WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional sports teams

  1. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  2. Scoring dynamics across professional team sports: tempo, balance and predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing interest in quantifying and modeling the scoring dynamics within professional sports games, relative little is known about what patterns or principles, if any, cut across different sports. Using a comprehensive data set of scoring events in nearly a dozen consecutive seasons of college and professional (American) football, professional hockey, and professional basketball, we identify several common patterns in scoring dynamics. Across these sports, scoring tempo---when scoring events occur---closely follows a common Poisson process, with a sport-specific rate. Similarly, scoring balance---how often a team wins an event---follows a common Bernoulli process, with a parameter that effectively varies with the size of the lead. Combining these processes within a generative model of gameplay, we find they both reproduce the observed dynamics in all four sports and accurately predict game outcomes. These results demonstrate common dynamical patterns underlying within-game scoring dynamics across prof...

  3. The Economics of professional team sports: content, trends and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASSILIKI AVGERINOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.

  4. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey ... on the East and West coasts. There are teams and divisions all over the country for men, ...

  5. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  6. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (ppsychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.

  8. Selected elements of motivational impact on sport performance in professional volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Seweryniak, Tomasz; Nowak, Agnieszka; Stosik, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Seweryniak T., Nowak A., Stosik A., Selected elements of motivational impact on sport performance in  professional volleyball teams. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):807-814. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.159119 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3913 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/   Original Text published © The Author (s) 2016. Seweryniak Tomasz, Nowak Agnieszka, Stosik Aneta. Selected elements of mot...

  9. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  10. System of improvement coacher's professional skill of national teams of Ukraine in Olympic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutchak M.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the condition and prospects of perfection of system of improvement of professional skill of coaches and doctors involved in preparation of sportsmen of Ukraine to Olympic games, the World championships and Europe by summer and winter sports is considered. It is shown that the system of improvement of professional skill should be flexible and mobile with elements of distance learning. The optimal is the multilevel system of improvement of professional skill consisting of three subsystems: self-improvement, participation in the organised forms of improvement of professional skill, analytical and scientifically-practical activities.

  11. Comparison of the home advantage in nine different professional team sports in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel A; Pollard, Richard; Luis-Pascual, Juan-Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Home advantage is a well-established phenomenon in many sports. The present study is unique in that it includes different sports analysed in the same country, at the same level of competition, and over the same time period. Nine team sports from Spain were included: baseball, basketball, handball, indoor soccer, roller hockey, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and water polo. Data for five seasons (2005-2006 to 2009-2010) were obtained, totaling 9,472 games. The results confirmed the existence of home advantage in all nine sports. There was a statistically significant difference between the sports; home advantage was highest in rugby (67.0%), and lowest in volleyball (55.7%), water polo (56.2%), and roller hockey (58.3%). The design of the study controlled for some of the likely causes of home advantage, and the results suggested that the high home advantage for rugby was likely a reflection of the continuous, aggressive, and intense nature of the sport.

  12. Home field advantage: new stadium construction and team performance in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J

    2003-12-01

    To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.

  13. The use of sports psychology consultants in elite sports teams

    OpenAIRE

    Reverter Masía, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the use of psychology services in teams of the top division Spanish leagues of handball, basketball, volleyball, indoor soccer, soccer and field hockey. Personal interviews were conducted to determine the composition of the multidisciplinary teams. The response rate was 81.8% (77 of 94). Though most teams have different professionals employed on a full-time basis, only 15.6% of these teams have a sport psychologist. Moreover, only three teams have a full-time sports ps...

  14. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.

  16. Team Building for Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…

  17. Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R; Pollard, G

    2005-04-01

    Home advantage is quantitatively defined and calculated for each season since the start of the main professional sports in North America and England. Over 400,000 games are analysed. The leagues represented are the National League (1876-2002) and American League (1901-2002) for baseball, the National Hockey League (1917-2003) for ice hockey, the National Football League (1933-2002) for American football, the National Basketball Association (1946-2003) for basketball, and the four levels of professional football, formerly called the Football League, in England (1888-2003). Problems caused by unbalanced playing schedules are considered. The results are presented graphically to show long-term trends and sudden changes. The highest levels of home advantage for all sports were in their early years of existence. Home advantage in ice hockey, basketball and football in England has declined over the last two decades. In baseball there has been very little change over the last 100 years, with home advantage consistently lower than in other sports. There was a large drop in home advantage in football in England following the 7-year suspension of the league during the Second World War. The trends and changes provide some evidence that travel and familiarity contribute to home advantage, but little in support of crowd effects.

  18. "Sports Illustrated": Is Every Team Treated Equally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carin K.

    A study examined whether "Sports Illustrated" offers a biased view of the sports world by focusing primarily on the eastern teams. The units of analysis were articles about Major League baseball appearing in the "Sports Illustrated" issues from late April to early October in the years 1975 to 1984. The teams were divided into…

  19. Game Intelligence in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies. PMID:25970581

  20. Academic characteristics of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with high school, collegiate, and professional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league.

  1. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  2. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  3. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides

  4. Sports Psychology: Maximizing Team Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Vande Broek, Gert

    2017-01-01

    The application of sport psychology is often overlooked in favor of the more familiar training of physical abilities and technical volleyball skills. Sport psychology interventions are too often perceived as the last call for help if all else has failed to generate success. However, sport psychology is much more than picking up the pieces after a defeat and instead should be regarded as a very useful tool in all stages of the training and coaching process. The present chapter will outline the...

  5. Dynamic Systems Theory and Team Sport Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…

  6. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Safe Leads and Lead Changes in Competitive Team Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, A; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size $L$ and game time $t$. Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40,000 games across four professional or semi-professional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  8. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  9. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  10. Spectators' identification with French sports teams: a French adaptation of the sport spectator identification scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Due to the works of Wann and colleagues, spectators' identification with teams has taken on a central role in the study of sports spectators' thought and behavior. However, no research in this area has measured identification with sports teams in the French context. Two studies attempted to develop a valid and reliable French version of the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) developed by Wann and Branscombe in 1993 to measure team identification. In Study 1, 200 physical education students completed a French translation of the SSIS and several questions concerning their involvement, investment, and evaluation of the team's future performance. Results showed that the French translation of the SSIS is a reliable and one-dimensional instrument: strong relationships were found between identification with professional French teams and these variables. In Study 2, 143 physical education students completed the SSIS with a National sport team as the target team. Results confirmed the psychometric properties of the scale and indicated that persons who strongly identify with the National soccer team reported more involvement with the team and were more optimistic about future performances than persons low in identification.

  11. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  12. Raising the Stakes: E-Sports and the Professionalization of Computer Gaming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steve Jacobs

    2014-01-01

      The e-sports industry aims to turn real-time video game competition into the next major professional sport-complete with franchises, broadcast tournaments, superstar players, and mogul team and league managers...

  13. Safe leads and lead changes in competitive team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  14. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  15. Team Performance and Sport Attendance of South African Super ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compete successfully in the expanding sport market, sport marketers need a thorough understanding of sport consumers, who include sport participants and sport spectators. Sport spectators are, in many instances, fanatical about the performance and success of their teams. It is thus obvious that ultimately their ...

  16. Team Sports: A Place for Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Physicians' role in team sports goes beyond the traditional ‘Doc’ who attends the game for stitching and primary injury management. Injury and illness prevention, ongoing supervision of rehabilitation, education, fitness evaluation, and training prescription are roles which have often fallen, by default, to paramedicals. The author recounts his experience in medical supervision of major junior hockey in the Western Hockey League.

  17. Leadership Development through Sports Team Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extejt, Marian M.; Smith, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether leadership is teachable has received considerable attention in the academic and practitioner arenas. Organized athletic team participation offers students a different experiential venue that many argue develops leadership. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organized sports team…

  18. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  19. Team synergies in sport: Theory and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.

  20. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  1. Revenue Sharing in Professional Sports Leagues as a Hedge for Exchange Rate Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rockerbie, Duane; Easton, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Professional sports leagues that feature teams in different countries with different currencies are exposed to exchange rate uncertainty and risk. This is particularly evident for three professional sports leagues that feature teams in the United States and Canada. We construct a simple model of a profit-maximizing team that earns its revenue in one currency and meets its payroll obligations in a second currency and participates in a league-imposed revenue sharing plan. Team profit can increa...

  2. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  3. Working with sports organizations and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, David R; Garvin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization. When these services are endorsed by the team's leaders and integrated with the athletic training/medical/player development staff, their utilization will grow quickly and lead to positive outcomes individually and collectively.

  4. A Typology of International Strategies for Hungarian Professional Sports Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Kozma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was to examine how league strength explains the observed differences between the international strategies of professional sports clubs in Hungary. Three case studies were made primarily based on the content analysis of management interviews, cross-checked with data from sports databases and corporate documentation. Through our analysis we identified three types of international strategy followed by professional sports clubs in Hungary. The typology highlights the importance of having a competitive product professional clubs may bring to the international marketplace. Hence, governments and local municipalities are advised to focus their support on sports where there is a team with reasonable chance to win trophies at international level. For club managers, the implication is that strategic focus on improving service provision and sales is critical even if they receive windfall support from government.

  5. Professionals' views on interprofessional stroke team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction: The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their

  6. Construction of sports business professional competence cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this research was on the professional competence indicators of Asian sports business professionals. The aim of the research was to establish how scholars planned classes and programmes at the sports business related departments at colleges in Taiwan, Japan, Korea and China by making use of a ...

  7. Competency profile of PR professional in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Gazdíková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Title: Competency profile of PR professional in sport Objective: The objective is to identify competencies required to a position of PR professional in sport. The aim of a survey is to verify the level of competencies which follows compiling competency profile and comparison with existing profile of PR specialist. Methods: The objective is achieved using survey, interview and analysis of competency models database. Results: The result of this paper is competency profile of PR professional in ...

  8. Imagery ability and imagery use in individual and team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Peltomäki, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether individual and team sport athletes differ in their imagery use and imagery ability, and to examine whether level of sport participation or weekly sport involvement are variables that differentiate between athletes on the basis of their levels of imagery ability and imagery use. Two measures were conducted. The Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM) is a 48-item self-report measure that uses four sport related scenes to examine the dimensional,...

  9. What Can Primary Care Learn From Sports Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Fogarty, Colleen; Salas, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Teams are familiar to sports but relatively new to primary care. In this perspective, we use sports teams to illustrate key principles from team science and extract practical lessons for primary care teams. The most notable lessons include the need for continuous team learning based on presession planning and postsession debriefing, real-world team training focused on identified teamwork needs, and on-site team coaching. Implementation of these principles requires organizational commitment coupled with alignment of continuing medical education and recertification requirements with primary care teamwork competencies.

  10. Relationships between cooperation and goal orientation among male professional and semi-professional team athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.

  11. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonie V. Webster; James Hardy; Lew Hardy

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially...

  12. The integration of chiropractors into healthcare teams: a case study from sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theberge, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the integration of chiropractors into multi-disciplinary healthcare teams in the specialisation of sport medicine. Sport medicine is practised in a number of contexts in professional and amateur sport. The current analysis focuses on the highest levels of amateur sport, as exemplified by the Olympics. Data are taken from interviews with 35 health professionals, including physicians, physiotherapists, athletic therapists and chiropractors. A defining feature of sport medicine is an emphasis on performance, which is the basis for a client-centred model of practice. These two elements have provided the main grounds for the inclusion of chiropractic in sport medicine. While the common understanding that 'athletes wanted them' has helped to secure a position for chiropractic within the system of sport medicine professions, this position is marked by ongoing tensions with other professions over the scope and content of practice, and the nature of the patient-practitioner relationship. In the context of these tensions, chiropractors' success in achieving acceptance on sport medicine teams is contingent on two factors: (a) reduced scope of practice in which they work primarily as manual therapists; and (b) the exemplary performance of individual practitioners who 'fit' into multi-disciplinary sport medicine teams.

  13. Benefits of team sport for organisations | Joubert | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to explore employees' experiences of the benefits of organisational team sport activities. The qualitative exploration study was conducted with employees (N=26) of two financial organisations that participate in organisational team sport. The data were collected by means of focus group ...

  14. Early Team Sports Competition and Graduate Students' Fear of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffore, Robert J.; Lewis, Jed

    1980-01-01

    One hundred graduate students completed the Zuckerman-Allison Fear of Success Scale and indicated the number of competitive team sports in which they participated in grades 7 through 12. Results did not support the prediction that fear of success should be inversely related to early participation in team sports. (Author/SJL)

  15. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is

  16. The Red Mist? Red Shirts, Success and Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Piatti; Savage, David A.; Benno Torgler

    2010-01-01

    Baron von Richthofen (the Red Baron) arguably the most famous fighter pilot of all time painted his plane the vividest of red hues, making it visible and identifiable at great distance, showing an aggressive pronouncement of dominance to other pilots. Can colour affect aggression and performance and if so is it observable within team sports? This study explores the effect of red on sporting performances within a team sports arena, through empirical analysis of match results from the Australia...

  17. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  18. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  19. Professional Team Foundation Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to using Microsoft Team Foundation Server 2012 Team Foundation Server has become the leading Microsoft productivity tool for software management, and this book covers what developers need to know to use it effectively. Fully revised for the new features of TFS 2012, it provides developers and software project managers with step-by-step instructions and even assists those who are studying for the TFS 2012 certification exam. You'll find a broad overview of TFS, thorough coverage of core functions, a look at extensibility options, and more, written by Microsoft ins

  20. Optimal environments for team functioning in sport organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Boen, Filip; Stouten, Jeroen; Cotterill, Stewart T.; Vande Broek, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Despite its importance in optimizing a team’s effectiveness, the application of sport psychology practices often gets overshadowed by the training of physical abilities, technical skills, and tactical insight. Yet, in order to fully reach the physical, technical, and tactical potential of athletes in team sports, the environmental circumstances need to be adequate. The present chapter will outline how the team coach can create optimal environments for team functioning in different facets of t...

  1. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Gert-Jan Pepping; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes i...

  2. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  3. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  4. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  5. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  6. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  7. How to make sense of team sport data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldór; Seebacher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    or groups of players happened, and what the respective influencing factors are. We consider team sport as group movement including collaboration and competition of individuals following specific rule sets. Analyzing team sports is a challenging problem as it involves joint understanding of heterogeneous...... in general. We identify challenges arising when facing these data sets and we propose a multi-facet view and analysis including pattern detection, context-aware analysis, and visual explanation. We also present applicable methods and technologies covering the heterogeneous aspects in team sport data....

  8. Surveying the Literature and the People: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Civic Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff

    2014-01-01

    Public funds to build sports stadiums are commonly justified by the perceived economic impacts and civic pride they create for the community. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies looking at the economic impact and civic pride created by professional sports teams. Most of the literature supports the idea that economic impacts are not created, but there are mixed results on the magnitude of civic pride. Overall, most of the economic literature suggests that the benefits created by spor...

  9. Sports teams as superorganisms: implications of sociobiological models of behaviour for research and practice in team sports performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith

    2012-08-01

    Significant criticisms have emerged on the way that collective behaviours in team sports have been traditionally evaluated. A major recommendation has been for future research and practice to focus on the interpersonal relationships developed between team players during performance. Most research has typically investigated team game performance in subunits (attack or defence), rather than considering the interactions of performers within the whole team. In this paper, we offer the view that team performance analysis could benefit from the adoption of biological models used to explain how repeated interactions between grouping individuals scale to emergent social collective behaviours. We highlight the advantages of conceptualizing sports teams as functional integrated 'super-organisms' and discuss innovative measurement tools, which might be used to capture the superorganismic properties of sports teams. These tools are suitable for revealing the idiosyncratic collective behaviours underlying the cooperative and competitive tendencies of different sports teams, particularly their coordination of labour and the most frequent channels of communication and patterns of interaction between team players. The principles and tools presented here can serve as the basis for novel approaches and applications of performance analysis devoted to understanding sports teams as cohesive, functioning, high-order organisms exhibiting their own peculiar behavioural patterns.

  10. Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Trninić, Slavko; Papić, Vladan

    2009-06-01

    The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process.

  11. Generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests assess different qualities in court-based team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2016-03-01

    Comparisons between reactive agility tests incorporating generic and sport-specific stimuli have been performed only in field-based team sports. The aim of this study was to compare generic (light-based) and sport-specific (live opponent) reactive agility tests in court-based team sport athletes. Twelve semi-professional male basketball players (age: 25.9±6.7 yr; stature: 188.9±7.9 cm; body mass: 97.4±16.1 kg; predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 49.5±5.3 mL/kg 7 min) completed multiple trials of a Reactive Agility Test containing light-based (RAT-Light) and opponent-based stimuli (RAT-Opponent). Multiple outcome measures were collected during the RAT-Light (agility time and total time) and RAT-Opponent (decision time and total time). Mean performance times during the RAT-Light (2.233±0.224 s) were significantly (Pagility time and RAT-Opponent decision time (r10=0.20), while a trivial relationship was apparent between total performance times across tests (r10=0.02). Low commonality was observed between comparable measures across tests (R2=0-4%). Reactive agility tests containing light-based and live opponent stimuli appear to measure different qualities in court-based team sport athletes. Court-based team sport coaches and conditioning professionals should not use generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests interchangeably during athlete assessments.

  12. Boys with developmental coordination disorder: loneliness and team sports participation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poulsen, Anne A; Ziviani, Jenny M; Cuskelly, Monica; Smith, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the mediational role of team sports and other leisure occupations for boys ages 10 to 13 years in the relationship between physical coordination ability and perceptions of loneliness...

  13. Athlete Leadership in Sport Teams: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Stewart; Fransen, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is a fundamental aspect of sports performance, particularly within team sport environments. Over the past 25 years there has been significant research exploring the role of the coach/manager in this regard. However, this only represents one aspect of leadership within the sporting domain. Equally important, although far less examined is the concept of athlete leadership.\\ud The role of athlete leaders, both formal (e.g., the captain) and informal (such as motivators and cultural ar...

  14. Botswana team sport players' perception of cohesion and imagery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...

  15. A comprehensive analysis of the job security of professional sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study targeted at human resources managers and professional sports coaches at sport organisations affiliated to the South African Sports Commission, in all nine provinces of South Africa. It focuses specifically on the job security of professional sports coaches. The methodology involved ...

  16. The effect of communication skills on team and individual sports

    OpenAIRE

    AKDAGCIK, I. Umran; MAMAK, Hudaverdi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study isto determine the effect of communication skills on team and individual sports.A total of 251 students/athletes studying in the School of Physical Educationand Sports of Niğde University during the academic year of 2015-2016 and areinvolved in any team or individual sports have participated in thisstudy.“Communication Skills Evaluation Scale” (CSES), developed by Korkut, wascarried out to the subjects in the study. A significant difference was detectedbetween the st...

  17. The Role of Trust for Leadership in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Gulak-Lipka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s sport in many ways is like business. Numerous con­cepts as well as characteristics are adequate for both. The role of leaders in sports and business is invaluable when it comes to reaching goals or creating positive work environment. The aim of the paper is to identify the role of trust in relationships within a sport team, particularly between the leader and the rest of the group (trust in leader, and to highlight the impact of trust on the effectiveness of leaders’ work and successes achieved by a team.

  18. Human resources management of professional sports coaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success that sport organizations can achieve is largely depends on the ability and competence of their human resources. Amongst the paid professional employees in sport is the professional coach who has received relatively little academic enquiry since commercial and professional sport emerged in the 21st century.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

  20. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  1. Team Sports and Conflict Resolution Among the Mississippi Choctaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kendall

    Four hypotheses pertaining to conflict and its resolution in the team sport experience among seven Choctaw communities were tested: Choctaws have a unique conception of conflict vis-a-vis Anglos; this conception has a limiting effect on the exercise or occurrence of more dramatic forms of violence; this notion is reflected in Choctaw team sport…

  2. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  3. The podiatrist as a member of the sports medicine team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David W

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the history of sports medicine highlighting the "jogging boom" of the 1970s and the advocacy of Dr George Sheehan, which boosted the position of podiatry in sports medicine. Significant events in mainstream sports medicine that promoted the rise of podiatric medicine are discussed. Reasons as to why podiatric medicine should be a member of the sports medicine team are outlined, and lastly, examples that highlight podiatric medicine as participants alongside other specialties in the evaluation and care of athletes are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Dionne L

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents.

  6. COMMUNICATING IN SPORT GROUPS AND TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Pop

    2014-01-01

    The educational process is usually running their course as a group or team activity. The group has its own evolution and marks some specific stages, being different from a team as development and targets. Communication in sportive groups has a certain specificity related with the group maturity, the student’s experience, the teacher style, or the exercising atmosphere created in the player’s interaction. Being aware of this various aspects and differences inside a sportive groups and teams ma...

  7. Dream Teams : Bridging the learnings between management of teams in business and sports

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorenmaa, Henrietta

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the process of building high-performance teams using JYP-Academy, an ice hockey team, as a practical example and reflecting the findings onto the business world. Companies are investing time and energy into making teams work but still a lot of them are under-performing business, this phenomenon can be also seen in sports. Turning under-performing teams into successful ones will not only make the investment worthwhile, it can also increase productivity and therefore possi...

  8. Dietitians and exercise professionals in a childhood obesity treatment team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Paulina

    2005-06-01

    There has been a remarkable increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity in most countries in recent years, which indicates that modern lifestyle is the triggering factor for genetic susceptibility. This report focuses on the two main environmental factors, nutrition and physical activity, that could influence paediatric obesity development, and how health professionals can address these aspects in the management of childhood obesity in a multidisciplinary treatment team. First, the role of a nutrition expert in the multidisciplinary obesity team is discussed and then the importance of physical activity in the treatment of paediatric obesity. The part on nutrition highlights some interesting areas in this field, namely glycaemic index, high-protein diet, fast foods, portion sizes and soft-drink consumption. Dietary treatment in childhood obesity should be combined with changes in physical activity to promote long-term weight loss. Research on the physical activity of children and adolescents indicates some significant changes over the last decades, which are also reviewed. Factors such as sports club participation and television viewing are discussed. The appropriate physical activity level and effective physical activity programmes are also presented. Physical activity can be promoted in childhood obesity treatment in many ways. Practical advice regarding physical activity programme and the role of exercise professionals in childhood obesity treatment team is given. For successful obesity management, the child should be assessed and treated by a multidisciplinary team, including a physician, dietitian, exercise expert, nurse and behavioural therapist.

  9. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psycholo...

  10. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  11. Professional Scrum with Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Resnick, Steve; de la Maza, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Professional guidance on using Microsoft’s Visual Studio toolset for agile project management Focusing on both process and results, this professional guide offers a practical approach to running agile software projects using Visual Studio’s project management templates and tools. You’ll first get a thorough overview of the interaction between traditional, scrum-based agile development techniques and the Microsoft Soutions Framework, before drilling down into the detail. The book covers tools, best practices, key templates, key data, team and process models, necessary tracking

  12. Team Work: Sports and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelman, Charles; Hayes, Bill

    This lesson plan uses students' interest in sports to teach good citizenship. With its focus on rules, responsibility, conflict resolution, and teamwork, the unit emphasizes the development of critical thinking, decision-making, and citizenship skills in young people. This lesson plan is part of a series of fully prepared, interactive classroom…

  13. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  14. The influence of previous sport experiences in transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...

  15. Sport education: promoting team affiliation through physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Macphail, Ann; Kirk, David; Kinchin, Gary

    2004-01-01

    peer-reviewed The development of feelings of identity, the sense of belonging to a team, and the growth of social skills are experiences that sport, if properly conducted, is well placed to offer (Siedentop, 1994). Evidence suggests that some characteristics of traditional, multiactivity forms of physical education work against realizing these goals (Locke, 1992). Siedentop’s Sport Education (SE) model is one attempt to overcome this shortcoming by recasting units as seasons...

  16. Coaches' perceptions of the management of professional sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has become a part of life in South Africa. It has grown into an attractive mega-industry that employs many people. Among them is the professional sport coach who is an important member of the human resources in a sport organisation. This individual performs multiple roles that ensure that the sport organisation is ...

