Olivares-Urueta, Mayra; Williamson, Jon W
Pre-admission factors tend to serve as indicators of student success in health professions educational programs, but less is known about the effects that academic assistance programs have on student success. This study sought to determine whether specific pre-admission factors could help to identify students who may require academic support during their health professions education. This retrospective analysis aimed to identify differences in pre-admission variables between those students requiring tutoring and a matched sample of students who did not require tutoring. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for dependent variables-age, cumulative GPA (cGPA), science GPA (sGPA), verbal graduate record examination (GRE) score, quantitative GRE score, analytical GRE score and combined GRE score, community college hours, average credit hours per semester, and highest semester credit hour load-across three groups of students who received no tutoring (NT 0 hrs), some tutoring (ST tutoring (MT >8 hrs). Total GRE and average semester hours differentiated NT from ST from MT (ptutoring: quantitative GRE, sGPA, cGPA and average semester hours taken. The combination of lower GRE scores and lighter average semester course load were most predictive of the need for academic assistance as defined by hours of tutoring. While the value of the GRE in admissions processes is generally accepted, the average semester hour load in college can also provide important information regarding academic preparation and the need for tutoring services.
Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L
The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.
doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.
Chamberlain, David; Brook, Richard
Worcestershire Health Libraries provides services to all NHS and social care staff in Worcestershire. Despite intensive marketing, statistics showed low usage of the library service for professions allied to technical services and allied health professionals. To discover why there was low usage of the library services using qualitative techniques and to use focus groups as a marketing opportunity. This article also aims to outline the processes involved in delivering focus groups, the results gained, and the actions taken in response to the results. Focus groups were conducted in two departments, Pathology and Occupational Therapy. The Biochemistry department (part of Pathology) had two focus groups. An additional focus group was conducted for all the Pathology education leads. Occupational Therapy had two meetings, one for hospital based staff, and the other for community staff. Issues centred on registration, inductions, time, library ambience, multi-disciplinary service and resources. The findings raised marketing opportunities and the process identified potential candidates for the role of team knowledge officer, to act as library champions within departments. It also identified areas in which the library service was not meeting user needs and expectations, and helped focus service development. Focus groups allowed an opportunity to speak to non-users face to face and to discover, and where appropriate challenge both their, and library staff's pre-conceived ideas about the service. The information revealed gave an opportunity to market services based on user needs. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
van den Berg, Joost W.; Mastenbroek, Nicole J. J. M.; Scheepers, Renee A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better
France, Francis Roger
eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Specialization is an important feature of post-World War II health sector development. Its value is indisputable. On the other hand, unchecked specialization also brings problems, notably of cost escalation and service profile twisting. To exploit the potentials of highly specialized medicine without neglecting the everyday problems that constitute the bulk of medicine, one needs a carefully constructed policy. To design such a policy, one needs, among other things, to understand the whys and hows of specialization. This reports discusses three different approaches to the understanding of the process of specialization: the sociological (S is a reflection of the selfish interests of the professions), the medical (S is the natural response to scientific and technological progress), and the economic (S is a result of increased market demand). Much is to be said in favour of the sociological explanation. Occupational groups do pursue interests of their own, centering on the construction and defence of job monopolies. The histories of the professions readily lend themselves to this kind of interpretation, and its gives, beyond doubt, valuable insight into the ways in which occupational groups relate to each other, to clients and to the surrounding society. This report, however, argues that the sociology of the professions is largely concerned with phenomena secondary to the process of specialization. It explains the behaviour of occupational groups, once they have been established. It does not, however, explain why they came into being in the first place. For that purpose, the perspective of medicine and, in particular, that of economy, may be more suitable. I support this position by data on the specialization of the health service system of Norway.
Carpenter, E S
Analysis of survey data on six health professions in Michigan suggests the extent to which sex-role stereotypes are reflected in the distribution of women within and among those professions which typically function as independent practitioners. The particular emphasis of the analysis is the structural or organizational aspects of the professions which facilitate or hinder the recruitment and participation of women. Distribution of women among professions is associated with relative levels of sex-segregation and with the relative availability of career opportunities in nonentrepreneurial settings. Implications of these findings for future trends in the sex structure of the health professions are discussed and a research agenda on women health professionals is proposed.
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession. PMID:22211117
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession.
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.
Bierema, Laura L.
This chapter focuses on the process of learning in health professions education (HPE) in terms of key issues that shape HPE learning and essential strategies for promoting and facilitating learning among professionals.
Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018). Log in or ... The AJHPE is a journal for health professions educators. ... Transition-to-practice guidelines: Enhancing the quality of nursing education · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
required for the education and training of health professionals within the specific learning environment of ... health professions, today's health professionals have to be highly skilled and knowledgeable in a ... examines the improvement of the learning environment and wellness of trainee regis trars to prevent burnout and ...
in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...
Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan
In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.
Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn
Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.
Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un
This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and
von Lindeman, Katharina; Kugler, Joachim; Klewer, Jörg
Incomplete vaccinations among students in health care professions lead to an increased risk for infections. Until now, only few studies related to this issue do exist. Therefore vaccinations and awareness regarding the importance of vaccinations among students in health care professions should be investigated. All 433 students of a regional college for health care professionals were asked to complete a standardized and anonymous questionnaire. Altogether 301 nursing students and 131 students of the other health care professions participated. About 66.1 percent of nursing students and 50.4 percent of students of other health care professions rated vaccination as "absolutely necessary". Different percentages of completed vaccinations were reported for tetanus (79.1 percent versus 64.4 percent), hepatitis B (78.7 percent versus 77.5 percent) and hepatitis A (74.1 percent versus 68.5 percent). 6.3 percent versus 15.4 percent did not know if they were vaccinated against tetanus, hepatitis B (5.3 percent versus 7.7 percent) and hepatitis A (5.6 percent versus 9.2 percent). While approximately half of the students reported "primary vaccination and booster" against mumps (59.5 percent versus 53.5 percent), measles (58.8 percent versus 54.6 percent) and rubella (58.3 percent versus 55.4 percent), this was reported less for pertussis (43.8 percent versus 39.8 percent) and varicella (32.4 percent versus 25.2 percent). The results indicate inadequate vaccination status in the investigated students. In addition, a gap between the awareness of the importance of vaccinations and personal preventive behavior became obvious. Therefore, education of these future health professionals still requires issues related to vaccinations.
African Journal of Health Professions Education: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Health Professions Education: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...... dietary intake and nutritional status of population groups. These measures may be environmental, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions...... nutrition related challenges in the Nordic region and globally. The network facilitates exchange of lecturers, students, innovative educational resources and teaching methods and supports the consolidation of PHN as a recognized/accredited profession throughout the Nordic region. The network has done...
Pomés, Xavier; Oriol, Albert; de Oleza, Rafael; Ania, Olinda; Avila, Alicia; Branda, Luis; Brugulat, Pilar; Gual, Arcadi; Creus, Mariona; Zurro, Amando Martin
The White Paper of the Health Professions of Catalonia (WPHPC) is a strategic document for the development of the health professions. It deals with the main components of the manpower development (education, management and planning) in relation to the health services development required to attain the objectives defined in the Catalan Health Plan. The WPHPC fosters the coherence between social needs and professional competencies required to respond to them, as well as to the quantitative aspects of service needs under adequate standards of quality, effectiveness and efficiency. The WPHPC has followed a methodological process with maximum stakeholder participation and transparency. Citizens, professionals and health organizations have contributed significantly. The conclusions and recommendations of the WPHPC are organized around four axis: the citizenship, the professionals, the health care organizations and the health care model. Key elements are: the requirement of a new social contract between the different stakeholders, the values of professionalism, the need for a new credentialism of professional competencies, innovation in the education process, innovation of governance and management for organization of knowledge, the redistribution of work inside teams requires deregulation and reregulation of the professions, the need for actualized data on workforce and job positions and the permanent requirement of sociological research.
van den Berg, Joost W; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Scheepers, Renée A; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better clinical teachers; consider engaged residents, who report committing fewer medical errors than less engaged peers. Many topics in health professions education can benefit from explicitly including work engagement as an intended outcome such as faculty development programs, feedback provision and teacher recognition. In addition, interventions aimed at strengthening resources could provide teachers with a solid foundation for well-being and performance in all their work roles. Work engagement is conceptually linked to burnout. An important model that underlies both burnout and work engagement literature is the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. This model can be used to describe relationships between work characteristics, personal characteristics and well-being and performance at work. We explain how using this model helps identifying aspects of teaching that foster well-being and how it paves the way for interventions which aim to increase teacher's well-being and performance.
In spite of their knowledge about stressors, health hazards and coping, health professionals are in general not aware of their own health risks. In an attempt to clarify the issue results of our own studies are compared to the relevant literature. A survey on 1,248 Swiss nurses confirmed the major stressors known: ethical conflicts about appropriate patient care, team conflicts, role ambiguity, workload and organizational deficits. In doctors workload and shortage of time, combined with specific responsibility in decision making, are most prominent. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is still high in both professions. Health hazards in doctors are considerable, although life expectancy has improved and is comparable to the general public, but still lower as compared to other professionals. Depression and substance abuse are related to higher suicide rates. The specific role strain of female doctors is responsible for health risks with an alarming 10 years lower life expectancy than in the general population. Little is known about specific health hazards in nurses, except for burnout. A lack of coping research in the field makes conclusions difficult. Our own studies show limited coping skills in nurses, but good buffering effect in 1,700 Swiss dentists.
Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti
The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.
E. M. Morosov
Full Text Available The article analyses the Russian Orthodox Church strategy with regard to forming core competence of modern Orthodox clergy for educative and social work. The question about the Church demand for a new generation of clergymen able to combine spiritual life with continuous intellectual and cultural development is raised. It is settled on the basis of combining professional competence and the idea of service. The moving trends of spiritual education reform directed at training a well-qualified priest capable of solving conventional spiritual and new tasks of vicarial service are considered.
Edwards, James G.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess the level and intensity of burnout in 165 California State University at Long Beach college seniors preparing for the human services professions, specifically teaching, nursing, criminal justice, and social welfare. A comparison group of 80 engineering seniors was also assessed. The 40-item…
Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora
There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…
Mary Ann Stark
Full Text Available Health profession students may need help establishing and maintaining positive health behaviors when they are in college. This study explored the effectiveness of text messaging as an innovative method for promoting an increase in daily physical activity. A convenience sample (N = 134 was recruited from students at a college of Health and Human Services in Michigan. The participants were randomized into an intervention or control group (n = 67 each. The intervention group received daily affective text messages encouraging more physical activity by taking more steps. The control group received only messages reminding them to report their number of steps. All of the participants received a pedometer, completed a demographics and daily habits questionnaire, and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their number of daily steps. However, the most inactive participants had a significant increase in steps during the study period. Health profession students’ lifestyle behaviors have consequences, as they become caregivers in our dynamic, demanding health-care system. For those with the greatest need for physical activity, encouraging such activity via text messaging may improve their ability to care for themselves and their clients.
Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig
The importance of mentorship within health care training is well recognised. It offers a means to further enhance workforce performance and engagement, promote learning opportunities and encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. There are both career and life benefits associated with mentorship, and it is increasingly recognised as a bidirectional process that benefits both mentors and mentees. Recently, mentoring has been considered an essential step in professional and personal development, particularly in the field of health care. This article provides a review of the recent literature to assist those considering the implementation of mentorship programmes within their institutions. Discussion includes topics relating to the key elements of effective mentorship, the various phases and styles of mentorship, the need for career-long mentoring, ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship. Learning within the workplace includes the development of knowledge and skills, and an understanding of the values important to the profession and the culture of organisations. Within health care training, organisations may encompass hospitals, universities, training organisations and regulatory bodies. The practice of mentorship may help to foster an understanding of the enduring elements of practice within these organisations. Mentoring involves both a coaching and an educational role, requiring a generosity of time, empathy, a willingness to share knowledge and skills, and an enthusiasm for teaching and the success of others. Being mentored is believed to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance and career choice. Ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship include conflict of interest, imbalance of power and unrealistic expectations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A
Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.
...? How can underserved populations be better served? The broad scope of RAND's assignment-identifying for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board important issues in health professions education-was made more complicated by the fact that issues...
Cervero, Ronald M.; Daley, Barbara J.
This chapter provides an overview of the emerging social and organizational contexts for health professions education and the rationale for foundational adult and continuing education concepts to be included in the curricula of HPE graduate programs.
Most of professional ethics is grounded on the assumption that we can speak meaningfully about particular, insulated professions with aims and goals, that conceptually there exists a clear "inside and outside" to any given profession. Professional ethics has also inherited the two-part assumption from mainstream moral philosophy that we can speak meaningfully about agent-relative versus agent-neutral moral perspectives, and further, that it is only from the agent-neutral perspective that we can truly evaluate our professional moral aims, rules, and practices. Several important changes that have occurred, or are currently taking place, in the structure of the health care professions, challenge those assumptions and signal the need for teachers of professional ethics to rethink the content of what we teach as well as our teaching methods. The changes include: influences and critique from other professions and from those who are served by the health professions, and influences and critique from professionals themselves, including increased activism and dissent from within the professions. The discussion focuses on changes that have occurred in the health-related fields, but insofar as similar changes are occurring in other professions such as law and business, these arguments will have broader conceptual implications for the way we ought to think about professional ethics more generally.
Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea
There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical education - a historical perspective. ... In this respect some medical aid funds supported this philosophy of health promotion, as the curative treatment of health problems are becoming increasingly expensive and are burdening health-care costs. At present ...
learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.
Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta
Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching.
From vision to reality--managing change in the provision of library and information services to nurses, midwives, health visitors and PAMs: (professions allied to medicine) a case study of the North Thames experience with the Inner London Consortium.
Godbolt, S; Williamson, J; Wilson, A
One of the North Thames' pioneering consortia, the Inner London Consortium (ILC) is a complex body which includes NHS Trusts with teaching hospital university connections, community-based Trusts and general hospital acute Trusts. Within the consortium there are 12,000 trained nurses, midwives, health visitors and other professional staff working in the professions allied to medicine (PAMs), all of whom require access to and provision of appropriate library information services. In 1994, taking into account experiences elsewhere in the Region and nationally, it became clear that library issues were complex and would become acute with the move of nursing libraries from ILC Trust sites over a very short timescale. A report on the issues commissioned by the Consortium recommended that a library project, which built on existing NHS Trust PGMDE funded library resources and moved these to a multidisciplinary base to serve the consortium membership, be implemented. The objective of providing access to library information services for nurses and PAMs was achieved. Successes that emerged from the implementation included: The registration in Trust libraries of almost 12 000 new members within the initial 6-month monitoring period. The development of service level agreements and standards for the delivery of services to these new user groups. This paper describes the processes behind these significant and complex changes.
Rightly or wrongly, law enforcement, public safety, medical, mental health, legal, and emergency services professionals may have to face internal investigation, disciplinary measures, license suspension, criminal prosecution, civil lawsuits, and/or personal life disruption related to actions taken in the course of their work. This article describes the main categories of misconduct--or simply mistakes--that can cause different types of professionals to be investigated, charged, prosecuted, and/or sued. It next discusses the kinds of psychological reactions commonly seen in workers who face these kinds of proceedings. Finally, the article offers a set of practical psychological coping strategies and procedural recommendations for dealing with the stresses of an investigation, administrative action, or litigation, and for mitigating their effects on one's life and career.
the career field and the tax: Student-Transient-Prisoner/Patient ( STP ), Special Duty, and Outside. o STP : The Army equivalent of this Air Force...patterns due to their highly marketable skills which can be transferred to another form of public service (e.g., inter-Service transfer) or are in high... STP , and developmental opportunities (primarily special duties). The inventory identifies categories indicating skill availability (“Not Fully
and comedians, there is a lot of serious introspection by health professionals and where possible remedial corrective measures are ... The public perception of health professionals is heavily influenced by greatly skewed media reporting. ... because of the resulting intense itch and could hardly sleep at night. The tourist ...
Does the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) receive more complaints about anaesthesiologists than any other speciality, and if they do, are these complaints mainly restricted to billing issues, i.e. relating to the financial consent process or costs? Although disputed, and subsequently corrected, the South ...
Varpio, Lara; O'Brien, Bridget; J Durning, Steven; van der Vleuten, Cees; Gruppen, Larry; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; Hamstra, Stanley J; Hu, Wendy
Health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) are organizational structures within which a group is substantively engaged in health professions education scholarship. Little research investigates the strategies employed by HPESU administrative leaders to secure and maintain HPESU success. Using institutional entrepreneurship as a theoretical lens, this study asks: Do HPESU administrative leaders act as institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)? This study recontextualizes two preexisting qualitative datasets that comprised interviews with leaders in health professions education in Canada (2011-2012) and Australia and New Zealand (2013-1014). Two researchers iteratively analyzed the data using the institutional entrepreneurship construct until consensus was achieved. A third investigator independently reviewed and contributed to the recontextualized analyses. A summary of the analyses was shared with all authors, and their feedback was incorporated into the final interpretations. HPESU leaders act as IEs in three ways. First, HPESU leaders construct arguments and position statements about how the HPESU resolves an institution's problem(s). This theorization discourse justifies the existence and support of the HPESU. Second, the leaders strategically cultivate relationships with the leader of the institution within which the HPESU sits, the leaders of large academic groups with which the HPESU partners, and the clinician educators who want careers in health professions education. Third, the leaders work to increase the local visibility of the HPESU. Practical insights into how institutional leaders interested in launching an HPESU can harness these findings are discussed.
Principal Contact. Claudia Naidu Managing Editor Health and Medical Publishing Group Private Bag X1 Pinelands 7430 Cape Town South Africa Phone: + 27 (21) 532 1281. Email: email@example.com. Support Contact. Getrude Fani Phone: +27 (21) 532 1281. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org · AJOL African Journals ...
Background: Ebola virus disease is a serious acute illness that is often fatal if untreated. Multiple outbreaks have occurred in Africa from 1976 to 2014. The recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa was declared by the WHO as a public health emergency of international concern. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess ...
.... Physician Assistant: PA-C. P. Physical Therapy: M.S. and D.P.T. Q. Podiatry: D.P.M. R. Public Health Nutritionist: M.S. S. Respiratory Therapy: B.S. Degree. T. Social Work: Masters Level only (Direct Practice and...: Associate and Bachelor Degrees and advanced degrees in Psychiatry, Geriatric, Women's Health, Pediatric...
.... Physical Therapy: M.S. and D.P.T. P. Podiatry: D.P.M. Q. Public Health Nutritionist: M.S. R. Respiratory Therapy: B.S. Degree. S. Social Work: Masters Level only (Direct Practice and Clinical concentrations). T... advanced degrees in Psychiatry, Geriatric, Women's Health, Pediatric Nursing, Midwifery, Nurse Anesthetist...
Butina, Michelle; Brooks, Donna; Dominguez, Paul J; Mahon, Gwendolyn M
Multiple technology based tools have been used to enhance skill development in allied health education, which now includes virtual learning environments. The purpose of this study was to explore whether, and how, this latest instructional technology is being adapted in allied health education. An online survey was circulated to all Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) member institutions and focused on three broad areas of virtual learning environments: the uses of, the perceived pros and cons of, and the outcomes of utilizing them. Results show 40% (17 of 42) of the respondent use some form of the technology. The use of virtual learning technology in other healthcare professions (e.g., medicine) demonstrates the potential benefits to allied health education.
Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda
Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.
.... undergraduate years). D. Pre-Nursing. E. Pre-Occupational Therapy. F. Pre-Pharmacy. G. Pre-Physical Therapy (Jr..., Geriatric, Women's Health, Pediatric Nursing, Nurse Anesthetist, and Nurse Practitioner. (Priority...) and its amendments; or in a program assisted under Title V of the IHCIA.) L. Occupational Therapy: B.S...
Henry-Noel, Nayanee; Bishop, Maria; Gwede, Clement K; Petkova, Ekaterina; Szumacher, Ewa
Mentoring skills are valuable assets for academic medicine and allied health faculty, who influence and help shape the careers of the next generation of healthcare providers. Mentors are role models who also act as guides for students' personal and professional development over time. Mentors can be instrumental in conveying explicit academic knowledge required to master curriculum content. Importantly, they can enhance implicit knowledge about the "hidden curriculum" of professionalism, ethics, values, and the art of medicine not learned from texts. In many cases, mentors also provide emotional support and encouragement. It must be noted that to be an effective mentor, one must engage in ongoing learning in order to strengthen and further mentoring skills. Thus, learning communities can provide support, education, and personal development for the mentor. The relationship benefits mentors as well through greater productivity, career satisfaction, and personal gratification. Maximizing the satisfaction and productivity of such relationships entails self-awareness, focus, mutual respect, and explicit communication about the relationship. In this article, the authors describe the development of optimal mentoring relationships, emphasizing the importance of different approaches to mentorship, roles of the mentors and mentees, mentor and mentee benefits, interprofessional mentorships for teams, gender and mentorship, and culture and mentorship.
Sachdeva, A K
In the current milieu of monumental change in medicine and the health sciences, effective leadership is needed from within the health care profession to address various challenges. A leader needs to be visionary, and must possess the ability to share this vision with others through effective communication. The leader should be fair, trustworthy, sincere, truthful, honest, courageous, and compassionate. He or she should be strong and resolute and be able to lead through persuasion rather than coercion. The leader should possess the attributes and skills to mold organizational change in the desired direction and to deal with reactions of individuals going through the change process. The democratic style of leadership appears to be the most effective, although the autocratic style may be needed occasionally to accomplish a specific task. The noncentered, laissez-faire style of leadership is generally not effective and results in significant frustration among subordinates. The most desirable type of power a leader can exercise over subordinates results from deep trust and effective communication, which make people follow the leader willingly. The health care profession needs to solicit the help of experienced members who have shown leadership to help guide various activities and to serve as mentors for the less experienced individuals. Special courses should be designed and implemented to develop specific leadership skills, which are applicable to various health care disciplines. Practical teaching models, including individuals from various disciplines working together in teams, with opportunities for leadership, should be implemented. Also, an appropriate culture that recognizes and rewards effective leadership in academe needs to be established within academic institutions.
Objective. To review literature pertaining to grit and resilience in health professions education. Findings. There is significant interest in grit and resilience throughout the health professions, but little has been published with regard to pharmacy. Although there are methodological issues with defining and measuring grit and resilience, several studies have shown relationships between the constructs and personal and academic well-being. Educational interventions aimed at increasing grit and resilience have produced mixed results. Developing protective factors appears to be the most common approach in helping students become more resilient. Summary. Literature pertaining to grit and resilience reveals that the terms are nuanced, complex, and difficult to measure and understand. Regardless, the general characteristics associated with grit and resilience are of interest to educators and warrant further study. PMID:29606705
The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession's strategies it uses to defend
The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. Objective: This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. Methodology: This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession
Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.
Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G
To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.
Akçali, Asli Avci
This study aims to identify the self-efficacy beliefs and motivations of Turkish pre-service history teachers, with respect to "the teaching profession in general", as well as "the history teaching profession specifically". With a descriptive aim, the study will be based on survey research. The research uses an explanatory…
Colley, Helen; Guéry, Frédérique
Public spending reductions across the advanced capitalist world are creating new professions that have a "hybrid" status and/or role. However, research on professional learning has paid little attention to them. This qualitative study of one such profession, public service interpreting (PSI), addresses that lacuna. The paper focuses on…
Cüceoglu Önder, Gülten
The aim of this study is to analyze the attitudes of pre-service music teachers towards the music teaching profession in terms of diverse variables. Students who enrolled in music teaching department were examined in respect to their different attitudes towards the teaching profession, their genders, grade levels and willingness to enroll in the…
Gray, Kathleen; Choo, Dawn; Butler-Henderson, Kerryn; Whetton, Sue; Maeder, Anthony
The project reported in this paper models a new approach to making health informatics and e-health education widely available to students in a range of Australian clinical health profession degrees. The development of a Masters level subject uses design-based research to apply educational quality assurance practices which are consistent with university qualification frameworks, and with clinical health profession education standards; at the same time it gives recognition to health informatics as a specialised profession in its own right. The paper presents details of (a) design with reference to the Australian Qualifications Framework and CHIA competencies, (b) peer review within a three-university teaching team, (c) external review by experts from the professions, (d) cross-institutional interprofessional online learning, (e) methods for evaluating student learning experiences and outcomes, and (f) mechanisms for making the curriculum openly available to interested parties. The project has sought and found demand among clinical health professionals for formal health informatics and e-health education that is designed for them. It has helped the educators and organisations involved to understand the need for nuanced and complementary health informatics educational offerings in Australian universities. These insights may aid in further efforts to address substantive and systemic challenges that clinical informatics faces in Australia.
Brandt, Barbara F.
Using adult learning principles, health professions educators are well positioned to create interprofessional learning systems for collaborative, team-based practice in the transforming health-care system.
This paper discusses the present and future role of the health professions in health services delivery systems in low-income countries. Unlike richer countries, most low-income countries do not have a tradition of labour market regulation and the capacity of the professions themselves to regulate the provision of health services by their members tends to be weak. The paper looks at the impact of professional monopolies on the performance of health services delivery systems, e.g. equity of access, effectiveness of services, efficiency in the use of scarce resources, responsiveness to users' needs, including protection against the financial impact of utilising health services. It identifies issues which policy-makers face in relation to opening the health labour market while guaranteeing the safety and security of services provided by professionals. The suggestion is made that a "social contract", granting privileges of practice in exchange of a commitment to actively maintain and enhance the quality of their services, may be a viable course of action. This would require that the actors in the policy process collaborate in strengthening the capacity of regulatory agencies to perform their role.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT aims to close the gap between knowledge and practice in order to realize the benefits of research through (a improved health outcomes, (b more effective health services and products, and (c strengthened healthcare systems. While there is some understanding of strategies to put research findings into practice within nursing and medicine, we have limited knowledge of KT strategies in allied health professions. Given the interprofessional nature of healthcare, a lack of guidance for supporting KT strategies in the allied health professions is concerning. Our objective in this study is to systematically review published research on KT strategies in five allied health disciplines. Methods A medical research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify evidence that is relevant to each question of the review. Two reviewers will perform study selection and quality assessment using standard forms. For study selection, data will be extracted by two reviewers. For quality assessment, data will be extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Within each profession, data will be grouped and analyzed by research design and KT strategies using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group classification scheme. An overall synthesis across professions will be conducted. Significance A uniprofessional approach to KT does not represent the interprofessional context it targets. Our findings will provide the first systematic overview of KT strategies used in allied health professionals' clinical practice, as well as a foundation to inform future KT interventions in allied healthcare settings.
Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J
The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:735-740).
Artinian, Nancy T.; Drees, Betty M.; Glazer, Greer; Harris, Kevin; Kaufman, Lon S.; Lopez, Naty; Danek, Jennifer C.; Michaels, Julia
In the wake of national health care reform, development of the future health care workforce has become more important than ever. Millions of newly insured patients, many from underserved urban communities, are seeking health care services. In order to provide high-quality care to rapidly diversifying patient populations, health care professionals…
Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M.; Ringsted, Charlotte V
Objectives: This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Why: Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature...... suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. When and for whom: The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined...... above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition...
A personnel management problem exists within dental public health that interferes with its mission of improving the nation's oral health. A major cause of this problem may be that many administrators who write position descriptions and hire professional staff are unaware of differences between clinical and public health dental practitioners. A marketing plan has been developed to address this lack of awareness about proper use of dental public health professionals. Its main goal is to establish more appropriate personnel and employment practices within dental public health. The expected outcomes of this plan could assist both recipients of dental public health services and members of the profession. The purpose of this article is to introduce the marketing strategy to dental public health professionals.
Delworth, Ursula; And Others
Updated information is presented on various student services to provide student service professionals with ideas for successfully planning, coordinating, delivering, and evaluating student services programs. Six sections contain 24 chapters as follows: (1) professional roots and commitments--"Historical Foundations of Student Services (R. Fenske);…
Spitzberg, Brian H
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public healthModels matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important - it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance.
Spitzberg, Brian H.
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public health Models matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important – it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance. PMID:25170494
Özen, Rasit; Öztürk, Duygu Saniye
The present study aims to examine the relationship between pre-service teachers' lifelong learning tendencies and teaching profession anxiety levels with respect to certain variables (their gender and subject area) and is designed as a survey study. The fourth year pre-service teachers (n=455) in the spring semester of the 2015-2016 academic year…
McCarthy Carey F
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and
... or Mental Health from the school of discipline, the proposed graduation rate eligibility threshold... sizes across the health professions schools, the graduation rate eligibility thresholds for Hispanic...: allopathic and osteopathic medicine; pharmacy; dentistry; and behavioral or mental health. Individual schools...
Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Klatt, Maryanna
Stress and burnout of healthcare providers has become a major healthcare issue that has implications for not only workforce projections, but the cost and quality of care and the lives of healthcare providers and their families. Burnout, characterized by loss of enthusiasm for work, feelings of cynicism and a low sense of personal accomplishment is associated with early retirement, alcohol use, and suicidal ideation. Healthcare professional "wellbeing" or "care of the caregiver" is a topic that has not been significantly addressed in the education of healthcare professionals. The culture that has dominated much of education has been one where students have been expected to forego personal needs, endure stressful environments, and emerge from highly competitive and often dysfunctional environments to work in care settings where health and wellbeing is also largely ignored. Three curricular innovations are highlighted that target pre-professional students, students enrolled in health professions education and practicing health care professionals. Strategies are highlighted that both help individuals cultivate resiliency and wellbeing in their personal and professional lives and that address system issues that contribute to unhealthy learning and work environments.
Jahangiri, Leila; Mucciolo, Thomas W
Using an expanded definition of scholarship that goes beyond the scholarship of discovery (research) to include the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application, and the scholarship of teaching, this article explains interrelationships among these scholarship types in health professions and specifically dental education. Such interrelationships can lead to meaningful expansion of scholarship especially in the form of translational research, which relies on the development of all four of these types of scholarship. In recent years, health care-related organizations have been seeking ways to expand translational research. At the same time, an increasing number of academic institutions have been considering how to redefine what qualifies as advancing one's discipline in ways that go beyond mere number of publications and grants to better reflect the faculty member's overall scholarly effort. These redefinitions and a new attention to scholarly collaboration have led to the concept of a "complete scholar": one who makes contributions in all four areas of scholarship by collaborating with other scholars, practitioners, and members of the community. Expanding the concept of a complete scholar to that of a "complete institution" is the basis for what we propose as a Model of Institutional Scholarship. This model is exemplified by the Cochrane Collaboration, a gold standard for a complete vision of research on evidence-based health care. In the Model of Institutional Scholarship, an institution can visualize, plan, develop, and orchestrate all scholarship being conducted within its realm, creating collaborations among individual efforts that will enhance effectiveness and the creation of new knowledge.
Weber, Mary Beth
Will library technical services exist thirty years from now? If so, what do leading experts see as the direction of the field? In this visionary look at the future of technical services, Mary Beth Weber has compiled a veritable who's who of the field to answer just these questions.
Brems, Christiane; Justice, Lauren; Sulenes, Kari; Girasa, Lisa; Ray, Julia; Davis, Madison; Freitas, Jillian; Shean, Margaret; Colgan, Dharmakaya
Yoga is gaining momentum as a popular and evidence-based, integrative health care and self-care practice. The characteristics of yoga practitioners are not proportional to the demographics of the general population, especially with respect to gender and ethnicity. Several access barriers have been implicated (eg, time, cost, and access to teachers). No studies have explored the barriers to practice among health professions students. Their participation in yoga is deemed important because they are future health professionals who will make referrals to other services. Research has shown that providers who practice yoga refer more patients to yoga. To increase yoga practice among health professions students, an understanding must be developed of factors that interfere with or facilitate a regular yoga practice. The current study intended to identify such barriers and motivators. This study was a small population survey. The setting was a private university in the northwestern United States, including students in 3 of its colleges and 10 professional programs. All students (N = 1585) in the programs of the 10 health professions received e-mail requests for participation. The Acceptability of Yoga Survey was developed for purposes of a larger yoga perceptions study and implemented with health professions students. Participants were solicited via e-mail; the survey was administered online. The current study used data from that survey. Of the 498 usable, completed surveys (ie, a response rate of approximately 30%), 478 were relevant to the current study. The sample's demographics--78% women and 79% white--did not differ significantly from the population's demographics. The findings revealed the existence of common barriers that were related to (1) time; (2) cost; (3) lack of pragmatic information about access to yoga classes and teachers; and (4) stereotypes related to flexibility, athleticism, and typical yoga practitioners. Motivators included athleticism, health
Conclusions: Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Seker, Hasan; Deniz, Sabahattin; Görgen, Izzet
The present study aimed to investigate pre-service teachers' motivations toward teaching profession and their opinions about pedagogical formation program. In this study descriptive and correlational research methods were used. It was carried out with (a) graduate students doing a master's program without thesis, (b) undergraduate students…
This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' personal value orientations and their attitudes toward the teaching profession. The study was conducted with the participation of 612 students at DEU's Buca Faculty of Education during the 2014/2015 academic year. Data were collected using the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ)…
... using the Google scholar search engine: Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct, ... Key search words were “biokinetics,” “exercise therapy” and “kinesiotherapy. ... is medicine,” academic curriculum, clinical training and scope of profession.
