; Smith, Albert Vernon; Welch, Ryan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aben, Katja K.; Absher, Devin M.; Amin, Najaf; Dixon, Anna L.; Fisher, Eva; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goddard, Michael E.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and similar to 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of

  6. Body Mass Index and the Use of the Internet for Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Smit, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who experience or anticipate negative interactions from medical providers related to conditions such as obesity may preferentially use the Internet for health information. Our objectives in this study were to (1) examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and Internet health information-seeking and (2) examine…

  7. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  8. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); P. d' Adamo (Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  9. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non

  10. Glucose kinetics and pregnancy outcome in Indian women with low and normal body mass indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal energy demands are met from the oxidation of maternally supplied glucose and amino acids. During the fasted state, the glucose supply is thought to be met by gluconeogenesis. Underweight women with low body mass index (BMI) might be unable to adequately supply amino acids to satisfy the demand...

  11. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  12. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  13. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  14. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they ha