  17. LAW OF SPORT AND ATHLETE FOOTBALL PROFESSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Michael

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosperity of athlete football professional or employees is the right of every employees. The responsibility of the organization of professional football clubs to occupational with their health and safety. Organization of professional football clubs have full responsibility in this regard. With normative legal research. The result obtained there is no correlation between positive of law in Unity State Republic of Indonesia and the statuten made by FIFA. Organization of professional football clubs have not been absolutly run in Law of Republic of Indonesia No. 13 of 2003, Article 87 on labour in which every company must implement a health and safety of management system integrated working with the health management system. As a suggestion, require the rule of law which is in sync with the regulations made by FIFA, PSSI respected to the regulations in Indonesia related to sports that do not event of contradiction before publish the statuten of the organization so that no event of resignation athlete professional football in the future, they shall take into account the contennt of their contract, the public take an active role in infraction notice made by PSSI or other organizations professional football clubs on the regulation of professional football athlete contract that have been made, and the researchers of science of law are examining the country’s sovereignty and the sovereignty of FIFA.

  18. Emotional labor and professional practice in sports medicine and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hings, R F; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Gilmore, S; Anderson, V

    2017-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore how sport medicine and science practitioners manage their emotions through emotional labor when engaging in professional practice in elite sport. To address the research aim a semistructured interview design was adopted. Specifically, eighteen professional sport medicine and science staff provided interviews. The sample comprised sport and exercise psychologists (n=6), strength and conditioning coaches (n=5), physiotherapists (n=5), one sports doctor and one generic sport scientist. Following a process of thematic analysis, the results were organized into the following overarching themes: (a) factors influencing emotional labor enactment, (b) emotional labor enactment, and (c) professional and personal outcomes. The findings provide a novel contribution to understanding the professional demands faced by practitioners and are discussed in relation to the development of professional competencies and the welfare and performance of sport medics and scientists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sport Education: Promoting Team Affiliation Through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David; Kinchin, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    The development of feelings of identity, the sense of belonging to a team, and the growth of social skills are experiences that sport, if properly conducted, is well placed to offer (Siedentop, 1994). Evidence suggests that some characteristics of traditional, multiactivity forms of physical education work against realizing these goals (Locke,…

  20. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,

  1. Process model to implement organisational team sport interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of studies have been conducted on the benefits that organisational team sport interventions have for the employees and the organisation, but no formal studies were conducted on the implementation of these interventions in an organisation. The purpose of this research was to compile a process model for the ...

  2. The Constructivist Approach as an Explanatory Model in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alarcón López

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how it is necessary to use constructivist theory to understand the mechanisms that occur in the learning of team sports. These have distinct characteristics that give rise to many skills, which also require a motor domain, the capacity of each player to know when and where to use them, i.e. it needs a process of understanding the logic of the game to play. Most of the teaching models that are currently used in sports training is still based on theories of associative learning in which the player must acquire a skill set so decontextualized, this teaching being insufficient for understanding the team sports

  3. "Yes, we can!" review on team confidence in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Mertens, Niels; Feltz, Deborah; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    During the last decade, team confidence has received more and more attention in the sport psychology literature. Research has demonstrated that athletes who are more confident in their team's abilities exert more effort, set more challenging goals, are more resilient when facing adversities, and ultimately perform better. This article reviews the existing literature in order to provide more clarity in terms of the conceptualization and the operationalization of team confidence. We thereby distinguish between collective efficacy (i.e., process-oriented team confidence) and team outcome confidence (i.e., outcome-oriented team confidence). In addition, both the sources as well as the outcomes of team confidence will be discussed. Furthermore, we will go deeper into the dispersion of team confidence and we will evaluate the current guidelines on how to measure both types of team confidence. Building upon this base, the article then highlights interesting avenues for future research in order to further improve both our theoretical knowledge on team confidence and its application to the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GPP Webinar: Green Power Use and Opportunities for Sports Teams & Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on the green power use by sports teams and their venues. Focused on how and why sports teams and venues use green power, review of available product options, and best practices for procuring renewable energy.

  5. Team sports for overweight children: the Stanford Sports to Prevent Obesity Randomized Trial (SPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Dana L; Tirumalai, Evelyn C; Haydel, K Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Fulton, Janet E; Robinson, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an after-school team sports program for reducing weight gain in low-income overweight children. Six-month, 2-arm, parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial. Low-income, racial/ethnic minority community. Twenty-one children in grades 4 and 5 with a body mass index at or above the 85th percentile. The treatment intervention consisted of an after-school soccer program. The "active placebo" control intervention consisted of an after-school health education program. Implementation, acceptability, body mass index, physical activity measured using accelerometers, reported television and other screen time, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and weight concerns. All 21 children completed the study. Compared with children receiving health education, children in the soccer group had significant decreases in body mass index z scores at 3 and 6 months and significant increases in total daily, moderate, and vigorous physical activity at 3 months. An after-school team soccer program for overweight children can be a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious intervention for weight control.

  6. Sport and team differences on baseline measures of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more

  7. Usefulness of emergency medical teams in sport stadiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusveld, E; Kleijn, S; Umans, V A W M

    2008-03-01

    In August 2006, the new AZ Alkmaar soccer stadium (capacity 17,000) opened. To provide adequate emergency support, medical teams of Red Cross volunteers and coronary care unit and emergency room nurses were formed, and facilities including automated external defibrillators were made available at the stadium. During every match, 3 teams are placed among the spectators. All patients who had cardiac events were stabilized by the teams and transported to the hospital. They formed the study group. From August 2006 to May 2007, >800,000 individuals attended soccer matches at the new stadium. Four cardiac events (3 out-of-hospital-resuscitations for ventricular fibrillation, 1 patient with chest pain) requiring emergency medical support occurred. On-site resuscitations using defibrillators were successful. Two patients with triple-vessel disease subsequently underwent coronary bypass surgery and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. One patient had single-vessel disease of the circumflex branch, for which he received a coronary stent. All had uneventful recoveries. An acute coronary syndrome was ruled out in the patient presenting with chest pain. In conclusion, the presence of emergency medical teams at a large sport stadium was of vital importance in the immediate care of critically ill patients. On-site resuscitation using automated external defibrillators was lifesaving in all cases. The presence of medical teams equipped with defibrillators and emergency action plans is recommended at large venues that host sports and other activities.

  8. The management of professional sport coaches in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on human resources managers and professional sport coaches at sport organizations in South Africa. It focuses specifically on the management of professional coaches. The methodology involved an extensive literature survey, structured in-depth interviews and the administration ...

  9. Nutrition in team sportsTakım sporlarında beslenme

    OpenAIRE

    Günay Eskici

    2015-01-01

    Adequate and balanced nutrition is critical for success in sports.  Besides questions such as how much food needs to be consumed at what intervals and what kind of nutrients should be available for an adequate and balanced nutrition, it is also important to know what sport branch the individuals are involved in. Sport branches can be categorized into three groups as endurance sports, strength/power sports and team sports. Basic nutrition rules which are significant for sports nutrition among ...

  10. E-sport organization and professional gamers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...

  11. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  12. Relationship between Leadership among Peers and Burnout in Sports Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Julio; Arce, Constantino; Vales-Vázquez, Ángel; Areces, Alberto; Iglesias, Gabriel; Valle, Iván; Patiño, Gabriel

    2017-04-03

    This study has been conducted with the aim of ascertaining the relationship between peer leaders in sport teams and the levels of burnout experienced by their team-mates. A total of 219 Spanish athletes involved in football and basketball participated in the study. To measure leadership among peers, we employed the Sports Peer Leadership Scale, which comprises 24 items, grouped into 6 primary factors: empathy, influence on decision making, sports values, social support, training orientation and competition orientation. And to measure burnout, we employed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, which comprises 15 items which are indicators of physical and emotional exhaustion, devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment among athletes. The results led to the conclusion that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between perceived leadership capacity and the levels of burnout experience by a team. The greater the level of leadership capacity perceived, the lower the levels of burnout will be. A multiple regression analysis with total burnout as dependent variable and social and task orientations of the leader as predictors showed standardized regression coefficients of -.241 (p = .010) and -.076 (p = .413), respectively for social and task orientation, being the effect size equal to .089.

  13. Brand Equity, Efficiency and Valuation of Professional Sports Franchises: The Case of Major League Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of professional sports franchises have outpaced even investment returns in recent bull markets. Financial World found the value of professional teams like the Dallas Cowboys, Miami Dolphins and the NY Yankees to exceed $200 million each. In 1996, the average estimated value of Major League Baseball (MLB teams was $134 million, and most showed double-digit growth in value, although 13 of the 26 teams were in the red. Our research proposes a model to determine the value of a professional sports franchise, by treating the franchise as a brand whose value is enhanced by its key attributes. This approach is appropriate because each franchise represents a single brand firm. Our model takes into account equity enhancing factors like the franchise longevity, historical performance, the number of marquee/award-winning roster players, and market factors such as market size, competition and franchise efficiency. We determine the extent to which a franchise is managed efficiently with respect to inputs like investments in players (player costs and outputs such as franchise revenue and team performance (win-loss ratio. Using data from 1990-1995 to illustrate our model, we are able to determine (1 the brand equity of MLB franchises, (2 how efficiently each team is managed, and (3 the contribution of marketing factors like brand equity, market size, competition, as well as efficiency, to franchise value. While this paper focuses on MBL, the methodology can easily be extended to other professional sports.

  14. Athlete leadership behavior : how it relates to perceived team cohesion and players' satisfaction in elite sport teams

    OpenAIRE

    Wachsmuth, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    So far only little is known about athlete leadership. Instead, previous research in sports leadership focused on the role a coach plays within sport teams. Yet, first studies could raise awareness for the importance of athlete leaders who occupy a formal or informal role in a team. Initial research results showed a significant impact of athlete leadership behavior on perceived team cohesion and the satisfaction of team members. Additionally, the concept of motivational leadership was recently...

  15. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  16. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  17. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  18. Variable criteria for patellofemoral bracing among sports medicine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinsky, Ryan; Beaupre, Gary S; Fredericson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether the frequency of bracing, geographic region, clinical specialty, or percentage of practice devoted to knee pain influences the criteria used by sports medicine professionals to determine whether a brace should be prescribed for treating patients with nontraumatic patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine practices in the United States. A total of 1307 athletic trainers, physical therapists, and sports medicine physicians recruited from the e-mail listings of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine, the American Physical Therapy Association Sports Physical Therapy Section, the International Patellofemoral Study Group, the International Patellofemoral Retreat list, and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 athletic team registries. Not applicable. Thirty-seven potential patellofemoral bracing criteria encompassing history and function, alignment, physical examination, previous treatments, and radiographic evidence. A total of 1307 of 7999 providers replied (response rate, 16.3%). Mean bracing frequencies were 19.8% for athletic trainers, 13.4% for physical therapists, and 25.1% for physicians. The mean number of total bracing criteria used was 10.5. The 10 most commonly cited criteria for prescribing a patellofemoral brace in descending order of frequency were: (1) hypermobile patella on physical examination; (2) positive J sign on physical examination; (3) failure of previous rehabilitation; (4) pain when performing squats or going up/down stairs on history; (5) success with previous taping; (6) pain with running activities on history; (7) pain with jumping activities on history; (8) increased dynamic Q angle; (9) vastus medialis oblique deficiency in timing or strength; and (10) positive apprehension sign on physical examination. No statistically significant trends were noted with regard to experience or percentage of practice devoted to knee

  19. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  20. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  1. A model for measuring value for money in professional sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Few to almost none sports teams measure the entertainment value they provide to fans in exchange of the money the latter ones spend on admission fees. Scientific literature oversees the issue as well. The aim of this paper is to present a model that can be used for calculating value for money in the context of spectating sports. The research question asks how can value for money be conceptualized and measured for sports marketing purposes? Using financial and sporting variables, the method calculates how much money, on average, a fan had to spend for receiving quality entertainment – defined as won matches – from his favorite team, during the last season of the Romanian first division football championship. The results only partially confirm the research hypothesis, showing that not just price and sporting performances may influence the value delivered to fans, but other factors as well.

  2. Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

    2012-06-01

    This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports.

  3. A Basic Study on Leadership of the Coaches in the College Sports Teams

    OpenAIRE

    畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子

    2004-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...

  4. Head Injuries in Professional and Amateur Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Concussions in sports have become such a large issue in today’s sports society. Each year it seems that we hear more and more about athletes who struggle dealing with head injuries. Athletes continue to get bigger, stronger and faster which brings more excitement to sports. There have been many injuries in contact sports at all levels that not only result in concussions but long-term head injuries that can that cause permanent damage. We have learned and studied so much about the effects that...

  5. Networks as a novel tool for studying team ball sports as complex social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, P; Davids, K; Araújo, D; Paz, N; Minguéns, J; Mendes, J

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the novel utility of network methods for understanding human interpersonal interactions within social neurobiological systems such as sports teams. We show how collective system networks are supported by the sum of interpersonal interactions that emerge from the activity of system agents (such as players in a sports team). To test this idea we trialled the methodology in analyses of intra-team collective behaviours in the team sport of water polo. We observed that the number of interactions between team members resulted in varied intra-team coordination patterns of play, differentiating between successful and unsuccessful performance outcomes. Future research on small-world networks methodologies needs to formalize measures of node connections in analyses of collective behaviours in sports teams, to verify whether a high frequency of interactions is needed between players in order to achieve competitive performance outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional Assessment and Injury Risk in a Professional Soccer Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Piqueras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the last World Conference on Sport and Physical Therapy celebrated in Bern (Switzerland, 2015, it was confirmed that the functional skills of an athlete are a very important variable to be considered in the recovery of an injury. On the other hand, its use as a predictive risk tool still lacks solid evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a battery of functional tests (FPT could be used as a preliminary measure for the season in order to identify the injury risk in a professional soccer team in the Spanish Second Division B League. Fifty-two soccer players (ages of 25.3 ± 4.6 years, 10.33% ± 0.9% fat were functionally assessed during two seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 and analyzed from an injury perspective. A total of 125 injuries were recorded. The sample was grouped based on the number of injuries and the required absence days. Except for the bipodal vertical jump (CMJ, none of the functional tests revealed differences among the groups. The correlation study between the functional condition and the suffered injuries did not show any significant results.

  7. An Integrative Perspective on Interpersonal Coordination in Interactive Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice.

  8. An Integrative Perspective on Interpersonal Coordination in Interactive Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Steiner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice.

  9. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants' views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.

  10. TALENT MANAGEMENT BASED ON THERAPEUTIC WORK WITH A PROFESSIONAL HANDBALL TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Keczelei, Danica

    2013-01-01

    All athletes regardless of their age should get mental skills development that could be integrated into their normal training. Psychological training is essential for better performance because in sports the psychological factors play a very important role. The aim of this presentation is to show the therapeutic work of a professional men’s handball team and demonstrate the nature of the social environment and how it can have an effect on their performance. The author examines how a team fo...

  11. Relationship Among Team Collective Efficacy, Cohesion, and Coaching Competency in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Clayton T.

    2007-01-01

    A team's performance in any sport can be predicted by many factors. Some of these factors include team collective efficacy, team cohesiveness, and coaching competency. Currently, there is little research investigating the relationships among teams' beliefs about their capabilities, their level of cohesion, and their perceptions of coaching competency on overall sport performance. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship among collective efficacy, cohesion, and coaching on sp...

  12. GAME LOCATION AND TEAM QUALITY EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE PROFILES IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lago-Peñas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i variables related to goals scored; (ii variables related to offense and (iii variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U and multivariate (discriminant analysis analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form

  13. Sport-specific functional movement can simulate aspects of neuromuscular fatigue occurring in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Jan; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Krause, Frieder; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    Fatigue protocols have been used over the years to examine muscular exhaustion. As an alternative to approaches in laboratory settings, functional agility protocols claiming to mimic the multifaceted loads of athletic activity have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effects of a functional agility short-term fatigue protocol (FAST-FP) on neuromuscular function. Twenty-eight healthy sports students (15 males, aged 24.3 ± 2.4 years) completed the FAST-FP, which consists of four components: three counter-movement jumps (90% of individual maximum), a 20-s bout of step-ups, three bodyweight squats and an agility run. Tasks were repeated until the participants no longer achieved the required jump height in two consecutive sets. Outcomes (pre-post) encompassed subjective exhaustion (visual analogue scale [VAS]), maximum isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF), reactive strength index (RSI), mean power frequency (MPF, measured using surface electromyography) and maximum knee range of motion (ROM). Post-intervention, VAS (+54 mm) increased significantly, while MIVF (-6.1%), RSI (-10.7%) and MPF (-4.1%) were reduced (p  0.05). The FAST-FP induces small-to-moderate impairments in neuromuscular function and considerable self-perceived fatigue. Current evidence on exhaustion developing in team sports suggests that this magnitude of fatigue is similar. The protocol might thus be valuable in the evaluation of treatments counteracting post-match fatigue in team sports.

  14. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  15. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  16. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  17. Sport psychology education for sport injury rehabilitation professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L

    2015-02-01

    Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What's Next in Complex Networks? Capturing the Concept of Attacking Play in Invasive Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Araújo, Duarte

    2017-09-16

    The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.

  19. Does the face reveal athletic flair? : Positions in team sports and facial attractiveness00

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, J.H.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Wieling, M.

    2007-01-01

    Athleticism is sexually attractive, indicating that it may serve as a sign of heritable fitness. We hypothesized that just as some sports may more honestly signal fitness than other sports, some positions within team sports may more honestly signal fitness than other positions, because success in

  20. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  1. A Team-Sports-Based Life-Skills Program in a Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudas, Marios; Giannoudis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…

  2. The Research Doesn't Always Apply: Practical Solutions to Evidence-Based Training-Load Monitoring in Elite Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Darren J

    2017-04-01

    Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.

  3. Leadership as factor of men's student basketball team sports and games activities efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andryushina L.L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.

  4. ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN SPANISH TEAM SPORT PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Boto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    ABSTRACT

    This study examined the role of ability, effort, luck and difficulty of the task in attributions for successful and unsuccessful performances made by Spanish team sport players, and determined if differences exist between athletes at different competition levels. Participants were 143 young men (soccer: N = 64; indoor soccer: N = 37; basketball: N = 42, ages 17 to 25 years (M = 20, SD = 5. Winners perceived ability and effort as the reasons behind their success while losers made attributions mainly to luck and the difficulty of the task. Ability and effort were in the three sports the reasons given for successful outcomes at various competition levels. Difficulty of the task was the factor rated higher by those who lost competing at a national level, while luck and effort were rated higher for those who lost competing at a regional and local level.
    KEY WORDS: attribution, team sports. competition levels

     

    RESUMEN

    En este estudio se analizaron el papel de la habilidad, el esfuerzo, la suerte y la dificultad de la tarea en las atribuciones de éxito y fracaso realizadas por practicantes españoles de deportes colectivos y se determinó si existían diferencias entre jugadores con distintos niveles de competición. Participaron 143 chicos (fútbol: N = 64; fútbol sala: N = 37; baloncesto: N = 42, con edades comprendidas entre 17 y 25 años (M = 20, SD = 5. Los ganadores consideraban la habilidad y el esfuerzo como las razones responsables de su éxito, mientras que los perdedores realizaban sus atribuciones principalmente a la suerte y a la dificultad de la tarea. En los tres deportes estudiados, la habilidad y el esfuerzo se

  5. Small-sided games in team sports training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.

  6. Professional preferences of students in physical education and sport sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo García Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....

  7. The Affective Audience in Professional E-sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This master’s thesis investigates the members of the audience in professional e-sport. Through a wide range of examples it shows that players, spectators and various nonhuman actors are nested together in assemblages. It states that human-nonhuman actors in ‘co-creation’ constitute the game play...... and consumers of the game play. My ethnographic studies draw from a multifaceted approach counting visual ethnography, participant observations and interviews of 35 dedicated spectators and fans, situated at two professional e-sports competitions, the largest digital festival in the world, Dreamhack in Sweden...

  8. SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CURRICULA IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie

    2017-10-01

    The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and

  9. SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CURRICULA IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVahl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Background The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. Purpose The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Study Design Cross-sectional descriptive survey Methods A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Results Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. Conclusions This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to

  10. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.

  11. The experience of captaincy in professional sport: The case of elite professional rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Stewart T; Cheetham, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The captain is perceived to be an important member of the leadership structure within teams across many professional sports. However, while there is a general acceptance that this is the case, there is very little research exploring the role and associated demands at an elite level. As a result, the aim of this study was to explore the captaincy experiences of elite professional rugby union captains. The participants were eight male captains purposefully sampled for this study. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant's captaincy experiences. The data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Nine super-ordinate themes emerged in the study: role, skills, requirements, challenges, the coach, development, experience, context, and approach. Results suggest that the captaincy role is broader than previously highlighted, particularly at the elite level. Also, the study highlights inconsistencies in the selection of captains and a lack of formal developmental support for elite rugby captains. As a result, future research should explore the development of specific evidence-based approaches to captain selection and development.

  12. Is there a link between previous exposure to sport injury psychology education and UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals' attitudes and behaviour towards sport psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Caroline A.; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C.; Green, Alison J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not.\\ud \\ud Participants and design: Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists ...

  13. SPORTS SCIENCES AND MULTICULTURALISM - EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Pirsl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to familiarize the sports sciences educators to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits and awareness of multicultural education if implemented in sports sciences curricula, especially in the efforts to obtain international transparency through sports science literature writing and publishing. Data Sources were textbook chapters and articles searched through the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 2000 to 2005 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. Synthesized data were used to present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of sports science education. The infrastructure in the professional field of sports sciences, review of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy and the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education were analyzed. Conclusions/Recommendations focus on possible various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in sports sciences curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies.

  14. Effect of team sport participation on genetic predisposition to adolescent smoking progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wileyto, E Paul; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Shields, Peter G

    2006-04-01

    There is much to be learned about why some adolescents progress to a regular smoking habit and others do not. To evaluate whether (1) team sport participation buffers the effect of having 2 smoking risk genotypes (the dopamine reuptake transporter [SLC6A3] and the dopamine D(2) receptor [DRD2]) or 1 of these risk genotypes vs having none on adolescent smoking progression and (2) the buffering effects of team sports were due to physical activity associated with team sport participation. Longitudinal cohort study. Survey data were collected annually from grade 9 to the end of grade 12. Self-report measures included smoking, team sport participation, physical activity, depression, smoking exposure, and alcohol and marijuana use. DNA was collected via buccal swabs. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Five public high schools in Virginia. A total of 361 students of European ancestry. Main Outcome Measure Smoking progression. For adolescents participating in at least 1 team sport, but not for adolescents with no team sport participation, physical activity had a significant negative effect on smoking progression (z = -3.85, Psport but not for adolescents with no team sport participation. This study provides the first evidence of an interaction between environmental influences and specific genes on adolescent smoking and may promote an understanding of important protective relationships in the environment.

  15. Influence of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Primack, Brian A; Beach, Michael L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Longacre, Meghan R; Weiss, Julia E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-07-01

    To examine the joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking. Longitudinal study. School- and telephone-based surveys in New Hampshire and Vermont between September 1999 through November 1999 and February 2006 through February 2007. A total of 2048 youths aged 16 to 21 years at follow-up. Main Exposures Baseline movie smoking exposure categorized in quartiles assessed when respondents were aged 9 to 14 years and team sports participation assessed when respondents were aged 16 to 21 years. Main Outcome Measure Established smoking (having smoked > or =100 cigarettes in one's lifetime) at follow-up. At follow-up, 353 respondents (17.2%) were established smokers. Exposure to the highest quartile of movie smoking compared with the lowest increased the likelihood of established smoking (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57), and team sports nonparticipants compared with participants were twice as likely to be established smokers (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.74). The joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation revealed that at each quartile of movie smoking exposure, the odds of established smoking were greater for team sports nonparticipants than for participants. We saw a dose-response relationship of movie smoking exposure for established smoking only among team sports participants. Team sports participation clearly plays a protective role against established smoking, even in the face of exposure to movie smoking. However, movie smoking exposure increases the risk of established smoking among both team sports participants and nonparticipants. Parents, teachers, coaches, and clinicians should be aware that encouraging team sports participation in tandem with minimizing early exposure to movie smoking may offer the greatest likelihood of preventing youth smoking.