Richards, R W
During 1998-2000, an international team of five researchers described nine innovative health professions education programmes as selected by The Network: Community Partnerships for Health through Innovative Education, Service, and Research. Each researcher visited one or two schools. Criteria for selection of these nine schools included commitment to multidisciplinary and community-based education, longitudinal community placements, formal linkages with government entities and a structured approach to community participation. The purpose of these descriptions was to identify key issues in designing and implementing community-based education. Programmes in Chile, Cuba, Egypt, India, the Philippines, South Africa, Sudan, Sweden and the United States were visited. Before site visits were conducted, the researchers as a group agreed upon the elements to be described. Elements included overall institutional characteristics, curriculum, admissions practices, evaluation systems, research, service, community involvement, faculty development, postgraduate programmes and the school's relationship with government entities. Here I describe the common features of each of the nine programmes, their shared dilemmas and how each went about balancing the teaching of clinical competence and population perspectives. Based upon an analysis of the cases, I present seven "lessons learned" as well as a discussion of programme development, institutionalization of reform and long-term implications for health professions education. The seven lessons are: (1) PBL and CBE are not seen as independent curricular reforms; (2) student activities are determined based upon sensitivity to locale; (3) health professionals need to work collaboratively; (4) there is a connection between personal health and population health issues; (5) population health interventions and treatment strategies need to be appropriate to local conditions; (6) graduates need to advocate for patients and the community in the
Denniston, Charlotte; Molloy, Elizabeth; Nestel, Debra; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Keating, Jennifer L
The aim of this study was to identify and analyse communication skills learning outcomes via a systematic review and present results in a synthesised list. Summarised results inform educators and researchers in communication skills teaching and learning across health professions. Systematic review and qualitative synthesis. A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL plus and Scopus), from first records until August 2016, identified published learning outcomes for communication skills in health professions education. Extracted data were analysed through an iterative process of qualitative synthesis. This process was guided by principles of person centredness and an a priori decision guide. 168 papers met the eligibility criteria; 1669 individual learning outcomes were extracted and refined using qualitative synthesis. A final refined set of 205 learning outcomes were constructed and are presented in 4 domains that include: (1) knowledge (eg, describe the importance of communication in healthcare), (2) content skills (eg, explore a healthcare seeker's motivation for seeking healthcare),( 3) process skills (eg, respond promptly to a communication partner's questions) and (4) perceptual skills (eg, reflect on own ways of expressing emotion). This study provides a list of 205 communication skills learning outcomes that provide a foundation for further research and educational design in communication education across the health professions. Areas for future investigation include greater patient involvement in communication skills education design and further identification of learning outcomes that target knowledge and perceptual skills. This work may also prompt educators to be cognisant of the quality and scope of the learning outcomes they design and their application as goals for learning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Glazer, Greer; Startsman, Laura F; Bankston, Karen; Michaels, Julia; Danek, Jennifer C; Fair, Malika
Health profession schools use interviews during the admissions process to identify certain non-cognitive skills that are needed for success in diverse, inter-professional settings. This study aimed to assess the use of interviews during the student admissions process across health disciplines at schools in the United States of America in 2014. The type and frequency of non-cognitive skills assessed were also evaluated. Descriptive methods were used to analyze a sample of interview rubrics collected as part of a national survey on admissions in the health professions, which surveyed 228 schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and public health. Of the 228 schools, 130 used interviews. The most desirable non-cognitive skills from 34 schools were identified as follows: communication skills (30), motivation (22), readiness for the profession (17), service (12), and problem-solving (12). Ten schools reported using the multiple mini-interview format, which may indicate potential for expanding this practice. Disparities in the use of interviewing across health professions should be verified to help schools adopt interviews during student admissions processes.
Albion, Majella J; Fogarty, Gerard J; Machin, Michael A; Patrick, Jeff
The study examined the mediating influence of individual psychological reactions to work on the relationship between organisational climate and job withdrawal behaviours (viz, intention to leave and absenteeism). 1097 hospital employees were surveyed using the Queensland Public Agency Staff Survey (QPASS) to obtain measures of organisational climate, psychological reactions to work, job satisfaction, and self-reported levels of intention to leave. Group-level absenteeism data were provided from the Health Service District files. Two psychological states, quality of work life and job satisfaction, were found to fully mediate the relationship between the organisational climate variable, role clarity, and intention to leave, while individual distress was found to partially mediate the same relationship. However, the hypothesised mediation effect of psychological states on the relationship between organisational climate and absenteeism did not emerge. Skills shortages and increasing demands for health services make retention of staff in the health service industry vitally important. As a means of addressing this issue, this study presents an emergent mediating model defining relationships among individual psychological factors, aspects of organisational climate and intention to leave. Identification of the processes associated with staff withdrawal behaviours or intentions will assist in devising interventions to improve retention.
Van Winkle, Lon J; Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M
To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students' and prospective health professions students' collaboration scores. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.
Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C.; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M.; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M.; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M.
Objective. To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students’ and prospective health professions students’ collaboration scores. Design. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Assessment. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Conclusions. Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration. PMID:24159210
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat.The author describes changing perspectives on collaboration and teamwork in the health professions, discusses how the health professions have neglected to appreciate the positive attributes of conflict, and presents three alternative approaches to more effectively integrating conflict into collaboration and teamwork in the health professions. These three approaches are (1) cultivating psychological safety on teams to make space for safe interpersonal risk taking, (2) viewing conflict as a source of expansive learning and innovation (via models such as activity theory), and (3) democratizing hierarchies of power through health humanities education ideally by advancing the health humanities to the core of the curriculum.The author suggests that understanding conflict's inevitability and its innovative potential, and integrating it into collaboration and teamwork, may have a reassuring and emancipating impact on individuals and teams. This may ultimately improve performance in health care organizations.
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wojnar, Margaret; Sinz, Elizabeth
This chapter focuses on how to negotiate power and interest among multiple stakeholders to develop continuing professional education programs as graduate study for those in the health and medical professions.
The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between attachment dimensions and Attitude towards Teaching Profession (love, harmony and value) of preschool pre-service teachers. The research data were collected using the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire--Revised and Attitude Scale of Teaching Profession. In the study…
Marchiori, Dennis M; Henkin, Alan B
Health professions depend on their faculties to prepare new practitioners, conduct research and provide essential services. Organizational commitment is an important aspect of faculty effectiveness and job performance, and may impact on turnover, absenteeism and interpersonal trust. A survey of organizational commitment, including faculty demographics and workplace variables, was conducted. Respondents were full- and part-time chiropractic faculty working in the United States and Canada. More than 54% of the study population (n = 609) completed and returned the instrument. A large majority of the respondents were male (68.4%) and employed full-time (81.6%). Almost half (47.5%) of the respondents were assigned to the area of patient care at their institutions. This study provides an initial assessment of organizational commitment among chiropractic faculty. Tenure in higher education, gender and age were found to be the most important predictors of organizational commitment.
Full Text Available The teaching profession has been transformed in the last century in terms of its approaches and structures, such as its instructional methods and learning settings. Such transformations affect the motivations that promote choosing it as a career. Recent studies conducted on the reasons for choosing the teaching profession have been carried out with pre- and in-service teachers’ perspectives. The current study explores similar issues within broader views in terms of prospective teachers’ personal views about two essential facets: “Prevailing views that teacher candidates hold about the profession”; “If any correlation exists between reasons for choosing teaching as a career and their disciplines”. Participants were asked to identify their teaching philosophies and reasons for determining this career path in college. The data collection process took place between 2012 and 2014. A total of 253 pre-service teachers enrolled in teacher preparation programs agreed to participate in the study. The results of data analysis indicated that teacher candidates in different disciplines hold similar viewpoints on both research questions. In addition, they stated that they chose the teaching profession because ‘It is a sacred job; the country needs better education; it is an ideal job for females’. Some correlation according to gender emerged for both of the research questions.
Costin Daniel Avram
Full Text Available Professional bodies that manage distinct segments of the accounting profession in Romania, respectively CECCAR, CAFR, CCF and ANEVAR are focused on the public interest and expectations of the business environment. The quality of services specific to accounting profession is primarily aimed at compliance with the ethical and professional standards, without depending only on regulatory and monitoring activities exercised by professional bodies but being determined by the mentality of professionals and their ability to meet customer expectations and assess their future needs. In our research we analysed the evolution of quality classes obtained within each professional body during 2009-2014, by ranking the performance of entities that were submitted to quality audit. Though we found an upward trend for promotion in the higher quality classes, we consider that supervision only seeks the degree of compliance with professional and ethical standards in the field. Competition requirements in the accounting profession in the digital era, together with the globalization of markets and standardization of financial communication at regional and global level, are demanding from the professional accountant far more than compliance with existing standards. To study the potential for shifting from compliance to excellence in the accounting profession we conducted an empirical study using survey as a quantitative research method. The survey results revealed that the vast majority of those surveyed are organized in private offices and do not have quality control procedures and only a small proportion of respondents considered necessary to implement a quality management system. We deepened our researches and identified a compliance of professional standards with the requirements of a quality management system based on PEVA cycle and we concluded that the decisive step from compliance to excellence can be achieved by an effect of size, brought along by the
McGuire, Christine H.; And Others
The evolution, present status, future directions, and external forces affecting health professions education are reviewed in this 25 chapter book. Guidelines are set forth for sound practices and policies for innovative and responsive health care. The authors assess how major economic, social, political, demographic, and technological changes are…
Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky
In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.
Sherbino, Jonathan; Arora, Vineet M; Van Melle, Elaine; Rogers, Robert; Frank, Jason R; Holmboe, Eric S
Social media are increasingly used in health professions education. How can innovations and research that incorporate social media applications be adjudicated as scholarship? To define the criteria for social media-based scholarship in health professions education. In 2014 the International Conference on Residency Education hosted a consensus conference of health professions educators with expertise in social media. An expert working group drafted consensus statements based on a literature review. Draft consensus statements were posted on an open interactive online platform 2 weeks prior to the conference. In-person and virtual (via Twitter) participants modified, added or deleted draft consensus statements in an iterative fashion during a facilitated 2 h session. Final consensus statements were unanimously endorsed. A review of the literature demonstrated no existing criteria for social media-based scholarship. The consensus of 52 health professions educators from 20 organisations in four countries defined four key features of social media-based scholarship. It must (1) be original; (2) advance the field of health professions education by building on theory, research or best practice; (3) be archived and disseminated; and (4) provide the health professions education community with the ability to comment on and provide feedback in a transparent fashion that informs wider discussion. Not all social media activities meet the standard of education scholarship. This paper clarifies the criteria, championing social media-based scholarship as a legitimate academic activity in health professions education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
... behavioral or mental health. This does not apply to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs... sizes across the health professions schools, the graduation rate eligibility thresholds for Hispanic...; dentistry; and, behavioral or mental health. Individual schools will be responsible for calculating their...
... of Health Professions Advanced Education Nursing Traineeship Program AGENCY: Health Resources and... announcing a change to its Advanced Education Nursing Traineeship (AENT) program. Effective fiscal year (FY... Wasserman, DrPH, RN, Advanced Nursing Education Branch Chief, Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health...
Huang, Grace C; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
Critical thinking is central to the function of health care professionals. However, this topic is not explicitly taught or assessed within current programs, yet the need is greater than ever, in an era of information explosion, spiraling health care costs, and increased understanding about metacognition. To address the importance of teaching critical thinking in health professions education, the Shapiro Institute for Education and Research and the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation jointly sponsored the Millennium Conference 2011 on Critical Thinking. Teams of physician and nurse educators were selected through an application process. Attendees proposed strategies for integrating principles of critical thinking more explicitly into health professions curricula. Working in interprofessional, multi-institutional groups, participants tackled questions about teaching, assessment, and faculty development. Deliberations were summarized into consensus statements. Educational leaders participated in a structured dialogue about the enhancement of critical thinking in health professions education and recommend strategies to teach critical thinking.
Gelmon, Sherril B; Tresidder, Anna Foucek
The study explored the options for accreditation of educational programs to prepare a new oral health provider, the dental therapist. A literature review and interviews of 10 content experts were conducted. The content experts represented a wide array of interests, including individuals associated with the various dental stakeholder organizations in education, accreditation, practice, and licensure, as well as representatives of non-dental accrediting organizations whose experience could inform the study. Development of an educational accreditation program for an emerging profession requires collaboration among key stakeholders representing education, practice, licensure, and other interests. Options for accreditation of dental therapy education programs include establishment of a new independent accrediting agency; seeking recognition as a committee within the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs; or working with the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) to create a new accreditation program within CODA. These options are not mutually exclusive, and more than one accreditation program could potentially exist. An educational accreditation program is built upon a well-defined field, where there is a demonstrated need for the occupation and for accreditation of educational programs that prepare individuals to enter that occupation. The fundamental value of accreditation is as one player in the overall scheme of improving the quality of higher education delivered to students and, ultimately, the delivery of health services. Leaders concerned with the oral health workforce will need to consider future directions and the potential roles of new oral health providers as they determine appropriate directions for educational accreditation for dental therapy.
With the help of an Upjohn Travelling Fellowship, I visited 15 units providing services for people under stress. There were nine residential units and six non-residential units, all were Christian charitable organisations and in all there was close co-operation with the medical profession. All these organisations accept referrals from general practitioners and deserve to be more widely known. PMID:1255548
With the help of an Upjohn Travelling Fellowship, I visited 15 units providing services for people under stress. There were nine residential units and six non-residential units, all were Christian charitable organisations and in all there was close co-operation with the medical profession.All these organisations accept referrals from general practitioners and deserve to be more widely known.
Schönwetter, Dieter J; Hamilton, Joanne; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V
An increasing number of institutions of higher education are clustering their health sciences schools into a common unit. Therefore, it is imperative that the individual faculty development units assume new mandates to meet faculty development needs for stakeholders across these disciplines. Critical to providing current and relevant professional development activities is an awareness of the needs of academicians, including common as well as discipline-specific needs. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the extent to which factors such as discipline, rank, gender, education, and years as an academician impact on perceived needs for faculty development. In February 2012, a cross-sectional survey of the perceived faculty development needs of academicians in the health sciences unit of a Canadian university was conducted using an online assessment tool. A total of 133 out of 1,409 potential participants completed the survey, for a response rate of 9.4%. The findings revealed more similarities than differences in terms of perceived faculty development needs. In addition, differences were found across all health professions schools and in factors such as discipline, academic rank, education, gender, and years as an academician. These findings suggest that faculty development and educational specialists should understand the shared as well as the unique needs of the individual health sciences schools in planning their professional development services.
Joel Barker, a noted futurist, points out that the best ideas usually come from outside an industry or profession. As a management consultant, I often get new ideas from industries completely unrelated to my clients' industry. For example, companies interested in offering outstanding customer service might study Nordstrom's, L.L. Bean, or Lexus. Those interested in world class distribution might research Federal Express or United Parcel Service. Airlines, trying to minimize downtime of jets at the terminal, learn secrets from Indianapolis 500 pit crews. Similarly, in observing optometrists and dentists, there are valuable lessons for veterinarians. Dentists identified a business model or organizational structure that generates healthy profits. Independent optometrists experienced the onslaught of intense competition from huge corporate players and weathered the storm. The veterinary profession is not so unique. By studying other professions, we need not recreate the wheel.
In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795
Verani, André; Shayo, Peter; Howse, Genevieve
The lack of sufficient, high-quality health workers is one of the primary barriers to improving health in sub-saharan africa. An approach to address this challenge is for public health practitioners to increase their cooperation with public health lawyers, regulators and other policymakers in order to develop strengthened health workforce laws, regulations, and policies that are vigorously implemented and enforced. Conceptual frameworks can help clarify the meaning of health system governance and the pathways between law and health. International recommendations for policy interventions governing health workers provide countries with valuable guidance for domestic reforms. Monitoring and evaluation of legal, regulatory, and other policy interventions are required to ascertain their public health impact. At the intersection of law and public health, professionals from both fields can collaborate in concrete ways such as those discussed here to improve laws and policies governing health.
Many health professions education programs in high-income countries (HICs) have adopted a competency-based approach to learning. Although global health programs have followed this trend, defining and assessing competencies has proven problematic, particularly in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIC students and trainees perform elective work. In part, this is due to programs failing to take sufficient account of local learning, cultural, and health contexts.A major divide between HIC and LMIC settings is that the learning contexts of HICs are predominantly individualist, whereas those of LMICs are generally collectivist. Individualist cultures view learning as something that the individual acquires independent of context and can possess; collectivist cultures view learning as arising dynamically from specific contexts through group participation.To bridge the individualist-collectivist learning divide, the author proposes that competencies be classified as either acquired or participatory. Acquired competencies can be transferred across contexts and assessed using traditional psychometric approaches; participatory competencies are linked to contexts and require alternative assessment approaches. The author proposes assessing participatory competencies through the approach of self-directed assessment seeking, which includes multiple members of the health care team as assessors.The proposed classification of competencies as acquired or participatory may apply across health professions. The author suggests advancing participatory competencies through mental models of sharing. In global health education, the author recommends developing three new competency domains rooted in participatory learning, collectivism, and sharing: resourceful learning; transprofessionalism and transformative learning; and social justice and health equity.
Wilson, Christina K; West, Lindsey; Stepleman, Lara; Villarosa, Margo; Ange, Brittany; Decker, Matthew; Waller, Jennifer L
Health providers' personal and professional experiences may predict attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and can therefore serve as key targets for health professions training aimed at decreasing barriers to high-quality patient care. This study explored the relationship between professional, demographic, and training characteristics and health professions student attitudes toward LGBT patients. Students from a health sciences university and applied mental health programs in Georgia (N=475) completed a survey that included a modified version of the Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Scale (ATLPS). Profession, sexual orientation, current financial status, religion, religiosity, spirituality, and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were associated with ATLPS scores. However, religiosity and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were the only significant predictors of ATLPS scores when these variables were included in one general linear model. Health professions students with higher levels of religiosity and lower levels of self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex reported less positive attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Results suggest that personal factors may be important to address in interprofessional curriculum related to LGBT patient care. Self-report biases and other factors may limit the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.
Results: In 2012 the 7-year Human Resources for Health (HRH) program was launched, ... In 2015 several international conferences were organised by the College of Medicine and Health Sciences. ..... ca, 1993 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
Full Text Available By 2030 India will have one million additional MBBS doctors; currently being produced @50,000 per year. Contrary to perception of scarcity of medical doctors, a large section of newly qualified physicians are spending considerable years in dysfunctional status due to mismanagement in human resource in health in India. There are very few employment opportunities for qualified doctors in public sector; at the same time the average salary of MBBS doctors in urban private hospitals is very low. Paradoxically, in a country of 1.3 billion populations there is no actual demand for medical professionals. While the popular perception is that young doctors are not willing for community service, a reality check is required on the count of intent and capacity of public sector as well as industry towards engagement of medical doctors in the process of service delivery. The visible leaders of medical profession are unable to reflect the ground reality. There is a leadership crisis among medical doctors in India.
Schmitz, Daniela; Höhmann, Ulrike
Care for people with dementia is considered a multi-professional challenge that requires a collaborative approach between health professionals and non-health professionals. Didactic strategies to ensure the same qualifications across these occupational groups are lacking. This article presents the joint learning of selected properties and promotive and obstructive conditions, using the example of a multi-professional Master's programme. It subsequently draws conclusions for didactic concepts. The perceptions of 12 teachers on this Master's programme, all representing different professions, were determined by using a qualitative exploratory survey on the three stated dimensions. With the aid of a summarising content analysis, their statements were condensed and abstracted so as to deduce appropriate requirements for methodical and didactic learning scenarios. In view of the fact that the students have very varied previous knowledge, the main challenge is finding a balance between expertise and tediousness. Establishing essential and common expertise, as well as sensitivity for different perspectives, is made particularly difficult by the fact that health and non-health professions differ greatly in terms of methods and approaches. For a successful outcome, the content focal points and didactic and methodical concepts for a learning group need to take into account the composition of that specific group. Recourse to didactic standard concepts is only possible to a limited extent. The aim of joint teaching and learning of health and non-health professionals is to enhance the understanding of a profession: This is done by making individuals aware of their role in the chain of care, so they can recognise and organise the mutual conditionality of their own and external professional contributions.
McGaghie, William C
Scholarship and publication are key contributors to career advancement in health professions education worldwide. Scholarship is expressed in many ways including original research; integration and synthesis of ideas and data, often across disciplines; application of skill and knowledge to problems that have consequences for health professionals, students, and patients; and teaching in many forms. Professional publication also has diverse outlets ranging from empirical articles in peer reviewed journals, textbook chapters, videos, simulation technologies, and many other means of expression. Scholarship and publication are evaluated and judged using criteria that are consensual, public, and transparent. This three-part AMEE Guide presents advice about how to prepare and publish health professions education research reports and other forms of scholarship in professional journals and other outlets. Part One addresses scholarship-its varieties, assessment, and attributes of productive scholars and scholarly teams. Part Two maps the road to publication, beginning with what's important and reportable and moving to manuscript planning and writing, gauging manuscript quality, manuscript submission and review, and writing in English. Part Three offers 21 practical suggestions about how to advance a successful and satisfying career in the academic health professions. Concluding remarks encourage health professions educators to pursue scholarship with vision and reflection.
Braun, Hannan M; Garcia-Grossman, Ilana R; Quiñones-Rivera, Andrea; Deutsch, Madeline B
Being transgender is associated with numerous health disparities, and transgender individuals face mistreatment and discrimination in healthcare settings. At the same time, healthcare professionals report inadequate preparation to care for transgender people, and patients often have to teach their own medical providers about transgender care. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of an elective course for health profession students in transgender health that was implemented to address these gaps in provider knowledge. Students participated in a 10-session, lunch-hour elective course during the spring of 2015. To evaluate impact, course participants completed pre-, immediately post-, and 3-month postcourse questionnaires, including a previously validated nine-item transphobia scale, to determine the course's effect on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about transgender health. Forty-six students completed the pre- and immediately postelective questionnaire (74% response rate). Compared with pre-elective surveys, immediately postelective scores demonstrated increased knowledge in most domains and reduced transphobia. Specific knowledge domains with improvements included terminology, best practices for collecting gender identity, awareness of the DSM-V gender dysphoria diagnosis, medications used for gender affirmation, and relevant federal policies. A previously validated transphobia scale was found to have good reliability in the current sample. This elective course led to positive short-term changes in measures of multiple knowledge domains and reduced measures of transphobia among health profession students. Further study is needed to assess the long-term impact. Our methods and findings, including the demonstration of reliability of a previously validated nine-item transphobia scale, serve as formative data for the future development of theory-based transgender medicine curricula and measures.
Mitchell, Pamela H; Robins, Lynne S; Schaad, Dotiglas
... of physicians, nurses, and other health professional faculty leaders. Methods: Executive and advisory committees became a collaborative team, surveying and cataloguing existing educational tools and materials...
Objective: This article describes several recent milestones in collaborative development of health professional education at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, towards more socially accountable education. Methodology: Literature review and personal experiences from the authors were ...
Asokan, G V
Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Pence, Patricia L
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the awareness and understanding of plagiarism among undergraduate students enrolled in an online allied health professions course in a community college in the Midwestern United States. The results suggested that the interventions were effective in educating students about how to avoid plagiarism.
Reeder, Glenn D.; And Others
In an effort to meet the growing demand for skilled radiologic technologists and other supportive personnel educated through the associate degree level, a national survey was conducted as part of the UCLA Allied Health Professions Project to determine the tasks performed by personnel in the field and lay the groundwork for development of…
Sukhera, Javeed; Watling, Chris
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers. The six key features of this framework are creating a safe and nonthreatening learning context, increasing knowledge about the science of implicit bias, emphasizing how implicit bias influences behaviors and patient outcomes, increasing self-awareness of existing implicit biases, improving conscious efforts to overcome implicit bias, and enhancing awareness of how implicit bias influences others. Important considerations for designing implicit-bias-informed curricula-such as individual and contextual variables, as well as formal and informal cultural influences-are discussed. The authors also outline assessment and evaluation approaches that consider outcomes at individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. The proposed framework may facilitate future research and exploration regarding the use of implicit bias in health professions education.
Cash, Rebecca E; Crowe, Remle P; Agarwal, Riddhima; Rodriguez, Severo A; Panchal, Ashish R
Inadequate staffing of agencies, increasing attrition rates, and frequent turnover of personnel make employee retention an ongoing concern for Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Faced with increasing demand for EMS, understanding the causes underlying turnover is critical. The objectives of this study were to describe the proportion of individuals that left EMS, likelihood of returning to the profession, and key factors contributing to the decision to leave EMS. This was a cross-sectional study of nationally-certified EMS professionals who left EMS. Respondents to a census survey who reported not practicing EMS were directed to a subsection of items regarding their choice to leave EMS. Demographic and employment characteristics, likelihood of returning to EMS, and factors influencing the decision to leave EMS were assessed. Descriptive and comparative statistics (Chi-square and nonparametric test of trend [p-trend]) and univariable odds ratios were calculated. The overall response rate for the full survey was 10% (n = 32,114). A total of 1247 (4%) respondents reported leaving the profession and completed the exit survey. The majority (72%) reported that they will likely return to EMS. A stepwise decrease in the reported likelihood of returning was seen with increasing years of EMS experience (e.g., 2 or less years of experience: 83%; 16 or more years: 52%; p-trend benefits (65%), decision to pursue further education (60%), dissatisfaction with organization's management (54.7%), and desire for career change (54.1%). This cross-sectional study found an attrition rate of approximately 4% among nationally certified EMS professionals; however, the majority reported that they intended to return to the EMS profession. Intention to return to EMS decreased as years of experience and months away from the profession increased. Important factors in the decision to leave EMS included a desire for better pay and benefits and the decision to pursue further education. Targeting the
Cornesky, R A; Anderson, J A
Academic units of allied health (eg, schools and colleges of allied health) are relatively new to institutions of higher education. As a result, the academic units lack prestige with private funding sources. This article describes a development model for raising private contributions emphasizing allied health academic units. The roles of the academic department, development advisory committee, and faculty in developing the mission statement, needs, objectives, and case statement for the department are described. How the department chairperson, faculty, dean, and advisory committee members interact with the staff from a development office in identifying, cultivating, and soliciting private support are explained.
fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes ...
Mash, Rachel; Minnaar, Jolynn; Mash, Bob
The use of natural gas that is obtained from high-volume hydraulic fracturing (fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes use hundreds of chemicals as well as silica sand. Additional elements are either released from or formed in the shale during drilling. These substances can enter the environment in various ways: through failures in the well casing; via alternative underground pathways; as wastewater, spills and leaks on the wellpad; through transportation accidents; and as air pollution. Although many of these chemicals and elements have known adverse health effects, there is little evidence available on the health impacts of fracking. These health concerns have not yet been fully addressed in policy making, and the authors recommend that the voice of health professionals should be part of the public debate on fracking and that a full health impact assessment be required before companies are given the go-ahead to drill.
Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton
Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…
Aronoff, Nell; Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Lyons, Amy G; Zafron, Michelle L; Glogowski, Maryruth; Grabowski, Jeremiah; Ohtake, Patricia J
The research assessed online learning modules designed to teach health professions students evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in an interprofessional context across two institutions. Students from nine health professions at two institutions were recruited to participate in this pilot project consisting of two online learning modules designed to prepare students for an in-person case-based interprofessional activity. Librarians and an instructional designer created two EBP modules. Students' competence in EBP was assessed before and after the modules as well as after the in-person activity. Students evaluated the online learning modules and their impact on the students' learning after the in-person session. A total of 39 students from 8 health professions programs participated in the project. Average quiz scores for online EBP module 1 and module 2 were 83% and 76%, respectively. Following completion of the learning modules, adapted Fresno test of competence in EBP scores increased ( p =0.001), indicating that the modules improved EBP skill competence. Student evaluations of the learning modules were positive. Students indicated that they acquired new information skills that contributed to their ability to develop a patient care plan and that they would use these information skills in their future clinical practice. Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Although major mental disorders do not have a central position in many criminological theories, there seems to be an evident relationship between these disorders and criminal behavior. In daily practice police officers and mental health care workers work jointly to prevent nuisance and crime and to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural and remote areas of Australia are facing serious health workforce shortages. While a number of schemes have been developed to improve recruitment to and retention of the rural health workforce, they will be effective only if appropriately targeted. This study examines the factors that most encourage students attending rural clinical placements to work in rural Australia, and the regions they prefer. Methods The Careers in Rural Health Tracking Survey was used to examine the factors that most influence medical, nursing and allied health students' preference for practice locations and the locations preferred. Results Students showed a preference for working in large urban centres within one year, but would consider moving to a more rural location later in life. Only 10% of students surveyed said they would never work in a rural community with a population of less than 10 000. Almost half the sample (45% reported wanting to work overseas within five years. The type of work available in rural areas was found to be the factor most likely to encourage students to practice rurally, followed by career opportunities and challenge Conclusion The decision to practise rurally is the result of a complex interaction between a number of factors including ethnicity, discipline, age and sex, among others. Incentives that aim to entice all students to rural practice while considering only one of these variables are likely to be inadequate.
Dahnke, Michael D.
Codes of ethics abound in health care, the aims and purposes of which are multiple and varied, from operating as a decision making tool to acting as a standard of practice that can be operational in a legal context to providing a sense of elevated seriousness and professionalism within a field of practice. There is some doubt and controversy,…
Wang, Xin-Qiang; Zhu, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Lu; Chen, Xiang-Yu; Huo, Jun-Yu
Pre-service teachers with different professional identity may actively construct different subjective profession-related events based on the same objective profession-related events. To explore the priming effect among pre-service teachers with different professional identity, this study examined the effect of positive, negative, or neutral priming sentences in an individualized narration of profession-related events through a priming paradigm. Forty-two female volunteers were asked to complete positive, negative, and neutral priming sentences describing profession-related events. The results showed that, relative to those with weak professional identity, participants with strong professional identity generated a higher number of positive items when primed with different stimuli and displayed greater positive priming bias for positive and neutral stimuli. In addition, relative to those with strong professional identity, participants with weak professional identity generated a higher number of neutral and negative items when primed with positive and negative stimuli, respectively, and displayed greater negative priming bias toward negative stimuli. These results indicate that pre-service teachers with strong professional identity were likely to have established positive self-schemas involving profession-related events, which facilitated active, positive construction of such events.
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers with different professional identity may actively construct different subjective profession-related events based on the same objective profession-related events. To explore the priming effect among pre-service teachers with different professional identity, this study examined the effect of positive, negative, or neutral priming sentences in an individualized narration of profession-related events through a priming paradigm. Forty-two female volunteers were asked to complete positive, negative, and neutral priming sentences describing profession-related events. The results showed that, relative to those with weak professional identity, participants with strong professional identity generated a higher number of positive items when primed with different stimuli and displayed greater positive priming bias for positive and neutral stimuli. In addition, relative to those with strong professional identity, participants with weak professional identity generated a higher number of neutral and negative items when primed with positive and negative stimuli, respectively, and displayed greater negative priming bias toward negative stimuli. These results indicate that pre-service teachers with strong professional identity were likely to have established positive self-schemas involving profession-related events, which facilitated active, positive construction of such events.
Gadit, A A Muhammad
Mental health practitioners often come across a number of challenges in their clinical practice. One such challenge that posed a management dilemma presented with the history of reincarnation. This subject has been discussed in non-scientific literature at length but there is an absolute paucity in scientific literature. This paper describes a case where a boy presented with memories of previous life that started haunting him and caused significant anxiety. The subject of reincarnation needs extensive research in order to understand and manage the resultant clinical challenges.
Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio
The gradual emergence of marketing activities in public health demonstrates an increased interest in this discipline, despite the lack of an adequate and universally recognized theoretical model. For a correct approach to marketing techniques, it is opportune to start from the health service, meant as a service rendered. This leads to the need to analyse the salient features of the services. The former is the intangibility, or rather the ex ante difficulty of making the patient understand the true nature of the performance carried out by the health care worker. Another characteristic of all the services is the extreme importance of the regulator, which means who performs the service (in our case, the health care professional). Indeed the operator is of crucial importance in health care: being one of the key issues, he becomes a part of the service itself. Each service is different because the people who deliver it are different, furthermore there are many variables that can affect the performance. Hence it arises the difficulty in measuring the services quality as well as in establishing reference standards.
Suarez, Vista V; Shanklin, Carol W
Increased job opportunities in health professions make recruitment of students imperative. Effective recruitment requires a knowledge of what students value when making career decisions. This study of dietetic (n = 514) and other college students (n = 352) showed that achievement and economic security were the most important factors in their career selection regardless of major or race. Dietetic majors rated achievement, economic security, ability utilization, personal development, altruism, and working conditions significantly higher than did nondietetic students (p values important to students in this study are attainable through careers in dietetics and other allied health professions. The results of this study should be examined further with a larger sample of allied health majors to assist educators in recruiting and providing career counseling to students.
Mitchell, Dennis A.; Lassiter, Shana L.
The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues—particularly within the oral health field—and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation’s public health. PMID:17077406
van Heerden, B
The causes of the poor health status of the South African population are probably multifactorial, but to be socially accountable we must ensure that the education and training of health professionals continue to be aligned with the population's health needs. The authors of a seminal report published in the Lancet in 2010 provide guidelines for the future training of health professionals. Since November 2010, this report, together with other guiding publications, informed a series of strategic initiatives undertaken by the Undergraduate Education and Training subcommittee of the Medical and Dental Professions Board of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). These initiatives seek to ensure alignment of the training of health professionals in South Africa (SA) with the health needs of the population and with international educational norms and standards. These initiatives are described and the role of the HPCSA in guiding the education and training of SA's health professionals is explored.
Hew, Khe Foon; Lo, Chung Kwan
The use of flipped classroom approach has become increasingly popular in health professions education. However, no meta-analysis has been published that specifically examines the effect of flipped classroom versus traditional classroom on student learning. This study examined the findings of comparative articles through a meta-analysis in order to summarize the overall effects of teaching with the flipped classroom approach. We focused specifically on a set of flipped classroom studies in which pre-recorded videos were provided before face-to-face class meetings. These comparative articles focused on health care professionals including medical students, residents, doctors, nurses, or learners in other health care professions and disciplines (e.g., dental, pharmacy, environmental or occupational health). Using predefined study eligibility criteria, seven electronic databases were searched in mid-April 2017 for relevant articles. Methodological quality was graded using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Effect sizes, heterogeneity estimates, analysis of possible moderators, and publication bias were computed using the COMPREHENSIVE META-ANALYSIS software. A meta-analysis of 28 eligible comparative studies (between-subject design) showed an overall significant effect in favor of flipped classrooms over traditional classrooms for health professions education (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.33, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.21-0.46, p flipped classroom approach was more effective when instructors used quizzes at the start of each in-class session. More respondents reported they preferred flipped to traditional classrooms. Current evidence suggests that the flipped classroom approach in health professions education yields a significant improvement in student learning compared with traditional teaching methods.
Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J. Don; Tennant, Bethany
Background The current “Millennial Generation” of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. Objective To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHeal...
Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , 2017 Warning - A phone number that was once used for the Denali KidCare program is now being used to ask people for their credit card number in order to win a prize. The phone number related to this
Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie
The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) =117.7; pstudents from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and in the design and implementation of employment recruitment and retention programs.
Kent, Jennifer; Thompson, Susan
The supportive role of the built environment for human health is a growing area of interdisciplinary research, evidence-based policy development, and related practice. Nevertheless, despite closely linked origins, the contemporary professions of public health and urban planning largely operate within the neoliberal framework of academic, political, and policy silos. A reinvigorated relationship between the two is fundamental to building and sustaining an effective “healthy built environment profession.” A recent comprehensive review of the burgeoning literature on healthy built environments identified an emergent theme which we have termed “Professional Development.” This literature relates to the development of relationships between health and built environment professionals. It covers case studies illustrating good practice models for policy change, as well as ways professionals can work to translate research into policy. Intertwined with this empirical research is a dialogue on theoretical tensions emerging as health and built environment practitioners and researchers seek to establish mutual understanding and respect. The nature of evidence required to justify policy change, for example, has surfaced as an area of asynchrony between accepted disciplinary protocols. Our paper discusses this important body of research with a view to initiating and supporting the ongoing development of an interdisciplinary profession of healthy planning. PMID:23028393
Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the levels of occupational anxiety of pre-service teachers' who read science and primary school teacher programs according to various variables. In this research a questionnaire developed by Köklükaya and Yıldırım (2016 which has validity and reliability analyzes was used. Anxiety Scale for Teaching Profession (ASTP was used. The research was carried out with 266 prospective teachers who were educated at Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Independent t test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal- Wallis analysis and Tukey significance test were used to determine the statistical significa nce of the obtained data in the research using relational screening model. According to research findings, it was determined that there was no significant difference (p <.05 in the level of vocational anxiety among the teacher candidates according to the degree of willingness to choose the department, grade level and academic achievement score. According to the gender variable, there was no significant difference in the pre-service teachers' who read in the department of primary school teachers', and it was found that the science teachers' professional anxiety levels had a significant difference according to the gender variable.
The concept of leadership is not centered on strength of conviction or the ability to inspire support from others. Authority requires obedience, which is unlikely to bring about substantive changes. There are three classical types of leadership: bureaucratic (which depends on the size of one's share of power within an institution), prestige (which depends on one's technical expertise and standing in one's profession), and political (which depends on the extent of one's power in society at large). Prestige leadership pertains to an occupation and applies particularly to the health professions, especially the medical profession. Change is conditioned by factors internal to the health field (such as technological innovations and dissatisfaction with remunerations and social standing in some occupations) and by elements in the social context. These elements include historical situations favorable to change (crises) and forces for preservation of the status quo.
This article compares the gender and health politics of the German and the French medical professions, which incorporated military command structures into their civilian self-conception. Mobilized doctors committed themselves to the new circumstances and opportunities offered by the war. They applied the established military spatial 'map' which distinguished between the male-dominated front and the female-dominated home front and turned it into an epidemiological map, identifying danger zones which arose from points of contact between men and women. The analysis singles out two case studies: the rapid spread of venereal disease and psychiatric disorders. These case studies allow for a comparative analysis of the following questions: How did doctors assess the impacts of the war on the individual and the society as a whole? How did they view the war's impact on conventional gender orders, individual and national health? And how did they see their own role as a part of an independent civilian profession?
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, you'll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement.
The overall aim of this review is to map the area around the topic of the relationship between physical space and learning and to then draw further potential implications from this for the specific area of health profession education. The nature of the review is a scoping review following a 5-step-model by Arksey & O'Malley. The charting of the data has been conducted with the help of the networked learning landscape framework from Nordquist and Laing. The majority of the research studies on classroom-scale level have focused on how technology may enable active learning. There are no identified research studies on the building-scale level. Hence, the alignment of curricula and physical learning spaces has scarcely been addressed in research from other sectors. In order to 'create a field', conclusions from both case studies and research in related areas must be identified and taken into account to provide insights into health profession education. Four areas have been identified as having potential for future development in health profession education: (i) active involvement of faculty members in the early stages of physical space development; (ii) further development of the assessment strategies for evaluating how physical space impacts learning; (iii) exploration of how informal spaces are being developed in other sectors; and (iv) initiating research projects in HPE to study how informal spaces impact on students' learning. Potentially, the results of this scoping review will result in better future research questions and better-designed studies in this new and upcoming academic field of aligning physical learning spaces and curricula in health profession education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haji, Faizal; Morin, Marie-Paule; Parker, Kathryn
For nearly 40 years, outcome-based models have dominated programme evaluation in health professions education. However, there is increasing recognition that these models cannot address the complexities of the health professions context and studies employing alternative evaluation approaches that are appearing in the literature. A similar paradigm shift occurred over 50 years ago in the broader discipline of programme evaluation. Understanding the development of contemporary paradigms within this field provides important insights to support the evolution of programme evaluation in the health professions. In this discussion paper, we review the historical roots of programme evaluation as a discipline, demonstrating parallels with the dominant approach to evaluation in the health professions. In tracing the evolution of contemporary paradigms within this field, we demonstrate how their aim is not only to judge a programme's merit or worth, but also to generate information for curriculum designers seeking to adapt programmes to evolving contexts, and researchers seeking to generate knowledge to inform the work of others. From this evolution, we distil seven essential elements of educational programmes that should be evaluated to achieve the stated goals. Our formulation is not a prescriptive method for conducting programme evaluation; rather, we use these elements as a guide for the development of a holistic 'programme of evaluation' that involves multiple stakeholders, uses a combination of available models and methods, and occurs throughout the life of a programme. Thus, these elements provide a roadmap for the programme evaluation process, which allows evaluators to move beyond asking whether a programme worked, to establishing how it worked, why it worked and what else happened. By engaging in this process, evaluators will generate a sound understanding of the relationships among programmes, the contexts in which they operate, and the outcomes that result from them
Knowles, M S
Although the threat of human obsolescence confronts all of humanity, given the accelerating pace of change in our society, it has a particularly strong impact on the professions--especially the health professions. The half-life of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values required by physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and pharmacists is shrinking with increasing speed. Citizens worry about being treated by health practitioners who have not kept up to date and have reacted by passing laws mandating relicensing and continuing professional education. The health care professions and institutions have responded to the threat by mounting massive programs of continuing professional education; in fact, this is probably the fastest-growing aspect of all of education. And, since the clientele of continuing professional education consists exclusively of adults, these programs have tended increasingly to be based on principles of adult learning. This chapter opens with a description of a pilot project for physicians at the University of Southern California, in which the central theme is self-directed learning. The selection presents the need for and assumptions and goals of the project and the major program components, including needs assessment, individualized learning plans, information brokering, and the use of peer resource groups. Then follow three selections focused on the continuing education of nurses. Selection 2, by the American Nurses' Association, sets forth a policy statement and guidelines for self-directed continuing education in nursing. Its provisions could easily be adapted to other professions. The application of the andragogical model to highly technical training in cardiovascular nursing at Doctors Hospital in Little Rock is presented in selection 3, and selection 4 describes an innovative inservice education program in which primary responsibility is placed on the clinical nursing units at St. Mary's Hospital in Waterbury, Connecticut.
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, youâll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement. Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/13/2017.
Carney, Patricia A; Brandt, Barbara; Dekhtyar, Michael; Holmboe, Eric S
Producing the best evidence to show educational outcomes, such as competency achievement and credentialing effectiveness, across the health professions education continuum will require large multisite research projects and longitudinal studies. Current limitations that must be overcome to reach this goal include the prevalence of single-institution study designs, assessments of a single curricular component, and cross-sectional study designs that provide only a snapshot in time of a program or initiative rather than a longitudinal perspective.One solution to overcoming these limitations is to develop a network of networks that collaborates, using longitudinal approaches, across health professions and regions of the United States. Currently, individual networks are advancing educational innovation toward understanding the effectiveness of educational and credentialing programs. Examples of such networks include: (1) the American Medical Association's Accelerating Change in Medical Education initiative, (2) the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education, and (3) the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Accreditation System. In this Invited Commentary, the authors briefly profile these existing networks, identify their progress and the challenges they have encountered, and propose a vigorous way forward toward creating a national network of networks designed to determine the effectiveness of health professions education and credentialing.
This study aimed to investigate teacher candidates' retrospective and prospective evaluations about the classroom teacher education program, self, and the teaching profession. Observations, interviews, focus group interviews, and surveys were used to collect data from the 240 subjects. Teacher candidates believed that the teaching profession is…
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644
Reed, Kathlyn L
The creation of a new profession in the early 20th century, such as occupational therapy, required a commitment to certain ideas and a willingness to accept certain challenges. This study examines the commitment to the idea of therapeutic and health supporting occupation by the early leaders and proponents of the profession and the challenges they faced in gaining acceptance of occupational therapy as a profession capable of delivering a valued health care service to society. Six challenges are reviewed as they occurred in the history of the profession and as they continue to challenge the profession into the present era.
Pei Se Wong
Full Text Available Inter-professional education (IPE contributes to the development of an ‘inter-professional, collaborative and practice-ready’ healthcare workforce that is well prepared to respond to local healthcare needs. Little is known about the extent, to which health professional students who are nearing graduation understand the competencies of diverse health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of final-year undergraduate students’ towards interprofessional team working and their knowledge of the competencies of 6 health professions. This study evaluated the final-year health professional students’ from six (6 health professions programmes namely medical, dental, nursing, pharmacy, dietetics and biomedical sciences programmes. Attitudes towards Health Care Team Scale (ATHCTS was used to measure students’ attitudes towards teamwork while a checklist was used measure students’ knowledge of 6 health professionals competencies. Construct validity was ascertain and findings from ATHCTS showed mean scores ranges from 48.57 to 54.23 indicating positive attitudes toward working within interprofessional health care teams. While the ACTHS findings were positive, the competencies checklist showed mixed findings in that students correctly identified some competencies and had misconceptions for others. For example, the majority of students regarded physicians as competent in ‘assessment and evaluation’ and ‘medication management’ while less than 50% of participants recognised the importance of assessment of patient’s health-illness as a competency for dieticians. Gaps identified in final year students’ knowledge of the roles and competencies of health professions has an impact on future interprofessional collaborative practice suggesting a need to further improve curriculum design and delivery of IPE.
Higgins, C W; Phillips, B U
This paper reviews the major trends in financing reform, emphasizing their impact on those characteristics of the market for health services that economists have viewed as monopolistic, and discusses the implications of structural change for the allied health professions. Hopefully, by understanding the fundamental forces of change and responding to uncertainty with flexibility and imagination, the allied health professions can capitalize on the opportunities afforded by structural change. Overall, these trends should result in the long-term outlook for use of allied health services to increase at an average annual rate of 9% to 10%. Allied health professionals may also witness an increase in independent practice opportunities. Finally, redistribution of jobs will likely occur in favor of outpatient facilities, home health agencies, and nontraditional settings. This in turn will have an impact on allied health education, which will need to adapt to these types of reforms.
McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny
There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their
Varpio, L.; Gruppen, L.; Hu, W.; O'Brien, B.; Cate, O. Ten; Humphrey-Murto, S.; Irby, D.M.; Vleuten, C. van der; Hamstra, S.J.; Durning, S.J.
PROBLEM: Health professions education scholarship (HPES) is an important and growing field of inquiry. Problematically, consistent use of terminology regarding the individual roles and organizational structures that are active in this field are lacking. This inconsistency impedes the transferability
Maria Rosaria Gualano
Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association have developed the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire in order to collect data on tobacco use and cessation counselling among health- profession students. The aims of the study were to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GHPSS questionnaire in Italy among health-profession students and to examine the prevalence of tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes to it and tobacco cessation training among students attending Italian medical schools using the standardised GHPSS approach. Methods: Before testing tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes, and tobacco cessation training, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha to assess the internal validity with the intention of avoiding misleading results. The questionnaire was administered to 100 health-profession students and data were collected in March 2009, during regular class sessions among students of two Italian Schools of Medicine. The original GHPSS instrument was translated into the Italian language and modified by adding three specific questions regarding I the knowledge about the use of antidepressants, ii Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonists, and iii counselling techniques used in tobacco cessation programs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0, statistical software for windows. Results: Cronbach’s alpha was higher on 17 items (alpha= 0.872, belonging to section I and IV (respectively: “Tobacco Use Prevalenceú and “Behaviour/Cessationú. The addition, also, of only one more of the others items (sectionmade the alpha value worse. Cronbach’s alpha for section VI for all items together (n. 44 items was 0.815, which implies that the questionnaire had a very
Background: The World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association have developed the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire in order to collect data on tobacco use and cessation counselling among health- profession students. The aims of the study were to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GHPSS questionnaire in Italy among health-profession students and to examine the prevalence of tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes to it and tobacco cessation training among students attending Italian medical schools using the standardised GHPSS approach.
Methods: Before testing tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes, and tobacco cessation training, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha to assess the internal validity with the intention of avoiding misleading results. The questionnaire was administered to 100 health-profession students and data were collected in March 2009, during regular class sessions among students of two Italian Schools of Medicine. The original GHPSS instrument was translated into the Italian language and modified by adding three specific questions regarding I the knowledge about the use of antidepressants, ii Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonists, and iii counselling techniques used in tobacco cessation programs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0, statistical software for windows.
Results: Cronbach’s alpha was higher on 17 items (alpha= 0.872, belonging to section I and IV (respectively: “Tobacco Use Prevalenceú and “Behaviour/Cessationú. The addition, also, of only one more of the others items (sectionmade the alpha value worse. Cronbach’s alpha for section VI for all items together (n. 44 items was 0.815, which implies that the questionnaire had a very
DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Mirtallo, Jay M; Tobin, Brian W; Hark, Lisa; Van Horn, Linda; Palmer, Carole A
Understanding and applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important, and all health care professions need basic training to effectively assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling, and treatment to their patients. With obesity rates at an all-time high and the increasing prevalence of diabetes projected to cost the Federal government billions of dollars, the need for interprofessional nutrition education is paramount. Physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, dentists, dental hygienists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and others can positively affect patient care by synchronizing and reinforcing the importance of nutrition across all specialty areas. Although nutrition is a critical component of acute and chronic disease management, as well as health and wellness across the health care professions, each profession must reevaluate its individual nutrition-related professional competencies before the establishment of meaningful interprofessional collaborative nutrition competencies. This article discusses gaps in nutrition education and training within individual health professions (ie, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dietetics) and offers suggestions for educators, clinicians, researchers, and key stakeholders on how to build further capacity within the individual professions for basic and applied nutrition education. This “gaps methodology” can be applied to all health professions, including physician assistants, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and occupational therapists. PMID:24646823
Murray-García, Jann L; Harrell, Steven; García, Jorge A; Gizzi, Elio; Simms-Mackey, Pamela
Efforts in the field of multicultural education for the health professions have focused on increasing trainees' knowledge base and awareness of other cultures, and on teaching technical communication skills in cross-cultural encounters. Yet to be adequately addressed in training are profound issues of racial bias and the often awkward challenge of cross-racial dialogue, both of which likely play some part in well-documented racial disparities in health care encounters. We seek to establish the need for the skill of dialoguing explicitly with patients, colleagues, and others about race and racism and its implications for patient well-being, for clinical practice, and for the ongoing personal and professional development of health care professionals. We present evidence establishing the need to go beyond training in interview skills that efficiently "extract" relevant cultural and clinical information from patients. This evidence includes concepts from social psychology that include implicit bias, explicit bias, and aversive racism. Aiming to connect the dots of diverse literatures, we believe health professions educators and institutional leaders can play a pivotal role in reducing racial disparities in health care encounters by actively promoting, nurturing, and participating in this dialogue, modeling its value as an indispensable skill and institutional priority.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2011. The World Health Organization, CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, developed the GHPSS to collect data on tobacco use and cessation...
King, Frederick B; Smith, Betsey C; Mathews, Mary Beth
The Internet, in all of its forms and functions, is well on the way to becoming the most ubiquitous technology of the 21st century. It is changing the way the world does business, the way formal education is conducted, and the way humans interact with each other. The Internet already has become an invaluable tool for formal health education and for the delivery by health professionals of information, training, and education to their employees and patients. With new paradigms for health on the horizon, modem Internet technologies will transform health care practice and systems delivery. In this report, the authors focus attention on the use of distance learning/distance education technologies and their relationship to, and use in, the health professions.
Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J Don; Tennant, Bethany
The current "Millennial Generation" of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants' objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0
Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R
Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS
Pudelko, Beatrice; Young, Meredith; Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Charlin, Bernard
Mapping is a means of representing knowledge in a visual network and is becoming more commonly used as a learning strategy in medical education. The assumption driving the development and use of concept mapping is that it supports and furthers meaningful learning. The goal of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education. The authors conducted a critical analysis of recent literature on the use of concept mapping as a learning strategy in the area of health professions education. Among the 65 studies identified, 63% were classified as empirical work, the majority (76%) of which used pre-experimental designs. Only 24% of empirical studies assessed the impact of mapping on meaningful learning. Results of the analysis do not support the hypothesis that mapping per se furthers and supports meaningful learning, memorisation or factual recall. When documented improvements in learning were found, they often occurred when mapping was used in concert with other strategies, such as collaborative learning or instructor modelling, scaffolding and feedback. Current empirical research on mapping as a learning strategy presents methodological shortcomings that limit its internal and external validity. The results of our analysis indicate that mapping strategies that make use of feedback and scaffolding have beneficial effects on learning. Accordingly, we see a need to expand the process of reflection on the characteristics of representational guidance as it is provided by mapping techniques and tools based on field of knowledge, instructional objectives, and the characteristics of learners in health professions education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
Technology developments create rich opportunities for health service providers to introduce service robots in health care. While the potential benefits of applying robots in health care are extensive, the research into the conceptions of health service robot and its importance for the uptake...... of robotics technology in health care is limited. This article develops a model of the basic conceptions of health service robots that can be used to understand different assumptions and values attached to health care technology in general and health service robots in particular. The article takes...... a discursive approach in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the social values of health service robots. First a discursive approach is proposed to develop a typology of conceptions of health service robots. Second, a model identifying four basic conceptions of health service robots...
Full Text Available This commentary offers an explanation for how and why the Dalhousie Dentistry scandal could occur in a society and time where traditional gender roles are seemingly being eradicated. We use Foucault’s modes of objectification, applied to an analysis of the use of “manhood acts” and in relation to the hidden curriculum, to argue that when women threaten the authority of men in health professions, men may subconsciously look for ways to re-exert an unequal and gendered subject-object binary.
Sandars, John; Walsh, Kieran
The value of health professions education (HPE), with increasing demand for value resultant on financial constraint, has come under increasing scrutiny. An essential aspect for critical consideration is the extent to which the value ascribed by the learner differs from that of the HPE provider, especially in relation to the learning Methods and assessment of the HPE curriculum. The challenge of reconciling the tensions and differing perspectives of the learners and HPE providers can be met through co-production of the curriculum. The focus of the co-production approach is the recognition of the importance of diversity and social justice.
Clark, Phillip G; Weeks, Lori E; van Den Bergh, Graziella; Doucet, Shelley
The need for interprofessional teamwork and the global challenges for health care systems of dramatically increasing numbers of older adults have received increased recognition in gerontological and geriatrics education. The authors report on the pilot development of a hybrid course on aging and health for graduate-level health professions students from Norway, Canada, and the United States. International faculty from partnering universities developed, taught, and evaluated the course. Course assignments included online forum postings, reflections, and a problem-based learning group assignment and presentation. Directed readings and discussion included topics related to health care systems and services in the three participating countries, teamwork, and patient-centered care. To evaluate the course, quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Results indicate a significant impact on student learning outcomes, including understanding of issues in international aging and health, attitudes and skills in teamwork, and application to clinical practice. This course clearly established the importance of developing innovative interprofessional educational experiences that respond to the increasingly universal impacts of aging populations on health and social care systems around the world.
Bachmann, Cadja; Kiessling, Claudia; Härtl, Anja; Haak, Rainer
Communication is object of increasing attention in the health professions. Teaching communication competencies should already begin in undergraduate education or pre-registration training. The aim of this project was to translate the Health Professions Core Communication Curriculum (HPCCC), an English catalogue of learning objectives, into German to make its content widely accessible in the German-speaking countries. This catalogue lists 61 educational objectives and was agreed on by 121 international communication experts. A European reference framework for inter- and multi-professional curriculum development for communication in the health professions in German-speaking countries should be provided. The German version of the HPCCC was drafted by six academics and went through multiple revisions until consensus was reached. The learning objectives were paired with appropriate teaching and assessment tools drawn from the database of the teaching Committee of the European Association for Communication Health Care (tEACH). The HPCCC learning objectives are now available in German and can be applied for curriculum planning and development in the different German-speaking health professions, the educational objectives can also be used for inter-professional purposes. Examples for teaching methods and assessment tools are given for using and implementing the objectives. The German version of the HPCCC with learning objectives for communication in health professions can contribute significantly to inter- and multi-professional curriculum development in the health care professions in the German-speaking countries. Examples for teaching methods and assessment tools from the materials compiled by tEACH supplement the curricular content and provide suggestions for practical implementation of the learning objectives in teaching and assessment. The relevance of the German HPCCC to the processes of curriculum development for the various health professions and inter
Monaco, Federico; Sarli, Leopoldo; Guasconi, Massimo; Alfieri, Emanuela
The case study of PUNTOZERO as an open web lab for activities, research and support to 5 Master's courses for the health professions is described. A virtual learning environment integrated in a much wider network including social networks and open resources was experimented on for five Master's Courses for the health professions at the University of Parma. A social learning approach might be applied by the engagement of motivated and skilled tutors. This is not only needed for the improvement and integration of the digital and collaborative dimension in higher education, but it aims to introduce issues and biases of emerging e-health and online networking dimensions for future healthcare professionals. Elements of e-readiness to train tutors and improve their digital skills and e-moderation approaches are evident. This emerged during an online and asynchronous interview with two tutors out of the four that were involved, by the use of a wiki where interviewer and informants could both read and add contents and comments.
This article focuses on the psychotherapy debate in China that was triggered by the country's mental health legislation. Seeing the release of the draft Mental Health Law in 2011 as a "diagnostic event" (Moore in Am Ethnol 14(4):727-736, 1987), I examine the debate in order to unravel the underlying logic and ongoing dynamics of the psycho-boom that has become a conspicuous trend in urban China since the early 2000s. Drawing on my fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, I use the two keywords of the debate-"jianghu" (literally "rivers and lakes"), an indigenous term that evokes an untamed realm, and "profession," a foreign concept whose translation requires re-translation-to organize my delineation of its contours. I describe how anticipation of state regulation prompted fears and discontents as well as critical reflections and actions that aimed to transform the field into a profession. The efforts to mark out a professional core against the backdrop of unruly jianghu further faced the challenge of an alternative vision that saw popularization as an equally noble cause. The Mental Health Law came into effect in 2013; ultimately, however, it did not introduce substantive regulation. Finally, I discuss the implications of this debate and the prospects of the psycho-boom.
Herman, Patricia M; Coulter, Ian D
The purpose of this project was to examine the policy implications of politically defining complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions by their treatment modalities rather than by their full professional scope. This study used a 2-stage exploratory grounded approach. In stage 1, we identified how CAM is represented (if considered as professions vs modalities) across a purposely sampled diverse set of policy topic domains using exemplars to describe and summarize each. In stage 2 we convened 2 stakeholder panels (12 CAM practitioners and 9 health policymaker representatives), and using the results of stage 1 as a starting point and framing mechanism, we engaged panelists in a discussion of how they each see the dichotomy and its impacts. Our discussion focused on 4 licensed CAM professions: acupuncture and Oriental medicine, chiropractic, naturopathic medicine, and massage. Workforce policies affected where and how members of CAM professions could practice. Licensure affected whether a CAM profession was recognized in a state and which modalities were allowed. Complementary and alternative medicine research examined the effectiveness of procedures and modalities and only rarely the effectiveness of care from a particular profession. Treatment guidelines are based on research and also focus on procedures and modalities. Health plan reimbursement policies address which professions are covered and for which procedures/modalities and conditions. The policy landscape related to CAM professions and modalities is broad, complex, and interrelated. Although health plan reimbursement tends to receive the majority of attention when CAM health care policy is discussed, it is clear, given the results of our study, that coverage policies cannot be addressed in isolation and that a wide range of stakeholders and social institutions will need to be involved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nicholas, Patrice K; Breakey, Suellen
Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice. Discussion paper. A literature search of electronic databases was conducted for articles, texts, and documents related to climate change, climate justice, and human health. The literature suggests that those who contribute least to global warming are those who will disproportionately be affected by the negative health outcomes of climate change. The concept of climate justice and the role of the Mary Robinson Foundation-Climate Justice are discussed within a framework of nursing's professional responsibility and the importance of social justice for the world's people. The nursing profession must take a leadership role in engaging in policy and advocacy discussions in addressing the looming problems associated with climate change. Nursing organizations have adopted resolutions and engaged in leadership roles to address climate change at the local, regional, national, and global level. It is essential that nurses embrace concepts related to social justice and engage in the policy debate regarding the deleterious effects on human health related to global warming and climate change. Nursing's commitment to social justice offers an opportunity to offer significant global leadership in addressing the health implications related to climate change. Recognizing the negative impacts of climate change on well-being and the underlying socioeconomic reasons for their disproportionate and inequitable distribution can expand and optimize the profession's role
Hasselhorn, H M; Tackenberg, P; Kuemmerling, Angelika
In many industrialised countries the number of workers with low health is expected to increase in the nursing profession. This will have implications for occupational health work in health care. The European NEXT-Study (www. next-study. net, funded by EU) investigates working conditions of nurses...
McLaughlin, Gerald W.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.; White, Carla Y.
Objectives This study explored new models of diversity for health professions education that incorporate multiple attributes and examined differences in diversity based on urbanicity, geographic region, and institutional structure. Methods Simpson’s Diversity Index was used to develop race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices for health professions schools in the United States (N = 318). Sullivan’s extension was used to develop a composite diversity index that incorporated multiple individual attributes for each school. Pearson’s r was used to investigate correlations between continuous variables. ANOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare groups based on urbanicity, geographic region, and Basic Carnegie Classification. Results Mean (SD) for race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices were 0.36(0.17), 0.45(0.07), and 0.22(0.27) respectively. All correlations between the three indices were weak. The composite diversity index for this sample was 0.34(0.13). Significant differences in diversity were found between institutions based on urbanicity, Basic Carnegie Classification, and geographic region. Conclusions Multidimensional models provide support for expanding measures of diversity to include multiple characteristics and attributes. The approach demonstrated in this study enables institutions to complement and extend traditional measures of diversity as a means of providing evidence for decision-making and progress towards institutional initiatives. PMID:26724917
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; McLaughlin, Gerald W; McLaughlin, Josetta S; White, Carla Y
This study explored new models of diversity for health professions education that incorporate multiple attributes and examined differences in diversity based on urbanicity, geographic region, and institutional structure. Simpson's Diversity Index was used to develop race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices for health professions schools in the United States (N = 318). Sullivan's extension was used to develop a composite diversity index that incorporated multiple individual attributes for each school. Pearson's r was used to investigate correlations between continuous variables. ANOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare groups based on urbanicity, geographic region, and Basic Carnegie Classification. Mean (SD) for race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices were 0.36(0.17), 0.45(0.07), and 0.22(0.27) respectively. All correlations between the three indices were weak. The composite diversity index for this sample was 0.34(0.13). Significant differences in diversity were found between institutions based on urbanicity, Basic Carnegie Classification, and geographic region. Multidimensional models provide support for expanding measures of diversity to include multiple characteristics and attributes. The approach demonstrated in this study enables institutions to complement and extend traditional measures of diversity as a means of providing evidence for decision-making and progress towards institutional initiatives.
Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J
The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Eileen Adel Herge
Full Text Available The Eastern Pennsylvania Delaware Geriatric Education Center developed an Interprofessional Clinical Skills Scenario (CSS to facilitate development of teamwork skills, specifically decision making, communication and collaboration, in health professions students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, occupational and physical therapy programs. The case scenario provides students with the opportunity to practice communication and collaboration with a team and standardized patient and caregiver in a simulated clinical setting. The CSS was integrated into an existing occupational therapy course in 2011. Students were recruited by faculty from various schools (health professions, pharmacy, nursing, medicine throughout the university to participate in the CSS. The program evaluation included demographic assessment, process, and outcome measures. 166 students have participated in the CSS. Pre- and post-tests measured students' attitude toward healthcare teams. A Team Observation Tool was used by faculty and standardized patients/caregivers to evaluate student teams on communication, information sharing, and team interaction. A satisfaction survey was completed by the learners at the end of the CSS. This simulated Clinical Skills Scenario is a practical, interactive exercise that allows teams of interprofessional students to practice teamwork skills and patient-centered care with standardized patients and caregivers. Following a review of the learning activity and evaluation tools, the authors reflect on the effectiveness of the evaluation process for this CSS.
Pellegrino, E D
Virtue is the most perdurable concept in the history of ethics, which is understandable given the ineradicability of the moral agent in the events of the moral life. Historically, virtue enjoyed normative force as long as the philosophical anthropology and the metaphysics of the good that grounded virtue were viable. That grounding has eroded in both general and medical ethics. If virtue is to be restored to a normative status, its philosophical underpinnings must be reconstructed. Such reconstruction seems unlikely in general ethics, where the possibility of agreement on the good for humans is remote. However, it is a realistic possibility in the professional ethics fo the health professions where agreement on the telos of the healing relationship is more likely to arise. Nevertheless, virtue-based ethics must be related conceptually and normatively to other ethical theories in a comprehensive moral philosophy of the health professions. If he really does think there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, sir, when he leaves our house, let us count our spoons. Samuel Johnson
Platform economy breaks into the legal profession by pooling lawyers with different specializations into a simple user-friendly platform, consolidating the lower-tier supply side of the legal market and generating economy of scale. This paper is the very first empirical piece looking into China’s
Kelley, Maureen A; Spangler, Sydney A; Tison, Laura I; Johnson, Carla M; Callahan, Tegan L; Iliffe, Jill; Hepburn, Kenneth W; Gross, Jessica M
As countries across sub-Saharan Africa work towards universal health coverage and HIV epidemic control, investments seek to bolster the quality and relevance of the health workforce. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) partnered with 17 countries across East, Central, and Southern Africa to ensure nurses and midwives were authorized and equipped to provide essential HIV services to pregnant women and children with HIV. Through ARC, nursing leadership teams representing each country identify a priority regulatory function and develop a proposal to strengthen that regulation over a 1-year period. Each year culminates with a summative congress meeting, involving all ARC countries, where teams present their projects and share lessons learned with their colleagues. During a recent ARC Summative Congress, a group survey was administered to 11 country teams that received ARC Year 4 grants to measure advancements in regulatory function using the five-stage Regulatory Function Framework, and a group questionnaire was administered to 16 country teams to measure improvements in national nursing capacity (February 2011-2016). In ARC Year 4, eight countries implemented continuing professional development projects, Botswana revised their scope of practice, Mozambique piloted a licensing examination to assess HIV-related competencies, and South Africa developed accreditation standards for HIV/tuberculosis specialty nurses. Countries reported improvements in national nursing leaders' teamwork, collaborations with national organizations, regional networking with nursing leaders, and the ability to garner additional resources. ARC provides an effective, collaborative model to rapidly strengthen national regulatory frameworks, which other health professional cadres or regions may consider using to ensure a relevant health workforce, authorized and equipped to meet the emerging demand for health services.
Englar, Ryane E; Show-Ridgway, Alyssa; Noah, Donald L; Appelt, Erin; Kosinski, Ross
Conflicts among health care professionals often stem from misperceptions about each profession's role in the health care industry. These divisive tendencies impede progress in multidisciplinary collaborations to improve human, animal, and environmental health. Inter-professional education (IPE) may repair rifts between health care professions by encouraging students to share their professional identities with colleagues in unrelated health care disciplines. An online survey was conducted at Midwestern University (MWU) to identify baseline perceptions about veterinary medicine among entry-level human health care students before their enrollment in an inter-professional course. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The survey included Likert-type scales and free-text questions. Survey participants expressed their interest in and respect for the discipline of veterinary medicine, but indicated that their unfamiliarity with the profession hindered their ability to collaborate. Twenty percent of human health care students did not know the length of a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program and 27.6% were unaware that veterinarians could specialize. Although 83.2% of participants agreed that maintaining the human-animal bond is a central role of the veterinary profession, veterinary contributions to stem cell research, food and water safety, public health, environmental conservation, and the military were infrequently recognized. If IPE is to successfully pave the way for multidisciplinary collaboration, it needs to address these gaps in knowledge and broaden the definition of veterinary practice for future human health care providers.
Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong
Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I(2) ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; Pblended learning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; PBlended learning appears to have a consistent positive effect in comparison with no intervention, and to be more effective than or at least as effective as nonblended instruction for knowledge acquisition in health professions
Full Text Available Background: The German statutory health insurance (GKV reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK, individual health services (IGeL are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions: The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS, the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods: The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results: 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by
Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe
The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL?What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? FOR TWO OF THE MOST COMMON IGEL, THE SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA AND THE SCREENING FOR OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER BY VAGINAL ULTRASOUND (VUS), THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE ADDRESSED: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness?Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments with up to 25% of the offers. Cancer screening
Chen, Ai-Hong; Jaafar, Saidah Nafisah; Noor, Abdul Rahim Md
A comparison of the job satisfaction of health care professionals has not been well studied in Malaysia. This study aimed to compare the job satisfaction level among 8 groups of health care professionals in private settings, using the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). A total of 81 health care professionals, including nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical laboratory technologists, dieticians, medical imaging practitioners, environmental health officers, and optometrists in private (non-government) settings in the Klang Valley, were interviewed using the Job Satisfaction Survey scale invented by Dr Paul E Spector. Their job satisfaction scores were calculated and determined. In the demographic data, the majority of the subjects were 20-30 years old (81.5%), were female (72.8%), had a basic degree (98.8%), were single (64.2%), and had 1-5 years of working experience (83.9%). A Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05) in pay, fringe benefits, and contingent rewards in JSS score among the 8 health care professions. The Friedman Test showed a significant difference of overall JSS scores (χ(2) = 526.418, P job satisfaction levels are different among health care professionals in private settings, especially regarding promotion, supervision, operating conditions, co-workers, the nature of the work, and communication.