  16. New EU Governance Modes in Professional Sport: Enhancing Throughput Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnout Geeraert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the limits and opportunities for enhancing the democratic legitimacy of EU actions in the field of professional sport using new modes of governance. It presents a conceptual toolkit by which the ‘throughput legitimacy’ of an EU policy can be analysed. Analysing the throughput legitimacy of the European social dialogue, we establish that, by improving the latter, both input and output legitimacy can be increased. The EU could borrow some of the positive elements of the social dialogue approach and incorporate them in the steering of other issues in professional sport. For instance, it may be interesting to pre-establish certain conditions on representativeness and relevance for participation in the policy process. Crucially, working on a clear theme-per-theme-basis instead of organising outsized gatherings such as the EU sport forum would definitely benefit throughput legitimacy.

  17. Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maximal heart rate (HR) max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HR max in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HR max with three prediction equations (Fox-HR max = 220-age and Tanaka-HR max = 208-0.7×age and Nikolaidis-HR max = 223-1.44×age) in young team sport athletes. Materials and Methods...

  18. Exploration of US men's professional sport organization concussion policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Graham Dean; Owen, Matthew; Ackerson, Joseph D; Hale, Matthew H; Gould, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Concussion policies are increasingly being developed and adopted among professional sports organizations. We sought to compare the policies of the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Our objective was to summarize each policy and evaluate the extent to which each policy is organization-specific and/or consistent with medical guidelines. We visited websites for the NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB. We searched media articles reporting concussion policy. We utilized only publically available data. We collected information on each league's approach to the definition of concussion, education provided about concussion, baseline testing requirements, minimum return to play time and return to play protocol. We found that concussion policies vary across these organizations. Most organizations utilize the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) definition (2013) to define concussion. The NFL and NBA mandate preseason education. All organizations require some type of baseline testing. All organizations require sideline evaluation after suspected concussion. The NFL and MLB require Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) testing for sideline evaluation of suspected concussion. MLB is the only organization to require minimum time before return to play. There is a return to play protocol in place for each organization. The NFL and MLB require independent neurologic consultation as part of their return to play protocol. There is variability in concussion policy among the professional sports organizations. The most pronounced variation from the CISG consensus statement is the variability in the minimum time to return to play. Further, the rules of the individual sports have a role in how concussion policy can be designed and implemented. Professional sports set an example for thousands of recreational sports enthusiasts so their publically available policies on concussion have a large impact.

  19. Internship as a mechanism for professional preparation of sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internship as a mechanism for professional preparation of sport management personnel: an empirical study of students' perceptions. ... As a result, the recruitment drives of many organisations currently focus heavily on attracting skills as well as experience. One of the ways in which the skills shortage and lack of experience ...

  20. Professional development for sport psychology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Hutter, R I Vana; Eubank, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Applied sport psychology practice and research date back to the late 19th century. During this period investigators have largely examined the interventions practitioners employ to help athletes. More recently, researchers have begun addressing the person employing those interventions, including identifying their attributes and how they develop expertise, in recognition that practitioners are central to effective practice. Research focused on practitioners can inform educational and registration pathways, helping trainees to develop the knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to meet their clients' needs. In this article major lines of inquiry in this area are reviewed. It is suggested that examining practitioner identity represents novel research that has educational and applied value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Family health teams: can health professionals learn to work together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soklaridis, Sophie; Oandasan, Ivy; Kimpton, Shandra

    2007-07-01

    To learn what educators across the health professions involved in primary health care think about the use and development of academic family health teams to provide, teach, and model interprofessional collaboration and about the introduction of interprofessional education (IPE) within structured academic primary care. Qualitative study using focus groups. Higher education institutions across Ontario. Purposeful sample of 36 participants from nursing, pharmacy, speech language pathology, occupational and physical therapy, social work, and family medicine. Participants were invited to join focus groups of 6 to 8 health professionals. Themes were derived from qualitative analysis of data gathered using a grounded-theory approach. Three major themes were identified: the lack of consensus on opportunities for future academic family health teams to teach IPE, the lack of formalized teaching of interprofessional collaboration and the fact that what little has been developed is primarily for family physicians and hardly at all for other health professionals, and the confusion around the definition of IPE across health professions. The future role of family health teams in academic primary care settings as a place for learners to see teamwork in action and to learn collaboration needs to be examined. Unless academic settings are developed to provide the necessary training for primary health care professionals to work in teams, a new generation of health care professionals will continue to work in status quo environments, and reform initiatives are unlikely to become sustainable over time.

  2. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  3. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    .... This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location...

  4. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Changsop; Lee, Eunyoung; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season...

  5. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Changsop; Lee, Eunyoung; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season...

  6. The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... (Hatzigeorgiadis et al,2013). The overall aim was to develop life-skills and social resilience by being part of a team sport. Furthermore, the goal was to enhance social capability and to increase the possibilities for acting actively and responsibly in one’s own life and in the local community...

  7. Assessment of the diet quality of team sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pilon Jürgensen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies about food consumption of athletes have assessed the quality of their food choices, and the factors that influence these choices. The aim of this study was to assess the diet of team sports athletes through a revised version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-R in order to identify their nutritional knowledge and the stage of intention to change eating behavior (SICEB and to identify possible association with demographic and anthropometric variables. Seventy-two athletes (35 men were evaluated for the following variables: body mass, height, Body Mass Index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, nutritional knowledge (questionnaire, food intake (24-hour recall, diet quality (HEI-R and SICEB (transtheoretical model. For statistical analysis, the Student t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used. None of the athletes presented diet classified as “healthy” and 45.7% (men and 51.4% (women had “inadequate” diets. Low consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, milk and dairy products was observed. The HEI-R “meats, legumes and eggs” component received the best scores. Pre-contemplation (25.0% and action (23.6% stages were the most frequent in the group. The mean percentage of correct answers in the nutritional knowledge questionnaire was 55.7% (men and 57.3% (women. No association was found between HEI-R and variables age, BMI, BF%, SICEB, nutritional knowledge score and energy intake. This group presents inadequate dietary intake. The lack of association between study variables indicates the need to investigate other factors that influence athlete’s feeding behavior.

  8. The Impact of Relationship Marketing on Team Loyalty (The Case Study:Sport Team Fans of Azadeghan Football League of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.

  9. Empirical Study to Development and Evaluation Field Team Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Football codes sports have been many studies, which investigated the physical fitness profiles of these sports, but especially in the case of soccer. However, some physical fitness components of these sports are poorly understood. Furthermore, there are individuals who have competed at elite level in soccer and rugby union. There are a few studies have been compared the physical fitness characteristics of elite level players in each of the football codes. Therefore, the curr...

  10. Autonomy support and motivational responses across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (Nn=n348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between

  11. Autonomy support and motivational responses across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (N = 348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between

  12. A Research on Mathematical Thinking Skills: Mathematical Thinking Skills of Athletes in Individual and Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…

  13. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.

  14. Prevalence and social-environmental correlates of sports team participation among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

  15. Peer Effects in Team Sports: Empirical Evidence from NCAA Relay Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Depken, II; Lisa E. Haglund

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether disparity in team member quality impacts team production using NCAA 4x400m relay teams. The net peer effects are estimated to have both an absolute and relative negative effect on the team performance. Because NCAA relay teams are comprised of unpaid amateurs, we utilize a direct measure of team-member quality rather than indirect measures such as wages. The evidence suggests that a greater disparity in team member quality reduces team performance, that is, it ...

  16. Team sports participation and risk-taking behaviors among a biracial middle school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, J P; Morrissey, S L

    2000-07-01

    There have been no large studies of middle school students to assess the association between team sports participation and risk-taking behaviors, despite evidence in high school and collegiate athletes. Our study evaluated whether team sports participation is associated with specific risk-taking behaviors among a biracial middle school population. A cross-sectional survey using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. Twenty-two public middle schools in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina. 4,346 middle school students in grades 6-8 completed the survey. All students participated if present in school the day the survey was administered. 648 students fulfilled specific exclusion criteria. Multiple logistic regression examined team sports participation as a predictor of 17 risk-taking behaviors while controlling for gender, race, and grade. Of the 3,698 students, 49% were male, 49.5% Caucasian, and 52.5% were involved in team sports. Sports participants, as compared with non-sports participants, reported significantly higher frequencies for carrying a gun (p sports participation was associated with the following behaviors: carrying a weapon (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence intervals 1.0731-1.4540), physical fight (1.15, 1.0017-1.3253), current alcohol use (1.24, 1.0560-1.4611), and experimentation with cigarettes (1.26, 1.0991-1.4502), cocaine (1.37, 1.0300-1.8139) and inhalants (1.20, 1.0141-1.4130). Among a biracial middle school population, sports participants were more likely to demonstrate certain risk-taking behaviors when compared with non-sports participants. Further research is necessary to understand the relationships between risk-taking behaviors and team sports participation.

  17. Participation in Team Sports Can Eliminate the Effect of Social Loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Social and task cohesion and the relationship with team sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjustment to the demands of academic work and sport participation may place an added burden on students to find the correct balance between their academic and social responsibilities as engagement in sport may negatively influence their academic performance. The purpose of the study was to examine the ...

  19. Professional Sports and Urban Development: A Brief Review of Issues and Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison S. Campbell, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between professional sports and cities is an important public policy issue that has received growing attention in the academic literature. Investment in sports facilities is frequently rationalized on the basis of economic impact and positive spillover effects to cities and regions, yet there is mounting suspicion that professional sports have only a marginal impact on their surrounding area. Why are professional sports so important? What factors help explain the recent stadi...

  20. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  1. What benefits does team sport hold for the workplace? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Munir, Fehmidah

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is proven to be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and all-cost mortality. Public health policy recommends community settings worldwide such as the workplace to promote physical activity. Despite the growing prevalence of workplace team sports, studies have not synthesised their benefits within the workplace. A systematic review was carried out to identify articles related to workplace team sports, including intervention, observational and qualitative studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest team sport holds benefits not only for individual health but also for group cohesion and performance and organisational benefits such as the increased work performance. However, it is unclear how sport is most associated with these benefits as most of the studies included poorly described samples and unclear sports activities. Our review highlights the need to explore and empirically understand the benefits of workplace team sport for individual, group and organisational health outcomes. Researches carried out in this field must provide details regarding their respective samples, the sports profile and utilise objective measures (e.g., sickness absence register data, accelerometer data).

  2. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  3. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  4. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  5. Mechanisms of sports injuries among professional footballers: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The articles revealed that the risk of injury in professional football is substantial; its prevalence astronomical and extremely severe. Injuries also affect performance in a negative way and teams that can avoid injuries have greater success as evaluated by their position in the league system. Prevention of injury in football is of ...

  6. [Injured players candidates for professional volleyball team: sign them up or not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon

    2012-02-01

    Competitive volleyball teams master six basic skills: serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig. Each of these skills comprises a number of specific techniques, considered standard practice in high-level volleyball. Five professional volleyball players were candidates to join a first division team in Israel. Their medical dossier presented previous injuries that occurred during their sport's activity. Two of the players had a suprascapular nerve injury, one had a lesion in the hamstrings, another one had an operated ankle sprain and the fifth one had an operated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in both knees and a mallet fifth finger. The team physician had to make the decision as to whether they are able to continue playing volleyball at a high level, taking into consideration the different skills necessary in this sport. Players having suprascapular nerve injury might have difficulties to hit the serve, to hit and to block the ball. Those with unstable knee or ankle take a risk white landing. Lesions in the hamstrings cause local pain during jumping to attack or to block the ball and a mallet finger will disturb the player when attempting to set the ball, to handle it in attack or to block.

  7. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  8. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  9. Team Sports Performance Analysed Through the Lens of Social Network Theory: Implications for Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João; Silva, Pedro; Duarte, Ricardo; Davids, Keith; Garganta, Júlio

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses how social network analyses and graph theory can be implemented in team sports performance analyses to evaluate individual (micro) and collective (macro) performance data, and how to use this information for designing practice tasks. Moreover, we briefly outline possible limitations of social network studies and provide suggestions for future research. Instead of cataloguing discrete events or player actions, it has been argued that researchers need to consider the synergistic interpersonal processes emerging between teammates in competitive performance environments. Theoretical assumptions on team coordination prompted the emergence of innovative, theoretically driven methods for assessing collective team sport behaviours. Here, we contribute to this theoretical and practical debate by re-conceptualising sports teams as complex social networks. From this perspective, players are viewed as network nodes, connected through relevant information variables (e.g. a ball-passing action), sustaining complex patterns of interaction between teammates (e.g. a ball-passing network). Specialised tools and metrics related to graph theory could be applied to evaluate structural and topological properties of interpersonal interactions of teammates, complementing more traditional analysis methods. This innovative methodology moves beyond the use of common notation analysis methods, providing a richer understanding of the complexity of interpersonal interactions sustaining collective team sports performance. The proposed approach provides practical applications for coaches, performance analysts, practitioners and researchers by establishing social network analyses as a useful approach for capturing the emergent properties of interactions between players in sports teams.

  10. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  11. Student Precision and Reliability of the Team Sport Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TSAP) and formative assessment of invasion sport. The specific objectives were to determine the degree of agreement among expert observers, inter-observer reliability (internal consistency), and intra observer reliability (temporal reliability).

  12. Is there a link between previous exposure to sport injury psychology education and UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals' attitudes and behaviour towards sport psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K

    2017-01-01

    The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. For debate: consensus injury definitions in team sports should focus on missed playing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Hoskins, Wayne

    2007-05-01

    To compare the most commonly used and proposed injury definitions for surveillance systems in team sports and attempt to assess their suitability for consensus definitions in terms of reliability and functionality. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for papers on team sports that discussed consensus definitions or compared various definitions of injury. A continuum between the most broad "tissue damage" definition and the most narrow "match time loss only" definition was developed. A "match time loss only" injury definition can be reliably and accurately applied but only captures a small percentage of the total pool of all "tissue damage" injuries. There are some inherent biases in using a match time loss only definition (late season matches, matches with unequal breaks between games), but these are clearly visible. All other definitions improve the volume of data captured but suffer serious theoretical and/or practical flaws with respect to accuracy and reliability. No study using a broad definition has demonstrated good reliability to date (eg, using 2 independent recorders at the same team). A "match time loss only" injury definition is the most accurate and reliable of those commonly used in team sports. Other injury definitions are broader and may be more appropriate for individual team and specific injury studies. However, a match time loss definition is the most accurate and reliable tool for comparing injury rates at different teams and between different seasons within teams. Hence, we recommend this as the basis for the injury definition in a consensus statement.

  14. Sports reporting: a comprehensive review of the medical literature regarding North American professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4

  15. Talent development of high performance coaches in team sports in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan

    2017-04-01

    Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.

  16. The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field.

  17. The Comparison of Mental Rotation Performance in Team and Individual Sports of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students

  18. The Validity and Reliability of Global Positioning Systems in Team Sport: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Macfarlane T U; Scott, Tannath J; Kelly, Vincent G

    2016-05-01

    The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has increased dramatically over the last decade. Using signals from orbiting satellites, the GPS receiver calculates the exact position of the device and the speed at which the device is moving. Within team sports GPS devices are used to quantify the external load experienced by an athlete, allowing coaches to better manage trainings loads and potentially identify athletes who are overreaching or overtraining. This review aims to collate all studies that have tested either (or both) the validity or reliability of GPS devices in a team sport setting, with a particular focus on (a) measurements of distance, speed, velocities, and accelerations across all sampling rates and (b) accelerometers, player/body load and impacts in accelerometer-integrated GPS devices. A comprehensive search of the online libraries identified 22 articles that fit search criteria. The literature suggests that all GPS units, regardless of sampling rate, are capable of tracking athlete's distance during team sport movements with adequate intraunit reliability. One Hertz and 5Hz GPS units have limitations in their reporting of distance during high-intensity running, velocity measures, and short linear running (particularly those involving changes of direction), although these limitations seem to be overcome during measures recorded during team sport movements. Ten Hertz GPS devices seem the most valid and reliable to date across linear and team sport simulated running, overcoming many limitations of earlier models, whereas the increase to 15Hz GPS devices have had no additional benefit.

  19. Consequences of organizational commitment in abolished company sports team - a case study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.

  20. On the use of mobile inflatable hypoxic marquees for sport-specific altitude training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P

    2013-12-01

    With the evolving boundaries of sports science and greater understanding of the driving factors in the human performance physiology, one of the limiting factors has now become the technology. The growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training for intermittent activities such as team and racket sports legitimises the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. Description of a new mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment. The system comprises two inflatable units-that is, a tunnel and a rectangular design, each with a 215 m(3) volume and a hypoxic trailer generating over 3000 Lpm of hypoxic air with FiO₂ between 0.21 and 0.10 (a simulated altitude up to 5100 m). The inflatable units offer a 45 m running lane (width=1.8 m and height=2.5 m) as well as a 8 m × 10 m dome tent. FiO₂ is stable within a range of 0.1% in normal conditions inside the tunnel. The air supplied is very dry-typically 10-15% relative humidity. This mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment is a promising technological advance within sport sciences. It offers an opportunity for team-sport players to train under hypoxic conditions, both for repeating sprints (tunnel configuration) or small-side games (rectangular configuration).

  1. A detailed quantification of differential ratings of perceived exertion during team-sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Smith, Andrew; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) to team-sport training. Single cohort, observational study. Twenty-nine professional rugby union players were monitored over a six-week intensified training period. Training sessions were classified as: high-intensity intervals, repeated high-intensity efforts, speed, skill-based conditioning, skills, whole-body resistance, or upper-body resistance. After each session, players recorded a session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; CR100 ® ), along with differential session ratings for breathlessness (sRPE-B), leg muscle exertion (sRPE-L), upper-body muscle exertion (sRPE-U), and cognitive/technical demands (sRPE-T). Each score was multiplied by the session duration to calculate session training loads. Data were analysed using mixed linear modelling and multiple linear regression, with magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. Between-session differences in dRPE scores ranged from very likely trivial to most likely extremely large and within-session differences amongst dRPE scores ranged from unclear to most likely very large. Differential RPE training loads combined to explain 66-91% of the variance in sRPE training loads, and the strongest associations with sRPE training load were with sRPE-L for high-intensity intervals (r=0.67; 90% confidence limits ±0.22), sRPE-B for repeated high-intensity efforts (0.89; ±0.08) and skill-based conditioning (0.67; ±0.19), sRPE-T for Speed (0.63; ±0.17) and Skills (0.51; ±0.28), and sRPE-U for resistance training (whole-body: 0.61; ±0.21, upper-body: 0.92; ±0.07). Differential RPE can provide a detailed quantification of internal load during training activities commonplace in team sports. Knowledge of the relationships between dRPE and sRPE can isolate the specific perceptual demands of different training modes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity and sports team participation: associations with academic outcomes in middle school and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudia K; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and academic outcomes in middle and high school students. Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of physical activity, sports team participation, and academic letter grades. Two statistical models were considered: first, 2 separate regression analyses with grade point average (GPA) as the outcome and either sports team participation or physical activity as the predictor; second, a single regression with GPA as the outcome and both sports team participation and physical activity as the simultaneous predictors. For high school girls, both physical activity and sports team participation were each independently associated with a higher GPA. For high school boys, only sports team participation was independently associated with a higher GPA. For middle school students, the positive association between physical activity and GPA could not be separated from the relationship between sports team participation and a higher GPA. Regardless of whether academic success was related to the physical activity itself or to participation on sports teams, findings indicated positive associations between physical activity involvement and academic achievement among students.

  3. Pre-cancerous (DNA and chromosomal) lesions in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radhika; Gandhi, Gursatej

    2012-01-01

    Exhaustive exercises may become detrimental, causing disturbance of intracellular oxidant-antioxidant balance and damage to macromolecules, leading to genomic instability when DNA/chromosomes get damaged. As these are precancerous lesions, cancer occurrence is probable. Because professional sports requires high-intensity training and increasing physical demand, there may occur cellular genomic instability. To evaluate genetic damage at DNA and chromosomal levels in hockey and baseball-soft ball players and compare with levels in age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. Players professionally active in their sport from 3 to 11 years on a daily training session of 4h/day were contacted during their camps, and the study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. All participants were healthy individuals, not on any medication and were not taking any supplements. Genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay and buccal micronucleus cytome assay of 56 individuals (36 players and 20 controls) was evaluated. Student's t -test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and linear regression and Chi-square analysis were performed. Players had significantly elevated levels of genetic damage. There were no gender differences and also no significant difference in the genetic damage incurred in both sports types. However, the extent of DNA migration in hockey players was higher. Significantly increased genomic instability in players of both sports was observed. Both repaired and repairable genetic damage cells were observed in different tissues of the same subject. The presence of such genetic damage implies that these players are at an individual risk from cancer- and age-related diseases.

  4. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

  6. Pedagogia do Esporte: livro didático aplicado aos Jogos Esportivos Coletivos Sport Pedagogy: text books applied to team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rafaela Galatti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata das possibilidades pedagógicas do livro didático (LD como recurso nas aulas de Educação Física, tendo por conteúdo o esporte e, em específico, os jogos esportivos coletivos (JECs. Foi desenvolvida uma revisão bibliográfica dos termos citados e, a partir desta, o estudo avança para a proposição de um livro didático em educação física na temática dos JECs, considerando dois referenciais: um técnico-tático e outro sócio-educativo. Para tal, recorremos a métodos provenientes da área da lingüística, com o desenvolvimento de uma Seqüência Didática que permitiu a seleção e distribuição dos conteúdos a serem apresentados no LD de forma ordenada e criteriosa. O foco nos JECs se justifica pela sua inserção sócio-cultural e pela necessidade de transformar estudos mais recentes em novos procedimentos pedagógicos para a prática dessas modalidades. O livro didático, bem como a preparação adequada dos profissionais que o utilizarão, é apontado como facilitador no processo de ensino, vivência e aprendizagem dos jogos esportivos coletivos.The study deals with the pedagogical possibilities of text books as a resource for Physical Education (PE classes based on sports, specifically team sports. It started from a bibliographical review on the cited terms and after that we advanced our studies in order to propose a didactic text book on Team Sports for PE classes considering two benchmarks: one technical-tactic and the other social-educational. In order to do so, we used methods from linguistics, and the development of a Didactic Sequence allowed the selection and distribution of the contents to be presented in the book in an orderly and judicious way. The focus in Team Sports is justified by its social-cultural insertion and by the need to transform recent studies into new pedagogical procedures for practicing them. The didactic text book, as well as the adequate preparation of the professionals who will use

  7. Red, Amber, or Green? Athlete Monitoring in Team Sport: The Need for Decision-Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Samuel; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Gastin, Paul B

    2017-04-01

    Decision-support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic-light system, where color coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However, despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardization with respect to how traffic-light systems are operationalized. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic-light monitoring in team sports. Specifically, the types and formats of data incorporated in such systems are discussed, along with the various analysis approaches available. Considerations relating to the visualization and communication of results to key stakeholders in the team-sport environment are also presented. In order for the efficacy of traffic-light systems to be improved, future iterations should look to incorporate the recommendations made here.

  8. The spawns of creative behaviour in team sports: a creativity developmental framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Diana Leal Dos Santos; Daniel Memmert; Jaime Sampaio; Nuno Leite

    2016-01-01

    Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate pla...