Ng, Stella L; Bisaillon, Laura; Webster, Fiona
Qualitative, social science approaches to research have surged in popularity within health professions education (HPE) over the past decade. Institutional ethnography (IE) offers the field another sociological approach to inquiry. Although widely used in nursing and health care research, IE remains relatively uncommon in the HPE research community. This article provides a brief introduction to IE and suggests why HPE researchers may wish to consider it for future studies. Part 1 of this paper presents IE's conceptual grounding in: (i) the entry point to inquiry ('materiality'), (ii) a generous definition of 'work' and (iii) a focus on how 'texts' such as policies, forms and written protocols influence activity. Part 2 of this paper outlines the method's key features through exemplars from our own research. Part 3 discusses the ways in which research that blurs the lines between educational and clinical practice can be both generative for HPE and accomplished using IE. The authors demonstrate the usefulness of IE for studying complex social issues in HPE. It is posited that a key added value of IE is that it goes beyond individual-level explanations of problems and phenomena, yet also closely studies individuals' activities, rather than remaining at an abstract or distant level of analysis. Thereby, IE can result in feasible and meaningful social change at the nexus of health professions education and other social systems such as clinical practice. IE adds to the growing qualitative research toolkit for HPE researchers. It is worth considering because it may enable change through the study of HPE in relation to other social processes, structures and systems, including the clinical practice world. A particular benefit may be found in blending HPE research with research on clinical practice, toward changing practice and policy through IE, given the interrelated nature of these fields. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Vukic, Adele; Steenbeek, Audrey; Muxlow, Josephine
Increased representation of the Black population in the health care system is central to decrease health disparities, enhance access to services, and improve health outcomes and quality of care. Current strategies for recruitment and retention of the Black population in higher education in the health fields are explored. The added value of mentorship programs are presented as a promising approach for addressing the high rates of attrition of the Black population in health professional education institutions.
Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J. Don; Tennant, Bethany
Background The current “Millennial Generation” of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. Objective To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Methods Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Results Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants’ objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali
Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among
Lucey, Catherine R; Thibault, George E; Ten Cate, Olle
Health care systems around the world are transforming to align with the needs of 21st-century patients and populations. Transformation must also occur in the educational systems that prepare the health professionals who deliver care, advance discovery, and educate the next generation of physicians in these evolving systems. Competency-based, time-variable education, a comprehensive educational strategy guided by the roles and responsibilities that health professionals must assume to meet the needs of contemporary patients and communities, has the potential to catalyze optimization of educational and health care delivery systems. By designing educational and assessment programs that require learners to meet specific competencies before transitioning between the stages of formal education and into practice, this framework assures the public that every physician is capable of providing high-quality care. By engaging learners as partners in assessment, competency-based, time-variable education prepares graduates for careers as lifelong learners. While the medical education community has embraced the notion of competencies as a guiding framework for educational institutions, the structure and conduct of formal educational programs remain more aligned with a time-based, competency-variable paradigm.The authors outline the rationale behind this recommended shift to a competency-based, time-variable education system. They then introduce the other articles included in this supplement to Academic Medicine, which summarize the history of, theories behind, examples demonstrating, and challenges associated with competency-based, time-variable education in the health professions.
One of the factors influential on teacher achievement is their attitudes towards the profession. Teacher attitude influences a teacher's satisfaction with their profession, devotion to the profession, belief in the necessity and importance of the teaching profession, and belief in professional development. General evaluation of pre-service…
Walsh, Catharine M; Sherlock, Mary E; Ling, Simon C; Carnahan, Heather
Traditionally, training in gastrointestinal endoscopy has been based upon an apprenticeship model, with novice endoscopists learning basic skills under the supervision of experienced preceptors in the clinical setting. Over the last two decades, however, the growing awareness of the need for patient safety has brought the issue of simulation-based training to the forefront. While the use of simulation-based training may have important educational and societal advantages, the effectiveness of virtual reality gastrointestinal endoscopy simulators has yet to be clearly demonstrated. To determine whether virtual reality simulation training can supplement and/or replace early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) in diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. Health professions, educational and computer databases were searched until November 2011 including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Biosis Previews, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, ERIC, Education Full Text, CBCA Education, Career and Technical Education @ Scholars Portal, Education Abstracts @ Scholars Portal, Expanded Academic ASAP @ Scholars Portal, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering and Computer & Information Systems Abstracts. The grey literature until November 2011 was also searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality endoscopy (oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) simulation training versus any other method of endoscopy training including conventional patient-based training, in-job training, training using another form of endoscopy simulation (e.g. low-fidelity simulator), or no training (however defined by authors) were included. Trials comparing one method of virtual reality training versus
Mi, Misa; Wu, Wendy; Qiu, Maylene; Zhang, Yingting; Wu, Lin; Li, Jie
This systematic review examines types of mobile devices used by health professions students, kinds of resources and tools accessed via mobile devices, and reasons for using the devices to access the resources and tools. The review included 20 studies selected from articles published in English between January 2010 and April 2015, retrieved from PubMed and other sources. Data extracted included participants, study designs, mobile devices used, mobile resources/apps accessed, outcome measures, and advantages of and barriers to using mobile devices. The review indicates significant variability across the studies in terms of research methods, types of mobile programs implemented, resources accessed, and outcomes. There were beneficial effects of using mobile devices to access resources as well as conspicuous challenges or barriers in using mobile devices.
Richey Smith, Carriann E; Ryder, Priscilla; Bilodeau, Ann; Schultz, Michele
Objective. To determine baseline attitudes of pharmacy, physician assistant studies, and communication science and disorders students toward people in poverty and to examine the effectiveness of using the online poverty simulation game SPENT to affect these attitudes. Methods. Students completed pre/postassessments using the validated Undergraduate Perceptions of Poverty Tracking Survey (UPPTS). Students played the online, open access, SPENT game alone and/or in pairs in a 50-minute class. Results. Significant improvements in scale scores were seen in students after playing SPENT. Quartile results by prescore indicated that students with the lowest attitudes towards patients in poverty improved the most. Results suggested that most students found the experience worthwhile for themselves and/or for their classmates. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest SPENT may improve perspectives of undergraduate pharmacy and other health professions students.
Simonstein, Frida; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal
The prevalence of autism has increased dramatically. The objectives of this study were to explore attitudes toward prenatal diagnosis to detect autism prenatally and avoid having an affected child and to understand social acceptability of these disorders among students of allied health professions. In this study, college students of nursing and health systems management answered a structured self-report questionnaire (n = 305). The first part addressed the respondent's personal data. The second part targeted the respondent's attitudes toward prenatal diagnosis of non-life-threatening disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. We found that almost two thirds of the students responded that they would not proceed with a pregnancy if the child were diagnosed with autism, and more than half thought that they would not continue with a pregnancy if the fetus were diagnosed with Asperger's. Age, level of religiosity, and years of education were influential. This study is limited in scope; however, the positive attitude of the students toward prenatal diagnosis to avoid having an affected child might also reflect a negative view of autism spectrum disorders in future health care professionals. Further research of attitudes and the social acceptability of autism spectrum disorders, particularly among health care professionals, is required.
Mróz, Justyna; Kaleta, Kinga
Although there have been studies linking personality to selected aspects of functioning at work, Polish literature reports a shortage of detailed analyses considering, e.g., specific professional groups or certain variables. The aim of our study was to explore the links between personality traits and emotional labor, work engagement and job satisfaction among service workers. The study was based on a cross-sectional, self-report survey of 137 workers representing different service industries in Poland. Each participant received a demographic data sheet and a set of questionnaires: NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale, the Job Satisfaction Scale and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale - all in their Polish versions. A correlation analysis revealed numerous relationships between the examined variables. However, results of the regression analysis showed that only some personality traits were related with individual aspects of functioning at work. Neuroticism accounted for the phenomenon of faking emotions. Conscientiousness was significantly related to general work engagement, vigor and dedication. Agreeableness and neuroticism significantly predicted job satisfaction. Individual personality traits account for various aspects of work functioning. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):767-782. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: Although there have been studies linking personality to selected aspects of functioning at work, Polish literature reports a shortage of detailed analyses considering, e.g., specific professional groups or certain variables. The aim of our study was to explore the links between personality traits and emotional labor, work engagement and job satisfaction among service workers. Material and Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional, self-report survey of 137 workers representing different service industries in Poland. Each participant received a demographic data sheet and a set of questionnaires: NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale, the Job Satisfaction Scale and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale – all in their Polish versions. Results: A correlation analysis revealed numerous relationships between the examined variables. However, results of the regression analysis showed that only some personality traits were related with individual aspects of functioning at work. Neuroticism accounted for the phenomenon of faking emotions. Conscientiousness was significantly related to general work engagement, vigor and dedication. Agreeableness and neuroticism significantly predicted job satisfaction. Conclusions: Individual personality traits account for various aspects of work functioning. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:767–782
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; O'Leary, Kathy; Ball, Geoff D C; Hartling, Lisa; Hofmeyer, Anne; Jones, C Allyson; Klassen, Terry P; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Newton, Amanda S; Thompson, David; Dryden, Donna M
Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PASCAL, EMBASE, IPA, Scopus, CENTRAL) using language (English) and date restrictions (1985 to March 2010). Other relevant sources were manually searched. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Within each profession, evidence tables were created, grouping and analyzing data by research design, KT strategy, targeted behaviour, and primary outcome. The published descriptions of the KT interventions were compared to the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER) Recommendations to Improve the Reporting of the Content of Behaviour Change Interventions. A total of 2,638 articles were located and the titles and abstracts were screened. Of those, 1,172 full-text articles were reviewed and subsequently 32 studies were included in the systematic review. A variety of single (n = 15) and multiple (n = 17) KT interventions were identified, with educational meetings being the predominant KT strategy (n = 11). The majority of primary outcomes were identified as professional/process outcomes (n = 25); however, patient outcomes (n = 4), economic outcomes (n = 2), and multiple primary outcomes (n = 1) were also represented. Generally, the studies were of low methodological quality. Outcome reporting bias was common and precluded clear determination of intervention
Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue
Background Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. Methods We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). Results We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I2 ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; Plearning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; Pmethod showed that the effect size changed to 0.26 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.54) after adjustment. In the subgroup analyses, pre-posttest study design, presence of exercises, and objective outcome assessment
Scott Shannon D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Methods A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PASCAL, EMBASE, IPA, Scopus, CENTRAL using language (English and date restrictions (1985 to March 2010. Other relevant sources were manually searched. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Within each profession, evidence tables were created, grouping and analyzing data by research design, KT strategy, targeted behaviour, and primary outcome. The published descriptions of the KT interventions were compared to the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER Recommendations to Improve the Reporting of the Content of Behaviour Change Interventions. Results A total of 2,638 articles were located and the titles and abstracts were screened. Of those, 1,172 full-text articles were reviewed and subsequently 32 studies were included in the systematic review. A variety of single (n = 15 and multiple (n = 17 KT interventions were identified, with educational meetings being the predominant KT strategy (n = 11. The majority of primary outcomes were identified as professional/process outcomes (n = 25; however, patient outcomes (n = 4, economic outcomes (n = 2, and multiple primary outcomes (n = 1 were also represented. Generally, the studies were of low methodological quality. Outcome
Damodar, Komaladevi S; Lingaraj, Jayalakshmi; Kumar, Latha R; Chacko, Thomas V
In view of increasing demand for reforms in medical education in India, it is important to generate evidence through education research to increase the relevance and improve the quality of medical education. Education research is still at a nascent stage in India for a number of reasons. This study elicited health professions educators' views about the dearth of education research in Southeast Asia and what is needed to improve it. Qualitative content analysis of an interactive, online discussion on 'education research' between PSG-FAIMER Regional Institute fellows and faculty was carried out. Forty-four health professionals exchanged approximately 492 email messages during the discussion. One main concern expressed within the group was that the medical curriculum was not in tune with the health care needs of the society and reforms in the curriculum should be based on research. Most fellows felt that their work in education research was not appreciated in their schools. Participants felt that education research was done for altruistic reasons and only by self-motivated faculty. Participants also said that regulatory bodies were not concerned about the quality of education and its related research. Measures that could improve education research also emerged during the discussions. Interactive online discussions elicited important issues about education research in India. Participants noted that there is no recognition or rewards to encourage faculty to conduct education research. They also said that there is need to educate faculty about changes elsewhere in medical education and to make them more aware of education research generally.
Burdick, William P; Friedman, Stacey R; Diserens, Deborah
Projects are an important tool in faculty development, and project emphasis may offer insights into perceived education priorities. Impact of projects has been focused on individuals, not institutions or health. Education innovation projects of Fellows in an international faculty development program were examined to better understand perceived needs in health professions education and institutional impact of projects. Four hundred and thirty-five projects were analyzed to identify focus areas. Fellows were asked to identify changes in their schools and communities resulting from their projects. New education methods and curriculum change were common project focus areas. Regional differences were evident with a higher percentage of education methods projects by Fellows residing in India (52%), compared with South Africa (25%) and Brazil (24%). Fifty-six percent of projects were incorporated into the curriculum and/or incorporated as institutional policy. One-third to two-thirds of respondents noted improved teaching quality, collaboration, education research interest, assessment, student performance, and curriculum alignment with community health needs. National differences in project focus may offer insight into local conditions and needs. High rates of diffusion of projects and impact on faculty, students, and curriculum suggest that faculty development projects may be a strategy for institutional change in resource limited environments.
Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine
The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…
Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela
Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…
Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth
The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.
Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.
Johnson, Christina E; Keating, Jennifer L; Boud, David J; Dalton, Megan; Kiegaldie, Debra; Hay, Margaret; McGrath, Barry; McKenzie, Wendy A; Nair, Kichu Balakrishnan R; Nestel, Debra; Palermo, Claire; Molloy, Elizabeth K
Health professions education is characterised by work-based learning and relies on effective verbal feedback. However the literature reports problems in feedback practice, including lack of both learner engagement and explicit strategies for improving performance. It is not clear what constitutes high quality, learner-centred feedback or how educators can promote it. We hoped to enhance feedback in clinical practice by distinguishing the elements of an educator's role in feedback considered to influence learner outcomes, then develop descriptions of observable educator behaviours that exemplify them. An extensive literature review was conducted to identify i) information substantiating specific components of an educator's role in feedback asserted to have an important influence on learner outcomes and ii) verbal feedback instruments in health professions education, that may describe important educator activities in effective feedback. This information was used to construct a list of elements thought to be important in effective feedback. Based on these elements, descriptions of observable educator behaviours that represent effective feedback were developed and refined during three rounds of a Delphi process and a face-to-face meeting with experts across the health professions and education. The review identified more than 170 relevant articles (involving health professions, education, psychology and business literature) and ten verbal feedback instruments in health professions education (plus modified versions). Eighteen distinct elements of an educator's role in effective feedback were delineated. Twenty five descriptions of educator behaviours that align with the elements were ratified by the expert panel. This research clarifies the distinct elements of an educator's role in feedback considered to enhance learner outcomes. The corresponding set of observable educator behaviours aim to describe how an educator could engage, motivate and enable a learner to
Gerber Megan R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.
Abdulmajed, Hind; Park, Yoon Soo; Tekian, Ara
Traditional lecturing used in teaching has the lowest retention rate; the use of games as part of an instruction method may enhance retention and reinforce learning by creating a dynamic educational environment. This study aims to systematically review the literature on educational games for the health professions to identify trends and investigate assessment tools used to measure its learning outcomes. Seven databases were used in the search: ERIC, Education Research Complete, Medline, Medline Complete, Academic Search Complete, The Cochrane Library and PubMed. The search identified 2865 papers; among them, 1259 were excluded and 22 were evaluated. The selection incorporated five full papers which focused directly on the health professionals. Two studies involved the use of board games and two studies involved card games, crossword puzzles and one study involved a team quiz competition. Overall, studies lacked a strong link between the use of games for both instructional and assessment purposes. Gaming makes a positive impact on the teaching/learning process. However, existing assessment methodologies have been not fully captured the learning that may occur in these games. Robust research is needed to address the use of games that have been assessed objectively.
Hollederer, A; Wildner, M
There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo
Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to
Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge
Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.
Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Holst, Lone; Haugland, Mildrid; Bærheim, Anders; Raaheim, Arild
Interprofessional education may be defined as an occasion when two or more professions learn with, from, and about each other in order to improve collaboration and quality of care. We studied the self-reported experiences from Norwegian health care students participating in interprofessional workplace learning in primary care. We discuss the results particularly in light of self-determination theory. During 2012, 24 students from eight different health educations at the University of Bergen a...
Full Text Available Danielle M Wesolowicz, Jaylyn F Clark, Jeff Boissoneault, Michael E Robinson Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Introduction: Gender-related stereotypes of pain may account for some assessment and treatment disparities among patients. Among health care providers, demographic factors including gender and profession may influence the use of gender cues in pain management decision-making. The Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire was developed to assess gender-related stereotypic attributions of pain regarding sensitivity, endurance, and willingness to report pain, and has not yet been used in a sample of health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of gender role expectation of pain among health care providers. It was hypothesized that health care providers of both genders would endorse gender stereotypic views of pain and physicians would be more likely than dentists to endorse these views. Methods: One-hundred and sixty-nine providers (89 dentists, 80 physicians; 40% women were recruited as part of a larger study examining providers’ use of demographic cues in making pain management decisions. Participants completed the Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire to assess the participant’s views of gender differences in pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Results: Results of repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that health care providers of both genders endorsed stereotypic views of pain regarding willingness to report pain (F(1,165=34.241, P<0.001; d=0.479. Furthermore, female dentists rated men as having less endurance than women (F(1,165=4.654, P=0.032; d=0.333. Conclusion: These findings affirm the presence of some gender-related stereotypic views among health care providers and suggest the presence of a view among health care providers that men are underreporting their pain in comparison to women
Hawala-Druy, Souzan; Hill, Mary H
The increasingly diverse multicultural and multigenerational student population in the United States requires that educators at all levels develop cultural knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity to help diverse learners fulfill their potential and to avoid cultural misunderstandings that can become obstacles or barriers to learning. The purpose of this study was to design and implement eclectic, creative, evidence-based interdisciplinary educational activities, along with culturally congruent teaching strategies, within a semester-long university course that promoted positive and culturally competent learning outcomes for culturally diverse, largely millennial students. The interdisciplinary course would prepare health professional students with the requisite knowledge and skills, through transformative learning that produces change agents, to provide culturally congruent and quality team-based care to diverse populations. This was a qualitative and quantitative study, which measured students' level of cultural awareness, competence, and proficiency pre and post the educational intervention. Instruments used for data collection included the Inventory for Assessing The Process of Cultural Competence-Student Version (IAPCC-SV) by Campinha-Bacote, course evaluations, students' feedback, and portfolio reflections. The study was conducted at a private academic institution located in the Mid-Atlantic region and the sample population included inter-professional students (N=106) from various health professions including nursing, pharmacy, and allied health sciences. Results from the pre- and post-test IAPCC-SV survey revealed that mean scores increased significantly from pre-test (60.8) to post-test (70.6). Thus, students' levels of cultural competency (awareness, knowledge, skills, desire, encounter) improved post-educational intervention, indicating that the teaching methods used in the course might be applied on a larger scale across the university system to cater to the
Reimschisel, Tyler; Herring, Anna L; Huang, Jennifer; Minor, Tara J
Summarize the published literature on team-based learning (TBL) in health professions education (HPE) using the TBL conceptual framework to identify gaps that can guide future research Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar were searched through May 2016 for English-language articles regarding the use of TBL in HPE. Reviewers independently extracted data and coded for the seven elements in Michaelsen's Model of TBL. A total of 118 articles met inclusion criteria. The number of articles published yearly on TBL has grown steadily, more than tripling between 2011 and 2016. Most studies (55; 47%) involved undergraduate medical students and took place in the US (72; 61%). The most commonly studied framework component was Teacher and Learner Attitudes (97; 82%). Other commonly studied elements included Learning Outcomes (85; 72%) and Team Characteristics (25; 21%). Contextual Factors affecting TBL was addressed in one study. A substantial body of literature examines the effect that TBL has on traditional measures of achievement. However, many dimensions of TBL have not been well studied, including Teacher Decisions about TBL, Contextual Factors that affect TBL, Learners' Engagement, and Pattern of Engagement within Teams. Future research in these areas could determine the best use of TBL in HPE.
Blackie, Michael; Wear, Delese
It would be unusual to find a current medical school administrator or faculty member who has not heard the phrase "literature and medicine" or who does not know that literature is taught in various forms-short stories, novels, poems, essays-at many points in the curriculum at U.S. medical schools. Yet the phrase is used in slippery if not elusive ways, with no clear referent common to all who use it. This article focuses on three theoretical and pedagogical uses for literature in medical, health professions, and interprofessional education: close reading, ethical or moral inquiry, and drawing illustrations. Summaries of these approaches are provided, followed by demonstrations of how they might work in the classroom by using the story "Blankets," by Native American writer Sherman Alexie.Close reading requires reading slowly and carefully to enrich an initial encounter with a text. Ethical or moral inquiry turns to literary representations to challenge readers' assumptions and prejudices. Literature offers rich, provoking, and unusual depictions of common phenomena, so it can be used to draw illustrations. Although each approach can be used on its own, the authors argue that reading closely makes the other two approaches possible and meaningful because it shares with the diagnostic process many practices critical to skilled interprofessional caregiving: paying attention to details, gathering and reevaluating evidence, weighing competing interpretations. By modeling a close reading of a text, faculty can demonstrate how this skill, which courts rather than resists ambiguity, can assist students in making ethical and compassionate judgments.
Triola, Marc M; Huwendiek, Sören; Levinson, Anthony J; Cook, David A
The use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is rising across health professions education. Research to date is of limited use in guiding the implementation and selection of CAI innovations. In the context of two symposia, systemic reviews were discussed that evaluate literature in Internet-based learning, Virtual Patients, and animations. Each session included a debate with the goal of reaching consensus on best current practices and future research. Thematic analysis of the discussions was performed to arrange the questions by theme, eliminate redundancy, and craft them into a cohesive narrative. The question analysis revealed that there are clear advantages to the use of CAI, and that established educational theories should certainly inform the future development and selection of CAI tools. Schools adopting CAI need to carefully consider the benefits, cost, available resources, and capacity for teachers and learners to accept change in their practice of education. Potential areas for future research should focus on the effectiveness of CAI instructional features, integration of e-learning into existing curricula and with other modalities like simulation, and the use of CAI in assessment of higher-level outcomes. There are numerous opportunities for future research and it will be important to achieve consensus on important themes.
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte V
This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature. Training efficiency may therefore be improved if the outcomes of collaborative learning of clinical skills are superior or equivalent to those attained through individual learning. According to a social interaction perspective, collaborative learning of clinical skills mediates its effects through social interaction, motivation, accountability and positive interdependence between learners. Motor skills learning theory suggests that positive effects rely on observational learning and action imitation, and negative effects may include decreased hands-on experience. Finally, a cognitive perspective suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition, scaffolding and cognitive co-construction are outweighed by reductions in hands-on experience and time on task. Collaborative learning of clinical skills has demonstrated promising results in the simulated setting. However, further research into how collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in clinical settings, as well as into the role of social dynamics between learners, is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marceau, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances; Young, Meredith; St-Onge, Christina
Assessment can have far-reaching consequences for future health care professionals and for society. Thus, it is essential to establish the quality of assessment. Few modern approaches to validity are well situated to ensure the quality of complex assessment approaches, such as authentic and programmatic assessments. Here, we explore and delineate the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in health professions education (HPE) as a potential framework for examining the quality of complex and programmatic assessment approaches. We conducted a concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method to describe the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in HPE. Supported by an academic librarian, we developed and executed a search strategy across several databases for literature published between 1995 and 2016. From a total of 321 citations, we identified 67 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Two team members analysed the texts using a specified approach to qualitative data analysis. Consensus was achieved through full team discussions. Attributes that characterise the concept were: (i) demonstration of the use of evidence considered credible by society to document the quality of assessment; (ii) validation embedded through the assessment process and score interpretation; (iii) documented validity evidence supporting the interpretation of the combination of assessment findings, and (iv) demonstration of a justified use of a variety of evidence (quantitative and qualitative) to document the quality of assessment strategies. The emerging concept of validity as a social imperative highlights some areas of focus in traditional validation frameworks, whereas some characteristics appear unique to HPE and move beyond traditional frameworks. The study reflects the importance of embedding consideration for society and societal concerns throughout the assessment and validation process, and may represent a
Mariño, Rodrigo; Au-Yeung, Winnie; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael
This study collected and analyzed recent information regarding the sociodemographic profile and career decisions of Australian oral health profession students (earning B.D.Sc. and B.O.H. degrees) and the reasons for their career choice. Data were collected during the 2009-10 academic year via a web-based survey. A total of 829 students participated; the response rates for each oral health course at the seven participating universities ranged from 15.0 percent to 88.7 percent. The respondents had an average age of 21.4 years, ranging from eighteen to fifty-one. The majority of the respondents were female (61.4 percent), single (91.0 percent), and of Asian ethnicity (65.0 percent), and almost half had attended a public secondary school (49.7 percent). Most of the responding students either lived in rented accommodation (44.0 percent) or with their parents (28.6 percent), and 41.5 percent reported having an urban address. Most respondents' fathers (67.2 percent) and mothers (54.8 percent) had completed undergraduate or postgraduate education and were employed in managerial or professional occupations (68.5 percent and 54.9 percent, respectively). Most of the students said they had selected their course in high school (66.8 percent) and were most influenced in their career choice by self-motivation (85.3 percent) and caring for and helping other people (86.6 percent). The majority of the respondents reported wishing to work in a city (51.5 percent), practicing general dentistry (31.8 percent) in either the public or private sector (40.2 percent each). This article provides a preliminary look at the future dental workforce of Australia, identifying issues for further analysis and assisting each university to address current inequalities and challenges.
West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew
The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…
Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A
The uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in health professions education can have far-reaching consequences on assessment. The medical education community still needs to develop a deeper understanding of how technology can underpin and extend assessment practices....... This article was developed by the 2010 Ottawa Conference Consensus Group on technology-enabled assessment to guide practitioners and researchers working in this area. This article highlights the changing nature of ICTs in assessment, the importance of aligning technology-enabled assessment with local context...... and needs, the need for better evidence to support use of technologies in health profession education assessment, and a number of challenges, particularly validity threats, that need to be addressed while incorporating technology in assessment. Our recommendations are intended for all practitioners across...
ual, the child running off into the bush, the adoles- cent who almost unnoticed begins to lose concentration and fail at his studies. ... Malawi Medical Journal. .... topic. In this way the specialist service comes out to the district, rather than all those ...
Short, S D
The female-dominated professions in health care are not as powerful as the male-dominated medical profession. This paper suggests that the key factor in shaping the discrepancies in pay, status and power between medicine and the female-dominated professions is gender. It is argued that physiotherapy developed as a profession for middle-class women and that family responsibilities continue to take priority over professional responsibilities for the majority of physiotherapists. Physiotherapy enjoys higher occupational prestige than social work, speech therapy, occupational therapy and nursing and it is suggested that physiotherapy has achieved this status through recruitment of women from middle and upper middle class backgrounds. The history of physiotherapy is the history of a middle class feminine profession. Copyright © 1986 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.
Shilpa J. Register
Discussion: More research on the application of the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, and the scholarship of application is needed in health professions education to further guide faculty and administrators. Investigation into the discrepancy in rank within tenured faculty in educations is an area that would bring insight into current challenges and barriers, allowing educational researchers the ability to research and develop effective strategies.
Three hundred Irish Medical Organisation members were surveyed on health promotion and health and safety issues. 64.7% responded (65.3 males; 33.7% < thirty-five years). Over half (54.9%) were aware of the safety legislation and very few reported available occupational health services. A majority wanted more such services. Nearly all believed health promotion was important yet only 35.2% always availed of opportunities to give such advice. 36.3% were often stressed, particularly at work. Alcohol was sometimes or frequently used to cope by around half of respondents. Although less than half (47.7%) used whole milk, one third usually or always added salt to their food. 15.5% took no weekly aerobic exercise but 42.0% claimed to do so three times weekly. 11.4 were current smokers. A third of women had never had a cervical smear. We conclude doctors require adequate occupational health services.
Maggio, Lauren A; Meyer, Holly S; Artino, Anthony R
To complement traditional citation-based metrics, which take years to accrue and indicate only academic attention, academia has begun considering altmetrics or alternative metrics, which provide timely feedback on an article's impact by tracking its dissemination via nontraditional outlets, such as blogs and social media, across audiences. This article describes altmetrics and examines altmetrics attention, outlets used, and top article characteristics for health professions education (HPE) research. Using Altmetric Explorer, a tool to search altmetrics activity, the authors searched for HPE articles that had at least one altmetrics event (e.g., an article was tweeted or featured in a news story) between 2011 and 2015. Retrieved articles were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In addition, the 10 articles with the highest Altmetric Attention Scores were identified and their key characteristics extracted. The authors analyzed 6,265 articles with at least one altmetrics event from 13 journals. Articles appeared in 14 altmetrics outlets. Mendeley (161,470 saves), Twitter (37,537 tweets), and Facebook (1,650 posts) were most popular. The number of HPE articles with altmetrics attention increased 145%, from 539 published in 2011 to 1,321 in 2015. In 2015, 50% or more of the articles in 5 journals received altmetrics attention. Themes for articles with the most altmetrics attention included social media or social networking; three such articles were written as tips or guides. Increasing altmetrics attention signals interest in HPE research and the need for further investigation. Knowledge of popular and underused outlets may help investigators strategically share research for broader dissemination.
Ragel, Brian T; Klimo, Paul; Grant, Gerald A; Taggard, Derek A; Nute, David; McCafferty, Randall R; Ellenbogen, Richard G
The 4-year military Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP) provides funds for medical school tuition, books, and a monthly stipend in exchange for a 4-year military commitment (to receive all physician bonuses, an additional 3 months must be served). To analyze the economics of the HPSP for students with an interest in neurosurgery by comparing medical school debt and salaries of military, academic, and private practice neurosurgeons. Salary and medical school debt values from the American Association of Medical Colleges, salary data from the Medical Group Management Association, and 2009 military pay tables were obtained. Annual cash flow diagrams were created to encompass 14.25 years that spanned 4 years (medical school), 6 years (neurosurgical residency), and the first 4.25 years of practice for military, academic, and private practice neurosurgeons. A present value economic model was applied. Mean medical school loan debt was $154,607. Mean military (adjusted for tax-free portions), academic, and private practice salaries were $160,318, $451,068, and $721,458, respectively. After 14.25 years, the cumulative present value cash flow for military, academic, and private practice neurosurgeons was $1 193 323, $2 372 582, and $3 639 276, respectively. After 14.25 years, surgeons with medical student loans still owed $208 761. The difference in cumulative annual present value cash flow between military and academic and between military and private practice neurosurgeons was $1,179,259 and $2,445,953, respectively. The military neurosurgeon will have little to no medical school debt, whereas the calculated medical school debt of a nonmilitary surgeon was approximately $208,000.
Skeith, Leslie; Ridinger, Heather; Srinivasan, Sushant; Givi, Babak; Youssef, Nazih; Harris, Ilene
To explore the thesis experience of recent Master of Health Professions Education (MHPE) graduates in the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) program. This is a qualitative case study exploring the experience of MHPE graduates between 2014 and 2016 (n=31). Using convenience sampling, all graduates with an email address (n=30) were invited to participate in an online survey and semi-structured interviews. Interviews were completed in-person or via telephone or video conference; interviewers collected detailed notes and audio recordings. Two authors independently analyzed the data iteratively using thematic analysis and discrepancies were discussed and resolved. Survey results (n=20, 67%) revealed an average graduation of 5.1 years; 10 graduates (33%) were interviewed. Three themes related to the thesis experience were identified: success factors, challenges, and outcomes. Success factors, when present, promoted completion of a thesis; these included: a supportive program environment, time management, available resources, MHPE foundational coursework, aligning theses with career goals, and identifying a project with limited scope. Challenges made thesis completion more difficult for graduates; these included: institutional factors, personal or professional responsibilities, burnout, externally-imposed deadlines, and barriers in the research process. Despite these challenges, completing the thesis resulted in many professional or personal benefits (outcomes). Multiple success factors and challenges were identified in the master's thesis process among MHPE graduates at UIC. These findings can help students conducting education-based scholarship through the master's thesis process. This study also informs program evaluation and improvements and outlines personal and professional outcomes of completing a master's thesis.
Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole
'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that
Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben
In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.
Funk, Eric; Riddell, Jeff; Ankel, Felix; Cabrera, Daniel
Health professions educators face multiple challenges, among them the need to adapt educational methods to new technologies. In the last decades multiple new digital platforms have appeared in the learning arena, including massive open online courses and social media-based education. The major critique of these novel methods is the lack of the ability to ascertain the origin, validity, and accountability of the knowledge that is created, shared, and acquired. Recently, a novel technology based on secured data storage and transmission, called blockchain, has emerged as a way to generate networks where validity, trust, and accountability can be created. Conceptually blockchain is an open, public, distributed, and secure digital registry where information transactions are secured and have a clear origin, explicit pathways, and concrete value. Health professions education based on the blockchain will potentially allow improved tracking of content and the individuals who create it, quantify educational impact on multiple generations of learners, and build a relative value of educational interventions. Furthermore, institutions adopting blockchain technology would be able to provide certification and credentialing of healthcare professionals with no intermediaries. There is potential for blockchain to significantly change the future of health professions education and radically transform how patients, professionals, educators, and learners interact around safe, valid, and accountable information.