  9. A team fares well with a fair coach: Predictors of social loafing in interactive female sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, M; Boen, F; De Cuyper, B; Høigaard, R; Vande Broek, G

    2015-12-01

    The present research aimed to develop and test a theoretical model that links players' perceived justice of the coach to a more optimal motivational climate, which in turn increases players' team identification and cohesion, and results in lower levels of social loafing in female sport teams. Belgian elite female basketball, volleyball, and football players (study 1; N = 259; M(age)  = 22.6) and Norwegian world-class female handball players (study 2; N = 110; M(age)  = 22.8) completed questionnaires assessing players' perceived justice (distributive and procedural), motivational climate, team identification, team cohesion (task and social), and social loafing (perceived and self-reported). In both studies, confirmatory and exploratory path analyses indicated that perceived justice was positively related to a mastery climate (P cohesion (P motivational climate created by the coach on the optimal functioning of female sport teams. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.

  11. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-08-01

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist

  12. Effect of motivational climate profiles on motivational indices in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Y; Roberts, G C

    1999-12-01

    Contemporary perspectives of achievement motivation have been based on social cognitive theories which give motivational climate a central place in the regulation of subsequent affective states, cognitions and behaviour in achievement contexts. This study examined the relationship between different profiles of the motivational climate in teamsport and achievement, and socially related cognitions among Norwegian team sport athletes. Players (N= 148) assessed their perception of the motivational climate using the Norwegian version of the Motivational climate in sport questionnaire, sources of satisfaction in team sport, achievement strategies, perceived purposes of sport, and conceptions of ability. Multivariate analysis of variance (2x2) showed both main effects for profiles of the motivational climate and an interaction effect. Athletes perceiving the climate as high in mastery and high in performance oriented criteria reported psychological responses that were more adaptative than those perceiving the climate as low in mastery and high in performance criteria. With one exception, the findings showed that those high in mastery and low in performance were more likely to emphasise self-referenced criteria when judging perceived ability in team sport. For both social responsibility and lifetime skills as purposes in sport, it was the high performance and low mastery athletes who were least likely to endorse these purposes. And importantly, the high mastery climate seemed to moderate the impact of being in a high performance climate. The pattern of findings suggests that perceiving the motivational climate as performance oriented may not be motivationally maladaptive when accompanied by mastery oriented situational cues.

  13. The resources and application of collective efficacy in team sport

    OpenAIRE

    永尾, 雄一; 杉山, 佳生; 山崎, 将幸; 河津, 慶太

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review several studies associated with the psychological concept of collective efficacy and the resources and utility of collective efficacy in the field of sports. This review has shown that 4 resources: (a) past performance accomplishments, (b) vicarious experiences, (c) verbal persuasion and (d) physiological states are resources of collective efficacy as well as self efficacy. In addition, it was suggested that group cohesion, coaching efficacy, attributes...

  14. Developing Professionalism via Multisource Feedback in Team-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emke, Amanda R; Cheng, Steven; Dufault, Carolyn; Cianciolo, Anna T; Musick, David; Richards, Boyd; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    CGEA 2015 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT (EDITED). A Novel Approach to Assessing Professionalism in Preclinical Medical Students Using Paired Self- and Peer Evaluations. Amanda R. Emke, Steven Cheng, and Carolyn Dufault. CONSTRUCT: This study sought to assess the professionalism of 2nd-year medical students in the context of team-based learning. Professionalism is an important attribute for physicians and a core competency throughout medical education. Preclinical training often focuses on individual knowledge acquisition with students working only indirectly with faculty assessors. As such, the assessment of professionalism in preclinical training continues to present challenges. We propose a novel approach to preclinical assessment of medical student professionalism to address these challenges. Second-year medical students completed self- and peer assessments of professionalism in two courses (Pediatrics and Renal/Genitourinary Diseases) following a series of team-based learning exercises. Assessments were composed of nearly identical 9-point rating scales. Correlational analysis and linear regression were used to examine the associations between self- and peer assessments and the effects of predictor variables. Four subgroups were formed based on deviation from the median ratings, and logistic regression was used to assess stability of subgroup membership over time. A missing data analysis was conducted to examine differences between average peer-assessment scores as a function of selective nonparticipation. There was a significant positive correlation (r = .62, p professionalism assessment within team-based learning, stand-alone and simultaneous peer and self-assessments are highly correlated within individuals across different courses. However, although self-assessment alone is a significant predictor of self-assessment made at the time of assessing one's peers, average peer assessment does not predict self-assessment. To explore this lack of predictive power, we

  15. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  16. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.

  17. Relationship between Target Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate Levels of Students Engaged in Individual and Team Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…

  18. Psychosocial Influences on children’s identification with sports teams: a case study of Australian Rules football supporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the socialization of children into identification with a sports team. It presents a sociological approach which extends the insights obtained from research into psychological aspects of sports team identification. A conceptual model is presented which proffers an explanation of

  19. Epidemiology of injuries in typical Scandinavian team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U

    1984-06-01

    An investigation by questionnaire was undertaken in a group of 480 football players and 288 handball players (768 players). Of these 803 were injured, giving a player incidence of 4.1 injury/1000 football hours and 8.3 injury/1000 handball hours. The lower extremities were involved in 82% of the football injuries, whereas handball injuries were evenly distributed on both upper and lower extremities. The football injury prevalence was 0.36 per player, the handball injury prevalence 0.71 per player. Medical attention was given to 62% of the injured footballers and 47% of the injured handballers. Based on the injury pattern, some modifications to the rules and equipment in the two sports is suggested: The "boot-type" footwear should be tried out, and the soles in both games should correspond to the different playing surfaces that may be encountered. Stricter enforcement of the rules, and the use of a maximum size playing ground in both sports. Last, but not least a modification of the football rules concerning substitution is a must.

  20. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  1. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these

  2. Game On: Diminishing Risks for Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence through Positive Involvement in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Erin M.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    While research shows that low levels of social acceptance and elevated body dissatisfaction increase risks for depressive symptoms among both girls and boys, little is known about protective factors that can mediate these risks. We test the hypothesis that positive team sports involvement mediates the effects of these risks on depression in a…

  3. Collaboration with Sport Psychologists as Viewed by Female Volleyball Junior Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…

  4. Effect of goal orientation on achievement beliefs, cognition and strategies in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G C; Ommundsen, Y

    1996-02-01

    Nicholls' motivation conceptual framework pertaining to achievement goals was used to study the relationship between two implicit goal orientations (task and ego) and achievement cognitions and beliefs about the competitive team sport experience. The study examined the relationship between the goal orientations and purposes of team sport, motivational climate, satisfaction, sources of satisfaction, achievement strategies, and perception of ability in team sport. The subjects were 148 students experienced in team sport at a Norwegian university. The scales were translated specifically for the study and factor analyses used to determine the factor structure of the scales. Seventeen factors along the 6 dimensions emerged, and canonical analysis determined that predominantly task-oriented subjects focused on health-related activities within purposes, preferred mastery climates and focused on mastery-oriented criteria to determine satisfaction and other achievement-related beliefs. In contrast, predominantly ego-oriented subjects focused on status enhancement for purpose, preferred performance-oriented climates and focused on ego-oriented criteria to determine satisfaction and other achievement beliefs.

  5. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga; Anne Benjaminse

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these

  6. Jump Landing Characteristics Predicts Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing

  7. Male Team Sport Hazing Initiations in a Culture of Decreasing Homohysteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark; Lee, Harry

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal ethnographic research, we report on 7 years of hazing rituals on two separate men's sports teams at one university in the United Kingdom. Using 38 in-depth interviews alongside naturalistic observations of the initiation rituals, we demonstrate that hazing activities have changed from being centered around homophobic same-sex…

  8. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is

  9. Improving "At-Action" Decision-Making in Team Sports through a Holistic Coaching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Mouchet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on Game Sense pedagogy and complex learning theory (CLT) to make suggestions for improving decision-making ability in team sports by adopting a holistic approach to coaching with a focus on decision-making "at-action". It emphasizes the complexity of decision-making and the need to focus on the game as a whole entity,…

  10. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  11. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  12. Team sport and coaching - a dynamic interplay supporting development of self-concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study ...... and more supportive social environment, as the result of their participation. Implications of the presented results are discussed, as well as strategies for working with team sport and coaching in a school setting in deprived areas or beyond.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study...... (SDQ-II & YSEQ) and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design. A two-year intervention period was conducted with students in 7th, 8th and 9th grade. The interventions were a two-stringed effort with team sport and group coaching introduced to the participants. Quantitative results showed...

  13. Evolution of Sports-medical Team Management in the Program of Posture Correction in Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torlakovic, Aldvin; Muftic, Mirsad; Radjo, Izet; Talovic, Munir; Mahmutovic, Ifet

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the organization and coordination of multidisciplinary team consisted of health and kinesiology professionals at the correction of posture...

  14. Development and initial validation of the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire-Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Simon Mark; Hudson, Joanne; Akehurst, Sally; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2013-06-01

    Impression motivation is an important individual difference variable that has been under-researched in sport psychology, partly due to having no appropriate measure. This study was conducted to design a measure of impression motivation in team-sport athletes. Construct validity checks decreased the initial pool of items, factor analysis (n = 310) revealed the structure of the newly developed scale, and exploratory structural equation modeling procedures (n = 406) resulted in a modified scale that retained theoretical integrity and psychometric parsimony. This process produced a 15-item, 4-factor model; the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire-Team (IMSQ-T) is forwarded as a valid measure of the respondent's dispositional strength of motivation to use self-presentation in striving for four distinct interpersonal objectives: self-development, social identity development, avoidance of negative outcomes, and avoidance of damaging impressions. The availability of this measure has contributed to theoretical development, will facilitate research, and offers a tool for use in applied settings.

  15. Sport psychiatry and psychotherapy. Mental strains and disorders in professional sports. Challenge and answer to societal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markser, Valentin Z

    2011-11-01

    Professional athletes are subject to massive somatic, social, and mental stress. Despite great public interest for athletic achievements, the emotional strains thereof are very poorly investigated and discussed. The main reason for this is the widespread assumption that only emotionally very strong athletes are able to compete at the highly professional level and therefore mental disorders do not exist in professional sports. But available research data about the prevalence of mental disorders in this area suggest that this hypothesis must be revised. With respect to depression and the overtraining syndrome, attempts have been made to demonstrate the difficulties with etiology, diagnostics, and treatment for sports psychiatry and psychotherapy. Scientifically, sport psychiatry and psychotherapy can be defined as a discipline, whose focus is the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the extreme and sports-specific emotional strains and disorders. In addition to sport psychology, which focuses mainly on performance enhancement, mental stress, and disorders can hereby be recognized, disorders be treated and the athletic performance sustained. With the foundation of the Task Force for Sports Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, scientific research, further education, prevention, and treatment for mental disorders in professional sports will be improved.

  16. Fatigue and pacing in high-intensity intermittent team sport: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    With the advancements in player tracking technology, the topic of fatigue and pacing in team sport has become increasingly popular in recent years. Initially based upon a pre-conceived pacing schema, a central metabolic control system is proposed to guide the movement of players during team sport matches, which can be consciously modified based on afferent signals from the various physiological systems and in response to environmental cues. On the basis of this theory, coupled with the collective findings from motion-analysis research, we sought to define the different pacing strategies employed by team sport players. Whole-match players adopt a 'slow-positive' pacing profile (gradual decline in total running intensity), which appears to be global across the different team sports. High-intensity movement also declines in a 'slow-positive' manner across most team sport matches. The duration of the exercise bout appears to be important for the selected exercise intensity, with the first introduction to a match as a substitute or interchange player resulting in a 'one bout, all out' strategy. In a limited interchange environment, a second introduction to the match results in a 'second-bout reserve' strategy; otherwise, the 'one bout, all out' strategy is likely to be adopted. These pacing profiles are proposed to reflect the presence of a central regulator that controls the movement intensity of the player to optimize performance, as well as avoiding the harmful failure of any physiological system. The presence of 'temporary fatigue' reflects this process, whereby exercise intensity is consciously modulated from within the framework of a global pacing schema.

  17. Sports Team Participation Among US High School Girls, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alan E; Uddin, Sayeedha F G

    2017-09-01

    Sports team participation has myriad benefits for girls. We used the 1999-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of US high school students, to examine time trends in sports team participation. Data from 2015 alone were examined for current differences in participation by sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and weight status. For both analyses, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions, with team participation as the dependent variable, were used. In 2015, 53% of US high school girls participated in team sports. Participation was higher among non-Hispanic white (60.7%) compared to Hispanic (40.7%) and Asian (35.6%) girls, and girls with normal-weight status (58.1%) compared to overweight (50.0%) and obese (36.5%) girls ( P < .01 for all comparisons). From 1999 to 2015, the rate of increase in participation was higher among non-Hispanic black girls than non-Hispanic white girls. No increase was observed for Hispanic and Asian girls. Addressing the disparities found in team participation is imperative.

  18. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A

    2015-11-01

    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. The usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport management professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo van Hoecke; Gerco van Dalfsen

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport organizations. The following research questions were designed: 1) How can professional sport managers successfully make use of the developments of new professionalism (Leijnse, Hulst & Vromans, 2006), the new

  20. Police Bodies and Police Minds: Professional Learning through Bodily Practices of Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…

  1. Importance of Folk Sports Teams in shaping the sports activity of rural areas young inhabitants in the Opole region in the years 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Krawczyk-Sołtys

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the times of progressing commercialization, the existing sports organizations – Sports Folk Teams – seem to be areas of pure sport. Rural areas sports activists and sportsmen themselves present an altruistic and open attitude towards sport. The activity of the team members is voluntary and is often of a charitable character since the main objective of local clubs is both active and attractive utilization of the young rural community’s free time. The teams in focus play a vital role in bringing up both children and youth; sport is not only a test of physical strength or abilities, it teaches action and acting, compromising attitudes and patterns of behaviour, as well as loyalty towards partners. The aim of the article was depicting the sports teams as a form of promoting sport among the young people of the Opole voivodeship in the period discussed. Additionally, the tasks realized in 2010 by the Opole Province Association (Local Country Teams, performed owing to the cooperation and support of the provincial marshal’s office, are presented here.

  2. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students

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    Valerie O’Toole Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively, as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.

  3. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in professional sports: retrospective and prospective views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review: (1) the history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in sports, (2) the similarities and differences between historic and current definitions of CTE, (3) recent epidemiology and cohort studies of CTE and (4) controversies regarding the current CTE positions. Not applicable. Selective review of published articles relevant to CTE. The current definitions of CTE have evolved from its original definition and now rely heavily on the post-mortem detection of hyperphosphorylated tau for diagnosis. As of 2013, there is a blended cohort of 110 professional athletes diagnosed with CTE. It is being assumed that concussions and/or sub-concussive impacts in contact sports are the sole cause of CTE. There are multiple causes of abnormal tau protein deposition in the human brain and the pathogenesis of CTE may not be related solely to concussion and/or sub-concussive injury. In all likelihood, the causes of CTE are a multivariate, as opposed to a univariate, phenomenon.

  4. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.

  5. Classification of team sport activities using a single wearable tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Josman, Casey; Gupta, Ritu; Netto, Kevin J; Gastin, Paul B; Robertson, Sam

    2015-11-26

    Wearable tracking devices incorporating accelerometers and gyroscopes are increasingly being used for activity analysis in sports. However, minimal research exists relating to their ability to classify common activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether data obtained from a single wearable tracking device can be used to classify team sport-related activities. Seventy-six non-elite sporting participants were tested during a simulated team sport circuit (involving stationary, walking, jogging, running, changing direction, counter-movement jumping, jumping for distance and tackling activities) in a laboratory setting. A MinimaxX S4 wearable tracking device was worn below the neck, in-line and dorsal to the first to fifth thoracic vertebrae of the spine, with tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope data collected at 100Hz. Multiple time domain, frequency domain and custom features were extracted from each sensor using 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5s movement capture durations. Features were further screened using a combination of ANOVA and Lasso methods. Relevant features were used to classify the eight activities performed using the Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) algorithms. The LMT (79-92% classification accuracy) outperformed RF (32-43%) and SVM algorithms (27-40%), obtaining strongest performance using the full model (accelerometer and gyroscope inputs). Processing time can be reduced through feature selection methods (range 1.5-30.2%), however a trade-off exists between classification accuracy and processing time. Movement capture duration also had little impact on classification accuracy or processing time. In sporting scenarios where wearable tracking devices are employed, it is both possible and feasible to accurately classify team sport-related activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (NStudy 2 = 197; NStudy 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (NStudy 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  7. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  8. Sport as a social phenomenon in professional training in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimar Daólio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding sport as a sociocultural phenomenon, its insertion in the curriculum for professional training in physical education is discussed in this paper refuting the exclusiveness of current technical dimension. A course that gives too much relevance to sport technical dimension won’t be training professionals able to consider the continuous change of sport modalities meaning by different human groups in the course of time. Instead of a course curriculum structured by sport modalities, this paper proposes that sport may be considered in three dimensions or moments. The “eyes training”, the sport pedagogy and the division into groups of modalities. It is intended to be a contribution to the training of physical education professionals so that they may work within a more critical and transforming perspective, and not only reproduce the technical dimension.

  9. Team-Based Professional Development Interventions in Higher Education: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Inken; Schildkamp, Kim; van der Veen, Jan T

    2017-08-01

    Most professional development activities focus on individual teachers, such as mentoring or the use of portfolios. However, new developments in higher education require teachers to work together in teams more often. Due to these changes, there is a growing need for professional development activities focusing on teams. Therefore, this review study was conducted to provide an overview of what is known about professional development in teams in the context of higher education. A total of 18 articles were reviewed that describe the effects of professional development in teams on teacher attitudes and teacher learning. Furthermore, several factors that can either hinder or support professional development in teams are identified at the individual teacher level, at the team level, and also at the organizational level.

  10. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031

  11. Application of Former Professional Players of e-sports on the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lipták, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...

  12. Competitiveness and the process of co-adaptation in team sport performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  13. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  14. What are the Facilitators and Obstacles to Participation in Workplace Team Sport? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.

  15. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    OpenAIRE

    Changsop Yang; Eunyoung Lee; Eui-Hyoung Hwang; Ojin Kwon; Jun-Hwan Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%), low back (13.3%), elbow, and ankle (8.4%) injuries were most common. Jo...

  16. The Spawns of Creative Behavior in Team Sports: A Creativity Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara D. L.; Memmert, Daniel; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centered approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behavior. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking) and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behavior in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training. PMID:27617000

  17. The spawns of creative behaviour in team sports: a creativity developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Diana Leal Dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator and rise and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centred approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behaviour. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behaviour in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training.

  18. The Spawns of Creative Behavior in Team Sports: A Creativity Developmental Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara D L; Memmert, Daniel; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centered approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behavior. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking) and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behavior in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training.

  19. For debate: consensus injury definitions in team sports should focus on encompassing all injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lisa; Gissane, Conor; Gabbett, Tim J; King, Doug A

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective method of collecting injury data by using a definition that encompasses all injuries into the data collection system. The definition provides an accurate picture of injury incidence and also allows filtering of records so that data can be reported in a variety of comparable ways. A qualitative review of literature in team sports, plus expert opinion, served as the basis for data collection strategies. Articles were retrieved from SportsDiscus and PubMed using the terms "sports injury definition" and "injury definition." These terms were searched for the period 1966 to November 2006. One of the major results (from this paper) that supports the use of an all-encompassing injury definition is that 70% to 92% of all injuries sustained fall into the transient category--that is, by only recording injuries that result in missed matches, the majority of injuries are missed and therefore injury rates are underreported. An injury definition should be the most encompassing definition that enables a true, global picture of injury incidence to be seen in participation in any team sport.

  20. Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2014-07-01

    Although maximal heart rate (HR)max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HRmax with three prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220-age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208-0.7×age and Nikolaidis-HRmax = 223-1.44×age) in young team sport athletes. Athletes of soccer, futsal, basketball and water polo, classified into three age groups (u-12, 9-12 years, n = 50; u-15, 12-15 years, n = 40; u-18, 15-18 years, n = 57), all members of competitive clubs, voluntarily performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test) to assess HRmax. Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax, while Tanaka-HRmax underestimated it (P equations in a large sample of young athletes, indicating the need for specific equation in different age groups. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers should prefer Tanaka-HRmax when desiring to avoid overtraining, while Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax should be their choice in order to ensure adequate exercise intensity.

  1. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  2. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  3. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Team-Based Professional Development Interventions in Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Inken; Schildkamp, Kim; van der Veen, Jan T.

    2017-01-01

    Most professional development activities focus on individual teachers, such as mentoring or the use of portfolios. However, new developments in higher education require teachers to work together in teams more often. Due to these changes, there is a growing need for professional development activities focusing on teams. Therefore, this review study…

  5. Using team sport (football) to enhance social inclusion, what pitfalls exist and what about the slurred perspective of measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud

    masters and governmental agencies (OECD, 2010). The study aimed to investigate the effects of team sport as an tool to develop social inclusion, active citizenship and social capital in a school context. Team sport (football) was chosen because of documented positive results in regard to social...... sports club (6th to 9th graders, N=44, age: 12-16) in a two years intervention in a lower secondary school of Copenhagen with a high percentage of pupils with migrant background. 3 weekly training sessions (1-1½ hours), matches and referee/coach education were part of the study. Initial results from......Using team sport (football) to enhance social inclusion, what pitfalls exist and what about the slurred perspective of measurements? Knud Ryom1 & Reinhard Stelter1 keryom@nexs.ku.dk & rstelter@nexs.ku.dk 1 University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Denmark Social...

  6. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes.

  7. Sports officials and officiating : Science and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacMahon, Clare; Mascarenhas, Duncan; Plessner, Henning; Pizzera, Alexandra; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Sports officials (umpires, referees, judges) play a vital role in every sport, and sports governing bodies, fans, and players now expect officials to maintain higher professional standards than ever before. In this ground-breaking book, a team of leading international sport scientists and top level

  8. When Is a Sprint a Sprint? A Review of the Analysis of Team-Sport Athlete Activity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1) identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2) examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3) evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s-1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s-2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and acceleration

  9. When Is a Sprint a Sprint? A Review of the Analysis of Team-Sport Athlete Activity Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J.; Cormack, Stuart J.; Morgan, Stuart; Aughey, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1) identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2) examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3) evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and acceleration

  10. When Is a Sprint a Sprint? A Review of the Analysis of Team-Sport Athlete Activity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice J. Sweeting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS, local positioning systems (LPS, and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1 identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2 examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3 evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4 discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and

  11. Girls' and Boys' Participation Styles in Middle School Physical Education Team Sport Classes: A Description and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patricia S.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes boys' and girls' participation patterns in physical education classes and discusses the practical application of this information to teaching coed physical education team sport classes. (MT)

  12. The Efficacy of Injury Prevention Programs in Adolescent Team Sports: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Najeebullah; Sanders, Ross; Hackett, Daniel; Hubka, Tate; Ebrahimi, Saahil; Freeston, Jonathan; Cobley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Intensive sport participation in childhood and adolescence is an established cause of acute and overuse injury. Interventions and programs designed to prevent such injuries are important in reducing individual and societal costs associated with treatment and recovery. Likewise, they help to maintain the accrual of positive outcomes from participation, such as cardiovascular health and skill development. To date, several studies have individually tested the effectiveness of injury prevention programs (IPPs). To determine the overall efficacy of structured multifaceted IPPs containing a combination of warm-up, neuromuscular strength, or proprioception training, targeting injury reduction rates according to risk exposure time in adolescent team sport contexts. Systematic review and meta-analysis. With established inclusion criteria, studies were searched in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AusSportMed. The keyword search terms (including derivations) included the following: adolescents, sports, athletic injuries, prevention/warm-up programs. Eligible studies were then pooled for meta-analysis with an invariance random-effects model, with injury rate ratio (IRR) as the primary outcome. Heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were tested, and subgroup analysis examined heterogeneity sources. Across 10 studies, including 9 randomized controlled trials, a pooled overall point estimate yielded an IRR of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.48-0.75; a 40% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested an 8% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.84), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.33 and 1.48. Subgroup analyses identified no significant moderators, although possible influences may have been masked because of data constraints. Compared with normative practices or control

  13. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  14. A nutritional evaluation of dietary behaviour in various professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.