Kosen, S; Gunawan, S
In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases.
Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...
Full Text Available This paper focuses on specific area of entrepreneurship – health care services. Insufficient commercial business knowledge by the managers of SME health care businesses and a lack of entrepreneurial skills relative to the medical care industry could also be considered barriers to growth or barriers to survival within a crisis environment. An analysis of the strategic elasticity of small a health care organisation could help find an answer to the question of how this specialised business segment, with its multi-faceted sources of finance, might deal with challenges from the external environment and what mixture of strategies might they use to achieve their goals. This will allow the organisations to be proactive with regard to market risk and to construct their own model of behaviour under the four pillars of crisis strategic behaviour – marketing, financial, personal and plan of supply of services. How can one utilise the fundamental planning pillars within health care businesses when the behaviour itself is not predicable? What interactions support the dynamics and adaptability of the business in a positive way? Can different types of stakeholders (or other factors such as business age or interconnections shed light on developing a better understanding of strategy making in health care services? This paper compares the original options of measurement based on modelling with ROC curves and reflects upon the possible problems of applying this option to the context. A detailed analysis of the data suggest the following results – better understanding about health care management/business and how to strategically guide such businesses in a unique regulatory environment. And answer the question – do physicians make good managers/businesspeople or would it be better for them to delegate this role to an experienced business manager. From a practitioner perspective, the paper will give feedback for entrepreneurial effectiveness in this
Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape. Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher ...
In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession
Justyna Mróz; Kinga Kaleta
Objectives: Although there have been studies linking personality to selected aspects of functioning at work, Polish literature reports a shortage of detailed analyses considering, e.g., specific professional groups or certain variables. The aim of our study was to explore the links between personality traits and emotional labor, work engagement and job satisfaction among service workers. Material and Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional, self-report survey of 137 workers represen...
SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.
SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised
Haro, A. S.
Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…
Spitzer, William; Silverman, Ed; Allen, Karen
Today's health care environments require organizational competence as well as clinical skill. Economically driven business paradigms and the principles underlying the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 emphasize integrated, collaborative care delivered using transdisciplinary service models. Attention must be focused on achieving patient care goals while demonstrating an appreciation for the mission, priorities and operational constraints of the provider organization. The educational challenge is to cultivate the ability to negotiate "ideology" or ideal practice with the practical realities of health care provider environments without compromising professional ethics. Competently exercising such ability promotes a sound "profession-in-environment" fit and enhances the recognition of social work as a crucial patient care component.
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
Full Text Available “We can now prevent or treat most illnesses by using known and inexpensive techniques, the problem lies elsewhere: it consists in providing personnel, medicines, vaccines and information to those in need, at the appropriate time, in sufficient quantity, reliable and sustainable manner, and at a cost acceptable”. WHO’s report “Health and MDGs for development” “Given the recognized need for health logistics officers and the present lack of such officers in the countries, WHO/AFRO, UNICEF, Bioforce and partners should urge countries to create positions of health logistics officers in health management teams, coordinate their efforts and mobilize necessary resources to initiate adequate training in logistics for health in support of present move toward greater integration of public health interventions”. Task Force on Immunization Meeting, Maputo, 2006« À l’heure actuelle, nous pouvons prévenir ou traiter la plupart des maladies avec des techniques connues et peu onéreuses, le problème est de réussir à fournir du personnel, des médicaments, des vaccins et des informations aux personnes qui en ont besoin, au bon moment, en quantité suffisante, de manière fiable et durable et à un coût acceptable ».Rapport de l’OMS « La Santé et les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement »« Étant donné le besoin notoire de logisticiens de santé et le manque actuel de tels professionnels dans les pays, l’OMS/AFRO, l’UNICEF, Bioforce et leurs partenaires doivent encourager les pays à créer des postes de logisticien de santé dans les équipes de gestion de la santé, coordonner leurs efforts et mobiliser les ressources nécessaires pour initier une formation appropriée en logistique de santé afin de soutenir les mesures actuelles en faveur d’une meilleure intégration des interventions de santé publique. » Réunion de la Task Force on Immunization, Maputo, 2006 «Actualmente somos capaces de impedir
Susan E. Sterrett
Full Text Available Homi K. Bhabha is a post-colonial and cultural theorist who describes the emergence of new cultural forms from multiculturalism. When health profession students enculturated into their profession discuss patient care in an interprofessional group, their unilateral view is challenged. The students are in that ambiguous area, or Third Space, where statements of their profession’s view of the patient enmesh and an interprofessional identity begins to form. The lessons learned from others ways of assessing and treating a patient, seen through the lens of hybridity allow for the development of a richer, interprofessional identity. This manuscript will seek out the ways Bhabha’s views of inbetweenness enhance understanding of the student’s development of an interprofessional viewpoint or identity, and deepen the author’s developing framework of an Interprofessional Community of Practice.
Per Arne Tufte
Full Text Available Modern professions provide important and essential services like engineering, financial services, and welfare state services. Sustaining a sufficient supply of these services requires professionals to remain in the workforce as long as possible. This article examines variation in the risk of disability pension among individuals with different professional education backgrounds according to the status of the profession and its primary task (i.e., caring for others, “life” professions; or providing other kinds of services, “thing” professions. Event history analy-sis was employed to examine register data for the Norwegian population from 1992 through 2008, with gender, age at completed education, birth year, and social status as control variables. The results indicate that individuals in low-status life professions were exposed to a greater risk of disability pension than individuals with other professional education backgrounds. Possible explanations are mechanisms related to selection effects, physical and mental job strain, and professional ethics.
Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George
Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...
Allen, Carol B; Smart, Denise A; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Swain, Deborah
International immersion experiences for health-care students have increased over the past 10 years. Students and faculty expect these experiences to increase cultural competency; however, research on outcomes of these programs has lacked rigor. Over a 4-year period, groups of nursing and other health professions students spent 3 weeks in Peru providing primary care and health education. Students attended pre-departure seminars addressing personal travel health and safety, culture and health care in Peru, working with interpreters, and ethics of international health care. Student participants (N=77) completed an instrument assessing self-perceived cultural competency before and after the experience. Results of pre- and post-immersion scores showed significant increases in perceived cultural competency and increased self-efficacy in cultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes for four groups of students. Implications and future directions are discussed and recommended.
Full Text Available Introduction The federal democratic republic government of Ethiopia has practiced the education training policy since 1994. The target of the policy has been the improvement of access quality relevance equity efficiency in education sector In order to enhance the implementation of the policy several programs and interventions have been introduced such as system of training quality teachers both pre-service and in-service USAID and MOE 2008. This research work has intended to assess the reaction of the 2012 graduates of Adwa teachers and educational leadership College after they covered their three years training program and prepared to celebrate their graduation. Objective Assess the reaction of the senior trainees to the quality of the training program and identify specific areas that need further intervention. Methodology-institutional based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried by dispatching 250 questionnaires randomly to 2012 graduate students of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College. Among these 220 88 returned. In total among the 424 2012 graduates of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College 220 51.9 were involved in responding the questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively entering in to a computer using SPSS version 16 using Ch-square Annova Sign test. Result- Among the respondents of this pre-service teachers training majority 152 69 entered to the training with interest towards the teaching profession whereas 68 31 entered without interest. Majority of the trainees 111 73 had joined to the training with interest to the teaching profession because the profession plays a role as foundation for the development of the country. Among of the trainee who joined to the training without interest to the profession 59 86.8 were with negative attitude to the profession because teachers are with subsistence life condition. Majority of the trainees weather heshe entered
Paradis, Elise; Sutkin, Gary
Observational research is increasingly being used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet it is often criticised for being prone to observer effects (also known as the Hawthorne Effect), defined as a research participant's altered behaviour in response to being observed. This article explores this concern. First, this article briefly reviews the initial Hawthorne studies and the original formulation of the Hawthorne Effect, before turning to contemporary studies of the Hawthorne Effect in HPE and beyond. Second, using data from two observational studies (in the operating theatre and in the intensive care unit), this article investigates the Hawthorne Effect in HPE. Evidence of a Hawthorne Effect is scant, and amounts to little more than a good story. This is surprising given the foundational nature of the Hawthorne Studies in the social sciences and the prevalence of our concern with observer effects in HPE research. Moreover, the multiple and inconsistent uses of the Hawthorne Effect have left researchers without a coherent and helpful understanding of research participants' responses to observation. The authors' HPE research illustrates the complexity of observer effects in HPE, suggests that significant alteration of behaviour is unlikely in many research contexts, and shows how sustained contact with participants over time improves the quality of data collection. This article thus concludes with three recommendations: that researchers, editors and reviewers in the HPE community use the phrase 'participant reactivity' when considering the participant, observer and research question triad; that researchers invest in interpersonal relationships at their study site to mitigate the effects of altered behaviour; and that researchers use theory to make sense of participants' altered behaviour and use it as a window into the social world. The term 'participant reactivity' better reflects current scientific understandings of the research process and
Cook, David A; Levinson, Anthony J; Garside, Sarah
Studies evaluating reporting quality in health professions education (HPE) research have demonstrated deficiencies, but none have used comprehensive reporting standards. Additionally, the relationship between study methods and effect size (ES) in HPE research is unknown. This review aimed to evaluate, in a sample of experimental studies of Internet-based instruction, the quality of reporting, the relationship between reporting and methodological quality, and associations between ES and study methods. We conducted a systematic search of databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE and ERIC, for articles published during 1990-2008. Studies (in any language) quantifying the effect of Internet-based instruction in HPE compared with no intervention or other instruction were included. Working independently and in duplicate, we coded reporting quality using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, and coded study methods using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (m-NOS), the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI), and the Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) global scale. For reporting quality, articles scored a mean±standard deviation (SD) of 51±25% of STROBE elements for the Introduction, 58±20% for the Methods, 50±18% for the Results and 41±26% for the Discussion sections. We found positive associations (all pquality and MERSQI (ρ=0.64), m-NOS (ρ=0.57) and BEME (ρ=0.58) scores. We explored associations between study methods and knowledge ES by subtracting each study's ES from the pooled ES for studies using that method and comparing these differences between subgroups. Effect sizes in single-group pretest/post-test studies differed from the pooled estimate more than ESs in two-group studies (p=0.013). No difference was found between other study methods (yes/no: representative sample, comparison group from same community, randomised, allocation concealed, participants blinded
von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.
Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…
Giard, Raimond W M
Health care is in profound transition, its organization changing from being service-oriented to outcomes-oriented. Doctors are complaining of too much bureaucracy. However, the increasing complexity of healthcare demands rationalization, standardization and optimization of processes. At the same time, the practice of medicine is increasingly politicized. If doctors are the key to healthcare reform, how then are they to be motivated? It is imperative that they become more proactive and engage in leadership. They are the first to ensure that the main goals of medicine remain evidence-based prevention and cure of disease. Passivity will create opportunity for bureaucracy.
Gifford, Wendy A; Holyoke, Paul; Squires, Janet E; Angus, Douglas; Brosseau, Lucie; Egan, Mary; Graham, Ian D; Miller, Carol; Wallin, Lars
Nurses and allied health care professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, dietitians) form more than half of the clinical health care workforce and play a central role in health service delivery. There is a potential to improve the quality of health care if these professionals routinely use research evidence to guide their clinical practice. However, the use of research evidence remains unpredictable and inconsistent. Leadership is consistently described in implementation research as critical to enhancing research use by health care professionals. However, this important literature has not yet been synthesized and there is a lack of clarity on what constitutes effective leadership for research use, or what kinds of intervention effectively develop leadership for the purpose of enabling and enhancing research use in clinical practice. We propose to synthesize the evidence on leadership behaviours amongst front line and senior managers that are associated with research evidence by nurses and allied health care professionals, and then determine the effectiveness of interventions that promote these behaviours. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach that supports a partnership between researchers and knowledge users throughout the research process, we will follow principles of knowledge synthesis using a systematic method to synthesize different types of evidence involving: searching the literature, study selection, data extraction and quality assessment, and analysis. A narrative synthesis will be conducted to explore relationships within and across studies and meta-analysis will be performed if sufficient homogeneity exists across studies employing experimental randomized control trial designs. With the engagement of knowledge users in leadership and practice, we will synthesize the research from a broad range of disciplines to understand the key elements of leadership that supports and enables research use
Full Text Available The service sector plays an increasingly large modern market economies. By being unable to provide customers a tangible product in the hands of service providers makes the situation more difficult. Their success depends on customer satisfaction, which expect a certain benefit for the money paid, on quality, on mutual trust and many other attributes. What is very interesting is that they may differ from client to client, and there is no guarantee satisfaction to all customers, even if the service provided is the same. This shows the complex nature of services and efforts on service providers would have to be made permanent in order to attract more customers. This paper addresses the issues of continuous quality improvement of health services as an important part of the services sector. Until recently, these services in Romania although under strict control of the state, had a large number of patients who are given very little attention, which is why quality improvement acestoraa was compulsory. Opening and changing economic environment, increasing customer demands, forced hospitals that serve as a nodal point between these services and their applicants to adopt modern management methods and techniques to become competitive and to give patients the quality service expected. Modern society has always sought to provide the means to ensure good health closer to the needs of modern man. These have become more complex and more expensive and naturally requires financial resources increasingly mari.Este why, every time, all the failures alleging lack of money and resources in general. Is it true? Sometimes yes, often, no! The truth is that human and material resources are not used in an optimal way. The answer lies mainly in quality management. We will see what should be done in this regard.
Zwick, D I
Federal health services grants amounted to about $1.8 billion in fiscal year 1985. The total amount was about $100 million less, about 6 percent, than in 1980. Reductions in the health planning program accounted for most of the decline in absolute dollars. The four formula grants to State agencies amounted to about $1.0 billion in 1985, about 60 percent of the total. The largest formula grants were for maternal and child health services and for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services. Project grants to selected State and local agencies amounted to about $.8 billion. There was 12 such grants in 1985 (compared with 34 in 1980). The largest, for community health services, equaled almost half the total. In real, inflation-adjusted dollars, the decline in Federal funds for these programs exceeded a third during the 5-year period. The overall dollar total in real terms in 1985 approximated the 1970 level. The ratio of formula grants to project grants in 1985 was similar to that in 1965. Studies of the impact of changes in Federal grants have found that while the development of health programs has been seriously constrained in most cases, their nature has not been substantially altered. In some cases broader program approaches and allocations have been favored. Established modes of operations and administration have generally been strengthened. Some efficiencies but few savings in administration have been identified. Replacement of reduced Federal funding by the States has been modest but has increased over time, especially for direct service activities. These changes reflect the important influence of professionalism in the health fields and the varying strengths of political interest and influence among program supporters. The long-term impact on program innovation is not yet clear.
Wakida, Edith K; Ruzaaza, Gad; Muggaga, Kintu; Akera, Peter; Oria, Hussein; Kiguli, Sarah
Purpose The benefits of community-based medical education for both students and teachers are becoming increasingly clear. However, there is paucity of information about the importance of incorporating students’ thoughts in the community-based education curriculum and the impact it has on their intentions to work in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the teaching and learning expectations before and after placement of health-profession students going for community placement for the first time and make suggestions for improvement of the community-based programs. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey with both structured and unstructured questions. Participants were recruited from four medical schools in Uganda targeting 100% participation of health-profession students going for community placement in 2014. In total, 454 and 305 participants responded to self-administered questionnaires before and after community placement, respectively; and they were from different programs and years of study. Results Students’ learning expectations before placement, in ranking were: community engagement, interpersonal skills, community diagnosis, clinical skills, lifestyle practices, and patient management. After placement, the order of ranking was: interpersonal skills, community engagement, community diagnosis, lifestyle practices, clinical skills, and patient management. Most of the students had prior rural exposure and expected to do community engagement. However, after community placement they indicated having developed interpersonal skills. The various health-profession students were able to harmoniously work together to achieve a common purpose, which they find difficult to do in a classroom environment. Conclusion Having student teams comprised of different health programs and years of study going for community placement together promoted peer-to-peer mentorship and enhanced team building during community placement. PMID:26677345
Wakida, Edith K; Ruzaaza, Gad; Muggaga, Kintu; Akera, Peter; Oria, Hussein; Kiguli, Sarah
The benefits of community-based medical education for both students and teachers are becoming increasingly clear. However, there is paucity of information about the importance of incorporating students' thoughts in the community-based education curriculum and the impact it has on their intentions to work in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the teaching and learning expectations before and after placement of health-profession students going for community placement for the first time and make suggestions for improvement of the community-based programs. The study was a cross-sectional survey with both structured and unstructured questions. Participants were recruited from four medical schools in Uganda targeting 100% participation of health-profession students going for community placement in 2014. In total, 454 and 305 participants responded to self-administered questionnaires before and after community placement, respectively; and they were from different programs and years of study. Students' learning expectations before placement, in ranking were: community engagement, interpersonal skills, community diagnosis, clinical skills, lifestyle practices, and patient management. After placement, the order of ranking was: interpersonal skills, community engagement, community diagnosis, lifestyle practices, clinical skills, and patient management. Most of the students had prior rural exposure and expected to do community engagement. However, after community placement they indicated having developed interpersonal skills. The various health-profession students were able to harmoniously work together to achieve a common purpose, which they find difficult to do in a classroom environment. Having student teams comprised of different health programs and years of study going for community placement together promoted peer-to-peer mentorship and enhanced team building during community placement.
Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.
Hardeman, F.; Hurtgen, C.; Vanhavere, F.; Vanmarcke, H.
SCK-CEN's programme on health-physics (1) offers complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards; (2) contributes to improve continuously these measurement techniques and follows up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) provides support and advise to nuclear and non-nuclear industry on issues of radioactive contamination. Progress and achievements in 1997 are summarised
Tuohy, Carolyn H
As the National Health Service (NHS) turns 70, it bears comparison with another universal system celebrating an anniversary this year: Canada's 50-year-old medicare model. Each system is iconically popular, and each revolves around a profession-state accommodation. Both the popularity and the central axis of each system have been tested by external shocks in the form of periodic fiscal cycles of investment and austerity, and internal stresses generating organizational cycles of centralization and decentralization. In addition, the English NHS has undergone periodic bursts of major policy change, which have arguably moved the system closer to the Canadian single-payer model.
McDonald, Paige L; Harwood, Kenneth J; Butler, Joan T; Schlumpf, Karen S; Eschmann, Carson W; Drago, Daniela
Intensive courses (ICs), or accelerated courses, are gaining popularity in medical and health professions education, particularly as programs adopt e-learning models to negotiate challenges of flexibility, space, cost, and time. In 2014, the Department of Clinical Research and Leadership (CRL) at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences began the process of transitioning two online 15-week graduate programs to an IC model. Within a year, a third program also transitioned to this model. A literature review yielded little guidance on the process of transitioning from 15-week, traditional models of delivery to IC models, particularly in online learning environments. Correspondingly, this paper describes the process by which CRL transitioned three online graduate programs to an IC model and details best practices for course design and facilitation resulting from our iterative redesign process. Finally, we present lessons-learned for the benefit of other medical and health professions' programs contemplating similar transitions. CRL: Department of Clinical Research and Leadership; HSCI: Health Sciences; IC: Intensive course; PD: Program director; QM: Quality Matters.
Glover Takahashi, Susan; Nayer, Marla
Objectives This study examined the risks and supports to competence discussed in the literature related to occupational therapists, pharmacists, physical therapists and physicians, using epidemiology as a conceptual model. Design Articles from a scoping literature review, published from 1975 to 2014 inclusive, were included if they were about a risk or support to the professional or clinical competence of one of four health professions. Descriptive and regression analyses identified potential associations between risks and supports to competence and the location of study, type of health profession, competence life-cycle and the domain(s) of competence (organised around the CanMEDS framework). Results A total of 3572 abstracts were reviewed and 943 articles analysed. Most focused on physicians (n=810, 86.0%) and ‘practice’ (n=642, 68.0%). Fewer articles discussed risks to competence (n=418, 44.3%) than supports (n=750, 79.5%). The top four risks, each discussed in over 15% of articles, were: transitions in practice, being an international graduate, lack of clinical exposure/experience (ie, insufficient volume of procedures or patients) and age. The top two supports (over 35%) were continuing education participation and educational information/programme features. About 60% of all the articles discussed medical expert and about 25% applied to all roles. Articles focusing on residents had a greater probability of reporting on risks. Conclusions Articles about physicians were dominant. The majority of articles were written in the last decade and more discussed supports than risks to competence. An epidemiology-based conceptual model offers a helpful organising framework for exploring and explaining the competence of health professions. PMID:28864686
Orsini, Cesar; Binnie, Vivian I; Wilson, Sarah L
This study aimed at conducting a systematic review in health professions education of determinants, mediators and outcomes of students' motivation to engage in academic activities based on the self-determination theory's perspective. A search was conducted across databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases), hand-search of relevant journals, grey literature, and published research profile of key authors. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they reported research in health professions education focused on determinants, mediators, and/or outcomes of motivation from the self-determination and if meeting the quality criteria. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion and quality criteria. Articles retrieved came from diverse locations and mainly from medical education and to a lesser extent from psychology and dental education. Intrapersonal (gender and personality traits) and interpersonal determinants (academic conditions and lifestyle, qualitative method of selection, feedback, and an autonomy supportive learning climate) have been reported to have a positive influence on students' motivation to engage in academic activities. No studies were found that tested mediation effects between determinants and students' motivation. In turn, students' self-determined motivation has been found to be positively associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes. This study has found that generally, motivation could be enhanced by changes in the educational environment and by an early detection of students' characteristics. Doing so may support future health practitioners' self-determined motivation and positively influence how they process information and their emotions and how they approach their learning activities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent proliferation in research on patient trust, it is seldom a primary outcome, and is often a peripheral area of interest. The length of our original scales to measure trust may limit their use because of the practical needs to minimize both respondent burden and research cost. The objective of this study was to develop three abbreviated scales to measure trust in: (1 a physician, (2 a health insurer, and (3 the medical profession. Methods Data from two samples were used. The first was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults in the United States (N = 1117 and the second was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults residing in North Carolina who were members of a health maintenance organization (N = 1024. Data were analyzed to examine data completeness, scaling assumptions, internal consistency properties, and factor structure. Results Abbreviated measures (5-items were developed for each of the three scales. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for trust in a physician (test-retest reliability = 0.71, 0.84 for trust in a health insurer (test-retest reliability = 0.73, and 0.77 for trust in the medical profession. Conclusion Assessment of data completeness, scale score dispersion characteristics, reliability and validity test results all provide evidence for the soundness of the abbreviated 5-item scales.
On April 18th, independent Zimbabwe celebrated its 3rd birthday. In 1980, within days after taking power, Robert Mugabe's government announced that health care was to be free to everyone earning less then Z150 (60 British pounds) a month--the vast majority of the population. Although the free services are a good public relations policy, more important was the decision to expand the health services at grassroots level and to shift emphasis from an urban based curative system to rural based preventive care. Zimbabwe desperately needs doctors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the country has some 1400 registered doctors, roughly 1 for every 6000 people. Yet, of the 1400, under 300 work in the government health services and many of those are based in Harare, the capital. Of Zimbabwe's 28 district hospitals, only 14 have a full-time doctor. In some rural areas, there is 1 doctor/100,000 or more people. The nature of the country's health problems, coupled with the government's severe shortage of cash, shows why nursing is so crucial to Zimbabwe's development. If the rural communities, which make up 85% of the population, were to have easy access to a qualified nurse, or even a nursing assistant, the quality of life would double. The only thing that is more important is a clean water supply. Possibly the most important role for nurses in Zimbabwe is that of education. Nurses can spread awareness of basic hygiene, raise the skill of local people in dealing with minor health problems independently, carry out immunization programs, offer contraceptive advice, give guidance on breastfeeding and infant nutrition, and work with practitioners of traditional African medicines to make sure they possess basic scientific knowledge. Rebuilding after the war was not a major problem for the Mugabe health ministry, for in many areas there was simply nothing to rebuild. There were never any health services. A far greater problem has been the top heavy structure of the
Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management.
Full Text Available The article focuses on how information-communication and network computer technology effects changes in library operation and presents new possibilities in the development and differentiation of the librarian profession. At the time of the introduction of the Internet, numerous experts were convinced that the decline of librarianship, as a profession, was only a question of time. According to such opinions, users were supposed to search and obtain information on their own and purchase books through electronic bookstores. The reality turned out to be just the opposite. Nowadays, librarians are required to make more and more complex inquiries, to provide rapid, high-quality and non-stop services, to supply documents directly by computer or onto the working table. Moreover, librarians must follow the rapid development of the profession and participate in permanent and polyvalent training. The introduction of the digitalisation of materials and the future development of libraries require that librarians familiarize themselves with complex hypertext protocols, graphic design, and marketing. Moreover, librarians are obliged to accept any change brought about during the process of technological development. Therefore, in the developed world, new professions are being established and relating to the provision of aggregate information in form of various services and products. Those professions do not only imply universal information providers but trained experts with regard to individual fields of interest.
Ünal, Fatma; Tarhan, Sinem; Köksal, Eda Çürükvelioglu
There are negative impacts of gender stereotypes particularly on the education of girls and women. The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' profession perceptions within the context of gender using word association test technique and to identify the definition of the concept of "profession" depending on sex. This…
Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John; Lains, Jorge; Nugraha, Boya
One of the aims of the World Health Organization's Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up) rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory) missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.
Full Text Available Objective: One of the aims of the World Health Organization’s Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. Recommendations: It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. Conclusion: This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.
... Many colleges also have a counseling center which students should go to for mental health concerns. How can I get seen at the ... services that I need? The staff at your student health center will know ... gynecologists, and mental health clinicians in the community in case you ...
Van Der Weyden, Martin B
Since the 1960s, Australian society and the medical profession have undergone enormous change. Our society has moved from a relatively homogeneous and conservative community, supported by limited government services, to one that is multicultural, focused on the individual and consumerism, and supported by extensive government programs, with health care a top public and political priority. A defining feature of contemporary society is its mistrust of institutions, professionals, public servants and politicians. The medical profession has changed from a cohesive entity, valuing generalism and with limited specialisation, to one splintered by ultra-specialisation and competing professional agendas. The medical workforce shortage and efforts to maintain the safety and quality of health services are putting acute pressure on the profession. Task transfer or role substitution of medical services is mooted as a potential solution to this pressure. This has the potential to drastically transform the profession. How task transfer will evolve and change medicine depends on the vision and leadership of the profession and a flexible pragmatism that safeguards quality and safety and places patient priorities above those of the profession.
An ethical dilemma: A case of student training, intermittent service and impact on service delivery · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Govender, 8-9 ...
Full Text Available Edith K Wakida,1 Gad Ruzaaza,1 Kintu Muggaga,2 Peter Akera,3 Hussein Oria,4 Sarah Kiguli4 1Medical School, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, 2Medical School, Kampala International University, Kampala, 3Medical School, Gulu University, Gulu, 4Medical School, Makerere University Kampala, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: The benefits of community-based medical education for both students and teachers are becoming increasingly clear. However, there is paucity of information about the importance of incorporating students’ thoughts in the community-based education curriculum and the impact it has on their intentions to work in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the teaching and learning expectations before and after placement of health-profession students going for community placement for the first time and make suggestions for improvement of the community-based programs. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey with both structured and unstructured questions. Participants were recruited from four medical schools in Uganda targeting 100% participation of health-profession students going for community placement in 2014. In total, 454 and 305 participants responded to self-administered questionnaires before and after community placement, respectively; and they were from different programs and years of study. Results: Students’ learning expectations before placement, in ranking were: community engagement, interpersonal skills, community diagnosis, clinical skills, lifestyle practices, and patient management. After placement, the order of ranking was: interpersonal skills, community engagement, community diagnosis, lifestyle practices, clinical skills, and patient management. Most of the students had prior rural exposure and expected to do community engagement. However, after community placement they indicated having developed interpersonal skills. The various health-profession students were able to
Yu, Hua-Yin; Ulmer, William; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Hu, Jim C
Health services research (HSR) is increasingly important given the focus on patient-centered, cost-effective, high-quality health care. We examine how HSR affects contemporary evidence-based urologic practice and its role in shaping future urologic research and care. PubMed, urologic texts, and lay literature were reviewed for terms pertaining to HSR/outcomes research and urologic disease processes. HSR is a broad discipline that focuses on access, cost, and outcomes of Health care. Its use has been applied to a myriad of urologic conditions to identify deficiencies in access, to evaluate cost-effectiveness of therapies, and to evaluate structural, process, and outcome quality measures. HSR utilizes an evidence-based approach to identify the most effective ways to organize/manage, finance, and deliver high-quality urologic care and to tailor care optimized to individuals.
Dodge, C P
Uganda had one of the best health care delivery systems in Africa. The decade of misrule by Amin saw a collapse of the country and an exodus of doctors and other professions. The 1979 liberation war and subsequent political instability and insecurity further aggravated the poor health services then available. When political stability was temporarily restored in December 1980 the cash crop export sector took priority over social services and the health budget declined to only 3.5% compared to a former level of 7.5% of government budget. Emergencies in West Nile, Karamoja and the Luwero triangle continued to plague rehabilitation efforts upto 1985. Alternate strategies for improving health are proposed including female education, increased budget allocations, food and nutrition policy and health information. Uganda's prospect for rebuilding the health services has begun with immunization, control of diarrhoeal diseases, nutrition surveillance in Karamoja and an essential drugs programme, but the success of these is dependent upon political stability and improvement in overall security.
Charlotte L. Briggs
Full Text Available Inspired by reports of successful outcomes in health profession education literature, peer learning has progressively grown to become a fundamental characteristic of health profession curricula. Many studies, however, are anecdotal or philosophical in nature, particularly when addressing the effectiveness of assessments in the context of peer learning. This commentary provides an overview of the rationale for using group assessments in the basic sciences curriculum of health profession programs and highlights the challenges associated with implementing group assessments in this context. The dearth of appropriate means for measuring group process suggests that professional collaboration competencies need to be more clearly defined. Peer learning educators are advised to enhance their understanding of social psychological research in order to implement best practices in the development of appropriate group assessments for peer learning.
Plack, Margaret M; Goldman, Ellen F; Scott, Andrea R; Pintz, Christine; Herrmann, Debra; Kline, Kathleen; Thompson, Tracey; Brundage, Shelley B
Phenomenon: Systems thinking is the cornerstone of systems-based practice (SBP) and a core competency in medicine and health sciences. Literature regarding how to teach or apply systems thinking in practice is limited. This study aimed to understand how educators in medicine, physical therapy, physician assistant, nursing, and speech-language pathology education programs teach and assess systems thinking and SBP. Twenty-six educators from seven different degree programs across the five professions were interviewed and program descriptions and relevant course syllabi were reviewed. Qualitative analysis was iterative and incorporated inductive and deductive methods as well as a constant comparison of units of data to identify patterns and themes. Six themes were identified: 1) participants described systems thinking as ranging across four major levels of healthcare (i.e., patient, care team, organization, and external environment); 2) participants associated systems thinking with a wide range of activities across the curriculum including quality improvement, Inter-professional education (IPE), error mitigation, and advocacy; 3) the need for healthcare professionals to understand systems thinking was primarily externally driven; 4) participants perceived that learning systems thinking occurred mainly informally and experientially rather than through formal didactic instruction; 5) participants characterized systems thinking content as interspersed across the curriculum and described a variety of strategies for teaching and assessing it; 6) participants indicated a structured framework and inter-professional approach may enhance teaching and assessment of systems thinking. Insights: Systems thinking means different things to different health professionals. Teaching and assessing systems thinking across the health professions will require further training and practice. Tools, techniques, taxonomies and expertise outside of healthcare may be used to enhance the teaching
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed at conducting a systematic review in health professions education of determinants, mediators and outcomes of students’ motivation to engage in academic activities based on the self-determination theory’s perspective. Methods: A search was conducted across databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases, hand-search of relevant journals, grey literature, and published research profile of key authors. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they reported research in health professions education focused on determinants, mediators, and/or outcomes of motivation from the self-determination and if meeting the quality criteria. Results: A total of 17 studies met the inclusion and quality criteria. Articles retrieved came from diverse locations and mainly from medical education and to a lesser extent from psychology and dental education. Intrapersonal (gender and personality traits and interpersonal determinants (academic conditions and lifestyle, qualitative method of selection, feedback, and an autonomy supportive learning climate have been reported to have a positive influence on students’ motivation to engage in academic activities. No studies were found that tested mediation effects between determinants and students’ motivation. In turn, students’ self-determined motivation has been found to be positively associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes. Conclusion: This study has found that generally, motivation could be enhanced by changes in the educational environment and by an early detection of students’ characteristics. Doing so may support future health practitioners’ self-determined motivation and positively influence how they process information and their emotions and how they approach their learning activities.
Purpose: This study aimed at conducting a systematic review in health professions education of determinants, mediators and outcomes of students’ motivation to engage in academic activities based on the self-determination theory’s perspective. Methods: A search was conducted across databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases), hand-search of relevant journals, grey literature, and published research profile of key authors. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they reported research in health professions education focused on determinants, mediators, and/or outcomes of motivation from the self-determination and if meeting the quality criteria. Results: A total of 17 studies met the inclusion and quality criteria. Articles retrieved came from diverse locations and mainly from medical education and to a lesser extent from psychology and dental education. Intrapersonal (gender and personality traits) and interpersonal determinants (academic conditions and lifestyle, qualitative method of selection, feedback, and an autonomy supportive learning climate) have been reported to have a positive influence on students’ motivation to engage in academic activities. No studies were found that tested mediation effects between determinants and students’ motivation. In turn, students’ self-determined motivation has been found to be positively associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes. Conclusion: This study has found that generally, motivation could be enhanced by changes in the educational environment and by an early detection of students’ characteristics. Doing so may support future health practitioners’ self-determined motivation and positively influence how they process information and their emotions and how they approach their learning activities. PMID:27134006
Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?