  15. Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edg E, Johann; Bishop, David; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel

    2006-02-01

    We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5 x 6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken to determine betam. The team-sport group had a significantly higher betam than either the endurance-trained or the untrained groups (181+/- 27 vs. 148 +/- 11 vs. 122 +/- 32 micromol H(+) g dm(-1) pH(-1) respectively; P < 0.05). The team-sport group also completed significantly more relative total work (299 +/- 27 vs. 263 +/- 31 vs. 223 +/- 21 J kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and absolute total work (18.2 +/- 1.6 vs. 14.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 13.0 +/- 1.9 kJ, respectively; P < 0.05) than the endurance-trained or untrained groups during the RSA test. The team-sport group also had a greater post-exercise blood lactate concentration, but not blood pH. There was a significant correlation between betam and RSA (r = 0.67; P < 0.05). Our findings show that young females competing in team sports have a larger betam than either endurance-trained or untrained females. This may be the result of the intermittent, high-intensity activity during training and the match play of team-sport athletes. The team-sport athletes also had a greater RSA than either the endurance-trained or untrained subjects. The greater total work by team-sport athletes was predominantly due to a better performance during the early sprints of the repeated-sprint bout.

  16. Gender-specific associations between involvement in team sport culture and canadian adolescents’ substance-use behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Boyes

    2017-12-01

    While team sport participation confers only a small increased risk for substance use, the prevalence of sport participation results in a large population impact. Given this fact, interventions such as education for parents and coaches and policies encouraging engagement in a variety of extracurricular activities should be explored.

  17. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-10-01

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML hydration status on team sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  18. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  19. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimani Maamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  20. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B.; Chéour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility) in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes. PMID:28149427

  1. Social Identification in Sports Teams: The Role of Personal, Social, and Collective Identity Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J

    2017-04-01

    Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.

  2. Combatting Homophobia in Sport and Physical Education: Academic and Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This paper presents a discussion of events within national sport organizations that have recently addressed the problem of homophobia in sports; in particular, the social, professional, and political harassment of lesbian women who are career athletes. A brief overview is given of the stance of feminists, both liberal humanist and radical, on the…

  3. The usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport management professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Hoecke, van, Jo; Dalfsen, van, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport organizations. The following research questions were designed: 1) How can professional sport managers successfully make use of the developments of new professionalism (Leijnse, Hulst & Vromans, 2006), the new way of working and managerial leadership? 2) What are the features of a connected managerial leadership model? 3) What are the design principles of an applicable learning environment for profession...

  4. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and team-sport performance: a study involving three European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Banting, Lauren K; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Dyatlov, Dmitry A; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Pushkarev, Vladimir P; Kulikov, Leonid M; Pushkarev, Evgeny D; Femia, Pedro; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and elite team-sport athletic status in three cohorts of European team-sport athletes. We compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphisms between team-sport athletes (n=205), endurance athletes (n=305), sprint/power athletes (n=378), and non-athletic controls (n=568) from Poland, Russia and Spain; all participants were unrelated European men. Genomic DNA was extracted from either buccal epithelium or peripheral blood using a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using several methods, and the results were replicated following recent recommendations for genotype-phenotype association studies. Genotype distributions of all control and athletic groups met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (all p>0.05). Team-sport athletes were less likely to have the 577RR genotype compared to the 577XX genotype than sprint/power athletes [odds ratio: 0.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.39, p=0.045]. However, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with team-sports athletic status, compared to endurance athletes and non-athletic controls. Furthermore, no association was observed for any of the genotypes with respect to the level of competition (elite vs. national level). The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with team-sport athletic status, compared to endurance athletes and non-athletic controls, and the observation that the 577RR genotype is overrepresented in power/sprint athletes compared with team-sport athletes needs to be confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sports dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajiv

    2011-07-01

    Sports dentistry is one of the most recent and upcoming field in dentistry. It mainly includes the prevention and management of athletics-related orofacial injuries and associated oral diseases. The sports or team dentist assists athletes in the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of oral injuries. The most significant aspect in preventing sports-related orofacial injuries is wearing basic protective devices such as properly-fitting helmets, face masks and/or mouth guards. Dental injuries are the most common type of orofacial injury sustained during participation in sports. Many athletes are not aware of the health implications of a traumatic injury to the mouth or of the potential for incurring severe head and orofacial injuries while playing. The dentist can play an imperative role in informing athletes, coaches and patients about the importance of preventing orofacial injuries in sports. The aim of this paper is to increase professional awareness and interest for orientation toward sports dentistry.

  6. A systematic review of core implementation components in team ball sport injury prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the use of specific exercise programmes to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in team ball sports has gained considerable attention, and the results of large-scale, randomised controlled trials have supported their efficacy. To enhance the translation of these interventions into widespread use, research trials must be reported in a way that allows the players, staff and policymakers associated with sports teams to implement these interventions effectively. In particular, information is needed on core implementation components, which represent the essential and indispensable aspects of successful implementation. To assess the extent to which team ball sport injury prevention trial reports have reported the core implementation components of the intervention, the intervention target and the use of any delivery agents (ie, staff or other personnel delivering the intervention). To summarise which specific types of intervention, intervention target and delivery agents are reported. To develop consensus between reviewers on the reporting of these components. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for English-language, peer-reviewed papers on injury prevention exercise programme (IPEP) trials in team ball sports. The reporting of all eligible trials was assessed by two independent reviewers. The reporting of the three core implementation components were coded as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. For cases coded as 'yes', the specific types of interventions, intervention targets and delivery agents were extracted and summarised. The search strategy identified 52 eligible trials. The intervention and the intervention target were reported in all 52 trials. The reporting of 25 trials (48%) specified the use of delivery agents, the reporting of three trials (6%) specified not using delivery agents, and in the reporting of the remaining 24 trials (46%) the use of delivery agents was unclear. The reported intervention type was an IPEP alone in 43 trials (83

  7. Review of the tactical evaluation tools for youth players, assessing the tactics in team sports: football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Víllora, Sixto; Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan Carlos; da Costa, Israel Teoldo

    2015-01-01

    For sports assessment to be comprehensive, it must address all variables of sports development, such as psychological, social-emotional, physical and physiological, technical and tactical. Tactical assessment has been a neglected variable until the 1980s or 1990s. In the last two decades (1995-2015), the evolution of tactical assessment has grown considerably, given its importance in game performance. The aim of this paper is to compile and analyze different tactical measuring tools in team sports, particularly in soccer, through a bibliographical review. Six tools have been selected on five different criteria: (1) Instruments which assess tactics, (2) The studies have an evolution approach related to the tactical principles, (3) With a valid and reliable method, (4) The existence of publications mentioning the tool in the method, v. Applicable in different sports contexts. All six tools are structured around seven headings: introduction, objective(s), tactical principles, materials, procedures, instructions/rules of the game and published studies. In conclusion, the teaching-learning processes more tactical oriented have useful tactical assessment instrument in the literature. The selection of one or another depends some context information, like age and level of expertise of the players.

  8. Constraints on competitive performance of attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Travassos, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on coordination dynamics of 1 vs. 1 sub-phases in team sports has reported stable emergent patterns of coordination in the displacement trajectories of attackers and defenders. The aim of this study was to use attacker-defender interactions in competitive team match-play to investigate how the locations of the goal and ball constrain the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyadic systems. Ten high-level futsal matches were filmed and 13 goal sequences selected for analysis. Displacements of the players and the ball were filmed and digitized from 52 attacker-defender dyadic system interactions. Results showed that, although attackers and defenders exhibited similar angular orientations to the goal, the latter always remained closer to the goal than attackers. Observations revealed that in-phase patterns of coordination emerged from changes to both the distances and angles of attackers and defenders to the goal. Attackers always remained closer to the ball than defenders, while the latter exhibited a lower angle to the ball than attackers. A pattern of in-phase coordination modes emerged between the attackers and defenders' distances and angles to the ball. This study helps us to understand interpersonal interactions in team sports by explaining how attackers and defenders use information about their relative positioning to the goal and the ball to perform successfully.

  9. Health care professionals in a heart failure team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, T

    2005-01-01

    A heart failure team that treats heart failure patients often faces the challenge of managing multiple conditions requiring multiple medications and life style changes in an older patient group. A multidisciplinary team approach can optimally diagnose, carefully review and prescribe treatment, and

  10. Self-perception of professional competencies in sports professionals - the effect of the occupational area and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Batista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to Cheetham and Chivers (1998, the professional competence is a specific concept influenced by a variety of factors, including self and hetero perception of competence. In this line of understanding Nascimento (1999 says that professional success hinges not only on knowledge and procedures, but also of the domain demonstrated in relation with themselves. This study has, as main purpose, to examine the levels of competence self-perception in sport professionals. The sample consists of 1514 subjects who exercised their profession in three contexts of practice: Physical Education, Coaching and Fitness. We used three likert-type scales of self-perception of professional competence specific for the sport professional (adapted from Nascimento, 1999; Feitosa, 2002: one directed to PE teachers, the other to Coaches, and a third to teachers/instructors of Fitness. In the data processing we used the basic descriptive measures and the multivariate analysis for dependent variables (General Linear Model Multivariate to see if the factors professional area, professional experience and institution are different in the levels of self-perception of professional competence. For additional analysis we also used the T-test for independent measures and the T test for one sample. The significance's level was maintained at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate an interaction of the factors in the professional area, professional experience and institution with self-perception of competence. Keywords:  Competence self-perception, Professional competence

  11. Bodies Matter: Professional Bodies and Embodiment in Institutional Sport Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Noortje; Claringbould, Inge; Knoppers, Annelies

    2017-08-01

    Bodies are always present in organizations, yet they frequently remain unacknowledged or invisible including in sport organizations and sport management research. We therefore argue for an embodied turn in sport management research. The purpose of this article is to present possible reasons why scholars have rarely paid attention to bodies in sport organizations; to offer arguments why they should do so; and to give suggestions for what scholarship on bodies and embodiment might look like using various theoretical frameworks. Using the topic of diversity as an example, we explore what insights into embodiment and bodily practices the theoretical frameworks of Foucault, Bourdieu, Merleau-Ponty and Butler have to offer researchers and how these insights may lead to better understandings of organizational processes in sport.

  12. Bodies Matter: Professional Bodies and Embodiment in Institutional Sport Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Noortje; Claringbould, Inge; Knoppers, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Bodies are always present in organizations, yet they frequently remain unacknowledged or invisible including in sport organizations and sport management research. We therefore argue for an embodied turn in sport management research. The purpose of this article is to present possible reasons why scholars have rarely paid attention to bodies in sport organizations; to offer arguments why they should do so; and to give suggestions for what scholarship on bodies and embodiment might look like using various theoretical frameworks. Using the topic of diversity as an example, we explore what insights into embodiment and bodily practices the theoretical frameworks of Foucault, Bourdieu, Merleau-Ponty and Butler have to offer researchers and how these insights may lead to better understandings of organizational processes in sport. PMID:28781402

  13. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  14. Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Excellence: Insights From Accomplished University Team-Sport Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A; Caron, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Six university coaches who had won more than 30 national titles participated in this study. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview, and the qualitative data were inductively analyzed using a thematic analysis. The coaches noted that hard work and daily attention to detail, effective emotional management of themselves and their athletes, and continuous self-assessment (self-reflection and seeking mentors) were crucial elements that led to sustained excellence in their programs. This study offers one of the first empirical accounts of how highly successful university coaches developed and maintained a culture of excellence and success in their high-performance sport setting.

  15. Greater chance of high core temperatures with modified pacing strategy during team sport in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Goodman, Craig A; McKenna, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To measure the activity profile, hydration status and core temperature of elite team sport athletes during matches in hot and cool conditions. Thirty-five professional Australian footballers (age 25.9 ± 3.5 yrs; height 188.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass 90.6 ± 8.8 kg), gave informed consent to participate in this study. Core temperature (T(c)), hydration and running performance were compared in eight hot and eight cool matches classified via a rating of the risk of heat illness from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). Core temperature was measured via an ingestible sensor before matches and after each quarter and player movement was recorded by 5 Hz GPS and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for distance; high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m s(-1)), sprinting (>4.17 m s(-1)) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m s(-2)). All data was compared for hot and cool matches and the magnitude of effects was analysed with the effect size (ES) statistic. Core temperature was elevated from rest at all time-points during matches (37.3-39.4 °C), with small additional elevations after the first and third quarters in hot matches (ES: 0.39 ± 0.40 and 0.37 ± 0.42 respectively). In hot matches 12 players had T(c)>40 °C but only one in cool matches. Total distance was reduced in the latter parts of each half (-6.5%, -0.49 ± 0.58; and -6.7%, -0.57 ± 0.59), yet the high intensity tasks of sprinting and accelerating were preserved. Players tolerated core temperatures up to 40.5 °C during hot matches but reduced the volume of running undertaken, thus preserving the ability to undertake high intensity activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m−2; estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA. PMID:26424923

  17. Short-term adaptations following Complex Training in team-sports: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.

  18. Short-term adaptations following Complex Training in team-sports: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. Methods A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. Results A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. Sprint large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (players (ES = 0.76); training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). VJ Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). Conclusions CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning. PMID:28662108

  19. Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke J; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    To examine the difference in distance measured by two global positioning system (GPS) units of the same model worn by the same player while performing movements common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian football players completed two trials of the straight line movement (10, 20, 40 m) at four speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), two trials of the changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and five trials of a team sport running simulation circuit. To assess inter-unit variability for total and high intensity running (HIR) distance measured in matches, data from eight field players were collected in three Australian Hockey League (AHL) matches during the 2009 season. Each subject wore two GPS devices (MinimaxX v2.5, Catapult, Australia) that collected position data at 5 Hz for each movement and match trial. The percentage difference ±90% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine differences between units. Differences (±90% CI) between the units ranged from 9.9 ± 4.7% to 11.9 ± 19.5% for straight line running movements and from 9.5 ± 7.2% to 10.7 ± 7.9% in the COD courses. Similar results were exhibited in the team sport circuit (11.1 ± 4.2%). Total distance (10.3 ± 6.2%) and HIR distance (10.3 ± 15.6) measured during the match play displayed similar variability. It is recommended that players wear the same GPS unit for each exercise session to reduce measurement error. The level of between-unit measurement error should be considered when comparing results from players wearing different GPS units.

  20. Short-term adaptations following Complex Training in team-sports: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás T Freitas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ performance following Complex Training (CT in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout.A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1 at least one CT intervention group; 2 training protocols ≥4-wks; 3 sample of team-sport players; 4 sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed.A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES (ES = 0.73 were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41 in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01 and VJ (ES = 0.63 performance than control-groups.large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (12 total sessions (ES = 0.74.Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81. Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56; protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55; conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64; basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55. Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42; interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45.CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.

  1. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jason J; Davis, J Mark; Welsh, Ralph S; Carmichael, Martin D; Murphy, E Angela; Blackmon, Jill A

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings on physical and central nervous system (CNS) function during intermittent high-intensity exercise with physical demands similar to those of team sports such as basketball. Twenty active men (N = 10) and women (N = 10), with experience competing in team sports, performed three practice sessions before two experimental trials during which they were fed either a 6% CHO solution or a flavored placebo (PBO). Experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters of shuttle running with variable intensities ranging from walking (30% VO(2max)), to running (120% VO(2max)), to maximal sprinting, and 40 jumps at a target hanging at 80% of their maximum vertical jump height. Subjects received 5 mL.kg(-1) of fluid before exercise and 3 mL.kg(-1) after exercise, in addition to 3 mL.kg(-1) over a 5-min span after the first and third quarters, and 8 mL.kg(-1) during a 20-min halftime. During each break, the subjects performed a battery of tests measuring peripheral and CNS function, including 20-m sprints, a 60-s maximal jumping test, internal and external mood evaluation, cognitive function, force sensation, tests of motor skills, and target-jumping accuracy. Compared with PBO, CHO feedings during exercise resulted in faster 20-m sprint times and higher average jump height in the fourth quarter (P intermittent high-intensity exercise similar to that of team sports benefited both peripheral and CNS function late in exercise compared with a flavored placebo.

  2. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Gharbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m -2 ; estimated VO 2 max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1. Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8, basketball (n = 5, and handball (n = 3. They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT, the 30-s Wingate test (WingT, the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT, and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction with 30 s passive recovery in between. Pearson’s product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT and fatigue index (FI (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively. No significant relationship between VO 2 max and RSA peak sprint time (PT and total sprint time (TT was found. Nevertheless, VO 2 max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05. In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.

  4. Possible Hormone Predictors Of Physical Performance In Adolescent Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam

    2017-05-30

    The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.

  5. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875

  6. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Savage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  7. Direction of technical and tactical skill in athletes playing team sports, playing with light position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Eduard Iur'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for evaluating the effectiveness of technical and tactical activities in basketball. A distinctive feature of the technique is presented key components of the accounting games, length of stay in the athletes play and the specific features of the game line. Established the specific means of correction of the training process taking into account the magnitude and direction of the load. Identified ways of solving the problem of optimal evaluation of gaming activities, taking into account the length of stay player on the court and its role. Refine management training process in team sports.

  8. Problem-Solving Skills of High School Students Exercising Regularly in Sport Teams

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    Senduran Fatih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the effect of regular sport activities on the problem-solving approaches performed by high school students when they encountered said problem was analyzed. Six hundred male high school students participated in the study (Mage=15.45 years, age range: 14-17 years. The Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI was used to evaluate students’ problem-solving solutions. Student-athletes were selected from the students who took charge in school teams, exercised for 6 days a week, provided that this exercise did not exceed 1 h 30 min, and who also participated in competitions. Mann-Whitney U test, which is nonparametrictest, was used to examine two samples (athlete, & non-athlete and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis was used to make intergroup (branches of sport examinations. According to the findings that were obtained, a significant difference was found among selfconfident approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=45.0, p=0.008. A significant difference was observed among assessor approach values of athlete and non-athlete students (U=46.2, p=0.033. The students who did sports regularly were more self-confident than those who did not do sports regularly and were of the same age when they encountered a problem, and student-athletes evaluated the phase of solving the problem and results that they obtained more carefully than those who did not do sport regularly and were of the same age. Student-athletes believed that they would solve the problem that they encountered. Further, student athletes preferred using a systematic method while solving a problem and making a decision more often than those who were not athletes and were of the same age.

  9. Lead Us Not into Tanktation: A Simulation Modelling Approach to Gain Insights into Incentives for Sporting Teams to Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Geoffrey N.; Whitten, Athol R.

    2013-01-01

    Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i) as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii) as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii) as team size decreases, and (iv) as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance. PMID:24312243

  10. Lead us not into tanktation: a simulation modelling approach to gain insights into incentives for sporting teams to tank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey N Tuck

    Full Text Available Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii as team size decreases, and (iv as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance.

  11. Sport Education for Teachers: Professional Development when Introducing a Novel Curriculum Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a description of an on-site professional development program for Russian teachers as they learned to teach Sport Education. A concurrent objective was to investigate the effectiveness of this professional development opportunity. Participants were two physical education teachers (one with 27 and one with 3…

  12. Can the collective intentions of individual professionals within healthcare teams predict the team's performance: developing methods and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Marije

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within implementation research, using theory-based approaches to understanding the behaviours of healthcare professionals and the quality of care that they reflect and designing interventions to change them is being promoted. However, such approaches lead to a new range of methodological and theoretical challenges pre-eminent among which are how to appropriately relate predictors of individual's behaviour to measures of the behaviour of healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the theory of planned behaviour proximal predictors of behaviour (intention and perceived behavioural control, or PBC and practice level behaviour. This was done in the context of two clinical behaviours – statin prescription and foot examination – in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus in primary care. Scores for the predictor variables were aggregated over healthcare professionals using four methods: simple mean of all primary care team members' intention scores; highest intention score combined with PBC of the highest intender in the team; highest intention score combined with the highest PBC score in the team; the scores (on both constructs of the team member identified as having primary responsibility for the clinical behaviour. Methods Scores on theory-based cognitive variables were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a sample of primary care doctors and nurses from northeast England and the Netherlands. Data on two clinical behaviours were patient reported, and collected by postal questionnaire survey. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of various aggregations of intention and PBC in explaining variance in the behavioural data. Results Across the two countries and two behaviours, responses were received from 37 to 78% of healthcare professionals in 57 to 93% practices; 51% (UK and 69% (Netherlands of patients surveyed responded. None of the aggregations of

  13. The reliability of physiological and performance measures during simulated team-sport running on a non-motorised treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of a non-motorised treadmill team-sport simulation for measuring physiological responses and performance demands of team sports. Following familiarisation, 11 team-sport athletes completed a peak sprinting speed assessment followed by a 30-min team-sport simulation on the non-motorised treadmill, on three occasions, 5 days apart. Several performance (total distance, distance covered during each speed category, total work, high-intensity activity, mean maximal sprinting speed and power) and physiological variables (V(O)(2), heart rate and blood measures) were measured. A one-way analysis of variance and ratio limits of agreement were used to compare the results from each trial. Significant differences were established in total sprint distance and high-intensity activity between trials 1-2 and trials 1-3 and 3-s mean maximal sprinting speed for trials 1-3 (p0.8) were identified in 11 of the 18 physiological and performance variables measured. Ratio limits of agreement for total distance covered and total work performed during the team-sport simulation were 0.99 (*//1.05) and 0.97 (*//1.09), respectively. Largest measurement error was shown in post-exercise blood lactate concentration with a coefficient of variation of 17.6%. All other measures showed low coefficients of variation of sport simulation provides a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance demands of team-sport activity. We recommend the inclusion of two familiarisation sessions prior to testing.

  14. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  15. Wartime rugby and football: sports elites, French military teams and international meets during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.

  16. Teacher Design Teams as a Strategy for Professional Development: The Role of the Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becuwe, Heleen; Tondeur, Jo; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Thys, Jeroen; Castelein, Els

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore the role and importance of the facilitator in teacher design teams. The study took place in the context of a pre-service teacher education institution in Belgium, where teacher design teams were set up to facilitate the professional development of teacher educators. The findings from focus-group…

  17. Association of Hematological Variables with Team-Sport Specific Fitness Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon P; Rysman, Julien; Girard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    We investigated association of hematological variables with specific fitness performance in elite team-sport players. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in 25 elite field hockey players using the optimized (2 min) CO-rebreathing method. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed in venous blood. Fitness performance evaluation included a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test (8 x 20 m sprints, 20 s of rest) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2). Hbmass was largely correlated (r = 0.62, PRSA-derived parameters (r ranging from -0.06 to -0.32; all P>0.05). [Hb] and MCHC displayed moderate correlations with both YYIR2TD (r = 0.44 and 0.41; both PRSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.41 and -0.44; both PRSA best and total sprint times (r = -0.46, PRSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.19, P>0.05). Hbmass is positively correlated with specific aerobic fitness, but not with RSA, in elite team-sport players. Additionally, the negative relationships between YYIR2 and RSA tests performance imply that different hematological mechanisms may be at play. Overall, these results indicate that these two fitness tests should not be used interchangeably as they reflect different hematological mechanisms.

  18. Association of Hematological Variables with Team-Sport Specific Fitness Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Brocherie

    Full Text Available We investigated association of hematological variables with specific fitness performance in elite team-sport players.Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass was measured in 25 elite field hockey players using the optimized (2 min CO-rebreathing method. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb], hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were analyzed in venous blood. Fitness performance evaluation included a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test (8 x 20 m sprints, 20 s of rest and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2.Hbmass was largely correlated (r = 0.62, P0.05. [Hb] and MCHC displayed moderate correlations with both YYIR2TD (r = 0.44 and 0.41; both P0.05.Hbmass is positively correlated with specific aerobic fitness, but not with RSA, in elite team-sport players. Additionally, the negative relationships between YYIR2 and RSA tests performance imply that different hematological mechanisms may be at play. Overall, these results indicate that these two fitness tests should not be used interchangeably as they reflect different hematological mechanisms.

  19. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%), low back (13.3%), elbow, and ankle (8.4%) injuries were most common. Joint (41.6%) and muscle (30.7%) were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%), chuna manual therapy (16.0%), physical therapy (15.2%), taping (9.0%), and cupping (7.8%) to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%). This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine. PMID:27651819

  20. "Live High-Train Low and High" Hypoxic Training Improves Team-Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P train low and high" hypoxic training interspersed with repeated sprints in hypoxia for 14 d (in season) increases the Hbmass, YYIR2 performance, and repeated-sprint ability of elite field team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.

  1. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsop Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.

  2. The Poisson model limits in NBA basketball: Complexity in team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.

  3. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport specific running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

  4. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changsop; Lee, Eunyoung; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%), low back (13.3%), elbow, and ankle (8.4%) injuries were most common. Joint (41.6%) and muscle (30.7%) were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%), chuna manual therapy (16.0%), physical therapy (15.2%), taping (9.0%), and cupping (7.8%) to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%). This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.

  5. Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatenier, du E.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    In the open innovation management literature, it is widely acknowledged that individuals play a crucial role in collaborative knowledge creation processes. However, the literature tends not to explore the human side of open innovation teams. The present article therefore examines the competencies

  6. Amateurism in an Age of Professionalism: An Empirical Examination of an Irish Sporting Culture: The GAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Keeler

    2013-07-01

    This research study recommends that the GAA adopt an innovative approach, through strategic decision-making, to allow the GAA to maintain its amateur ethos, and, yet, successfully compete in the professional sporting market. The strong links with the community must be both nurtured and enhanced. The GAA and Gaelic games must embrace the challenges that the branding success of foreign sports has brought. Player welfare issues for the elite players must be addressed while continuing to protect the club and its amateur structures. The study looks at the key metrics that are required to evolve the GAA. This entails not only focusing on the perceived importance of the amateur ethos to the GAA, but also developing the marketing, branding and profiling of Gaelic games to enhance the performance of an amateur sporting organization in an era of increased professionalism in sport.

  7. Team-Based Professional Development Interventions in Higher Education : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, Inken; Schildkamp, Kim; van der Veen, Jan T.

    Most professional development activities focus on individual teachers, such as mentoring or the use of portfolios. However, new developments in higher education require teachers to work together in teams more often. Due to these changes, there is a growing need for professional development

  8. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  9. Associated and Mediating Variables Related to Job Satisfaction among Professionals from Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François

    2017-10-03

    Using a structural analysis, this study examines the relationship between job satisfaction among 315 mental health professionals from the province of Quebec (Canada) and a wide range of variables related to provider characteristics, team characteristics, processes, and emergent states, and organizational culture. We used the Job Satisfaction Survey to assess job satisfaction. Our conceptual framework integrated numerous independent variables adapted from the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model and the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model (ITEM). The structural equation model predicted 47% of the variance of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was associated with eight variables: strong team support, participation in the decision-making process, closer collaboration, fewer conflicts among team members, modest knowledge production (team processes), firm affective commitment, multifocal identification (emergent states) and belonging to the nursing profession (provider characteristics). Team climate had an impact on six job satisfaction variables (team support, knowledge production, conflicts, affective commitment, collaboration, and multifocal identification). Results show that team processes and emergent states were mediators between job satisfaction and team climate. To increase job satisfaction among professionals, health managers need to pursue strategies that foster a positive climate within mental health teams.

  10. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  11. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  12. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    .... Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis...

  13. Pre-cancerous (DNA and chromosomal lesions in professional sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Significantly increased genomic instability in players of both sports was observed. Both repaired and repairable genetic damage cells were observed in different tissues of the same subject. The presence of such genetic damage implies that these players are at an individual risk from cancer- and age-related diseases.

  14. The impact of service quality and sport-team identification on the repurchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Oman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, the role of the service sector in the overall economic activities has become more significant in many countries, particularly the most developed ones. This has provoked increased scholars' interest so they have begun researching many service markets more extensively. Their interest has been further stimulated by growing competition, development of new technologies and changes in consumer behaviour. These market changes have forced sport clubs' management to focus on providing higher service quality and strengthening team identification among consumers. The research presented in this paper was conducted on the fans of the Croatian football club Hajduk Split and it examines the relationship between service quality and team identification on the one hand and service quality and repurchase intention on the other as well as the intermediary role of word-of-mouth communication in the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions. The results show that there is an indirect positive influence of service quality on repurchase intention through word-of-mouth communication, as well as a direct positive link between team identification and repurchase intention.

  15. Athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and coaching competency in sport teams: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Grégoire; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Eys, Mark A; Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and two theoretically derived dimensions of coaching competency (i.e., game strategy and technique competencies). A total of 243 players from 26 teams representing various interdependent sports completed French versions of the Role Ambiguity Scale and the Coaching Competency Scale. Multilevel analyses supported the existence of relationships between the four dimensions of role ambiguity and the two dimensions of coaching competency at both individual and team levels. When the levels were considered jointly, athletes perceiving greater ambiguity in their role in both offensive and defensive contexts were more critical of their coach's capacities to lead their team during competitions and to diagnose or formulate instructions during training sessions. The results also indicated that the dimension of scope of responsibilities was the main contributor to the relationship with coaching competency at an individual level, whereas role evaluation was the main contributor to this relationship at a group level. Findings are discussed in relation to the role episode model, the role ambiguity dimensions involved in the relationships according to the level of analysis considered, and the salience of ambiguity perceptions in the offensive context.

  16. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.

  17. Shared Vision, Team Learning and Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sue C.; McKelvy, Earline

    2007-01-01

    Many middle schools do not use one of the most important strategies to improve student achievement and create socially equitable, developmentally responsive middle schools: becoming a professional learning community. This article summarizes the five disciplines which are vital for learning organizations -- systems thinking, personal mastery,…

  18. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  19. Injury toll following the 1997 Maccabiah Games bridge collapse: implications of major disasters for sports medicine teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolt, G S; Wajswelner, H; Adonis, M; Levin, P; Shell, A; Srage, M; Steinweg, J

    2000-07-01

    A major disaster was encountered at the 1997 Maccabiah Games in Israel. As the Australian team was about to enter the main stadium for the opening ceremony, a pedestrian bridge they were crossing collapsed, killing 4 athletes and injuring many others. The aim of this paper is to establish the rates, types and anatomical locations of musculoskeletal injuries incurred by members of the Australian Maccabiah Games team, with particular reference to the impact of the bridge collapse. In total, the 410 members of the team (360 athletes and coaches and 50 team officials) reported 166 injuries from their participation in sport and 30 musculoskeletal injuries associated with the collapse of the bridge. The most common sports-related injuries were sprains and strains to the hip/thigh, lumbar spine and ankle/foot regions, while the bridge collapse resulted in, most commonly, sprains and contusions to the hip/thigh, knee, lower leg and ankle/foot regions. In addition, team members incurred many medical and psychological conditions. This paper makes several recommendations for sports medicine staff based on the experience of this significant sport disaster.

  20. Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male professional, amateur, and wheelchair basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K

    2003-10-01

    To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings.

  1. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne

    2017-01-01

    interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited....... Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm...

  2. Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P < 0.001). On day 2, significantly slower 20-m sprint times were detected in EAST compared with WEST (P = 0.03), with large effect sizes (ES) also indicating a greater reduction in YYIR1 distance in EAST compared with WEST (d = 1.06). Mean sleep onset and offset were significantly later and mean time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced across the 4 d in EAST compared with BASE and WEST (P < 0.05). Lastly, mean jet lag, fatigue, and motivation ratings across the 4 d were significantly worse in EAST compared with BASE and WEST (P < 0.05) and WEST compared with BASE (P < 0.05). Long-haul transmeridian travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.

  3. Investigation of Relationships in the Children's Team in the Process of Sports Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Voloshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.

  4. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The influence of caffeine ingestion on strength and power performance in female team-sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Foskett, Andrew; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation on knee flexor and knee extensor strength before, during and after intermittent running exercise in female team-sport players taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Ten healthy females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg; undertaking 2-6 training sessions per week) taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. Sixty minutes following the ingestion of a capsule containing 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo), participants completed a 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol. Isometric strength performance and eccentric and concentric strength and power of the knee flexors and knee extensors (using isokinetic dynamometer), as well as countermovement jump (CMJ), was measured before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as ~12 h post-exercise. Blood samples were taken before, during and post-exercise to measure glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Caffeine supplementation significantly increased eccentric strength of the knee flexors (P performance. FFA was elevated with caffeine supplementation over time (P sport players taking OCS both during an intermittent running protocol and the following morning.

  6. Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2017-05-01

    Higgins, TR, Greene, DA, Baker, MK. Effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy for recovery from team sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1443-1460, 2017-To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely on anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data were extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with heterogeneity assessed using I. Twenty-three peer reviewed articles (n = 606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24 hours (countermovement jump: p = 0.05, CI: -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p = 0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72 hours (fatigue: p = 0.03, CI: 0.061-1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48 hours (fatigue: p = 0.04, CI: 0.013-0.942) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24 hours following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72 hours) and CWT (24 hours) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.

  7. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports.

  8. High School Students' Experiences in a Sport Education Unit: The Importance of Team Autonomy and Problem-Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…

  9. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  10. Physical Activity and Sports Team Participation: Associations with Academic Outcomes in Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Dyadic Interactions: Two Modes of Knowledge Construction in Socio-Constructivist Settings for Team-Sport Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnis, Florence; Lafont, Lucile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within a socio-constructivist perspective, this study is situated at the crossroads of three theoretical approaches. First, it is based upon team sport and the tactical act model in games teaching. Second, it took place in dyadic or small group learning conditions with verbal interaction. Furthermore, these interventions were based on…

  12. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2017-01-01

    group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training......, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.......The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport...

  13. Psychophysiological and stress responses to competition in team sport coaches: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J; Davison, G; Robinson, P

    2013-10-01

    Examinations of stress in coaches have mainly been qualitative and focused on chronic stressors. This exploratory study examined stress responses in coaches during competition, including psychological and physiological indices. Using reversal theory, we examined metamotivational state profiles during competition. Ten male team sport coaches (mean age 39.8 ± 13.12 years) reported levels of subjective stress, pleasant and unpleasant emotions, metamotivational state, and provided saliva samples, on a competition day: 15 min prior to the pre-match team talk; start of the match; end of the first half; start of the second half, and end of the match, then at equivalent times on a noncompetition day. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha-amylase activity. On competition day, alpha-amylase activity was significantly higher, as were subjective stress, arousal, and unpleasant emotions. Prior to and during active play, participants were mainly in the conformist, alloic (other-oriented), and mastery states, and at the end of the match, in the telic and sympathy states. Only 22 metamotivational state reversals were observed, mostly at the start and end of the match. The elevated levels of subjective stress, alpha-amylase activity, and unpleasant emotions suggest that educational programs may be useful for some coaches to manage psychological states during competition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Jump Landing Characteristics Predict Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-01

    Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P sports. NFL athletes experienced significantly shorter careers postoperatively than players in all the other sports (2.1 vs 3.2 years, respectively; P performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative career lengths, and no significant changes in performance. The unique physical demand that each sport requires is likely one of the explanations for these differences in outcomes.

  16. Who is on the primary care team? Professionals' perceptions of the conceptualization of teams and the underlying factors: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doekhie, Kirti D; Buljac-Samardzic, Martina; Strating, Mathilde M H; Paauwe, Jaap

    2017-12-28

    Due to the growing prevalence of elderly patients with multi-morbidity living at home, there is an increasing need for primary care professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds to collaborate as primary care teams. However, it is unclear how primary care professionals conceptualize teams and what underlying factors influence their perception of being part of a team. Our research question is: What are primary care professionals' perceptions of teams and team membership among primary care disciplines and what factors influence their perceptions? We conducted a mixed-methods study in the Dutch primary care setting. First, a survey study of 152 professionals representing 12 primary care disciplines was conducted, focusing on their perceptions of which disciplines are part of the team and the degree of relational coordination between professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds. Subsequently, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 professionals representing 5 primary care disciplines to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying factors influencing their perceptions and the (mis)alignment between these perceptions. Misalignments were found between perceptions regarding which disciplines are members of the team and the relational coordination between disciplines. For example, general practitioners were viewed as part of the team by helping assistants, (district) nurses, occupational therapists and geriatric specialized practice nurses, whereas the general practitioners themselves only considered geriatric specialized practice nurses to be part of their team. Professionals perceive multidisciplinary primary care teams as having multiple inner and outer layers. Three factors influence their perception of being part of a team and acting accordingly: a) knowing the people you work with, b) the necessity for knowledge exchange and c) sharing a holistic view of caregiving. Research and practice should take into account the misalignment between

  17. Professional development in sport psychology : relating learning experiences to learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R. I. (Vana); Oldenhof-Veldman, Tanja; Pijpers, J. R. (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the training of sport psychology consultants, it is important to know which learning experiences are useful for which components of professional development. We interviewed 15 novice consultants on their learning experiences related to 13 different topics. Traditional learning experiences

  18. Reflections about Outdoor Adventure Sports and Professional Competencies of Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Alcyane; dos Santos, Priscila Mari; Manfroi, Miraíra Noal; de Paula Figueiredo, Juliana; Brasil, Vinicius Zeilmann

    2017-01-01

    Universities have been entrusted with the task of qualifying professionals for their future practice. In light of this, the present study analysed the competencies perceived by 80 physical education students of a public university in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, enrolled in the subject Outdoor Adventure Sports. An exploratory descriptive…

  19. Investigation of Professional Self Sufficiency Levels of Physical Education and Sports Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracaoglu, Asuman Seda; Ozsaker, Murat; Varol, Rana

    2012-01-01

    The present research aimed at detecting professional self sufficiency levels of physical education and sports teachers who worked in Izmir Province and at investigating them in terms of some variables. For data collection, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale-developed by Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy (2001) and Turkish validity and reliability studies…

  20. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  1. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  2. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, which were divided into 5 areas: respecting of the current requirements of game performance in training, training efficiency, conditioning, coaching and psycho-social aspects. The survey was sent to 49 coaches, 24 of them replied (response rate 49 %. RESULTS: The research shows that coaches do not apply all important knowledge and trends for players' preparation (76 % of correct answers in total. Groups of coaches were further divided to subgroups according to gender of the trained teams, age categories, coaches work load and 1st and 2nd class coaches. The comparison of the answers in the subgroup of coaches with respect to segregated areas has only pointed at a difference between male and female teams in the area of psycho-social training aspects (Z = 1.756; p = 0.079; d = 0.717. The comparison of coaches' groups answers to individual questions show that: a coaches of male teams base their training sessions on real game situations and choose the content of the exercises with the ball more thoroughly (Z = 1.85; p = 0.07; d = 0.75 and require defensive game combinations at the net more often (Z = 1.81; p = 0.07; d = 0.74; b junior teams are behind (Z = 1.90; p = 0.06; d = 0.77 senior teams in the number of training hours with the ball a week and in making conditions for successful realization of offensive game combinations with fast set (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 0.86; c 1st class coaches within the scope of condition training pay more attention to core training

  3. Methods of coping with stress in young players in team sports games

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Pietranis, Dariusz; Bugaj, Olga; Lachowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary trends in qualified sport to achieve athletic championship are aimed at constant clarification of the areas of information and the search for new methodological solutions and training. With the ever-rising level of sports, one of the fundamental tasks of theoreticians and practitioners of the sport is the correct diagnosis of sports predispositions of players. Nowadays, sporting success is not determined only by an excellent physical preparation. Players should have corresponding...

  4. THE ARENAS BUSINESS: SPORTS PROFESSIONALISM, CULTURE AND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubens Camargo Gonçalves da Motta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No matter how elaborate is any study, the point is that if it is not applicable, of little served the entire effort. In this way, the Business Plan of Multipurpose Arenas proposes to demonstrate marketing and financial viability of its concept. In the aspect of business return on investment, it was proved by three indicators that it represents a project with positive return and better than conservative investments. Moreover, the analysis were founded and applied by the theory that had its importance in the definition and validation of the proposed model of multipurpose arenas. As Blake (1985, Image, Leisure Management, pp. 14-15 "sports centers, theaters, art galleries, libraries, museums, are mere installations containing tangible and intangible products that have no value, except what the customers attribute". This is, in fact, the best way to represent what was intended to highlight through this study.

  5. Home advantage and the debate about competitive balance in professional sports leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Beaumont, James; Goddard, John; Simmons, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A recurrent theme in sports economics is the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. This debate has ignored the phenomenon of home advantage, which may, however, be important to the extent that, if all teams had equal talent, all matches may then be weighted heavily in favour of the home team. We present an analysis of the relationship between attendance and match-level uncertainty in the English Football League. A simulation from our model indicates that equality of playing talent would in fact lower aggregate attendance. This result is explained by the loss of prospectively the most uncertain games, where weak teams have home advantage over strong teams.

  6. All professionals are equal but some professionals are more equal than others? Dominance, status and efficiency in Swedish interprofessional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, Ingela

    2012-09-01

    This study explored status differences in interprofessional teams and their link with efficiency. In total, 62 teams (423 individuals) from occupational health-care, psychiatry, rehabilitation and school health-care responded to a questionnaire. Fifty-four of those teams (360 individuals) also participated in an observation session simulating problem-solving team meetings. Data were reduced to a number of indexes: self-assessed/perceived equality, functional influence and efficiency; and observed verbal dominance/activity and problem-solving capacity. Perceived status differences within the teams appeared moderate, irrespective of professional belonging. With respect to verbal dominance during meetings, however, the findings revealed a hierarchy with psychologists, physicians and social workers at the top together with special education teachers. No relationship was found between self-assessed efficiency and actual problem-solving nor between observed verbal activity and problem-solving. The findings suggest that different problems may demand different prerequisites to be solved effectively: successful solving of simple convergent problems correlated negatively with equality, whereas functional influence was a predictor of success with respect to divergent, complex problem-solving. The findings raise questions about leadership and procedures during team meetings. © 2011 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  8. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.

  9. Half-time strategies to enhance second-half performance in team-sports players: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-03-01

    A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered.

  10. Professionalism in Sport for All Management – a pilot study about the TAFISA CLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KAPUSTIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on experiences of member organizations in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for example, and based on the realization that quality in Sport for All programs and events depends on professionalism, “The Association for International Sport for All (TAFISA” created and started a special educati on program in Sport for All Management in 2007 – the so - “called Certified Leadership Course (CLC”. In a five days program, international and national lecturers (i.e. from the host country are teaching between 25 and 85 participants in different topics ab out the development and management of Sport for All on local, regional, national and international levels. The participants themselves have sometimes more or sometimes less experiences in Sport for All Management. The evaluations are so positive that TAFIS A – meanwhile supported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC – is encouraged to continue with the CLCs and to develop an accredited Master of Arts (MA Study Program in Sport for All Management together with partner universities.

  11. STUDY OF SPORTS TEACHERS STUDENTS' SKILLS FOR SELF-ASSESSMENT OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsonkova Dimitrinka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Аn essential characteristic of the teacher’s profession is the constant process of self-improvement, which is impossible without existence of a specific personal position and criteria of the sport pedagogue. One of the trends for self-improvement are his personal and professional qualities. They are important because of their specific role – as a means of influence on the trained students in the educational process. Self-evaluation of the level of their growth is a regulator for the sport teacher’s conduct and activity, because it determines the genuine orientation for the level of his qualities,the satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

  12. Differential effects of individual-linked and team-level status allocation on professionals' job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, H.; Lambooij, M.; Sanders, K.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between status allocation and job performance of professionals. On the basis of Bergery's status characteristics model, it was hypothesized that individual-linked and team-level status allocation would positively affect compliance and contextual job performance.

  13. The role of professional and team commitment in nurse-physician collaboration: A dual identity model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Guberti, Monica; Borgognoni, Patrizia; Prandi, Carmen; Spaggiari, Ivana; Vezzani, Emanuela; Iemmi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nurse-physician collaboration involves healthcare operators from different professions working together. The dual identity model predicts that nurse-physician interprofessional collaboration could improve if these operators feel they belong to both their professional category and care unit. This study tested this prediction by analyzing the effect of professional and team commitments on interprofessional collaboration between nurses and physicians in a hospital based in Northern Italy. A cross-section questionnaire survey was administered to 270 nurses and 95 physicians. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is positively affected by team commitment, while professional commitment had no effect. In accordance with the dual identity model, results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is higher when: (i) both professional and team commitment is high, and (ii) when team commitment is high and professional commitment is low. These results support dual identity model predictions and suggest that interprofessional collaboration can be increased by bolstering both team and professional commitment of nurses and physicians.

  14. Specific features of team kinds of sports sportsmen’s individual characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Liashenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study individual characteristics of personalities of team kinds of sports sportsmen, specializing in football. Material: in the research football players (n=28, age 18 - 20 years participated. Psycho-diagnostic testing by methodic 16PF of Kattel was used. Results: we found high correlation between factors, which were conditioned by caution in choosing partners for communication and active contacts. Such sportsmen express their emotions expressively. It facilitates improvement of relations in conditions of co-operation in little group. It was also found that one of personality’s leading characteristics in sportsmen is their activity in social contacts. The higher is courage the more active is communication. It promotes discussion of common interests and targets for the given group of people. Conclusions: Sportsmen, who have many emotional interests and are ready to risk (or having bent to adventures have to face non understanding of other players. In such case conflict can be inevitable. Especially it manifests, if opposite side has the same indicators in this factor. Just courage, risk and adventurism push them to conflict solution of problem situations.

  15. Assessment of Body Composition and Sport Performance of Brazilian Paralympic Swim Team Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Radamés M V; Alves, Eduardo S; Lemos, Valdir A; Schwingel, Paulo A; da Silva, Andressa; Vital, Roberto; Vieira, Alexandre S; Barreto, Murilo M; Rocha, Edilson A; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2016-12-01

    Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers. To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training. Experimental pre/posttest design. Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete. 17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women). Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training. Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P .05). After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.

  16. Discovering frequently recurring movement sequences in team-sport athlete spatiotemporal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J; Aughey, Robert J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart

    2017-12-01

    Athlete external load is typically analysed from predetermined movement thresholds. The combination of movement sequences and differences in these movements between playing positions is also currently unknown. This study developed a method to discover the frequently recurring movement sequences across playing position during matches. The external load of 12 international female netball athletes was collected by a local positioning system during four national-level matches. Velocity, acceleration and angular velocity were calculated from positional (X, Y) data, clustered via one-dimensional k-means and assigned a unique alphabetic label. Combinations of velocity, acceleration and angular velocity movement were compared using the Levenshtein distance and similarities computed by the longest common substring problem. The contribution of each movement sequence, according to playing position and relative to the wider data set, was then calculated via the Minkowski distance. A total of 10 frequently recurring combinations of movement were discovered, regardless of playing position. Only the wing attack, goal attack and goal defence playing positions are closely related. We developed a technique to discover the movement sequences, according to playing position, performed by elite netballers. This methodology can be extended to discover the frequently recurring movements within other team sports and across levels of competition.

  17. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.

  18. Explaining the Number of Social Media Fans for North American and European Professional Sports Clubs with Determinants of Their Financial Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Scelles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the explanatory variables of the number of Facebook fans and Twitter followers for professional sports clubs based on the financial value literature. Such explanatory variables are related to local market conditions and on-field and off-field performance. Based upon a sample of North American major league clubs and the most valuable European soccer clubs as evaluated by Forbes over the 2011–2013 period (423 observations, our results indicate a range of variables with a significant positive impact on the number of social media fans: population, no competing team in the market, current sports performance, historical sports performance, facility age, attendance, operating income, expenses/league mean, and being an English football club. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of clubs’ social media presence is important for contemporary sport managers in terms of enhancing supporter communication, involvement, and accountability, as well as maximizing clubs’ revenue generation possibilities. Our findings could help sport managers to realize their clubs’ social media potential in pursuit of these objectives, specifically to understand which variables are under-exploited and why some clubs over-perform, which will allow managers to prioritize decisions to increase their number of social media fans and financial value.