Olivia Miu Yung Ngan
Full Text Available Purpose: Anatomy is a basic science for health professions curricula. Recent research suggests that the innovative blended learning approach (classroom learning plus use of online learning outperforms conventional didactic teaching by facilitating effective learning. This study explores the feasibility of adopting blended learning in anatomy teaching and evaluates the learning experiences of students. Method: Courseware called electronic Professional Study (ePS was developed and used for teaching anatomy of the cardiovascular system for non-medical students. ePS composed of three condensed, recorded course lectures, revision guides, and gamified quizzes. These were placed on the Web platform for students to watch before didactic lecture. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. By the end of the academic semester, the courseware evaluation was implemented using a set of 5-point Likert scale questions. The e-questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of Year-2 full-time undergraduate students majoring in pharmacy enrolled in an introductory course in anatomy and physiology. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the relationship between courseware usage and examination results. Results: All enrolled students (n = 53 completed and returned the questionnaire. About 38% used the courseware less than ten times during the semester, and 7.5% never used it. e-Questionnaire shows that a majority agreed that the courseware content was clearly presented and easy to navigate. Multiple regression shows that courseware usage did not contribute significantly to the performance. Conclusions: Blended learning was perceived positively by most students. However, no effect on learning could be established. Keywords: Anatomy, Health profession education, Micro-module, Medical education, e-learning Courseware, Gamification, Hong Kong
Hewa, S; Hetherington, R W
This paper examines the crisis in the nursing profession in Western industrial societies in the light of Max Weber's theory of rationalisation. The domination of instrumental rational action in modern industrial societies in evident in the field of modern medicine. The burgeoning mechanistic approach to the human body and health makes modern health care services increasingly devoid of human values. Although the nursing profession has been influenced by various changes that took place in health care during the last few decades (for example greater reliance on technology), the underlying values of the nursing profession still emphasise a broad definition of the well-being of patients. Hence, in recent years the irrational consequences of growing technological medicine in North America has resulted in a serious crisis in the nursing profession. To resolve this crisis the authors propose a reorganisation of modern health care services on the basis of a new paradigm which is compatible with both the health care needs of the people and the main emphasis in education and training of the nursing profession. PMID:2287012
An emerging literature is beginning to create a theoretical framework for analysing the role of professional managers – that is, those without an ongoing academic background – in the context of UK higher education. Here I argue, drawing on my own experience in a range of higher education institutions, that this literature misses a crucial distinction amongst professional managers, namely that between generic HE professionals, and specialists from professions which exist outside the world of h...
Ferrara, Cynthia M.; Nobrega, Cheryl; Dulfan, Faina
Few studies have examined incidence of obesity and healthy lifestyle behaviors in college students in health-related (HM) compared to other majors (NH). Since individuals are more likely to follow health promotion advice if the health care professional lives a healthy lifestyle, this information may be important in determining compliance of…
McKinney, Nicole S.; Waite, Roberta
Leadership content and pedagogical strategies are fundamental to health professionals' education. All health professionals must be able to lead effectively and thrive in today's complex health systems. Students must be involved in meaningful didactic and experiential leadership development early in their academic progression, and educators are…
... Nurse Anesthetists.). (l) Podiatry: D.P.M. (m) Physical Rehabilitation Services: Physical Therapy... program site determined by the Secretary. Loan repayment sites are characterized by physical, cultural... allopathic medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, geriatric medicine, obstetrics and...
... Anesthetists.). (o) Podiatry: D.P.M. (p) Physical Rehabilitation Services: Physical Therapy, Occupational... by the Secretary. Loan repayment sites are characterized by physical, cultural, and professional... medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, geriatric medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, podiatric medicine...
... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND... effectiveness of the techniques and obtained written approval from the Secretary. (2) Late charge. (i) For any...
Adams, M S
One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.
Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly
The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.
The shortage of a competent health workforce is a global challenge. However, its manifestations and proposed solutions are very much context related (i.e., local). In addition to the shortage of health professionals, the quality of health professions education programs, institutions, and graduates, and how to measure quality, are also problematic. Commonly used metrics like the Credit Hours System and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System have limitations (e.g., being more focused on quantity than quality).In this Invited Commentary, the author discusses the need to revisit quality measurements in health professions education and the issue of whether the private sector has a role to play in narrowing the ever-increasing gap between the demand for health care professionals and the health care workforce shortage.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Ladhani, Zahra; Shah, Henal; Wells, Ray; Friedman, Stacey; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; van Heerden, Ben; Campos, Henry; Morahan, Page S.
The health workforce of the 21st century has enormous challenges; health professionals need to be both experts in their field and equipped with leadership and managerial skills. These skills are not part of the regular curriculum, so specific programs bridging this gap are required. Since 2001, FAIMER®, with eight centers across the globe, has…
Baker, Clayton J; Shaw, Margie Hodges; Mooney, Christopher J; Daiss, Susan Dodge-Peters; Clark, Stephanie Brown
Qualitative and quantitative research on the impact of medical and health humanities teaching in baccalaureate education is sparse. This paper reviews recent studies of the impact of medical and health humanities coursework in pre-health professions education and describes a pilot study of baccalaureate students who completed semester-long medical humanities courses in the Division of Medical Humanities & Bioethics at the University of Rochester. The study format was an email survey. All participants were current or former baccalaureate students who had taken one or more courses in literature and narrative in medicine, bioethics, history of medicine, and/or visual arts and healthcare during the past four years. The survey gathered numerical data in several areas: demographic information, career plans, self-reported influence of coursework on educational and career plans, and self-reported influence of coursework on intellectual skills and abilities. It also gathered narrative commentary that elaborated on students' responses to the numerically-based questions. Notable findings from preliminary analysis of the data include higher scores of self-reported impact of the coursework on specific habits of mind and on preparedness for intended career rather than on gaining admission to future educational programs. Discussion of the results focuses on several potential future directions this type of study might take, including multi-center, longitudinal, and sequential approaches.
Karani, Reena; Varpio, Lara; May, Win; Horsley, Tanya; Chenault, John; Miller, Karen Hughes; O'Brien, Bridget
The Research in Medical Education (RIME) Program Planning Committee is committed to advancing scholarship in and promoting dialogue about the critical issues of racism and bias in health professions education (HPE). From the call for studies focused on underrepresented learners and faculty in medicine to the invited 2016 RIME plenary address by Dr. Camara Jones, the committee strongly believes that dismantling racism is critical to the future of HPE.The evidence is glaring: Dramatic racial and ethnic health disparities persist in the United States, people of color remain deeply underrepresented in medical school and academic health systems as faculty, learner experiences across the medical education continuum are fraught with bias, and current approaches to teaching perpetuate stereotypes and insufficiently challenge structural inequities. To achieve racial justice in HPE, academic medicine must commit to leveraging positions of influence and contributing from these positions. In this Commentary, the authors consider three roles (educator, faculty developer, and researcher) represented by the community of scholars and pose potential research questions as well as suggestions for advancing educational research relevant to eliminating racism and bias in HPE.
group of people into the profession in the future. What is known about the topic? To date, research has not considered the promotional profile of allied health professionals on the Internet. There has been a lack of consideration of whether the way in which the professions are promoted may affect clients accessing allied health services or people entering careers. What does this paper add? This paper raises awareness of the lack of promotion of a diverse workforce in speech pathology and considers how this may affect changing the professional demographics in the future. It also provides a starting point for documentation in the form of a baseline for tracking future changes. It allows consideration of the fact that when designing health promotional and educational materials, it is crucial that diversity is displayed in the professional role, the client role and the setting in order to provide information and education to the general public about the health services provided. What are the implications for practitioners? The presentation of narrow demographics of both the professional and client may potentially affect people considering speech pathology as a future career. The appearance of narrow client demographics and diagnosis groups may also deter people from accessing services. For example, if the demonstrated images do not show older people accessing speech pathology services, then this may suggest that services are only for children. The results from the present case example are transferrable to other health professions with similar professional demographic profiles (e.g. occupational therapy). Consideration of the need to display a diverse client profile is relevant to all health and medical services, and demonstrates steps towards inclusiveness and increasing engagement of clients who may be currently less likely to access health services (including people who are Aboriginal or from a culturally and linguistically diverse background).
Greiner, Ted; Latham, Michael C., Ed.
This report investigates the ways bottle feeding of infants is promoted by multinational corporations. Data were obtained from the following: (1) a survey of available infant food advertising in newspapers and magazines from developing countries; (2) a study of some interrelationships between the health professions and infant food companies,…
... AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS....) applicants, and determine the amount of student loans by considering: (1) The financial resources available... other resources available to the student through the school. For purposes of establishing priority for...
Discussion: Whilst RPT has been found to have a positive impact upon learner experiences, further investigation is required around its use, particularly in assessing learning outcomes in health education programs.
Ellaway, Rachel H
Games have been used for training purposes for many years, but their use remains somewhat underdeveloped and under-theorized in health professional education. This paper considers the basis for using serious games (games that have an explicit educational purpose) in health professional education in terms of their underlying concepts and design principles. These principles can be understood as a series of game facets: competition and conflict, chance and luck, experience and performance, simulation and make-believe, tactics and strategies, media, symbols and actions, and complexity and difficulty. Games are distinct and bound in ways that other health professional education activities are not. The differences between games and simulation can be understood in terms of the interconnected concepts of isomorphism (convergence with real-world practice) and anisomorphism (divergence from real-world practice). Gaming facets can extend the instructional design repertoire in health professional education.
Baum, Karyn D; Resnik, Cheryl D; Wu, Jennifer J; Roey, Steven C
The challenges facing the health sciences education fields are more evident than ever. Professional health sciences educators have more demands on their time, more knowledge to manage, and ever-dwindling sources of financial support. Change is often necessary to either keep programs viable or meet the changing needs of health education. This article outlines a simple but powerful three-step tool to help educators become successful agents of change. Through the application of principles well known and widely used in business management, readers will understand the concepts behind stakeholder analysis and coalition building. These concepts are part of a powerful tool kit that educators need in order to become effective agents of change in the health sciences environment. Using the example of curriculum change at a school of veterinary medicine, we will outline the three steps involved, from stakeholder identification and analysis to building and managing coalitions for change.
Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Bidinosti, Susan
This paper reports on a study of an arts informed approach to ethics education in a health professions education context. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' reported learning experiences as a result of engagement with an arts-informed project in a health professions' ethics course. A hermeneutic phenomenological methodological…
Lack of access to quality reproductive health services is the main contributor to the high maternal mortality and morbidity in ... such services to clients/patients on moral and/or religious grounds. While the ..... The internal morality of medicine:.
Full Text Available Mary-Louise Jung1, Karla Loria11Division of Industrial Marketing, e-Commerce and Logistics, Lulea University of Technology, SwedenObjective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health.Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted.Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use.Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide.Keywords: health services, elderly, technology, Internet, TAM, patient acceptance, health-seeking behavior
Nalliah, R P
Background Little is known about trends in the number of malpractice payments made against dentists and other health professionals. Knowledge of these trends will inform the work of our professional organisations.Methods The National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) in the United States was utilised. Data about malpractice payments against dentists, hygienists, nurses, optometrists, pharmacists, physicians (DO and MD), physicians' assistants, podiatrists, psychologists, therapists and counsellors during 2004-14 were studied. Variables include type of healthcare provider, year malpractice payment was made and range of payment amount.Results In 2004 there were 17,532 malpractice payments against the studied health professions. In 2014 there were 11,650. In 2004, the number of malpractice payments against dentists represented 10.3% of all payments and in 2014 it represented 13.4%. Number of malpractice payments against dentists in 2012-2014 increased from 1,388 to 1,555.Conclusions There is an upward pressure on the number of dental malpractice payments over the last 3 years. Concurrently, there is a downward pressure on the number of combined non-dentist healthcare professional malpractice payments.
Davis, S Fowler; Enderby, P; Harrop, D; Hindle, L
The objective was to identify a selection of the best examples of the public health contributions by Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) in order to encourage a wider awareness and participation from that workforce to public health practice. A mapping exercise was used to identify evidence-based interventions that could lead to health improvements across a population. A rapid review was undertaken to identify evidence, followed by a survey of Allied Health Profession (AHP) practitioners and an expert panel consensus method to select the examples of AHP public health interventions. Nine evidence-based interventions are identified and selected as examples of current AHP good practice. These examples represent a contribution to public health and include screening interventions, secondary prevention and risk management. This study contributes to a strategy for AHPs in public health by appraising the effectiveness and impact of some exemplar AHP practices that contribute to health improvement. There is a need for AHPs to measure the impact of their interventions and to demonstrate evidence of outcomes at population level. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Effect of curriculum changes to enhance generic skills proficiency of 1st-year medical students · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... On being agents of change: A qualitative study of elective experiences of medical students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa · EMAIL ...
Continuing education in geriatrics for rural health care providers in Uganda: A needs assessment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Research productivity of academics in a physiotherapy department: a case study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...
Taft, Thomas B., Jr.; Logan, Nelson S.
As change occurs in various health sciences programs, evaluational strategies should be developed so that adaptive decisions may be made. Evaluation models taking into account inputs, methodology, and outputs (Stake, 1967, and Astin and Panes, 1971) need examination. Alternative measurement instruments for formative and summative evaluations,…
Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.
In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students, and to describe the discrimination…
E. Alcalde-Cabero; J. Almazán-Isla; J-P. Brandel (Jean-Philippe); M. Breithaupt; J. Catarino; S.J. Collins (Steven); J. Haybäck; R. Höftberger (Romana); E. Kahana; G.G. Kovacs (Gabor); A. Ladogana (Anna); E. Mitrová (Eva); A. Molesworth; Y. Nakamura; M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); M. Popovic; M. Ruiz-Tovar; A. Taratuto; C. van Duin; M. Yamada; R.G. Will (Robert); I. Zerr (Inga); J. de Pedro-Cuesta (Jesús)
textabstractIn 2009, a pathologist with sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease (sCJD) was reported to the Spanish registry. This case prompted a request for information on health-related occupation in sCJD cases from countries participating in the European Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Surveillance network
Poirier, Suzanne; And Others
Images drawn from popular media as well as professional stereotypes impede the integration of the pharmacist into the health care team. A course at the College of Pharmacy at the University of Illinois at Chicago, designed to study stereotypes, is described. (Author/MLW)
Mkony, Charles A; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Owibingire, Sirra S; Fyfe, Molly V; Omer, Selma; Freeman, Phyllis; Makubi, Abel; Mloka, Doreen A; Portillo, Carmen J; Leyna, Germana H; Tarimo, Edith; Kaaya, Ephata E; Macfarlane, Sarah B
Well-educated and competent health professionals influence the health system in which they work to improve health outcomes, through clinical care and community interventions, and by raising standards of practice and supervision. To prepare these individuals, training institutions must ensure that their faculty members, who design and deliver education, are effective teachers. We describe the experience of the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) in encouraging improvements in the teaching capacity of its faculty and postgraduate students triggered by a major institutional transition to competency-based education. We employed a multi-stage process that started by identifying the teaching and learning needs and challenges of MUHAS students and faculty. Collaborating with the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), MUHAS responded to these needs by introducing faculty to competency-based curricula and later to strategies for long term continuing improvement. We demonstrate that teaching faculty members are keen for local institutional support to enable them to enhance their skills as educators, and that they have been able to sustain a program of faculty development for their peers.
Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile health technology (m-Health provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services. As the bridge between doctors and patients, mobile health applications enable patients to communicate with doctors through their smartphones, which is becoming more and more popular among people. To evaluate the influence of m-Health applications on the medical service market, we propose a medical service equilibrium model. The model can balance the supply of doctors and demand of patients and reflect possible options for both doctors and patients with or without m-Health applications in the medical service market. In the meantime, we analyze the behavior of patients and the activities of doctors to minimize patients’ full costs of healthcare and doctors’ futility. Then, we provide a resolution algorithm through mathematical reasoning. Lastly, based on artificially generated dataset, experiments are conducted to evaluate the medical services of m-Health applications.
Turco, Mary G; Baron, Robert B
The 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development: Advancing Learning and Care in the Health Professions took place in San Diego, California, March 17-19, 2016. Hosts were the Association for Hospital Medical Education (AHME), Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professionals (ACEhp), and Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education (SACME). The target audience was the international community working to improve medical (CME), nursing (CNE), pharmacy (CPE), and interprofessional (CIPE) continuing education (CE) and continuing professional development (CPD). Goals included: addressing patients' concerns and needs; advancing global medical and interprofessional health sciences education; utilizing learning to address health disparities; and promoting international cooperation. The five keynote speakers were: patient advocate Alicia Cole ("Why What We Do Matters: The Patients Voice"); linguist Lorelei Lingard ("Myths about Healthcare Teamwork and Their Implications for How We Understand Competence"); futurist and philosopher Alex Jadad ("What Do We Need to Protect at All Costs in the 21st Century?"); ethicist and change agent Zeke Emanuel ("Learn to Change: Teaching Toward a Shifting Healthcare Horizon"); and technology innovator Stephen Downes ("From Individual to Community: The Learning Is in the Doing"). Organizers announced the new Dave Davis Distinguished Award for Excellence in Mentorship in Continuing Professional Development to honor the career of David Davis, MD, in CME/CPD scholarship in Canada, the United States, and beyond. Participants valued the emphasis on interprofessional education and practice, the importance of integrating the patient voice, the effectiveness of flipped classroom methods, and the power of collective competency theories. Attendee-respondents encouraged Congress planners to continue to strive for a broad global audience and themes of international interest.
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; O?Leary, Kathy; Ball, Geoff DC; Hartling, Lisa; Hofmeyer, Anne; Jones, C Allyson; Klassen, Terry P; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Newton, Amanda S; Thompson, David; Dryden, Donna M
Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Methods A hea...
Campion, Thomas R.; Gadd, Cynthia S.
According to the U.S. National Research Council, current health information technology (HIT) efforts are insufficient and arguably detrimental to healthcare transformation. Many hospitals have already implemented HIT, and federal stimulus funding will further adoption efforts. Organizations become more similar through the adoption of innovations like HIT, but the effects of the changes do not necessarily improve efficiency. This view from sociology and organizational studies, called instituti...
Canadian health educators travel to the global south to provide expertise in health education. Considering the history of relations between the north and south, educators and healthcare providers from Canada should critically examine their practices and consider non-colonizing ways to relate to their Southern colleagues. Using her experience as a teacher with the Toronto Addis Ababa Academic Collaboration in Nursing, the author explored issues of identity and representation as a registered nurse and PhD candidate teaching in Ethiopia. Transgressive pedagogy was used to question how her personal, professional, and institutional identities impacted her role as a teacher. Thinking and acting transgressively can decrease colonizing relations by acknowledging boundaries and limitations within present ideas of teaching and global health work and help moving beyond them. The act of being transgressive begins with a deeper understanding and consciousness of who we are as people and as educators. Working responsibly in the global south means being critical about historical relations and transparent about one's own history and desires for teaching abroad.
The Defense Health Services (DHS) Steering Committee has considered the concept of Mentoring as part of an effort to assist in the development of future health leaders in the Australian Defense Force (ADF...
Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.
Okello, Elialilia S; Nankumbi, Joyce; Ruzaaza, Gad Ndaruhutse; Bakengesa, Evelyn; Gumikiriza, Joy; Arubaku, Wilfred; Acio, Christine; Samantha, Mary; Matte, Michael
Community-based education research and service (COBERS) is a brand of community-based education that has been adopted by the Medical Education and Service for All Ugandans consortium. The COBERS programme is aimed at equipping students in health professional education with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to provide appropriate health care services. For sustainability purposes, the health professional training institutions have made efforts to involve various stakeholders in the implementation of the programme. However, the actual engagement process and outcome of such efforts have not been documented. This paper documents gaps and gains made in engaging district stakeholders for community-based education. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document review were used to collect data. Atlas.ti, computer software for qualitative data was used to aid analysis. The analysis revealed that the adopted engagement model has registered some gains including increased awareness among district leaders about potential opportunities offered by COBERS such as boosting of human resources at health facilities, opportunities for professional development for health care workers at health facilities, and establishment of linkages between prospective employees and employers. However, the engagement model left some gaps in terms of knowledge, awareness and ownership of the programme among some sections of stakeholders. The apparent information gap about the programme among district stakeholders, especially the political leadership, may hinder concerted partnership. The findings highlight the need for health professional education institutions to broaden the scope of actively engaged stakeholders with the district level.
Malyango Avelin A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care
Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A
In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a
Vaitsis, Christos; Stathakarou, Natalia; Barman, Linda; Zary, Nabil; McGrath, Cormac
Traditional learning in medical education has been transformed with the advent of information technology. We have recently seen global initiatives to produce online activities in an effort to scale up learning opportunities through learning management systems and massive open online courses for both undergraduate and continued professional education. Despite the positive impact of such efforts, factors such as cost, time, resources, and the specificity of educational contexts restrict the design and exchange of online medical educational activities. The goal is to address the stated issues within the health professions education context while promoting learning by proposing the Online Learning Activities for Medical Education (OLAmeD) concept which builds on unified competency frameworks and generic technical standards for education. We outline how frameworks used to describe a set of competencies for a specific topic in medical education across medical schools in the United States and Europe can be compared to identify commonalities that could result in a unified set of competencies representing both contexts adequately. Further, we examine how technical standards could be used to allow standardization, seamless sharing, and reusability of educational content. The entire process of developing and sharing OLAmeD is structured and presented in a set of steps using as example Urology as a part of clinical surgery specialization. Beyond supporting the development, sharing, and repurposing of educational content, we expect OLAmeD to work as a tool that promotes learning and sets a base for a community of medical educational content developers across different educational contexts.
von Isenburg, Megan; Lee, Linda S; Oermann, Marilyn H
Writing for publication is an integral skill for both sharing research findings and career advancement, yet many faculty lack expertise, support, and time to author scholarly publications. Health professions educators identified writing as an area in which a new educators' academy could offer support. To address this need, a writing task force was formed consisting of a librarian, a School of Medicine faculty member, and a School of Nursing faculty member. The task force launched two initiatives to motivate and support faculty writing and publication over two academic years. In the first year, a structured interprofessional "boot camp" consisting of a sequenced, modularized approach to manuscript completion was offered. In the second year, community building, in-person writing sessions, and incentives were added to the structured tasks. In year one, twenty participants enlisted in the boot camp, nine of whom completed a manuscript for submission by the end of the program. Qualitative feedback indicated potential improvements, which were put in place in the second program. In year two, twenty-eight participants enrolled, and eleven submitted thirteen manuscripts for publication by the end of the program. Structured tasks, frequent deadlines, and professional editorial assistance were highly valued by participants. Time remains a barrier for faculty seeking to complete manuscripts. As experts in many facets of the publication process, librarians are well positioned to partner with others to facilitate faculty and staff development in writing.
Varpio, Lara; Gruppen, Larry; Hu, Wendy; O'Brien, Bridget; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; van der Vleuten, Cees; Hamstra, Stanley J; Durning, Steven J
Health professions education scholarship (HPES) is an important and growing field of inquiry. Problematically, consistent use of terminology regarding the individual roles and organizational structures that are active in this field are lacking. This inconsistency impedes the transferability of current and future findings related to the roles and organizational structures of HPES. Based on data collected during interviews with HPES leaders in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the Netherlands, the authors constructed working definitions for some of the professional roles and an organizational structure that support HPES. All authors reviewed the definitions to ensure relevance across multiple countries. The authors define and offer illustrative examples of three professional roles in HPES (clinician educator, HPES research scientist, and HPES administrative leader) and an organizational structure that can support HPES participation (HPES unit). These working definitions are foundational and not all-encompassing and, thus, are offered as stimulus for international dialogue and understanding. With these working definitions, scholars and administrative leaders can examine HPES roles and organizational structures across and between national contexts to decide how lessons learned in other contexts can be applied to their local contexts. Although rigorously constructed, these definitions need to be vetted by the international HPES community. The authors argue that these definitions are sufficiently transferable to support such scholarly investigation and debate.
Birden, Hudson; Page, Sue
This article offers a primer on how to get started in videoconferencing, focusing on practical approaches to technical and protocol issues. The technical capabilities of videoconferencing systems, linked with initiatives supporting greater rural access to broadband, means videoconferencing is expanding rapidly as a health education tool. Forethought allows the purchase of the most appropriate equipment, reducing costs overall and increasing the functionality of the system. Adherence to simple matters, including etiquette, ensures the experience is enjoyable as well as educational. Consideration should be given to the role of videoconferencing in expanding the social as well as academic opportunities for rural clinicians and students. Videoconferencing is a useful adjunct to traditional educational delivery modes, and can enable quality education opportunities that would be prohibitive due to time, travel, and cost constraints.
Full Text Available The concept of relationship marketing, which the companies operating in service industry adopted from past to present, but the scientific foundations of which have been laid in the last thirty years, stand out with its failure due to the increasing conditions of competition of traditional sense of marketing. The increasing number of members of accounting profession in Turkey has complicated the conditions of survival in this profession. Accordingly, it has been obligatory for the members of the profession to renew and diversify their existing marketing sense. In this study, it was put forward which factors had an impact on customers to prefer the members of accounting profession, and if these factors had a relationship with relations marketing. In the survey study whih was conducted on 755 business managers that purchased accounting service defined via convenience sampling method in Denizli region, it was questioned why they worked with the members of the profession, why they preferred them and to which points they paid attention in selection. The data were subjected to factor analysis in SPSS 15.0 software and nine basic factors were obtained. The results presented that relationshipmarketing had a significant impact on customers to prefer the members of the profession
Huang, Yi; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Huang, Hui; Choiniere, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B
Infant formula is marketed by health professionals and directly to consumers. Formula marketing has been shown to reduce breastfeeding, but the relation with switching formulas has not been studied. Willingness to switch formula can enable families to spend less on formula. Data are from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a United States national longitudinal study. Mothers were asked about media exposure to formula information during pregnancy, receiving formula samples or coupons at hospital discharge, reasons for their formula choice at infant age 1 month, and formula switching at infant ages 2, 5, 7, and 9 months. Analysis included 1,700 mothers who fed formula at infant age 1 month; it used logistic regression and longitudinal data analysis methods to evaluate the association between marketing and formula choice and switching. Most mothers were exposed to both types of formula marketing. Mothers who received a sample of formula from the hospital at birth were more likely to use the hospital formula 1 month later. Mothers who chose formula at 1 month because their doctor recommended it were less likely to switch formula than those who chose in response to direct-to-consumer marketing. Mothers who chose a formula because it was used in the hospital were less likely to switch if they had not been exposed to Internet web-based formula information when pregnant or if they received a formula sample in the mail. Marketing formula through health professionals may decrease mothers' willingness to switch formula. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T; Glatt, Dylan M; Gharkholonarehe, Nastaran; Davidson, Christopher A; Griffin, LaToya M; Esserman, Denise A; Mumper, Russell J
Recent calls for educational reform highlight ongoing concerns about the ability of current curricula to equip aspiring health care professionals with the skills for success. Whereas a wide range of proposed solutions attempt to address apparent deficiencies in current educational models, a growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink the traditional in-class, lecture-based course model. One such proposal is the flipped classroom, in which content is offloaded for students to learn on their own, and class time is dedicated to engaging students in student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry-oriented strategies. In 2012, the authors flipped a required first-year pharmaceutics course at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. They offloaded all lectures to self-paced online videos and used class time to engage students in active learning exercises. In this article, the authors describe the philosophy and methodology used to redesign the Basic Pharmaceutics II course and outline the research they conducted to investigate the resulting outcomes. This article is intended to serve as a guide to instructors and educational programs seeking to develop, implement, and evaluate innovative and practical strategies to transform students' learning experience. As class attendance, students' learning, and the perceived value of this model all increased following participation in the flipped classroom, the authors conclude that this approach warrants careful consideration as educators aim to enhance learning, improve outcomes, and fully equip students to address 21st-century health care needs.
Keune, Hans; Oosterbroek, Bram; Derkzen, Marthe; Subramanian, Suneetha; Payyappalimana, Unnikrishnan; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim
The practice of mapping ecosystem services (ES) in relation to health outcomes is only in its early developing phases. Examples are provided of health outcomes, health proxies and related biophysical indicators. This chapter also covers main health mapping challenges, design options and
Steketee, Gail; Ross, Abigail M; Wachman, Madeline K
Efforts to reduce expensive health service utilization, contain costs, improve health outcomes, and address the social determinants of health require research that demonstrates the economic value of health services in population health across a variety of settings. Social workers are an integral part of the US health care system, yet the specific contributions of social work to health and cost-containment outcomes are unknown. The social work profession's person-in-environment framework and unique skillset, particularly around addressing social determinants of health, hold promise for improving health and cost outcomes. To systematically review international studies of the effect of social work-involved health services on health and economic outcomes. We searched 4 databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index) by using "social work" AND "cost" and "health" for trials published from 1990 to 2017. Abstract review was followed by full-text review of all studies meeting inclusion criteria (social work services, physical health, and cost outcomes). Of the 831 abstracts found, 51 (6.1%) met criteria. Full text review yielded 16 studies involving more than 16 000 participants, including pregnant and pediatric patients, vulnerable low-income adults, and geriatric patients. We examined study quality, health and utilization outcomes, and cost outcomes. Average study quality was fair. Studies of 7 social work-led services scored higher on quality ratings than 9 studies of social workers as team members. Most studies showed positive effects on health and service utilization; cost-savings were consistent across nearly all studies. Despite positive overall effects on outcomes, variability in study methods, health problems, and cost analyses render generalizations difficult. Controlled hypothesis-driven trials are needed to examine the health and cost effects of specific services delivered by social workers independently and through interprofessional team
Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers in Sub- Saharan Africa. ... their pregnancies were normal during antenatal care visits, hostile attitude of health workers, poverty and mode of payment. Majority of the PHCs provided antenatal, normal delivery, and post natal services. Rural mothers lacked ...
Schulte, Timothy J; Isley, Elayne; Link, Nancy; Shealy, Craig N; Winfrey, LaPearl Logan
The profession of psychology is being impacted profoundly by broader changes within the national system of health care, as mental and behavioral health services are being recognized as essential components of a comprehensive, preventive, and cost-efficient primary care system. To fully define and embrace this role, the discipline of professional psychology must develop a shared disciplinary identity of health service psychology and a generalized competency-based model for doctoral education and training. This very framework has been adopted by Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology, which train across the practice areas (clinical, counseling, and school psychology) to provide a general and integrative foundation for their students. Because C-I programs produce general practitioners who are competent to function within a variety of health service settings, this innovative training approach has great potential to educate and train psychologists for a changing health care marketplace. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Racic, Maja; Todorovic, Radica; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Masic, Srdjan; Joksimovic, Bojan; Kulic, Milan
The purpose of the present study was to examine self-perceived stress of health professions students at the Faculty of Medicine Foča, and to explore its association with anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The cross-sectional study enrolled 451 students at the Faculty of Medicine (medicine, dentistry, nursing and speech therapy). Survey instruments were distributed at the conclusion of the spring semester during the last required lecture for each year and study programme class. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. The students were evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety, using Zung's self-assessment inventory for depression and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). European Quality of Life-5 dimensions were used for describing and evaluating health. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression to examine the relationship between the outcome variable and selected determinant factors. A high degree of stress was reported by 1.6% of students, while the majority of students had either moderate (70.6%) or low degree (27.5%) of stress. The significant independent factors associated with perceived stress were anxiety score (OR, 0.339; CI 95%, 0.276-0.403) and EQ-5D score (OR, 0.044; CI 95%, 0.033-0.085). A high degree of perceived stress (OR, 0.624; CI 95%, 0.507-0.704), the presence of depression (OR, 0.800; CI 95%, 0.513-1.087), and low quality of life were associated with anxiety (OR, 0.073; CI 95%, 0.018-0.128). Higher levels of perceived stress predispose health professions students for anxiety and lower quality of life. The study programme was not a significant determinant of perceived stress sore.
Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla
Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860
Successful management of an outsourcing relationship produces a highly interactive, flexible relationship between two organizations. The unique skills and resources of the service provider can be leveraged by the purchasing organization to achieve its business goals. Occupational and environmental health nurses can orchestrate this process and implement this important management tool in the provision of quality occupational health services.
Widmer, Geraldine; And Others
Findings from a study of home care services in one New York district document the value and relatively modest costs of home health care for the chronically ill and dependent elderly. Professional nurses coordinated the care, but most of the direct services were provided by home health aides and housekeepers. (MF)
Full Text Available Dimitrios Papagiannis,1 George Rachiotis,1 Emmanouil K Symvoulakis,2 Alexandros Daponte,3 Ioanna N Grivea,4 George A Syrogiannopoulos,4 Christos Hadjichristodoulou11Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Thessalia, 2Private Family Practice Unit, Heraklion, Crete, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Thessalia Medical School, Thessalia, 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, General University Hospital of Larissa, Thessalia, GreeceBackground: There are still sparse data on vaccination coverage against human papillomavirus (HPV among students in the health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV vaccination coverage in female students from the health professions in Greece.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to second-year and third-year female students pursuing degrees in medicine, nursing, and paramedical health disciplines in central Greece.Results: Overall vaccination coverage was 44.3%. The major reason for lack of vaccination was fear about safety of the vaccine. Participants who had received information about safety of the vaccine from the mass media and paramedical students had lower vaccination coverage in comparison with students who had received information about vaccine safety from alternative sources.Conclusion: Further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to design educational activities targeting female students in the health professions in order to create a positive domino effect and improve HPV vaccination coverage levels in Greece.Keywords: human papillomavirus, vaccination, coverage, students, health professions, mass media, Greece
Byrd, Gary D; Winkelstein, Peter
Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Using the "Principlism" framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.
LeBlanc, Vicki R
This paper is a review of representative research on the impact of acute stressors on the clinical performance of individuals and teams. The Sciences Citation Index, Medline, and Psychinfo were used to search for articles up to and including 2008. The search terms were stress/tension/arousal/anxiety/cortisol/threat, cognition/skills/memory/attention/problem solving/decision making/performance, stress reduction/stress exposure/stress management/stress inoculation, and health professionals/medicine/medical students/residents/physicians/teams. The search was limited to papers in English from all developed countries. Secondary references were selected from primary papers. Elevated stress levels can impede performance on tasks that require divided attention, working memory, retrieval of information from memory, and decision making. These effects appear to be determined by the individual's appraisal of the demands and resources of a situation, the relationship between the stressor and the task, and factors such as coping styles, locus of control, and social supports. Given the potential negative impact of stress on performance, and the individualistic way in which people respond, medical educators might want to consider avenues for training learners in stress management. More research is needed to fully understand the contributions of personal factors such as coping style and locus of control, as well as the relationship of perceptions of stress to issues such as fatigue.