  19. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  20. Een team..Ieder heeft zijn kleur...Hoe blijf je staande? : Uitval van startende professionals door stressfactoren binnen het team en de samenwerking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieneke Mahanjna Baan; Eline de Jong

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoek gedaan naar de invloed van een team en de samenwerking op de uitval van startende professionals, die werkzaam zijn in de zorgsector. Om een effectief werkend team te verkrijgen en te behouden en de werkstress gezond te houden, zijn preventieve middelen nodig. Wij hebben ontdekt dat er niet

  1. Investigation of Professional Readiness of Selected Male and Female Experts in Iranian Sports Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira ALIABADI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate professional readiness of a selected group of male and female experts in Iranian sports organizations. It is a descriptive study with an applied objective. The statistical population of the study includes the entire selected male and female experts (406 experts of Iranian sports organizations among which 352 cases cooperated with the researchers and therefore were selected as research sample. Measurement tool is the professional readiness assessment standard questionnaire (Aliabadi, 2014; the validity and reliability of this questionnaire have been approved by sport experts. The descriptive and inferential statistics including KS- and T-test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between male and female experts in sports organizations regarding mental readiness and its components (motivation, commitment, confidence; but there is a significant difference at 0.01 level between them with regard to work readiness and its components (skill, knowledge, experience. Moreover, based on the average of work/technical readiness components, male experts are better than female experts.

  2. Football as a professional sport, and the prospects for its development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Berezka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning of European football as a segment of the service industry, bringing economic, social and political effects. The features of professional sports in Ukraine by the example of football as an object of scientific analysis were considered. It is considered the features of the functioning of football. The study used methods of system analysis, analysis methods specific sources, methods comparison, and statistical methods. It is shown that a significant influence on the development of modern sport in particular football by processes of commercialization and professionalization. Found that football is the manufacturer of a wide range of services that bring significant economic, social and political impact of the subjects and has a high football information and entertainment value for the audience.

  3. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Lehnert; Jiří Stierand; František Chmelík; Zdeněk Haník

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, whi...

  4. The effect of milk on recovery from repeat-sprint cycling in female team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paula; Lawlor, Michael J; Hills, Frank A; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma J; Cockburn, Emma

    2017-10-03

    The consumption of milk post-eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised cross-over investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500ml of milk (MILK) or 500ml of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint), muscle soreness and tiredness, serum creatine kinase (CK), (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and measures of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls (PC) and GSH:GSSG (oxidized glutathione:reduced glutathione) ratio) were determined pre-, 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. MILK had a possible beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180○/s) from baseline to 24h (3.2±7.8% v -6.2±7.5%, MILK v CHO) and a possible beneficial effect in minimising soreness (baseline-48h; baseline-72h) and tiredness (baseline-24h; baseline-72h). There was no change in oxidative stress following the exercise protocol, though a likely benefit of milk was observed for GSH:GSSH ratio at baseline-24h (0.369 x/÷ 1.89, 1.103 x/÷ 3.96, MILK v CHO). MILK had an unclear effect on all other variables. Consumption of 500ml milk post-repeat sprint cycling had little to no benefit in minimising losses in peak torque, or minimising increases in soreness and tiredness and had no effect on serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation.

  5. Football as a professional sport, and the prospects for its development in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Berezka S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning of European football as a segment of the service industry, bringing economic, social and political effects. The features of professional sports in Ukraine by the example of football as an object of scientific analysis were considered. It is considered the features of the functioning of football. The study used methods of system analysis, analysis methods specific sources, methods comparison, and statistical methods. It is s...

  6. Return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative complications. It was shown to be an excellent

  7. Sports dentistry: buccal and salivary profile of a female soccer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti; Suzuki, Maria Elena Stama

    2004-09-01

    Sports dentistry has been considered a prominent area of dentistry because dental health can limit the abilities of athletes, both professional and nonprofessional, in their training and competition. Dental decay is associated with the frequent use of carbohydrates, recommended as an energy source for exercise. Strong indications exist regarding the possibility to use saliva as a performance determinant and for evaluation and prescription of physical activity. This study evaluated the salivary profiles (pH, flow rate, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus counts) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth of 18 female soccer players (13 to 19 years old) of the Olympic Training and Research Center of São Paulo, before and after a training session. The salivary flow rate presented a significant reduction after training; however, there was no significant alteration in pH. Fifty percent of the players presented 10(5) to 10(6) mutans streptococci, and 66% presented 10(3) Lactobacillus. Several salivary components protect against microorganisms that cause superior respiratory tract infections (common in athletes), as well as participating in the remineralization mechanism during cariogenic challenges. Thus, due to the salivary flow rate reduction in this population with a high number of cariogenic microorganisms, noncariogenic drink ingestion at regular intervals and maintenance of hydration levels during training, are suggested.

  8. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-09-01

    Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s2), sprint (≥7.00 m/s2), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s2) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was increased, regardless of filtering method, with the largest declines in acceleration efforts. Filtering techniques and minimum durations substantially affect the number of high-speed-running, sprint, and acceleration efforts detected with GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  9. Development of a formative assessment tool for measurement of performance in multi-professional resuscitation teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Oluf; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Treating cardiac arrest is linked to the mutual performance of several health-care individuals' task coordination. Non-technical skills, including communication, leadership and team interaction, could improve sequencing the tasks in the cardiac arrest algorithm. Non-technical skills have been...... a part of crew resource management training, created to improve safety in aviation. This study aimed, first, to establish crew resource management and non-technical skill-based learning objectives and behavioural markers for the performance of multi-professional resuscitation teams; second, to develop...

  10. Quantifying session ratings of perceived exertion for field-based speed training methods in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-10-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p perceived exertion. Nonetheless, the progressive overload of each program was sufficient to improve 10-m sprint performance. The session RPE values from the present study could be used to assess workload for speed training periodization within a team sports conditioning program.

  11. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sports Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2017-11-01

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. Eighteen male team sports athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40 m maximum shuttle run test (MST), which incorporates 10x40 m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; non-caffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (Sdec;%), did not differ (p=0.209, ES=0.16; n=18) between CAF (5.00±2.84%) and PLA (5.43±2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (130 mg/day, n=6) (3.98±2.57% vs. 3.80±1.79%, respectively; p=0.684, ES=0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  12. Who is on the primary care team? Professionals' perceptions of the conceptualization of teams and the underlying factors : A mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, K.; Buljac, M.; Strating, M.; Paauwe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to the growing prevalence of elderly patients with multi-morbidity living at home, there is an increasing need for primary care professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds to collaborate as primary care teams. However, it is unclear how primary care professionals

  13. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  14. Justification of the conceptual construct "readiness to the labour organization staff sports schools" in the context of vocational training future professionals of physical culture and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov D.A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Was analyzed literature devoted to the preparation of students of physical education to administrative activities. In the context of their training we held a comparative analysis of the approaches to organize the pedagogical process. As a reference point for the formation of professional preparedness specialist physical education and sports identified qualifying characteristics posts in this industry. Based on the analysis of literature given the definition of the concept of "readiness for organization of the Youth sports school.

  15. Effect of pre-cooling on repeat-sprint performance in seasonally acclimatised males during an outdoor simulated team-sport protocol in warm conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brade, Carly J; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10...

  16. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  17. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan H. Lazarus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  18. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229

  19. Similar Prevalence of Acetabular Labral Tear in Professional Ballet Dancers and Sporting Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of acetabular labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers with age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants and to determine the relationship to clinical findings and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Clinical and radiology practices. Forty-nine (98 hips) male and female professional ballet dancers (current and retired) with median age 30 years (range: 19-64 years) and 49 (98 hips) age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants. Group (ballet or sports), sex, age, hip cartilage defects, history of hip pain, Hip and Groin Outcome Score, passive hip internal rotation (IR), and external rotation range of movement (ROM). Labral tear identified with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Labral tears were identified in 51% of all 196 hips. The prevalence did not differ significantly between the ballet and sporting participants (P = 0.41) or between sexes (P = 0.34). Labral tear was not significantly associated with clinical measures, such as pain and function scores or rotation ROM (P > 0.01 for all). Pain provocation test using IR at 90° of hip flexion had excellent specificity [96%, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.77%-0.998%] but poor sensitivity (50%, 95% CI, 0.26%-0.74%) for identifying labral tear in participants reporting hip pain. Older age and cartilage defect presence were independently associated with an increased risk of labral tear (both P ballet dancers was similar to a sporting population. Labral tears were not associated with clinical findings but were related to cartilage defects, independent of aging. Caution is required when interpreting MRI findings as labral tear may not be the source of the ballet dancer's symptoms.

  20. Sports injuries among professional male athletes in Kuwait: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Behbehani, Abdullah; Al-Mousawi, Abdullah; Mulla-Juma'a, Ali; Sadeq, Husain; Shah, Nasrah

    2012-01-01

    To assess a 12-month period and the lifetime prevalence of sports injuries among male athletes according to type of sport, type of injury and its seriousness, and to examine the association of injuries with sociodemographic, lifestyle and preventive factors. In this cross-sectional study, we approached 475 professional athletes participating in ball sports, aged 15 years and older, from 5 sports clubs in Kuwait. Of them, 452 responded. Four ball games--football (soccer), basketball, handball and volleyball--were included. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between associated factors and experience of injury were tested by using χ(2) and logistic regression. The overall 12-month and lifetime prevalence of sports injuries were 73.8 and 89.8%, respectively. Prevalence was highest among volleyball athletes (79%) and lowest among football (soccer) athletes (69%). Lower limbs (73.1%) were the most common site of injuries and joint injuries (43.6%) were the most common type. For the most recent injury, 138 (42%) of athletes took more than 10 days off practice. Compared to volleyball, football (soccer) and handball athletes were 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.3-6.3) and 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5-7.8) more likely to take more than 10 days off practice. Athletes who sometimes wore protective gears were 3.1 times (95% CI: 1.7-5.8) more likely to report an injury compared with those who never wore protective gears (p injuries are highly prevalent among professional athletes in Kuwait. Future studies are needed to provide guidelines for interventions that may reduce such injuries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ppsychological well-being, general quality of life, and health-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Team dynamics, decision making, and attitudes toward multidisciplinary cancer meetings: health professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Bianca; Philip, Jennifer; McLachlan, Sue-Anne

    2010-11-01

    Multidisciplinary cancer care is a standard feature of high quality care. In many centers, the multidisciplinary meeting (MDM) is an integral component. A qualitative study was performed to explore health professionals' attitudes towards this model of care, the decision making processes, and dynamics among team members. A series of focus groups was conducted with health professionals who attend MDMs at our institution. Focus groups followed a semistructured format with open-ended questions. A thematic analysis was performed. Four focus groups were held, attended by 23 participants including allied health professionals, specialist nurses, medical oncologists, and surgeons. All participants believed the primary objective of the MDM was to develop an individualized treatment plan. Several other key themes emerged. The MDM provided opportunities to improve communication, efficiency, and education as well as enhance professional relationships. Medical information was prioritized ahead of psychosocial details, with allied health professionals describing difficulty contributing to MDM discussion. Patient attendance at MDMs was opposed by health professionals because of concerns about the patient's ability to cope with the information discussed and the effect their presence would have on the dynamics of the decision-making process. Health professionals endorse MDMs as a useful tool in treating patients with cancer. Within this forum, both opportunities and constrains exist, with many benefits extending beyond the meeting itself into other clinical areas. Further study is warranted to establish an evidence base to ensure that both the possibilities and the limitations of this model of care are fully understood.

  3. "A Clean Amateur Makes a Good Professional": On de­viance, professionalism and doping in elite sport - illustrated by the case of Danish cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask

    2006-01-01

    "A Clean Amateur Makes a Good Professional" examines why athletes who are using (or are alleged of using) illegal drugs notoriously are labelled as deviant outsiders by the media as well as by the sporting authorities. By contrasting today's situation with previous times where the professional at...

  4. The definition and deployment of differential core professional competencies and characteristics in multiprofessional health and social care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Bhanbhro, Sadiq M; Grant, Robert; Hood, Rick

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on delivering health and social care services through multiprofessional and inter-agency teams. This study, undertaken in 2011, explores how different professionals within multiprofessional teams define their own and other professions' core professional competencies, characteristics and contributions. It then compares these definitions with how different professionals deploy their time and what tasks they undertake. Sixty-four workers in four multiprofessional teams in England, within four different health and local authority areas, participated in the study. Using role repertory grids to generate constructs, which were then converted into Likert scales, and with diaries recording activities undertaken, the study compares the deployment of time and task with the views about the differential core competencies and characteristics of each profession. The study highlights important issues for consideration by multidisciplinary teams, the managers and commissioners of these teams, and by professional associations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The reproducibility of 10 and 20km time trial cycling performance in recreational cyclists, runners and team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, David N; Osborne, John O; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T; Sims, Jesse N L; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-26

    This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km. Multiple statistical methods were used to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reliability. Intraclass correlations, standard error of the measurement, minimum difference required for a worthwhile change and coefficient of variation were determined for completion time and mean trial variables (power output, speed, cadence, heart rate, RPE, session RPE). A meaningful change in performance for cyclists, runners, team sport athletes would be represented by 7.5, 3.6 and 12.9% improvement for 10km and a 4.9, 4.0 and 5.6% for 20km completion time. After a familiarisation, a 4.0, 3.7 and 6.4% improvement for 10km and a 4.1, 3.0 and 4.4% would be required for 20km. Data from this study suggest not all athletic subgroups require a familiarisation to produce substantially reliable 10 and 20km cycling performance. However, a familiarisation considerably improves the reliability of pacing strategy adopted by recreational runners and team sport athletes across these distances. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Professional judgement and decision-making in adventure sports coaching: the role of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach's adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision-making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that coaches were generally well informed and practised with respect to the technical aspects of their sporting disciplines. Less positively, however, they often relied on ad hoc contextualisation of generalised theories of coaching practice to respond to the hyper-dynamic environments encountered in adventure sports. We propose that coaching practice reflects the demands of the environment, individual learning needs of the students and the task at hand. Together, these factors outwardly resemble a constraints-led approach but, we suggest, actually reflect manipulation of these parameters from a cognitive rather than an ecological perspective. This process is facilitated by a refined judgement and decision-making process, sophisticated epistemology and an explicit interaction of coaching components.

  7. Achievement motivation across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,

  8. Health care professional development: Working as a team to improve patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Amir; El Husseini, Maha; Al Nemri, Abdurrahman; Al Frayh, Abdurrahman; Al Juryyan, Nasir; Faki, Mohamed O; Assiri, Asaad; Al Saadi, Muslim; Shaikh, Farheen; Al Zamil, Fahad

    2014-01-01

    In delivering health care, an effective teamwork can immediately and positively affect patient safety and outcome. The need for effective teams is increasing due to increasing co-morbidities and increasing complexity of specialization of care. Time has gone when a doctor or a dentist or any other health practitioner in whatsoever health organization would be able to solely deliver a quality care that satisfies his or her patients. The evolution in health care and a global demand for quality patient care necessitate a parallel health care professional development with a great focus on patient centred teamwork approach. This can only be achieved by placing the patient in the centre of care and through sharing a wide based culture of values and principles. This will help forming and developing an effective team able to deliver exceptional care to the patients. Aiming towards this goal, motivation of team members should be backed by strategies and practical skills in order to achieve goals and overcome challenges. This article highlights values and principles of working as a team and principles and provides team players with a practical approach to deliver quality patient care.

  9. Age and education in moral judgment of participants in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2006-02-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p education (F4.511 = 6.24, p education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.

  10. Mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level male team-sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Millet, Grégoire P

    2017-01-01

    To examine mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level team-sport players. Within-participants repeated measures. Twenty high-level male field-hockey players performed six 30-s runs at 5.53±0.19ms(-1) corresponding to 115% of their velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) with 30-s passive recovery on an instrumented treadmill. Continuous measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics were performed and values were subsequently averaged over 20s (8th-28ths) for comparison. Contact time (+1.1±4.3%; p=0.044), aerial time (+4.1±5.3%; p=0.001), step length (+2.4±2.2%; ptraining treadmill runs, high-level team-sport players modified their mechanical behaviour towards lower vertical stiffness while preserving a constant leg stiffness. Maintenance of running velocity induced longer step lengths and decreased step frequencies that were also accompanied by increased impact loading rates. These mechanical alterations occurred early during the set. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptualizing sports medicine as occupational health care: illustrations from professional rodeo and wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, J A

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a sociological model of sports medicine that conceptualizes it as occupational health care. All occupational health care systems can be summarized according to three types: elite, managed, and primitive. These types reflect the quality of health care provided, the social class membership of workers, and workers' value to employers. The author presents ethnographic data to illustrate the social dynamics of primitive occupational health care delivered to rodeo cowboys and local professional wrestlers. This care is primitive because these athletes have relatively low economic value as workers, and the rugged individualism of their sports' subcultures supports a system of health care that is inexpensive, nonmedical in its philosophy, personalistic in the structure of its practitioner-patient relationship, and incidental in its delivery.

  13. Why do team-sport athletes drink fluid in excess when exercising in cool conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, Melissa J; King, Roderick F G J; Gray, Michael P; Jones, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the potential physiological and perceptual drivers of fluid intake and thirst sensation during intermittent exercise. Ten male rugby players (17 ± 1 years, stature: 179.1 ± 4.2 cm, body mass (BM): 81.9 ± 8.1 kg) participated in six 6-min small-sided games, interspersed with 2 min rest, where fluid intake was ad libitum during rest periods. Pre- and postmeasurements of BM, subjective ratings (thirst, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, mouth dryness), plasma osmolality (POsm), serum sodium concentration (S[Na+]), haematocrit and haemoglobin (to calculate plasma volume change; PV) were taken. Fluid intake was measured during rest periods. BM change was -0.17 ± 0.59% and fluid intake was 0.88 ± 0.38 L. Pre- to post-POsm decreased (-3.1 ± 2.3 mOsm·kg-1; p = 0.002) and S[Na+] remained similar (-0.3 ± 0.7 mmol·L-1, p = 0.193). ΔPV was 5.84 ± 3.65%. Fluid intake displayed a relationship with pre-POsm (r = -0.640, p = 0.046), prethermal comfort (r = 0.651; p = -0.041), ΔS[Na+] (r = 0.816, p = 0.004), and ΔPV (r = 0.740; p = 0.014). ΔThirst sensation displayed a relationship with premouth dryness (r = 0.861, p = 0.006) and Δmouth dryness (r = 0.878, p = 0.004). Yet a weak positive relationship between Δthirst sensation and fluid intake was observed (r = 0.085, p = 0.841). These data observed in an ambient temperature of 13.6 ± 0.9 °C, suggest team-sport athletes drink in excess of fluid homeostasis requirements and thirst sensation in cool conditions; however, this was not influenced by thermal discomfort.

  14. A Social-Constructivist Approach in Physical Education: Influence of Dyadic Interactions on Tactical Choices in an Instructional Team Sport Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damis-Paraboschi, Florence; Lafont, Lucile; Menaut, Andre

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of dyadic verbal peer interactions in a team sport such as handball. Participants, 20 boys and 20 girls aged between 11 and 12, were assigned to two learning condition groups. The task was an instructional setting in team handball (2 attackers against 1 defender in each half court). The…

  15. Allocation algorithm for athletes group to form tactical tasks in game team sports using the methods of multivariate analysis (illustrated women Ukrainian team basketball with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.

  16. Professional cluster management by a small scientific team: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vitor V.A.; Santos, Andre A.C. dos; Cunha, Renan O., E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: roc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The specification, configuration and management of a professional computer cluster are specialized tasks usually hold by well trained teams, often full-time hired computer scientists. However, in many situations and for widely different reasons, these very specific technical tasks must be carried on by no other than the user itself. This is the situation at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - and in many nuclear research and educational centres in developing countries - where the scientists are the users of the cluster but also the technical team responsible to keep the system running. This paper presents the process of planning and installing the whole operating system and scientific software of a professional cluster aimed to be used in the nuclear engineering eld from the point of view of its users. The drawbacks of lack of expertise and technical skills to manage such type of technology are opposed to the advantages of freedom to chose the solutions which best t to the problems to be solved. The details of selected methods or technologies chosen for addressing a specific matter are presented together with other possible options, offering a broader view of the whole process of cluster's configuration. Specificities of dealing with closed, restricted and open software, common in the nuclear engineering eld, are also put in perspective. The ideas and solutions presented in this paper can be a valuable reference to other research teams found in a similar situation: being scientists and its own technical staff at the same time. (author)

  17. Een team..Ieder heeft zijn kleur...Hoe blijf je staande?: Uitval van startende professionals door stressfactoren binnen het team en de samenwerking.

    OpenAIRE

    Baan, Wieneke Mahanjna; Jong, de, Eline

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoek gedaan naar de invloed van een team en de samenwerking op de uitval van startende professionals, die werkzaam zijn in de zorgsector. Om een effectief werkend team te verkrijgen en te behouden en de werkstress gezond te houden, zijn preventieve middelen nodig. Wij hebben ontdekt dat er niet één middel voor ingezet kan worden. Ook is ons duidelijk geworden dat preventies als intervisie en feedbacktrainingen een tijdelijk effect lijken te hebben. Daarom bevelen wij meerdere preventieve...

  18. Public Attitude Survey of Canada on School/Amateur Sports, Amateur and Professional Athletics, and the Effect of T.V. Sports/Athletics Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry

    This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what…

  19. Leadership, cohesion and satisfaction in sporting teams: a study with Portuguese football and futsal athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Rui Gomes; Ana Patricia Pereira; Ana Raquel Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

      This work was done with 200 athletes from 2 types of sports (soccer and futsal) in several competitive levels and it analyzed coaches' leadership styles and athletes' cohesion and satisfaction levels...

  20. Return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among professional soccer players,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dantas de Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used.METHOD: this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30. The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28. The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport.RESULTS: five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine. All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied, taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSION: the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative

  1. Return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among professional soccer players☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. Method this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18–30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13–28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. Results five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven–nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative

  2. Profile of nursing professionals assisted by a multidisciplinary mental health team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the profile of nursing professionals assisted by the multidisciplinary mental health team. This is a quantitative study with 385 records of workers who were attended the university medical service by a team of mental health from July 2009 to December 2010, the averages were calculated using the chi-square test and with level of significance of 5% (p<0.05. It was observed that nursing professionals had, in the average, lower age (47.5±9.7, more absences (5.15±3.29 and were more days away from work (191.8±168.5 compared to other categories, respectively (53.7±12.7, (2.18±2.8 and (138±163. The majority was diagnosed with affective and mood disorders (65% and they were prescribed controlled medicine (96.8%, the differences were statistically significant in relation to other professionals. Although younger, the nursing staff stayed away longer, more frequently and had more mental health problems

  3. Early unprotected return to contact sport after metacarpal fixation in professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalizis, M A; Ek, E T H; Anderson, H; Couzens, G; Hoy, G A

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether an early return to sport in professional Australian Rules Football players after fixation of a non-thumb metacarpal fracture was safe and effective. A total of 16 patients with a mean age of 25 years (19 to 30) identified as having a non-thumb metacarpal fracture underwent open reduction and internal plate and screw fixation. We compared the players' professional performance statistics before and after the injury to determine whether there was any deterioration in their post-operative performance. Of the 16, 12 sustained their fracture during the season: their mean time to return to unrestricted professional play was two weeks (1 to 5). All except two of the 48 player performance variables showed no reduction in performance post-operatively. Our data suggest that professional athletes who sustained a non-thumb metacarpal fracture can safely return to professional play without restriction two weeks after internal fixation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1343-7. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in

  5. Description of dynamic shared knowledge: an exploratory study during a competitive team sports interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, J; Poizat, G; Saury, J; Seve, C

    2011-02-01

    This exploratory case study describes the sharedness of knowledge within a basketball team (nine players) and how it changes during an official match. To determine how knowledge is mobilised in an actual game situation, the data were collected and processed following course-of-action theory (Theureau 2003). The results were used to characterise the contents of the shared knowledge (i.e. regarding teammate characteristics, team functioning, opponent characteristics, opposing team functioning and game conditions) and to identify the characteristic types of change: (a) the reinforcement of a previous element of shared knowledge; (b) the invalidation of an element of shared knowledge; (c) fragmentation of an element of shared knowledge; (d) the creation of a new element of shared knowledge. The discussion deals with the diverse types of change in shared knowledge and the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of common ground within the team. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present case study focused on how the cognitions of individual members of a team coordinate to produce a team performance (e.g. surgical teams in hospitals, military teams) and how the shared knowledge changes during team activity. Traditional methods to increase knowledge sharedness can be enhanced by making use of 'opportunities for coordination' to optimise team adaptiveness.