Barrett, Ashley K
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act passed by the U.S. government in 2009 mandates that all healthcare organizations adopt a certified electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. Failure to comply will result in Medicare reimbursement penalties, which steadily increase with each year of delinquency. There are several repercussions of this seemingly top-down, rule-bound organizational change-one of which is employee resistance. Given the penalties for violating EHR meaningful use standards are ongoing, resistance to this mandate presents a serious issue for healthcare organizations. This study surveyed 345 employees in one healthcare organization that recently implemented an EHR. Analysis of variance results offer theoretical and pragmatic contributions by demonstrating physicians, nurses, and employees with more experience in their organization are the most resistant to EHR change. The job characteristics model is used to explain these findings. Hierarchical regression analyses also demonstrate the quality of communication surrounding EHR implementation-from both formal and informal sources-is negatively associated with EHR resistance and positively associated with perceived EHR implementation success and EHR's perceived relative advantage.
Durosaiye, Isaiah Oluremi; Hadjri, Karim; Liyanage, Champika Lasanthi
To explore the existing theoretical contexts of the job and environmental demands of the nursing profession in the National Health Service (NHS) and to investigate how these job and environmental demands impact on the personal constructs of older nurses within the NHS. Nursing is the single most widely practiced profession in the healthcare sector in the United Kingdom. However, nurses contend with challenging job and environmental demands on a daily basis, which deplete them of personal constructs (or resources) required to stay in the profession. A multilevel exploratory qualitative research design was employed. Ten managers were interviewed for the preliminary study, based on which the three characteristics of an age-friendly NHS workplace were established: health, retirement, and flexibility. Then an in-depth literature review revealed that the most adversely affected job within the NHS was the nursing profession. Finally, a focus group study was undertaken with six older nurses working in the NHS. The most compelling finding of this study is that older nurses would generally not want to stay on the job if they had to work in the ward area. The physical, cognitive, and sensory constructs of older nurses are negatively affected by the job and environmental demands of the ward areas. Understanding how these job and environmental demands of the workplace affect an older nurse's personal constructs may help support a better design of nurse work and the wards and help extend the working lives of older nurses in the NHS. © The Author(s) 2015.
Keim Janssen, Sarah A; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Shostrom, Valerie K; Lomneth, Carol S
Hands-on educational experiences can stimulate student interest, increase knowledge retention, and enhance development of clinical skills. The Lachman test, used to assess the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is commonly performed by health care professionals and is relatively easy to teach to first-year health profession students. This study integrated teaching the Lachman test into a first-year anatomy laboratory and examined if students receiving the training would be more confident, competent, and if the training would enhance anatomical learning. First-year medical, physician assistant and physical therapy students were randomly assigned into either the intervention (Group A) or control group (Group B). Both groups received the course lecture on knee anatomy and training on how to perform the Lachman test during a surface anatomy class. Group A received an additional 15 minutes hands-on training for the Lachman test utilizing a lightly embalmed cadaver as a simulated patient. One week later, both groups performed the Lachman test on a lightly embalmed cadaver and later completed a post-test and survey. Students with hands-on training performed significantly better than students with lecture-only training in completing the checklist, a post-test, and correctly diagnosing an ACL tear. Students in Group A also reported being more confident after hands-on training compared to students receiving lecture-only training. Both groups reported that incorporating clinical skill activities facilitated learning and created excitement for learning. Hands-on training using lightly embalmed cadavers as patient simulators increased confidence and competence in performing the Lachman test and aided in learning anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Longuenesse, Elisabeth; Chiffoleau, Sylvia; Kronfol, Nabil; Dewachi, Omar
تتّبع هذه الدراسة الإسهامات الرئيسية في تطور ونشأة سياسات الصحة العامة في الوطن العربي. وعند القيام بذلك، تبزغ عدة أفكار رئيسية من بين أخرى كثيرة؛ من مثل: تأثير الاستعمار والمواجهة مع الطب الغربي، وعلاقة الصحة العامة ببناء الدولة ومشروع التحديث، ودور مهنة الطب، وكذلك التغيير في السياسات تبعاً لتغيير الواقع السياسي والاقتصادي. ونعتزم تطوير هذه الأفكار الرئيسية وإظهار تفاعلاتها المعقّدة التي تصيب أسس الصحة العامة الحديثة.; This chapter highlights the importance of public health in the construct...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Full Text Available Background and objectives : Health Services cost analyzing is an important management tool for evidence-based decision making in health system. This study was conducted with the purpose of cost analyzing and identifying the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in urban health centers in Tabriz. Material and Methods : This study was a descriptive and analytic study. Activity Based Costing method (ABC was used for cost analyzing. This cross–sectional survey analyzed and identified the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in Tabriz urban health centers. The statistical population of this study was comprised of urban community health centers in Tabriz. In this study, a multi-stage sampling method was used to collect data. Excel software was used for data analyzing. The results were described with tables and graphs. Results : The study results showed the portion of different factors in various health services. Human factors by 58%, physical space 8%, medical equipment 1.3% were allocated with high portion of expenditures and costs of health services in Tabriz urban health centers. Conclusion : Based on study results, since the human factors included the highest portion of health services costs and expenditures in Tabriz urban health centers, balancing workload with staff number, institutionalizing performance-based management and using multidisciplinary staffs may lead to reduced costs of services.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio
A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health
VDH Industrial Hygiene CC.PO. Box ... conducted to establish relations of mining activities to human health at Selebi. Phikwe is called for. .... Table 1: Demographic data of health service providers and patients in the study area. Medical ...
Bramesfeld, A; Stegbauer, C
The World Health Organisation has defined health service responsiveness as one of the key-objectives of health systems. Health service responsiveness relates to the ability to respond to service users' legitimate expectations on non-medical issues when coming into contact with the services of a healthcare system. It is defined by the areas showing respect for persons and patient orientation. Health service responsiveness is particularly relevant to mental health services, due to the specific vulnerability of mental health patients but also because it matches what mental health patients consider as good quality of care as well as their priorities when seeking healthcare. As (mental) health service responsiveness applies equally to all concerned services it would be suitable as a universal indicator for the quality of services' performance. However, performance monitoring programs in mental healthcare rarely assess health service performance with respect to meeting patient priorities. This is in part due of patient priorities as an outcome being underrepresented in studies that evaluate service provision. The lack of studies using patient priorities as outcomes transmits into evidence based guidelines and subsequently, into underrepresentation of patient priorities in performance monitoring. Possible ways out of this situation include more intervention studies using patient priorities as outcome, considering evidence from qualitative studies in guideline development and developing performance monitoring programs along the patient pathway and on key-points of relevance for service quality from a patient perspective.
Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F
Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region.
Kelly, Martina; Ellaway, Rachel H; Reid, Helen; Ganshorn, Heather; Yardley, Sarah; Bennett, Deirdre; Dornan, Tim
Qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) is a suite of methodologies that combine qualitative techniques with the synthesis of qualitative knowledge. They are particularly suited to medical education as these approaches pool findings from original qualitative studies, whilst paying attention to context and theoretical development. Although increasingly sophisticated use is being made of qualitative primary research methodologies in health professions education (HPE) the use of secondary qualitative reviews in HPE remains underdeveloped. This study examined QES methods applied to clinical humanism in healthcare as a way of advancing thinking around the use of QES in HPE in general. A systematic search strategy identified 49 reviews that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-study was used to develop an analytic summary of methodological characteristics, the role of theory, and the synthetic processes used in QES reviews. Fifteen reviews used a defined methodology, and 17 clearly explained the processes that led from data extraction to synthesis. Eight reviews adopted a specific theoretical perspective. Authors rarely described their reflexive relationship with their data. Epistemological positions tended to be implied rather than explicit. Twenty-five reviews included some form of quality appraisal, although it was often unclear how authors acted on its results. Reviewers under-reported qualitative approaches in their review methodologies, and tended to focus on elements such as systematicity and checklist quality appraisal that were more germane to quantitative evidence synthesis. A core concern was that the axiological (value) dimensions of the source materials were rarely considered let alone accommodated in the synthesis techniques used. QES can be used in HPE research but only with careful attention to maintaining axiological integrity.
This circular consolidates and updates advice on the statutory and management responsibilities of Health Authorities in relation to the use of ionising radiations (including radioactive substances) on premises controlled by them and/or by persons employed by them (author)
Bruinsma, Marjon; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.
This study investigated 198 pre-service teachers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for becoming teachers and focused on the distinction between adaptive motives, which promote lasting and effective engagement, and maladaptive motives, which promote superficial engagement. We examined the
... understanding of the structure and function of the human body in health and disease. The educational program includes training in the basic medical sciences, including anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. The education allows a doctor ...
Perrott, Bruce E
This article will explore the concept and meaning of codesign as it applies to the delivery of health services. The results of a pilot study in health codesign will be used as a research based case discussion, thus providing a platform to suggest future research that could lead to building more robust knowledge of how the consumers of health services may be more effectively involved in the process of developing and delivering the type of services that are in line with expectations of the various stakeholder groups.
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
This annotated bibliography contains books, journal articles, visual aids, and other documents pertaining to emergency health care, which are organized according to: (1) publications dealing with day-to-day health emergencies that occur at home, work, and play, (2) documents that will help communities prepare for emergencies, including natural…
Wolfe, Ingrid; Thompson, Matthew; Gill, Peter; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Blair, Mitch; van den Bruel, Ann; Ehrich, Jochen; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Janson, Staffan; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin
Western European health systems are not keeping pace with changes in child health needs. Non-communicable diseases are increasingly common causes of childhood illness and death. Countries are responding to changing needs by adapting child health services in different ways and useful insights can be gained through comparison, especially because some have better outcomes, or have made more progress, than others. Although overall child health has improved throughout Europe, wide inequities remain. Health services and social and cultural determinants contribute to differences in health outcomes. Improvement of child health and reduction of suffering are achievable goals. Development of systems more responsive to evolving child health needs is likely to necessitate reconfiguring of health services as part of a whole-systems approach to improvement of health. Chronic care services and first-contact care systems are important aspects. The Swedish and Dutch experiences of development of integrated systems emphasise the importance of supportive policies backed by adequate funding. France, the UK, Italy, and Germany offer further insights into chronic care services in different health systems. First-contact care models and the outcomes they deliver are highly variable. Comparisons between systems are challenging. Important issues emerging include the organisation of first-contact models, professional training, arrangements for provision of out-of-hours services, and task-sharing between doctors and nurses. Flexible first-contact models in which child health professionals work closely together could offer a way to balance the need to provide expertise with ready access. Strategies to improve child health and health services in Europe necessitate a whole-systems approach in three interdependent systems-practice (chronic care models, first-contact care, competency standards for child health professionals), plans (child health indicator sets, reliable systems for capture and
Jun 3, 2013 ... K B Rebe,1 MB ChB, FCP (SA), DTM&H, Dip HIV Man (SA); G De Swardt,1 BA, MW; H Struthers,1 MBA; ... the country's previous National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS,. STIs and ..... Marketing MSM-appropriate services is.
Kwantes, J.H.; Hooftman, W.; Michiel, F.
The position, role and aim of the protective and preventive services (article 7 of the Framework directive (89/391/EEC within the legal OSH-system will be the focus point of this article. Article 13 of the EU Treaty gives the EU the possibility to draft a legal framework on occupational safety and
Since mechanization is progressing more and more in the health service, especially in the hospitals, persons working in medical assisting professions must increase their knowledge and understanding of technical and physical matters. This book aims at showing the physical connections important for the medical sphere and to describe their application in medicine. The topics of the book were selected according to the 'physical profile' of a modern large hospital and to the legally assigned subjects for physics in nursing training. Contents and presentation of the subjects have been proving good for several years in physics taught in nursing schools. (orig./RW) [de
Strand, Mark A; Tellers, Jackie; Patterson, Alan; Ross, Alex; Palombi, Laura
It is known that pharmacists are currently contributing to public health; however, the extent of this contribution as reported in the literature has not been examined. Investigating the ways that pharmacists are currently participating in public health is critical for the profession of pharmacy, pharmacy educators, and the public health community. The purpose of this study was to determine the reported contributions of pharmacy to each of the ten essential services of public health, and which of the five core competencies of public health were most frequently utilized in those contributions. A PubMed search was used to extract references that included both the words pharmacy and services in the title or abstract, and the words public health in any part of the document. A total of 247 references were extracted and categorized into the essential services and core competencies. The essential services Inform, Educate, and Empower, and Link to/Provide Care were more frequently represented in the literature, and the core competency of Health Policy and Administration was most frequently utilized. To further contribute to and integrate their contributions within population health, pharmacists must consider ways to strategically contribute to the essential services of public health and seek to increase competency in public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milner, Kerry A; Bradley, Holly B; Lampley, Tammy
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an essential skill and ethical obligation for all practicing health professions clinicians because of its strong association with improved health outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that faculty who prepare these clinicians lack proficiency to teach EBP. The purpose of this study was to describe; 1) health profession faculty beliefs about and confidence in their ability to teach and implement EBP, 2) use of EBP for education, 3) organizational culture and readiness for EBP; and to determine whether relationships exist among these variables. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. College of Nursing (CON) and College of Health Professions (CHP) faculty from a university located in the Northeast, United States. Faculty were defined as anyone teaching a course for the CON or CHP during the fall of 2016. Faculty were invited to complete an electronic survey measuring EBP beliefs, EBP use, and EBP organizational culture and readiness. The survey was comprised of three tools developed specifically for health professions educators in 2010 by Fineout-Overholt & Melnyk. Sixty-nine faculty returned usable surveys (25.5% response rate). Mean EBP beliefs score was 89.49 (SD = 10.94) indicating respondents had a firm belief in and confidence in their ability to implement and teach EBP. Mean EBP use was 32.02 (SD = 20.59) indicating that respondents taught and implemented EBP between 1 and 3 times in the last 8-weeks. Mean EBP culture and readiness score was 90.20 (SD = 15.23) indicating essential movement toward a sustainable culture of college-wide integration of EBP. Mean scores for beliefs/confidence were higher for full-time clinical faculty compared to other groups [F (2, 55) = 0.075, p = 0.928; ηp 2 = 0.003)]. Adjunct faculty reported higher EBP behaviors expected by health profession educators in the last 8-weeks compared to other groups [F (2, 55) = 0.251, p = 0.779; ηp 2 . =0
The work of health service access points highlights the process of exclusion through marginalisation, the phenomenon of precarity and anthropological tensions between hospitality and inhospitality or between the desirable and undesirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This booklet gives outline guidance on the use of ionising radiations in the Health Service in the United Kingdom. Extensive reference is made to documents where more detailed information may be found. The guidance covers general advice on the medical use of ionising radiations, statutory requirements, and guidance on selected Health Service issues such as patient identification procedures, information management systems, deviations from prescribed radiation dose, imaging and radiotherapy. (57 references) (U.K.)
This paper deals with the use of a communication audit as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness of public relations within health services. The research was conducted within healthcare institutions operating in the Czech Republic. Areas of research questions were focused on these aspects of health services: The approach to the implementation of a communication audit: Is the communication audit tied to the level of public relations effectiveness evaluation? Is the approach influenced by publ...
Report on the behalf of the Commission for social affairs on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-48 of 19 January 2017 related to the profession of medical physicist and the decree 2017-50 of 19 January 2017 related to the acknowledgement of professional qualifications in the field of health, on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-31 of 12 January 2017 for the coherence of texts with respect to arrangements of law 216-41 of 26 January 2016 for the modernisation of our health system, and on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-644 of 27 April 2017 related to the adaptation of legal arrangements related to the operation of health profession orders. Nr 10
After a statement of conclusions made by the Commission, this parliamentary report briefly indicates and presents the addressed decrees and bill projects. Then, it reports the examination of the various concerned articles which thus first addresses the definition of the profession of medical physicist: overview of the profession, of concerned centres, opinion of the Commission. The next part addresses the acknowledgement of professional qualifications in the field of health: proposed arrangement with a transition of the European law, implementation of a procedure for a partial access to medical and paramedical professions, new arrangements for stronger controls, conditions for a free service providing, acknowledgement of professional qualifications for equipment-related professions and for the use of the title of psychotherapist. It discusses articles which bring texts into coherence with respect to arrangements of the French law on modernisation of the French health system, and the adaptation of legal arrangements related to the operation of health profession orders. Commission debates, a list of hearings, and comparative tables of article contents are provided
Curran, Vernon; Noseworthy, Tanya
This synthesis report provides an extensive overview of literature evaluating use and effectiveness of distance learning technologies in delivering continuing education (CE) for health professionals. Chapter 2 discusses advantages and disadvantages of correspondence materials, explores suggestions for improving print-based learning materials, and…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National... Services Administration (HRSA), Parklawn Building (and via audio conference call), 5600 Fishers Lane, Room... and Services Administration, Parklawn Building, Room 13-64, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland...
Connor, Margaret; Nelson, Katherine; Maisey, Jane
Health Reporoa Inc. offers a first contact rural nursing service to the village of Reporoa and surrounding districts. From 2003 to 2006 it became a project site through selection for the Ministry of Health (MoH) primary health care nursing innovation funding. Health Reporoa Inc. successfully achieved its project goals and gained an ongoing contract from Lakes District Health Board to consolidate and further expand its services at the close of the funding period. This paper examines the impact of the innovation funding during the project period and in the two years that followed. The major impact came through an expansion of the accessible free health service to the local population; advancing nursing practice; increased connection to the nursing profession and wider health community, and enhanced affirmation of the nursing contribution. The rural nursing service model developed at Health Reporoa, through the benefit of innovation funding, can now act as a blueprint for other rural health services, particularly those in high deprivation areas.
Silver, Shawn A
Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.
Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe
To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Caroly, S; Landry, A; Cholez, C; Davezies, P; Bellemare, M; Poussin, N
Given the ageing population of occupational health physicians and the deteriorating situation of employee health, reforms targeting the multi-disciplinary nature of occupational health are currently being drawn up. These are of great concern to doctors in terms of the future of occupational health, notably with regard to changing medical practices. The objective of this study is to explore the actual practices of occupational health physicians within the framework of MSD prevention in France. By analysing the activity of occupational health physicians, we could gain a better understanding of the coordination between those involved in OHS with the ultimate goal being to improve prevention. Based on an analysis of peer activity, this method made it possible to push beyond pre-constructed discourse. According to activity theories, it is through others that the history and controversies of a profession can be grasped and skills developed. The results produced by these collective discussions on activity analysis contributed to establish a collective point of view about the important aspects of their profession that need defending and the variations in professional genre in relation to the current reforms, notably.
Gosling, George Campbell
The arrival of the British National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 heralded significant changes for all health workers, but the establishment of a 'free' health service was especially meaningful for the hospital almoners-or medical social workers, as they were starting to be known-who had previously been responsible for the assessment and collection of patient payments. It was on this basis they had gained a foothold in the hospital, capitalising on gendered assumptions of financial understanding and behaviour. Yet what might have caused an identity crisis was embraced. This was a dual strategy of both repositioning the profession in alignment with the planned NHS and of asserting an enhanced professional status by distancing themselves from the handling of payment. It was an episode in the history of this distinctly female profession that speaks to women's historic relationship with money.
Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio
The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority; Correction AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: HRSA published a document in the Federal...
Background: data from different studies showed health care behaviour and estimated per capita health care expenditure for the general population, but the specific data for infants at different levels of care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe mothers' health service utilization during pregnancy and ...
Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gordon, Morris
Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment. This method is also used to explore how KT can be used to inform teaching and learning. The nature of educational research is not compatible with most (11/14) methods for systematic review. The inconsistency of systematic reviewing with the nature of educational research impedes both the identification and implementation of "best-evidence" pedagogy and teaching. This is primarily because research questions that do support the purposes of review do not support educational decision making. By contrast to systematic reviews of the literature, both a DOFA and KT are fully compatible with informing teaching using evidence. A DOFA supports the translation of theory to a specific teaching or learning case, so could be considered a type of KT. The DOFA results in a test of alignment of decision options with relevant educational theory, and KT leads to interventions in teaching or learning that can be evaluated. Examples of how to structure evaluable interventions are derived from a KT approach that are simply not available from a systematic review. Insights: Systematic reviewing of current empirical educational research is not suitable for deriving or supporting best practices in education. However, both "evidence-informed" and scholarly approaches to teaching can be supported as KT projects, which are inherently evaluable and can generate
The general conditions influencing the quality assurance and audit in Polish occupational health services are presented. The factors promoting or hampering the implementation of quality assurance and audits are also discussed. The major influence on the transformation of Polish occupational health services in exorted by employers who are committed to cover the costs of the obligatory prophylactic examination of their employees. This is the factor which also contributes to the improvement of quality if services. The definitions of the most important terms are reviewed to highlight their accordance with the needs of occupational health services in Poland. The examples of audit are presented and the elements of selected methods of auditing are suggested to be adopted in Poland.
marijuana means for Alaska and you. Careline: 1-877-266-HELP (4357) Alaska's Tobacco Quitline Learn the Twitter Find us on Facebook Quicklinks Alaska Opioid Policy Task Force "Spice" Synthetic Marijuana Health Information Alaska State Plan for Senior Services, FY 2016-FY 2019 Get health insurance at
health services, specifically introducing free health care for pregnant women and ... new government to transform a society built upon inequity. The data on which this ... clinic we teenagers they treat us very bad, they hit us and insult us so it is ...
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249
Danielsen, Solveig; Centeno, Julio; López, Julio
to the creation of a ‘National Plant Health System’ offering regular advice to farmers. The innovations were driven by a momentum for change, committed individuals, joint learning and flexibility in programme management. External facilitation encouraged experimentation and bolstered growth of new alliances....... The development of the national plant health system was constrained by existing work cultures that limit the scope of individual and institutional innovations.......Establishing a few community-based plant clinics in Nicaragua led to a series of innovations in plant health service delivery. A grassroots experiment became a nationwide initiative involving local service providers, universities, research institutions and diagnostic laboratories. This led...
... Provisions § 441.15 Home health services. With respect to the services defined in § 440.70 of this subchapter, a State plan must provide that— (a) Home health services include, as a minimum— (1) Nursing services... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home health services. 441.15 Section 441.15 Public...
Moore, R T [Bureau of Radiological Health, RockviIle, MD (United States)
The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)
The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)
McBride, J R [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)
Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a... Receive Care? § 136a.15 Health Service Delivery Areas. (a) The Indian Health Service will designate and... Federal Indian reservations and areas surrounding those reservations as Health Service Delivery Areas. (b...
... Definitions § 440.20 Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services. (a) Outpatient hospital... services that are not generally furnished by most hospitals in the State. (b) Rural health clinic services... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital services and rural health...
Sorensen, Roslyn; Iedema, Rick; Severinsson, Elisabeth
To examine nursing leadership in contemporary health care and its potential contribution to health service organization and management. As the nursing profession repositions itself as an equal partner in health care beside medicine and management, its enhanced nursing standards and clinical knowledge are not leading to a commensurate extension of nursing's power and authority in the organization. An ethnographic study of an ICU in Sydney, Australia, comprising: interviews with unit nursing managers (4); focus groups (3) with less experienced, intermediate and experienced nurses (29 in total); and interviews with senior nurse manager (1). Inter- and intra-professional barriers in the workplace, fragmentation of multidisciplinary clinical systems that collectively deliver care, and clinical and administrative disconnection in resolving organizational problems, prevented nurses articulating a model of intensive and end-of-life care. Professional advocacy skills are needed to overcome barriers and to articulate and operationalize new nursing knowledge and standards if nurses are to enact and embed a leadership role. The profession will need to move beyond a reliance on professional clinical models to become skilled multidisciplinary team members and professional advocates for nurses to take their place as equal partners in health care.
Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary
A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719
Zhang, Yanting; Dong, Siqin; Fang, Wenjie; Chai, Xiaohui; Mei, Jiaojiao; Fan, Xiuzhen
Academic procrastination has been a widespread problem behavior among undergraduates. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, and explore the mediation effects of self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure in the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination. A cross-sectional design was used to study 1184 undergraduates in health professions from China. Participants completed measures of academic procrastination, self-esteem, self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure. We used Pearson product-moment correlation to examine the bivariate correlations between study variables, and path analysis to examine mediation. Among the 1184 undergraduates, 877 (74.1%) procrastinated on at least one type of academic task. The total score for academic procrastination was negatively correlated with scores for self-esteem and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and positively correlated with the score for fear of failure. Moreover, the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination was fully mediated by self-efficacy for self-regulation (indirect effect: β = - .15, 95% bootstrap CI - .19 to - .11) and fear of failure (indirect effect: β = - .06, 95% bootstrap CI - .09 to - .04). These findings suggest that interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy for self-regulation and the conquest of fear of failure may prevent or reduce academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, especially for those with lower self-esteem.
Students' Perspectives to Health Care Services in Lithuania Introduction. The Rights of Patients and Compensation for the Damage to Their Health Act defines health care services as safe and effective means to take care of health, identify, diagnose and treat diseases and provide nursing services. The aims set out in a policy of health care services are fairly broad and, among others, include the improvement of both the quality and the availability of health care services. The issues of increa...
.... Data were gathered from academic and popular literature for evaluation. Sufficient evidence exists in literature to identify the factors of special knowledge and service orientation of a profession as critical to professional...
Full Text Available Orientation: The community service initiative, a 1-year placement of health graduates, significantly improved human resource availability in the South African public health sector, even though the process was fraught with challenges. Although experiences in the curative health sector were assessed, the experiences of environmental health practitioners were yet to be studied. Research purpose: This study assessed the experiences of environmental health practitioners during their community service year. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence suggested problems with the process. This study endeavoured to identify the challenges whilst taking cognisance of its effectiveness. Method: A total of n = 40 environmental health graduates from the Durban University of Technology who had concluded community service completed questionnaires in this crosssectional quantitative study. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations were used to analyse the data. Main findings: The timing of community service placements was critical as 58% of respondents had to repay study loans. The placement of married respondents (10% outside KwaZuluNatal, however, could have had impacts on family structures. Only 68% felt stimulated by their job functions, and there arose challenges with accommodation and overtime duties. Respondents felt that their tertiary education did equip them and that engagement with senior personnel helped in their professional development. Even though most of the review of the community service year appeared to be positive, a majority of respondents did not intend to continue working or recommending their workplaces. Future career pathing showed that 79% would prefer to be employed outside the public sector. Practical and managerial implications: The process needs to be reviewed to strengthen human resource management and enhance retention in the often overloaded and under-resourced South African public health sector. Contribution
Jocelyne Kane Berman
Full Text Available Despite their numerical superiority women do not occupy positions o f power and authority in the health services generally. This is perceived as being due to a variety of factors which prevent women from realising their ful l potential as managers. In other parts of the world, as well as in South Africa, middle class white males have dominated health services, since medicine became a form al science, usurping the traditional role of women healers. Some research indicates that women are inclined to practice “feminine " management styles. It is suggested that the femine I masculine dichotomy is artificial and that qualities which ensure effective management should not be regarded as genderlinked. Leaders in the health services should strive for interdisciplinary, mixed-gender education and training at all levels. Identification and development of management potential in women health-care professionals, role-modelling and sponsor-mentor relationships should be encouraged to allow women to acquire the full range of management skills and to achieve positions of power and authority in the health services.
This report reviews the findings since 1987 in the field of research related to the possible impact of nuclear war and nuclear explosions on health and health services. An annex contains the finding and conclusions of a 1989 United Nations study on the climatic and other effects of nuclear war. 1 tab
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Liang Youxin; Xiang Quanyong
In China, the origin of occupational health started in the mid 1950s soon after the founding of the People's Republic of China. However, more complete concept and practice of occupational health was defined after the early 1980s, when China started her full-scale drive for economic reform and policy of openness. The integrity intends to cover occupational health, occupational medicine, industrial toxicology, industrial hygiene, occupational ergonomics, and occupational psychology as theoretical and practical components of occupational health. As a result, occupational health in China has undergone many changes and has improved over the past decades. These changes and improvements came about, most likely due to a new scheme, where a holistic approach of the recognition, regulation, and provision of occupational health services in a wider coverage is gradually formed and brought into effect. This presentation provides the current status of occupational health and safety problems, the latest legislative to occupational health and safety, and a general scenario of the organizational structure and function of occupational health services in China. It attempts to share with participants both our experience and lessons learned towards creating a more open and effective channel of ideas and information sharing
Zufiaurre, Benjamin; de Villarreal, Maider Pérez
Nurses as professionals of health, childhood education teachers, social workers and caregivers, join a group of "feminine professions" which grew through policies of a welfare state in postwar constructive period, or in times of postwar accords (Jones, 1983). These professions are under challenge because of neoliberal policies and…
Full Text Available The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is also changing with more women entering the workforce and a greater acceptance of parttime working arrangements. In some countries doctors have relinquished the responsibility for emergency out of hours care in general practice and personal continuity of care is no longer on offer. The profession is also challenged by policy makers’ enthusiasm for guidelines while the focus on multidisciplinary teamwork makes it more likely that patients will routinely be able to consult professionals other than medical practitioners. At the same time the internet has changed patient expectations so that health care providers will be expected to deploy information technology to satisfy patients. Medicine still has a great deal to offer. Information may be readily available on the internet, but it is not an independently sufficient, prerequisite for people to contend with the physical and psychological distress associated with disease and disability. We need to understand and promote the crucial role doctors play in society at a time of tremendous change in the attitudes to, and within, the profession.
Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia
The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick
In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina
The profile of the medical profession is changing in terms of employment conditions, attitudes towards the profession and the lifestyle of young physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) what modifications should be made in the specialty-qualification curriculum to allow for a better balance of career and personal life, (2) what institutional conditions and (3) what personal attitudes and behaviour are required for physicians to successfully combine career and family. As part of a prospective survey on the career development of Swiss medical school graduates (SwissMedCareer Study) begun in 2001, 526 physicians (274 females, 52.1%; 252 males, 47.9%) participated in the sixth assessment in 2010. The graduates were asked by mail-out questionnaires to provide free response answers to the three questions formulated above. Their statements were transcribed, content categories were inductively formulated for each question, and their descriptions were written down in a code manual. Responses were encoded according to the said manual and assigned to content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with chi-square tests for gender differences. The 526 participants made 457 statements on the first question, 1,038 on the second, and 937 on the third. Content analysis of the physicians' answers yielded nine categories dealing with desired changes to the specialty qualification curriculum, eight categories addressing changes in institutional conditions, and nine categories concerning personal attitudes and behaviour. Of all responses to the first question, 70% fell into the top three ranking categories of "specialty qualification requirements", "part-time jobs" and "structured residency programmes". The three top-ranking categories ("childcare facilities", part-time jobs", "working hours") yielded by responses to the second question accounted for 87% of the statements. Distribution of the responses
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...
Ross, Abigail M.; Wachman, Madeline K.
examine the health and cost effects of specific services delivered by social workers independently and through interprofessional team-based care. Public Health Implications. The economic and health benefits reported in these studies suggest that the broad health perspective taken by the social work profession for patient, personal, and environmental needs may be particularly valuable for achieving goals of cost containment, prevention, and population health. Novel approaches that move beyond cost savings to articulate the specific value-added of social work are much needed. As health service delivery focuses increasingly on interprofessional training, practice, and integrated care, more research testing the impact of social work prevention and intervention efforts on the health and well-being of vulnerable populations while also measuring societal costs and benefits is essential. PMID:29236534
To more effectively address individuals' and couples' sexual and reproductive health needs, innovative service delivery ... We collected qualitative data from six focus group discussions and 10 husband-wife in- .... Counseling partners together in their home may .... young men (13.2 percent versus 3.9 percent in ages.
Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.
Full Text Available The death of the English National Health Service (NHS has been pronounced many times over the years, but the time and cause of death and the murder weapon remains to be fully established. This article reviews some of these claims, and asks for clearer criteria and evidence to be presented.
Levy, J S
The author introduces the concept of service guarantees for application in health care and differentiates between explicit, implicit, and conditional vs. unconditional types of guarantees. An example of an unconditional guarantee of satisfaction is provided by the hospitality industry. Firms conveying an implicit guarantee are those with outstanding reputations for products such as luxury automobiles, or ultimate customer service, like Nordstrom. Federal Express and Domino's Pizza offer explicit guarantees of on-time delivery. Taking this concept into efforts to improve health care delivery involves a number of caveats. Customers invited to use exceptional service cards may use these to record either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The cards need to provide enough specific information about issues so that "immediate action could be taken to improve processes." Front-line employees should be empowered to respond to complaints in a meaningful way to resolve the problem before the client leaves the premises.
Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.
Miller, Karen; Clark, Donna
The paper aims to explore the increasing feminisation of the medical profession and career progression of women in the medical profession. Furthermore, the paper explores the implications of gender segregation in the medical profession for health service provision. The paper presents an overview of studies in this area and draws upon primary, empirical research with medical practitioners and medical students. However, unlike most other studies the sample includes male and female participants. The research involved elite interviews and self-completion questionnaires in order to provide perspectives of both male and female medical practitioners and medical students. The findings are consistent with those of other studies; that gender discrimination and segregation is still prevalent in the medical profession. But there are significant differences in perceptions between the genders. Moreover, it is concluded that the gendered career structure and organisational culture of the health sector and medical profession create a role conflict between personal and professional lives. The current difficulties in reconciling this role conflict create barriers to the career progression of women in the medical profession. Further research in this area could include a longitudinal study of medical students and the impact of changes in the design of medical training and career structures to assess whether these changes enable female career progression in the medical profession. Further analysis is needed of gendered practices and career development in specific specialist areas, and the role of the medical profession, NHS and Royal Colleges should play in addressing gender and career progression in medicine. Gender segregation (vertical and horizontal) in the medical profession will have implications for the attraction, retention and increased shortages of practitioners in hospital and surgical specialities with the resultant economic and health provision inefficiencies. The paper
Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Darzi, Ara
Robots have long captured our imagination and are being used increasingly in health care. In this paper we summarize, organize and criticize the health care robotics literature and highlight how the social and technical elements of robots iteratively influence and redefine each other. We suggest the need for increased emphasis on sociological dimensions of using robots, recognizing how social and work relations are restructured during changes in practice. Further, we propose the usefulness of a 'service logic' in providing insight as to how robots can influence health care innovation. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2011.
Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest
as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...
Lin, Michelle; Thoma, Brent; Trueger, N Seth; Ankel, Felix; Sherbino, Jonathan; Chan, Teresa
Quality assurance concerns about social media platforms used for education have arisen within the medical education community. As more trainees and clinicians use resources such as blogs and podcasts for learning, we aimed to identify quality indicators for these resources. A previous study identified 151 potentially relevant quality indicators for these social media resources. To identify quality markers for blogs and podcasts using an international cohort of health professions educators. A self-selected group of 44 health professions educators at the 2014 International Conference on Residency Education participated in a Social Media Summit during which a modified Delphi consensus study was conducted to determine which of the 151 quality indicators met the a priori ≥90% inclusion threshold. Thirteen quality indicators classified into the domains of credibility (n=8), content (n=4) and design (n=1) met the inclusion threshold. The quality indicators that were identified may serve as a foundation for further research on quality indicators of social media-based medical education resources and prompt discussion of their legitimacy as a form of educational scholarship. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.
Jan 16, 2013 ... Objective: To determine students' perception of health care services provided in a tertiary institution and ... evaluation of health services utilization among students in the .... African culture and health. ... Asian Am Pac Isl J.
2Addis Ababa University, College of Health Science, School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, ... Results: Among all health facilities, 59% of health facilities offer services for .... provide good-quality client services for diabetes,.
Building capacity for education research among clinical educators in the health professions: A BEME (Best Evidence Medical Education) Systematic Review of the outcomes of interventions: BEME Guide No. 34.
Ahmed, Rabia; Farooq, Ameer; Storie, Dale; Hartling, Lisa; Oswald, Anna
There is a growing desire for health professions educators to generate high-quality education research; yet, few of them encounter the training to do so. In response, health professions faculties have increasingly been devoting resources to provide members with the skills necessary for education research. The form and impact of these efforts have not been reviewed, though such a synthesis could be useful for practice. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) identify interventions aimed at building capacity for education research among health professions clinical educators and (2) review the outcomes of these interventions. We developed a systematic review protocol based on our pilot scoping search. This protocol underwent peer review and was prospectively registered with the Best Evidence Medical Education Collaboration. Based on this protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of health professions' databases and related grey literature. Systematic methods were applied: two independent reviewers completed title screening and full text review for inclusion, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment. Studies were included if they reported outcomes for interventions designed to increase capacity for health professions clinical educators to conduct education research. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the evidence which included detailed reporting of intervention characteristics and outcomes. Our search returned 14, 149 results, 241 of which were retained after title and abstract screening, and 30 of which met inclusion criteria after full text review. Seven groups of interventions were identified, the most frequent being teaching scholars programs (n = 10), health professions education fellowships (n = 3) or master's programs (n = 4). The most commonly measured outcome was change related to enhanced scholarly outputs (grants, papers, abstracts, and presentations) post-intervention. Unfortunately, most of the included
Ferguson, E. B.; Humbert, P.; Long, I. D.; Tipton, D. A.
Comprehensive occupational health services are provided to approximately 17,000 workers at the Kennedy Space Center and an additional 6000 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. These areas cover about 120,000 acres encompassing part of the Merritt Island Wild Life Refuge and wetlands which are the habitat of numerous endangered and protected species of wildlife. The services provided at the Kennedy Space Center optimally assure a safe and healthy working environment for the employees engaged in the preparation and launching of this country's Space Shuttle and other important space exploration programs.
Medina, Carmen; Salvador, Xavier; Faixedas, M Teresa; Gallo, Pedro
The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care. A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care. Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables. The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.
Eva María Trescastro-López
Full Text Available During the first world war and the subsequent post-war period, hunger and malnutrition became such severe problems that Governments and international agencies were spurred into action. Between 1920 and 1930, a new culture of nutrition emerged in the global arena. Nutrition and dietetics began to receive careful consideration and national and international policies on nutrition started to take shape. During the interwar period, many countries created food hygiene services and launched national institutes of nutrition, and it was within these welfare and research scenarios that the first steps were taken towards professionalization of the role of dietitian and nutritionist, since the community approach taken to nutritional problems highlighted the need for trained professionals to apply knowledge of nutrition. This circumstance favored the creation of a professional role linked to a collective approach to the problem of malnutrition whilst maintaining its roots in the field of inpatient care and clinical nutrition. Nutrition attained its distinct professional identity above all in the context of public health.
Hankir, Ahmed; Hankir, Mohammed; Zaman, Rashid
Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the UK, one in four people are considered overweight or obese and that number is expected to rise to one in three by 2020. Employees of the National Health Service (NHS) are no exception with up to half of healthcare workers considered overweight or obese. Religious periods such as Christmas and Ramadan are associated with weight changes. Weight gain has been reported during the Christmas period albeit not as much as was traditionally believed according to the results of recent research. Conversely, weight loss has been reported in Muslims who fast during the Islamic month of Ramadan; however, this amount tends to be modest and weight gradually returns to pre-Ramadan status according to a meta-analysis of the literature. We report a case of an NHS healthcare worker - which is the first of its kind that illustrates the role that fasting and other factors have played a role in causing dramatic oscillations in his weight.
Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz
We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: No research data exists on forensic psychiatric service provision in the Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa. The objective of this research was to assess current forensic psychiatric service provision and utilisation rates at Fort England Hospital. This is important in improving and strengthening the service. A related objective was to develop a model for a provincial prison mental health service. Methodology: This study is a situational analysis of an existing forensic psychiatric service in the Eastern Cape. The design of the study was cross sectional. An audit questionnaire was utilised to collate quantitative data, which was submitted to Fort England Hospital, Grahamstown. A proposed prison mental health service was developed utilising prevalence rates of mental illness among prisoners to calculate bed and staff requirements for an ambulatory and in-patient service. Results: During the study period a total of 403 remand detainees were admitted to the forensic psychiatry division of Fort England Hospital. The average length of stay was 494 days and the bed utilisation rate was determined at 203.54%. We estimate that to provide a provincial prison mental health service to treat psychotic illnesses and major depression the province requires a 52 bedded facility and a total staff complement of approximately 31. Conclusions: Forensic psychiatric services include the assessment, management and treatment of mentally disordered persons in conflict with the law and prisoners requiring psychiatric assessments. The Eastern Cape Province does not have plans or policies to assess and manage mentally ill offenders, resulting in an increased load on available services. We recommend that an inter-departmental task team, which includes Health, Justice and Constitutional Development and Correctional Services, should be established in the province, to develop a strategy to assist in the development of an effective and efficient forensic
Touzet, Rodolfo; Pittaluga, Roberto R.
The implementation of a Quality system is an indispensable requirement to assure the protection and the radiological safety, especially in those facilities where the potential risks are important. One of the 'general conclusions' of the Conference of Malaga (to achieve the RPP) is also the implementation of quality systems. Lamentably the great majority of the Services of Health in the world, more than 95 %, has not nowadays any formal quality system but only any elements what can be named a 'natural quality system' that includes protocols of work, records of several processes, certified of training of the personnel and diverse practices that are realized in systematic form but that not always are documented. Most health services do not have the necessary means available to adhere quickly to international standards. At the same time the health services do not have either qualified or trained personnel to lead a certification or accreditation project and most of them do not have the resources available to hire external consultants, especially the public hospitals. The scenario described represents a challenge for the Regulatory Authorities who must determine 'how to ensure that installations comply with an acceptable standard of quality without it placing an impossible strain on their budget?' Due to these circumstances a 'Basic Guide' has developed for the implementation of a quality system in every Health Service that takes the elements as a foundation of the standard ISO - 9000:2000 and the standard for systems management GSR-3 of the IAEA. The criteria and the methodologies are showed in the presentation. (author)
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...
Jul 1, 2013 ... scores (63.6%), while 96.2% of the private primary schools had poor health service evaluation scores. Conclusions: SHS are ... Key words: School Health Services, School Health Services Evaluation scale, Health knowledge, Nigeria ..... Since food and nutrition is an aspect of home economics, teaching.
... an acute illness to avoid the recipient's transfer to a nursing facility. (d) “Home health agency... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...
Southon, Frank Charles Gray; Sauer, Chris; Dampney, Christopher Noel Grant (Kit)
Abstract Objective: To identify impediments to the successful transfer and implementation of packaged information systems through large, divisionalized health services. Design: A case analysis of the failure of an implementation of a critical application in the Public Health System of the State of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out. This application had been proven in the United States environment. Measurements: Interviews involving over 60 staff at all levels of the service were undertaken by a team of three. The interviews were recorded and analyzed for key themes, and the results were shared and compared to enable a continuing critical assessment. Results: Two components of the transfer of the system were considered: the transfer from a different environment, and the diffusion throughout a large, divisionalized organization. The analyses were based on the Scott-Morton organizational fit framework. In relation to the first, it was found that there was a lack of fit in the business environments and strategies, organizational structures and strategy-structure pairing as well as the management process-roles pairing. The diffusion process experienced problems because of the lack of fit in the strategy-structure, strategy-structure-management processes, and strategy-structure-role relationships. Conclusion: The large-scale developments of integrated health services present great challenges to the efficient and reliable implementation of information technology, especially in large, divisionalized organizations. There is a need to take a more sophisticated approach to understanding the complexities of organizational factors than has traditionally been the case. PMID:9067877
Greer, Roger; Fowler, Susan
In this rapidly changing, knowledge-based society, library and information professionals require a broad understanding of the profession. Introduction to the Library and Information Professions, Second Edition presents a toolbox of models that enable this essential understanding for undergraduate and graduate students in library and information science programs as well as practicing professionals seeking continuing education. The materials in this second edition reflect the latest trends in the library and information profession, including services and issues that stem from new advances in te
The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.
Rego, Inês; Russo, Giuliano; Gonçalves, Luzia; Perelman, Julian; Pita Barros, Pedro
In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the changes brought to their workload. This paper provides a descriptive statistical analysis of physicians' responses. In connection to the crisis, our surveyed physicians perceived an increase in demand but a decrease of supply of public health services, as well as an increase in the supply of health services by the private sector. Damaging government policies for the public sector, and the rise of private services and insurance providers were identified as game changers for the sector. Physicians reported a decrease in public remuneration (- 30.5%) and a small increase of public sector hours. A general reduction in living standard was identified as the main adaptation strategy to the crisis. Passion for the profession, its independence and flexibility, were the most frequently mentioned compensating factors. A percentage of 15% of physicians declared considering migration as a possibility for the near future. The crisis has brought non-negligible changes to physicians' working conditions and to the wider market for medical services in Portugal. The physicians' intrinsic motivation for the professions helped counterbalance salary cuts and deteriorating working conditions.
Full Text Available [english] Modern conceptions of education are based on normative goals concerning learning outcomes in terms of competencies to acquire. The objective of the Swiss competencies framework was to define general and profession-specific learning outcomes for Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes in nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy (ergotherapy, midwifery, nutrition counselling, and technicians in medical radiology. In addition, national authorities needed an instrument that allowed the integration of the old professional trainings into a nationally-harmonised education system and that showed the specificities of the levels (higher vocational education; bachelor and master degree at university level. While the general learning outcomes were derived from legal bases, the profession-specific learning outcomes are elaborated according to the competency-based CanMEDS framework. In the CanMEDS framework, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are condensed into meta-competencies which in turn are divided into seven roles, including the medical expert (central role. Taxonomic characteristics and indicators were elaborated in an iterative process that involved regulators, the universities of applied sciences and professional organisations. For the degree programmes mentioned above, the framework developed focuses not only on professional expertise, but also on collaboration with other health professions. Moreover, the interface-management in care taking processes is a critical success factor. Based on this conception, three levels of objectives were identified: general competencies, profession-specific learning outcomes and learning objectives to be implemented in the universities of applied sciences. The general competencies are composed of four dimensions and apply to all health professionals. The profession-specific learning outcomes for the Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes are outlined with 3 to 5 indicators each in all seven
Evans, J; Henderson, A; Johnson, N
Teamwork is essential for the provision of contemporary, high quality oral health care. Teamwork skills need to be taught and learnt and therefore ought to be one of the core competencies in all dental education programmes: dentistry, oral health therapy, dental technology and dental assisting. Currently, lack of opportunities for collaborative learning and practice within educational establishments, and in the practising professions, hamper the development of effective teamwork. For students across oral health care, learning 'together' requires positive action for teamwork skills to be developed. Interprofessional curricula need to be formally developed, based on evidence from the wider education literature that demonstrates how to maximise the engagements needed for teamwork in practice. Rigorous study of interprofessional education within dentistry and oral health is in its infancy. Anecdotal evidence indicates that dental technology students who experience an interprofessional curriculum are better prepared for collaborative practice. Formalised interprofessional education is posited as an effective strategy to improve interactions among oral health professionals leading to improved patient care. This paper reviews the extant literature and describes the approach currently being trialled at Griffith University.
Lehmann-Jacobsen, Emilie Tinne
and macro level. Whereas role theory works as both a discursive tool in conversations with journalists and as an analytical tool sensitive to agency processes on a micro level, field theory adds relational aspects and helps to connect the micro level analysis to macro level structures, uncovering the forces...... conditioning the profession. The analysis reveals political forces to be most dominating in structuring and conditioning the journalistic profession in both countries which leads the dissertation to suggest a reconceptualization of Bourdieu’s field model to account for political capital. Though economic...... capital and cultural capital (profession-specific forces) also conditions journalism, political forces structure the profession on a number of levels. The state’s active involvement in the profession in both countries through laws and regulation and with promotion (and to some extent enforcement...
A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.
for sick children, routine childhood vaccination services (EPI), and routine growth monitoring services) as a package. ... Government facilities mostly provide all three basic child health services. Among all .... All data editing programs were.
Munabi, Ian G; Buwembo, William; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kitara, David Lagoro; Joseph, Ruberwa; Peter, Kawungezi; Obua, Celestino; Quinn, John; Mwaka, Erisa S
Effective utilization of computers and their applications in medical education and research is of paramount importance to students. The objective of this study was to determine the association between owning a computer and use of computers for research data analysis and the other factors influencing health professions students' computer use for data analysis. We conducted a cross sectional study among undergraduate health professions students at three public universities in Uganda using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of questions on participant demographics, students' participation in research, computer ownership, and use of computers for data analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics (uni-variable and multi- level logistic regression analysis) were used to analyse data. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Six hundred (600) of 668 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 89.8%). A majority of respondents were male (68.8%) and 75.3% reported owning computers. Overall, 63.7% of respondents reported that they had ever done computer based data analysis. The following factors were significant predictors of having ever done computer based data analysis: ownership of a computer (adj. OR 1.80, p = 0.02), recently completed course in statistics (Adj. OR 1.48, p =0.04), and participation in research (Adj. OR 2.64, p <0.01). Owning a computer, participation in research and undertaking courses in research methods influence undergraduate students' use of computers for research data analysis. Students are increasingly participating in research, and thus need to have competencies for the successful conduct of research. Medical training institutions should encourage both curricular and extra-curricular efforts to enhance research capacity in line with the modern theories of adult learning.
Milutinović, Dragana; Prokes, Bela; Gavrilov-Jerkovié, Vesna; Filipović, Danka
Heinz Leymann defined this phenomenon as a hostile and unethical communication. In his definition Leymann points out that the distinction between "conflict" and "mobbing" does not focus on what is done or how it is done, but rather on the frequency and duration of whatever is done. The exposure to the strain of mobbing begins to result in psychiatrically or psychosomatically pathological conditions due to the accumulation of negative emotions. Leyman emphasizes four main factors which cause harrasment in the workplace: lack of clarity of goals in work, inadequate management, victim's social status and low moral standards in the work environment. The epidemiological data in the European Union, indicate great national differences relative to the percentage of those subjected to mobbing, with increasing exposure rates in all professions, the highest being found in education (14%) and health services. Nurses are considered a professional group at a rather high risk for trauma caused by harrasment in the workplace. "Horizontal violence" is a widely used term regarding mobbing aclions in nursing profession even though vertical violence is present both in this profession and all other health services. Horizontal violence is implied due to the traditional assumption that nurses have a subordinate role compared to doctors, which often brings them into conflict with their peers. Mobbing may be prevented by systematic primary prevention, information, education, and training in communication skills. As a result, we could expect to get a higher quality of nursing care and healthier nurses.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...
New research from the Africa Mental Health Foundation (AMHF), funded by the Global ... In 2004 he founded AMHF to address this gap in services. ... in an informal urban settlement to determine whether this strategy for mental health service ...
Rugema, Lawrence; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Persson, Margareta
In Rwanda, many people are still mentally affected by the consequences of the genocide and yet mental health care facilities are scarce. While available literature explains the prevalence and consequences of mental disorders, there is lack of knowledge from low-income countries on health care seeking behavior due to common mental disorders. Therefore, this study sought to explore health care professionals' acquired experiences of barriers and facilitators that people with common mental disorders face when seeking mental health care services in Rwanda. A qualitative approach was applied and data was collected from six focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in October 2012, including a total of 43 health care professionals, men and women in different health professions. The FGDs were performed at health facilities at different care levels. Data was analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The emerging theme "A constant struggle to receive mental health care for mental disorders" embraced a number of barriers and few facilitators at individual, family, community and structural levels that people faced when seeking mental health care services. Identified barriers people needed to overcome were: Poverty and lack of family support, Fear of stigmatization, Poor community awareness of mental disorders, Societal beliefs in traditional healers and prayers, Scarce resources in mental health care and Gender imbalance in care seeking behavior. The few facilitators to receive mental health care were: Collaboration between authorities and organizations in mental health and having a Family with awareness of mental disorders and health insurance. From a public health perspective, this study revealed important findings of the numerous barriers and the few facilitating factors available to people seeking health for mental disorders. Having a supportive family with awareness of mental disorders who also were equipped with a health insurance was perceived as vital for
Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John
To develop a framework for evaluating and monitoring a primary health care service, integrating hospital and community services. A targeted literature review of primary health service evaluation frameworks was performed to inform the development of the framework specifically for remote communities. Key principles underlying primary health care evaluation were determined and sentinel indicators developed to operationalise the evaluation framework. This framework was then validated with key stakeholders. The framework includes Donabedian's three seminal domains of structure, process and outcomes to determine health service performance. These in turn are dependent on sustainability, quality of patient care and the determinants of health to provide a comprehensive health service evaluation framework. The principles underpinning primary health service evaluation were pertinent to health services in remote contexts. Sentinel indicators were developed to fit the demographic characteristics and health needs of the population. Consultation with key stakeholders confirmed that the evaluation framework was applicable. Data collected routinely by health services can be used to operationalise the proposed health service evaluation framework. Use of an evaluation framework which links policy and health service performance to health outcomes will assist health services to improve performance as part of a continuous quality improvement cycle. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Home health services is to give examination, diagnosis,treatment, and rehabilitation services to the patients whobedridden, have difficulties to access health facility due toa variety of chronic or malignant disease by professionalhealth care team. Family physicians that providing healthcare in primary care is responsible for to determine whowill need home health care services, and to make homevisit on a regular basis among registered patients in theirpopulations. It is seems that the biggest shortcoming thecontent and scope of this service is not yet a standard. Inthis article, how home health services should be given willbe discussed.Key words: Primary health care, home health care, bedriddenpatient
Nelson, H Wayne
This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675
Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person
West, R T; Howard, F H
A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication.
Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock. ... This provides an opportunity to take stock of our mental health services. At primary care level key challenges include- training and ... on evaluating interventions. With current policy commitment, the time to act and invest in evidence-based mental health services is now.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency..., Public Law 104-13), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) publishes periodic summaries... Administration (HRSA) plans to conduct a survey of the National Practitioner Data Bank and the Healthcare...
Background: Information on health service utilization is crucial for planning, organizing and evaluation of health services. Objective: Assess perceived morbidity and examine the factors associated with utilization of health services by a sample of the population of the Amhara Region. Methods: Questionnaire was ...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956, as...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service. [T.D. 00-4, 65 FR 2874, Jan. 19, 2000] ...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712, 1712A...
... hence proxy measure of health services were utilised in the paper and this might blur the expected impacts. The implication of the paper is for African countries to adequately participate in GATS as it involves trade in health services. Key Words: Liberalisation, health system, mortality, services supply modes, WTO, general ...
Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong
In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.
Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Bidinosti, Susan
This paper reports on a study of an arts informed approach to ethics education in a health professions education context. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' reported learning experiences as a result of engagement with an arts-informed project in a health professions' ethics course. A hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach was adopted for the study. The data were collected over 5 years, and involved analysis of 234 occupational therapy students' written reflections on learning. Phenomenological methods were used. Five key themes were identified with respect to students' reported learning including: becoming aware of values, (re) discovering creativity, coming to value reflection in professional life, deepening self-awareness, and developing capacities to imagine future practices. There appear to be a number of unique ways in which arts-informed approaches can contribute to health professions education including: activating imaginative engagement, fostering interpretive capacity, inspiring transformative understandings, offering new ways of knowing, deepening reflection, and heightening consciousness, while also enriching the inner life of practitioners. Innovative approaches are being used to introduce arts-informed practices in health professions curricula programs. The findings point to the promise of arts-informed approaches for advancing health sciences education.
Dong, Xiaoxin; liu, Ling; Cao, Shiyi; Yang, Huajie; Song, Fujian; Yang, Chen; Gong, Yanhong; Wang, Yunxia; Yin, Xiaoxu; Xie, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lu, Zuxun
Background Community health service in China is designed to provide a convenient and affordable primary health service for the city residents, and to promote health equity. Based on data from a large national study of 35 cities across China, we examined the characteristics of the patients and the utilization of community health institutions (CHIs), and assessed the role of community health service in promoting equity in health service utilization for community residents. Methods Multistage sa...
Anotace: The thesis "The motivation for the teaching profession" dealt with fundamental problems of motivation to the teaching profession. In the theoretical part, we have focused on general characteristics of terms that pertain to the teaching profession, particularly the theory of the teaching profession, the choice of the teaching profession, the phase of the teaching profession, teacher typology, the role of teacher training and professionalization of teachers, but also washed into the te...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...
Funder, John W
Over half a century ago, a Canadian judge defined a profession in a way that resonates still today, not only for lawyers and doctors, but for the current wide variety of professions and professionals. This article is a reflection on this definition. It briefly considers the historical context within which the knowledge base that characterises a profession evolved and what the various component parts of the judge's definition entail. A final consideration goes beyond the terms of the definition proposed--that of our ethical responsibility as professionals to stand up and be counted and, in the context of the disorder around us, to speak out.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.
Moon, O R
Early in the 1970s the Korean government recognized the necessity of Health Services Research (HSR). The law of the Korea Health Development Institute was promulgated in 1975, and a contribution from the Republic was combined with an Agency for International Development loan to field test low-cost health service strategies. A program to deploy Community Health Practitioners (CHPs), similar to family nurse practitioners or Medex has been demonstrated to be effective. The CHP training program grew from 9 in 1980 to 1343 in 1984. CHP's main functions are curative, preventive, educative, and administrative. They are selected registered nurses and/or midwives, where possible from serviced communities. They are trained in 24 weeks, including 12 weeks of clinical practice, in an anticipated recruiting post. CHPs help train village health volunteers (VHVs), who are literate women chosen by their communities. They work closely with the CHPs as a liaison with the village and in information gathering. An HSR orientation workshop held in Chuncheon in 1980, discussed role, policy, status, finance components, information systems, behavioral and manpower components, staff training, protocols for project development, HSR in the future and evaluation of the conference. In 1980, a National Workshop on Biomedical Research Methodology was also held, with World Health Organization and Korean consultants. Training of junior scientists would include introduction to scientific method, statement of problems, quantitative study technics, research proposals, and interpretation of results. The Korean Institute of Public Health sponsored a 1982 experts forum on the health care system, medical facilities, organizational management, financing and medical security, and health behavioral aspects. Training of trainers and lower level field workers, orientation of program managers, researchers, and communities themselves should all be training priorities. In future, CHPs should be refresher
Buckley, Sharon; Ambrose, Lucy; Anderson, Elizabeth; Coleman, Jamie J; Hensman, Marianne; Hirsch, Christine; Hodson, James; Morley, David; Pittaway, Sarah; Stewart, Jonathan
Calls for the inclusion of standardized protocols for information exchange into pre-registration health professions curricula have accompanied their introduction into clinical practice. In order to help clinical educators respond to these calls, we have reviewed educational interventions for pre-registration students that incorporate one or more of these ?tools for structured communication?. Searches of 10 databases (1990?2014) were supplemented by hand searches and by citation searches (to January 2015). Studies evaluating an intervention for pre-registration students of any clinical profession and incorporating at least one tool were included. Quality of included studies was assessed using a checklist of 11 indicators and a narrative synthesis of findings undertaken. Fifty studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 evaluated the specific effect of a tool on educational outcomes, and 27 met seven or more quality indicators. Pre-registration students, particularly those in the US, are learning to use tools for structured communication either in specific sessions or integrated into more extensive courses or programmes; mostly 'Situation Background Assessment Recommendation' and its variants. There is some evidence that learning to use a tool can improve the clarity and comprehensiveness of student communication, their perceived self-confidence and their sense of preparedness for clinical practice. There is, as yet, little evidence for the transfer of these skills to the clinical setting or for any influence of teaching approach on learning outcomes. Educators will need to consider the positioning of such learning with other skills such as clinical reasoning and decision-making.
... is divided into nine sections, namely organisational structure; education, training and research; mental health service provision; highly specialised services; community mental health services; forensic mental health services; mental health and the private sector; pharmaceutical services; and summary of recommendations.
Killaspy, Helen; Marston, Louise; Omar, Rumana Z; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Lean, Melanie; Holloway, Frank; Craig, Tom; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael
Current health policy assumes better quality services lead to better outcomes. To investigate the relationship between quality of mental health rehabilitation services in England, local deprivation, service user characteristics and clinical outcomes. Standardised tools were used to assess the quality of mental health rehabilitation units and service users' autonomy, quality of life, experiences of care and ratings of the therapeutic milieu. Multiple level modelling investigated relationships between service quality, service user characteristics and outcomes. A total of 52/60 (87%) National Health Service trusts participated, comprising 133 units and 739 service users. All aspects of service quality were positively associated with service users' autonomy, experiences of care and therapeutic milieu, but there was no association with quality of life. Quality of care is linked to better clinical outcomes in people with complex and longer-term mental health problems. Thus, investing in quality is likely to show real clinical gains.
Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Phelan, Shanon K.; Lala, Anna Park; Mom, Vanna
The ethical climate in which occupational therapists, and other health practitioners, currently practice is increasingly complex. There have been a number of calls for greater attention to ethics education within health science curricula. This study investigated occupational therapy students' perceptions of the meaning of ethical practice as a…
Harmon, C; Nolan, B
The numbers buying private health insurance in Ireland have continued to grow, despite a broadening in entitlement to public care. About 40% of the population now have insurance, although everyone has entitlement to public hospital care. In this paper, we examine in detail the growth in insurance coverage and the factors underlying the demand for insurance. Attitudinal responses reveal the importance of perceptions about waiting times for public care, as well as some concerns about the quality of that care. Individual characteristics, such as education, age, gender, marital status, family composition and income all influence the probability of purchasing private insurance. We also examine the relationship between insurance and utilization of hospital in-patient services. The positive effect of private insurance appears less than that of entitlement to full free health care from the state, although the latter is means-tested, and may partly represent health status. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli
Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; ... still women in urban settings do not use available maternal health services. Especially ... health services, safe water supplies, poor sanitation and .... selected cities are confined to crowded places, lack of.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and other social...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Health and Social Services § 18.452 Health and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, or other...
... Groups (24 items) Men’s Mental Health (12 items) Women’s Mental Health (16 items) Military Service Members (6 items) Older ... Groups (24 items) Men’s Mental Health (12 items) Women’s Mental Health (16 items) Military Service Members (6 items) Older ...
Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A
health professional education. Recommendations include adhering to principles of good assessment, the need for developing coherent institutional policy, using technologies to broaden the competencies to be assessed, linking patient-outcome data to assessment of practitioner performance, and capitalizing...
Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.
Aug 14, 2009 ... Background: The level of development of a country is measured by the health status of its children. ... initiative and its interrelatedness to school health services ... children's health, knowledge and practices target schools.
... from the 2011–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), selected measures of preventive health care service use ... any gender and age. Data source and methods NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout ...
Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse
Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.
Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally
This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.
Laura Rueda C
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca establecer, a partir de la detección de competencias afectivas entre las jóvenes que se encuentran estudiando profesiones de la salud, una reflexión acerca de la presencia femenina en esta área profesional. El análisis incluye elementos del desarrollo moral femenino, de la vocación por cuidar y prevenir el riesgo, y del perfil profesional que se va generando en las carreras dedicadas al cuidado de la salud humanaO presente artigo procura estabelecer, a partir da detecção de competencias afetivas entre as jovens estudantes nas profissões de saúde, uma reflexão sobre a presença feminina nesta área profissional. A análise inclui elementos do desenvolvimento moral feminino, da vocação de cuidar e previnir o risco, bem como do perfil profissional que vai sendo gerado nas profissionais dedicadas ao cuidado da saúde humanaThis paper tries to establish, through identifying the affective capacities of young women who are studying health care professions, a reflection about the feminine presence in this professional sector. This analysis includes some aspects of the feminine moral development, the vocation to care and to prevent risks and the professional profile that has been developed in careers dedicated to health care
The regular use of visual display units (VDUs) at work has been shown to cause the development of a constellation of symptoms ranging from dry eyes to temporary myopia. European workers who use VDUs are now protected under detailed legislation enacted by the European Union (Directive 90\\/270\\/EEC). The use of picture archiving and communications systems, which are almost ubiquitous in European countries, means that, as a profession, radiologists fall under the remit of this legislation. This paper aims to assess the impact that full implementation of this law would have on a radiologist\\'s practice and to more broadly examine the issue of eye care as an occupational health issue in radiology. The authors conclude that eye care in the setting of regular VDU use among radiologists is an important quality control and occupational health issue. There is a clear legal basis requiring employers to provide regular eye examinations and reporting breaks. In the absence of leadership from employers on this issue individual radiologists have a responsibility to ensure that their work practices reflect the legal situation and minimise the effect of eye strain on their performance.
Clewley, Derek; Rhon, Dan; Flynn, Tim; Koppenhaver, Shane; Cook, Chad
Physical therapists' familiarity, perceptions, and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour have not been previously assessed. The purposes of this study were to identify physical therapists' characteristics related to familiarity of health services utilization and health seeking behaviour, and to assess what health seeking behaviour factors providers felt were related to health services utilization. We administered a survey based on the Andersen behavioural model of health services utilization to physical therapists using social media campaigns and email between March and June of 2017. In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. We asked respondents to rate familiarity with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour and collected additional characteristic variables. Physical therapists are more familiar with health services utilization than health seeking behaviour. Those who are familiar with either construct tend to be those who assess for health services utilization, use health services utilization for a prognosis, and believe that health seeking behaviour is measurable. Physical therapists rated need and enabling factors as having more influence on health services utilization than predisposing and health belief factors. Physical therapists are generally familiar with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour; however, there appears to be a disconnect between what is familiar, what is perceived to be important, and what can be assessed for both health services utilization and health seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. All rights reserved.
To describe the paradox in pharmacy between the vision of patient care and the reality of community pharmacy practice and to explore how integrated reimbursement for the retail prescription and linking cognitive patient care services directly to prescription processing could benefit the profession. A dichotomy exists between what many pharmacists do and what they've been trained to do. Pharmacy leaders have formulated a vision for pharmacists to become more involved in direct patient care. All graduates now receive PharmD-level training, and some leaders call for requirements of postgraduate residency training and board certification for pharmacists who provide patient care. How such requirements would relate to community pharmacy practice is unclear. The retail prescription remains the primary link between the pharmacist and the health care consumer. Cognitive services, such as medication therapy management (MTM), need to be integrated into the standard workflow of community pharmacies so as to become a natural extension of the professional services rendered in the process of filling a prescription. Current prescription fees are not sufficient to support legitimate professional services. A proposed integrated pricing system for retail prescriptions includes a $15 professional fee that is scaled upward for value-added services, such as MTM. Pharmacy includes a diversity of practice that has historically been a source of division. For pharmacists to reach their potential as patient care providers, the various factions within the profession must forge a unified vision of the future that addresses all realms of practice.
Dabiri, O M
Nigerians did not readily accept family planning when Family Health Services (FHS) began in 1988. FHS has made much headway in training, IEC (information, education, and communication), and constituency building and advocacy. Its staff have identified obstacles to implementation, especially program sustainability and management structure. Key limits to sustainability of IEC efforts were inadequately trained personnel and inability of trained personnel to apply what they learned at work stations. The Federal Ministry and Social Services' role in the FHS project was not clearly defined. Some private sector factors contributing to a confused management structure were inadequate method mix, high contraceptive cost, poor monitoring of quality of care, and no coordination of family planning training with the public factor. FHS has since decided to focus its efforts on increasing the demand for and availability of modern contraceptives and improving the quality of family planning services of both the public and private sectors. FHS hopes that accomplishing these activities will reduce fertility, morbidity, and mortality. Strategic plans include a regional focus, quality of care, a variety of methods offered, intensification, hospital and clinics, a management information system, contraceptive logistics, distribution regulations, and addressing social, cultural, and behavioral factors. To effectively implement the strategy, USAID and the Federal Ministry held a workshop in 1993 to effect full integration of Nigerian experience in the 2nd phase of the project (FHS II). Participants reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of the first phase and agreed on implementation. For example, nongovernmental organizations should implement FHS II. FHS II includes training, IEC, and commodities/logistics.
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...