  6. Realizing Potential: Improving Interdisciplinary Professional/Paraprofessional Health Care Teams in Canada's Northern Aboriginal Communities through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    To address shortages of health professional human resources and overcome cultural barriers, interdisciplinary health care teams in most northern Canadian aboriginal communities include paraprofessionals recruited locally. This paper identifies factors fundamental to effective team functioning, arguing for an extension of the information on…

  7. Piloting a Dispersed and Inter-Professional Lesson Study Using Technology to Link Team Members at a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, George; Norwich, Brahm; Fujita, Taro; Ralph, Thomas; Adlam, Anna; Milton, Fraser

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of distance technology used in a novel Lesson Study (LS) approach involving a dispersed LS team for inter-professional purposes. A typical LS model with only school teachers as team members was modified by including university-based lecturers with the school-based teachers, using video-conferencing and online…

  8. Variables Associated With Perceived Work Role Performance Among Professionals in Multidisciplinary Mental Health Teams Overall and in Primary Care and Specialized Service Teams, Respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François

    2017-01-01

    This study had a dual purpose (1) to identify variables associated with perceived work role performance (WRP) among 315 mental health professionals (MHPs) in Quebec and (2) to compare variables related to WRP in MH primary care teams (PCTs) and specialized service teams (SSTs), respectively. WRP was measured using an adapted version of the work role questionnaire. Variables were organized within five areas: individual characteristics, perceived team attributes, perceived team processes, perceived team emergent states, and geographical and organizational context. Half of the WRP variables were linked to team processes. Knowledge sharing correlated with WRP in both MH PCTs and SSTs. Team attributes had more impact on MH PCTs, while team processes and team emergent states played a larger role among SSTs. The association between WRP and knowledge sharing confirms the need for a systematic training program to promote interdisciplinary collaboration. Integration strategies (e.g., service agreements) could improve collaboration between MH PCTs and SSTs and help MHPs perform more effectively within PCTs.

  9. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited....... Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm...... levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...

  10. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kolosov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  11. [Integrality and transdisciplinarity in multi-professional teams in collective health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Silvani Botlender; Seminotti, Nedio

    2010-06-01

    This article brings about both a discussion and reflection on the activation of integrality in the work process of multi-professional teams in collective health. It has been grounded on the theory of complexity, by Edgar Morin, as well as on the transdisciplinary logic, by Basarab Nicolescu, to understand paradoxes in the collective action of workers when challenged to integrate disciplinary formations with the practice requirement of inter/transdisciplinary processes. Workers have found difficulty in reorienting the health assisting model whenever their logic is focused on illness.

  12. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  13. "Live, Learn and Play": building strategic alliances between professional sports and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette; Winfield, David; Larsen, Judi; Anderson, Michele; Jackson, Portia; Overton, Jeff; Wilson, Shawn; Rossum, Allen; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2009-10-01

    Public-private partnerships allow communities and corporate entities to pool resources to address a mission of relevance to their common constituency or consumer base. Collaborations between public health and professional sports may present unique opportunities to improve health outcomes related to physical activity since athletes are fitness icons, both for adults and children. There are many "win-win" opportunities, as sports venues regularly host huge numbers of spectators, offering food and entertainment, providing hours of exposure, and introducing new ideas for engaging fans in order to remain a competitive draw. In 2008, the San Diego Padres embarked on a communitywide fitness initiative, FriarFit, including incorporating 10-minute Instant Recess breaks during their Sunday homestand pre-game shows. Many lessons have been learned that may be useful to others mounting such initiatives, such as: there is more at stake in cost-benefit and risk-benefit assessment for sports executives, requiring greater caution and circumspection than is typical for public health projects; the core business of the corporate entity must be accommodated without undermining the health objectives; and health aims must be addressed in a way that is financially viable and delivers tangible value for profit-making concerns, in terms of marketing, revenues or brand enhancement.

  14. Leading multi-professional teams in the children’s workforce: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. Methods: A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? Results: When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. Conclusion: The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  15. Leading multi-professional teams in the children's workforce: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  16. Patterns in professional growth of science teachers involved in a team-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    and learning and subsequent discussion of this material. Repeated interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of the interconnected model of teachers’ professional growth. The results show various ways of experimenting with new approaches to be important for three of the teachers while a novice teacher......The outcomes experienced by four science teachers from a local science team are used to illustrate and discuss change sequences connected to their professional growth. The teachers participated in a year-long school-based experimental project, which involved collecting data about students’ thinking...... mainly refer to getting ideas from colleagues’ practice. Collegial interactions is mentioned by all teachers, but it cannot based on this study be seen as a growth factor in it-self, it is collegial interactions about experimenting in classrooms and/or about shared artifacts from practice...

  17. Patterns in professional growth of science teachers involved in a team-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    and learning and subsequent discussion of this material. Repeated interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of the interconnected model of teachers’ professional growth. The results show various ways of experimenting with new approaches to be important for three of the teachers while a novice teacher......The outcomes experienced by four science teachers from a local science team are used to illustrate and discuss change sequences connected to their professional growth. The teachers participated in a year-long school-based experimental project, which involved collecting data about students’ thinking...... mainly refer to getting ideas from colleagues’ practice. Collegial interactions is mentioned by all teachers, but it cannot based on this study be seen as a growth factor in it-self, it is collegial interactions about experimenting in classrooms and/or about shared artifacts from practice...

  18. How working in cross-functional teams relates to core attributes of professional occupations and the moderating role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda

    In this study, we related the extent to which professional workers participate in cross-functional teams (CFTs) to 3 facets of professional occupations: domain distinctiveness, accountability, and task autonomy. Furthermore, we investigated whether these relationships are moderated by 3 personality

  19. Applying the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model to Older Sport Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…

  20. Spatial-temporal constraints on decision-making during shooting performance in the team sport of futsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Esteves, Pedro Tiago

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examined the influence of opposing players constraining the decision-making of an attacker during shooting performance in futsal. Performance during 10 competitive matches was recorded and examined from the moment a shot was taken until the ball was intercepted or entered the goal in sequences of play: ending in a goal, a goalkeeper's save, or an interception by the nearest defender. The variables under scrutiny in this study were (i) the distance of each player to the ball's trajectory, (ii) the time for the ball to arrive at that same point (i.e. the interception point), and (iii), the required movement velocity of the nearest defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball. Results showed that values of distance from a defender and goalkeeper to the interception points were significantly lower when they intercepted the ball. The time of ball arrival at the interception point of the defender was also lower when the ball was intercepted. The required velocities of the nearest outfield defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball were significantly lower during plays in which they intercepted the ball, than in plays in which the ball was not intercepted. Our results suggest that researchers and practitioners should consider simultaneously both space and time in analysis of interceptive actions in team sports. The required movement velocities of the opponents to intercept the ball are reliable spatial-temporal variables constraining decision-making during shooting performance in team sports like futsal.

  1. Who is on the primary care team? Professionals' perceptions of the conceptualization of teams and the underlying factors: A mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, K.D. (Kirti D.); M. Buljac-Samardzic (Martina); M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); J. Paauwe (Jaap)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Due to the growing prevalence of elderly patients with multi-morbidity living at home, there is an increasing need for primary care professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds to collaborate as primary care teams. However, it is unclear how primary care

  2. Perception of Parents´ Conducts on Antisocial Behaviors Shown by Team Sports Youth Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Universidad de Extremadura; Pulido González, Juan José; Universidad de Extremadura; Amado Alonso, Diana; Universidad de Extremadura; Sánchez Oliva, David; Universidad de Extremadura; Leo Marcos, Francisco Miguel; Universidad de Extremadura

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to know the relationships between parents and children with regard to perception of intention, performance and judgment of antisocial behaviors in the sport context, assessing in the same sport action, the morality shown by both significatives. The sample comprised 1420 participants, 710 athletes, ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old (M = 12.76; SD = 1.15), and 710 parents, ranging in age from 36 to 49 years old (M = 43.56; SD = 2.95). Athletes and parents comp...

  3. Revenue Sharing in Professional Sports Leagues : For the Sake of Competitive Balance or as a Result of Monopsony Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues

  4. Pharmacist contributions for basic care from the perspective of professionals of familial health care teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecioni Loch-Neckel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the social representations of professionals included in the team of Family Health Strategy (physicians, nurses and dentists respecting the action possibilities and contributions of the pharmacist for the basic care, and based on social psychology and, particularly, on the theory of social representations. The epistemological basis of the research is qualitative, and the data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews, which were submitted to analysis of categorical thematic content. Apparently, the majority of professionals already inserted in the team know and recognize the importance of professional pharmacists in the basic care, as well as their potential contribution to this topic. The representations were constructed according to the following parameters: a the study object and the intervention area, b the individual practice of every professional and c his/her action in specific cases. The quality of the professional or personal experience concerning the action of these professionals has contributed for the knowledge about the possibilities of pharmacists' intervention in basic care.Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar as representações sociais dos profissionais incluídos na equipe de Estratégia em Saúde da Família (médico, enfermeiro e odontólogo, sobre as possibilidades de atuação e as contribuições do farmacêutico na atenção básica, tendo por fundamento a psicologia social e, particularmente, a teoria das representações sociais. A base epistemológica da pesquisa é qualitativa, sendo os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas individuais semi-estruturadas e analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo categorial temático. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais já inseridos na equipe conhece e reconhece a importância do profissional farmacêutico na atenção básica e as suas possibilidades de contribuição. As representações foram construídas a

  5. Linking health professional learners and health care workers on action-based improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie W; Headrick, Linda A; Cox, Karen R; Deane, Kristen; Gay, John W; Brandt, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Medical students, nursing students, and other health care professionals in training were integrated with health care workers on interprofessional quality improvement (QI) teams at our academic health center. Teams received training in QI, accompanied by expert QI mentoring, with dual goals of increasing expertise in improvement while improving care. Eighty-six learners and health system workers participated in 12 improvement teams in 2 years. Upon completion of the training, participants expressed that the program enhanced QI and teamwork skills and increased understanding of other health care professions. At the end of the program, fourth-year medical students showed greater ability to apply QI skills, as measured by the QI Knowledge Assessment Tool than did control students who did not participate in the program (P training and ongoing expert mentoring in QI, was identified by faculty as the most important factor contributing to success. This model successfully improved application of QI skills by learners while improving care within our academic health center. Testing of the model at other academic health centers and in other training environments is warranted.

  6. Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the

  7. "It Just Makes You Feel Invincible": A Foucauldian Analysis of Children's Experiences of Organised Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Simon R.; Payne, Deborah; Schluter, Philip J.; Thomson, Rex W.

    2015-01-01

    The childhood years are highlighted as a crucial time when ongoing participation in physical activity can be nurtured and maintained. The nurturing of a child's proclivity to participate in organised sport normally falls into the domain of adults. While both parents and coaches have been identified as key influences on children's enjoyment of…

  8. Sport concussion assessment tool - 3rd edition - normative reference values for professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Timo; Tuominen, Markku; Parkkari, Jari; Vartiainen, Matti; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M

    2016-08-01

    To determine normative reference values for the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3rd Edition (SCAT3) using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Preseason baseline testing was administered individually to 304 professional male ice hockey players. The participants were aged between 16 and 40 with a mean (M) age of 25.3 years. Over 60% of the athletes reported previous concussion, almost 20% had been hospitalized or medically imaged following a head trauma. Of the players, 48% reported no symptoms. The symptom score median (Md) was 1.0 (M=1.5) and severity median was 1.0 (M=2.3). The median of the SAC score was 27.0 (M=27.0). The median of the M-BESS was 1.0 (M=2.0). The Tandem gait median was 10.9s (M=10.8s). The most common baseline symptom was neck pain (24%). Delayed recall was the most difficult component of the SAC (Md=4); only 24% performed it flawlessly. All athletes completed the double-leg stance of the M-BESS without errors, but there was performance variability in the tandem stance (Md=0, M=0.6, range=0-10) and single-leg stance (Md=1.0, M=1.4, range=0-10). Representative normative reference values for the SCAT3 among professional male ice hockey players are provided. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Physical Fitness and Playing Standard on Pacing Strategies During a Team-Sport Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2015-11-01

    To assess the influence of playing standard and physical fitness on pacing strategies during a junior team-sport tournament. A between-groups, repeated-measures design was used. Twenty-eight junior team-sport players (age 16.6 ± 0.5 y, body mass 79.9 ± 12.0 kg) from a high-standard and low-standard team participated in a junior rugby league tournament, competing in 5 games over 4 d (4 × 40-min and 1 × 50-min game). Players wore global positioning system (GPS) microtechnology during each game to provide information on match activity profiles. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1) was used to assess physical fitness before the competition. High-standard players had an initially higher pacing strategy than the low-standard players, covering greater distances at high (ES = 1.32) and moderate speed (ES = 1.41) in game 1 and moderate speed (ES = 1.55) in game 2. However, low-standard players increased their playing intensity across the competition (ES = 0.57-2.04). High-standard/high-fitness players maintained a similar playing intensity, whereas high-standard/low-fitness players reduced their playing intensities across the competition. Well-developed physical fitness allows for a higher-intensity pacing strategy that can be maintained throughout a tournament. High-standard/low-fitness players reduce playing intensity, most likely due to increased levels of fatigue as the competition progresses. Low-standard players adopt a pacing strategy that allows them to conserve energy to produce an "end spurt" in the latter games. Maximizing endurance fitness across an entire playing group will maximize playing intensity and minimize performance reductions during the latter stages of a tournament.

  10. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.

  11. Validity and reliability of GPS and LPS for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that

  12. IN THE PROFESSIONAL-PEDAGOGICAL TRAINING OF THE STUDENTS, FUTURE TEACHERS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Toma Urichianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is meant to bring experimental arguments in favor of the curriculum module for the „Ecologic tourism” subject in the physical education and sport faculties and in favor of the creation of a specific information stock regarding the ecotourism for the use of the faculties of this type.The researches pointed out that generally the ecologic type tourism activities are not treated with the necessary attention as there is not any concrete syllabus for the ecologic tourism subject.The performed researches outcomes have been used for the creation of the ecologic tourism experimental syllabus template. The syllabus design started from the definition of the syllabus general goal, „thenatural ecosystems revaluation and protection by means of the ecologic tourism (sport activities”; three main categories of objectives resulted from this goal, in the healthcare, pedagogical-professional training and ecology directions.The syllabus was based on the education specific means, according to the proposed methods whose structure and contents had observed the actual demands of planning and programming in conformity with theacademic curriculum theory and methodology.The outcomes of this research can serve both as a reference point for future researches carrying out and as a practical-methodological template for the teachers and students involved in ecotourism activities

  13. Las competencias profesionales del nutricionista deportivo The professional competences of the sports dietitian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bellotto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la investigación que dio origen a la tesis doctoral defendida por la autora en la Universitat de Lleida (España, cuyo objetivo fue identificar las Competencias Profesionales de los nutricionistas que trabajan en el ámbito de la Nutrición Deportiva. MÉTODOS: Fueron investigados 14 expertos provenientes de Australia (n=1, Brasil (n=7, España (n=3 y Estados Unidos (n=3. La herramienta metodológica utilizada fue la técnica Delphi, compuesta de tres rondas de cuestionarios. En la primera ronda los expertos proporcionaron, a través de sus discursos, la identificación de un listado de Competencias Profesionales, información que en la segunda y tercera ronda pudieron ser evaluadas y posteriormente analizadas a través de cálculos estadísticos descriptivos (media, moda, mediana y desviación Standard. RESULTADOS: De esta manera, se llegó al consenso entre los expertos sobre 147 competencias profesionales identificadas. Las competencias fueron clasificadas en cuatro macro categorías de Competencias Profesionales: Competencias Técnicas (38, Metodológicas (62, Participativas (24 y Personales (23. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados demostraron que el estudio sistematizado de las Competencias Profesionales del Nutricionista Deportivo contribuye para el establecimiento de los contenidos que deben componer la disciplina de Nutrición Deportiva a ser incorporada en los itinerarios curriculares de las carreras de Nutrición Humana y Dietética.OBJECTIVE: This article presents the results of the doctoral research developed by the author at the University of Lleida (Spain in June 2006. The main goal was to investigate the professional competences of dietitians who work in the field of Sports Nutrition. METHODS: Fourteen experts in Sports Nutrition from 4 countries were investigated, Australia (n=1, Brazil (n=7, Spain (n=3 and the United States (n=3. The methodological tool applied was the Delphi

  14. A Comparison of Physical and Technical Performance Profiles Between Successful and Less-Successful Professional Rugby League Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-04-01

    To examine differences in physical and technical performance profiles using a large sample of match observations drawn from successful and less-successful professional rugby league teams. Match activity profiles were collected using global positioning satellite (GPS) technology from 29 players from a successful rugby league team during 24 games and 25 players from a less-successful team during 18 games throughout 2 separate competition seasons. Technical performance data were obtained from a commercial statistics provider. A progressive magnitude-based statistical approach was used to compare differences in physical and technical performance variables between the reference teams. There were no clear differences in playing time, absolute and relative total distances, or low-speed running distances between successful and less-successful teams. The successful team possibly to very likely had lower higher-speed running demands and likely had fewer physical collisions than the less-successful team, although they likely to most likely demonstrated more accelerations and decelerations and likely had higher average metabolic power. The successful team very likely gained more territory in attack, very likely had more possessions, and likely committed fewer errors. In contrast, the less-successful team was likely required to attempt more tackles, most likely missed more tackles, and very likely had a lower effective tackle percentage. In the current study, successful match performance was not contingent on higher match running outputs or more physical collisions; rather, proficiency in technical performance components better differentiated successful and less-successful teams.

  15. The Foci of In-Action Professional Judgement and Decision-Making in High-Level Adventure Sports Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2017-01-01

    This article continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examines the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision-making (PJDM) processes in high-level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of…

  16. Differential effects of professional leaders on health care teams in chronic disease management groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Disch, Joanne; White, Katie M; Powell, Adam; Rector, Thomas S; Sahay, Anju; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Leadership by health care professionals is likely to vary because of differences in the social contexts within which they are situated, socialization processes and societal expectations, education and training, and the way their professions define and operationalize key concepts such as teamwork, collaboration, and partnership. This research examines the effect of the nurse and physician leaders on interdependence and encounter preparedness in chronic disease management practice groups. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of complementary leadership by nurses and physicians involved in jointly producing a health care service on care team functioning. The design is a retrospective observational study based on survey data. The unit of analysis is heart failure care groups in U.S. Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Survey and administrative data were collected in 2009 from 68 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Key variables include nurse and physician leadership, interdependence, psychological safety, coordination, and encounter preparedness. Reliability and validity of survey measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alphas. Multivariate analyses tested hypotheses. Professional leadership by nurses and physicians is related to encounter preparedness by different paths. Nurse leadership is associated with greater team interdependence, and interdependence is positively associated with respect. Physician leadership is positively associated with greater psychological safety, respect, and shared goals but is not associated with interdependence. Respect is associated with involvement in learning activities, and shared goals are associated with coordination. Coordination and involvement in learning activities are positively associated with encounter preparedness. By focusing on increasing interdependence and a constructive climate, nurse and physician leaders have the opportunity to increase care coordination

  17. The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes' psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Appleby, Ralph; Davis, Paul; Wetherell, Mark; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2018-01-23

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  18. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients.

  19. A Brand Loyalty Model Utilizing Team Identification and Customer Satisfaction in the Licensed Sports Product Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonhwan; Shin, Hongbum; Park, Jung-Jun; Kwon, Oh-Ryun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the attitudinal brand loyalty variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and conative components), team identification, and customer satisfaction by developing a structural equation model, based on Oliver's (1997) attitudinal brand loyalty model. The results of this study confirmed…

  20. Sporting Bodies, Ageing, Narrative Mapping and Young Team Athletes: An Analysis of Possible Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on life history data generated from interviews with young athletes at an English university, this paper explores the narrative maps provided to them by older team members and the ways in which these influence perceptions of self-ageing. Three possible selves associated with mid-life emerged from the analysis for detailed focus. These are…

  1. Eccentric-Overload Training in Team-Sport Functional Performance: Constant Bilateral Vertical Versus Variable Unilateral Multidirectional Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

  2. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  3. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  4. Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry

    2017-11-01

    There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.

  5. Leading multi-professional teams in the children’s workforce: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice.Methods: A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating?Results: When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research.Conclusion: The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  6. Writing for publication in Physical education and sport pedagogy: reflections and advice from an editorial team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the process of writing for publication in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, where three issues in particular are analyzed. The first one explains how to write an article for an international scientific publication, drawing the attention that it must be in accordance to the aims and the scope of the journal and that instructions regarding structure should be followed, as well as articles must be clear in regard to theory, method, results, conclusions, summary and key words. The second issue is a step-by-step guide to the review process, which involves the editor´s first decision, the decision to return the submission to the author or select two reviewers to revise the article; the feedback given by the reviewers to the editor, which decides and communicates the author; and, if the author must re-submission the article, the way how it happens. Last issue explains how Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy acts in regard to articles written in English as a foreign language.

  7. Effects of Exercise on Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition Performance in Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin H; Howell, David R; Meehan, William P; Iverson, Grant L; Gardner, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT3) is currently considered the standard sideline assessment for concussions. In-game exercise, however, may affect SCAT3 performance and the diagnosis of concussions. To examine the influence of exercise on SCAT3 performance in professional male athletes. Controlled laboratory study. We examined the SCAT3 performance of 82 professional male athletes under 2 conditions: at rest and after exercise. Athletes reported significantly fewer total symptoms (mean, 1.0 ± 1.5 vs 1.6 ± 2.3 total symptoms, respectively; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.34), committed significantly fewer errors on the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mean, 3.5 ± 3.5 vs 4.6 ± 4.1 errors, respectively; P = .017; d = 0.31), and required significantly less time to complete the tandem gait test (mean, 9.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.7 seconds, respectively; P = .02; d = 0.30) during the at-rest condition compared with the postexercise condition. The interpretation of in-game (sideline) SCAT3 results should consider the effects of postexercise fatigue levels on an athlete's performance, particularly if preseason baseline data have been collected when the athlete was well rested. Exercise appears to affect symptom burden and physical abilities, such as balance and tandem gait, more so than the cognitive components of the SCAT3.

  8. Preparing for the dental team: investigating the views of dental and dental care professional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Susan; Marley, John; Stevenson, Mike; Milner, Sharon

    2008-02-01

    There is growing evidence to support the contention that interprofessional education (IPE) at both pre and post-qualification levels will improve professionals' abilities to work more effectively in a team and to communicate more effectively with colleagues and patients. This body of evidence, however, is primarily concerned with nursing, medical and associated professionals and students, and there are few studies that include dental students and particularly where learning occurs with the dental care professions (DCP). The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of dental and DCP students to IPE and to highlight some of the barriers to developing programmes for these students. It was also intended to examine the students' awareness of dental and DCP roles and responsibilities. Two questionnaires, the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and a dental roles and responsibilities questionnaire, were distributed to all 5 years of dental students (n = 189) based at Queen's University Belfast (QUB), both years of the dental hygiene students (n = 8) also based at QUB, as well as to final year dental nursing students based at Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education (BIFHE) (n = 64). The results indicated that dental and DCP students had a positive attitude to IPE as a means to improve teamwork and communication skills but there are potential obstacles as demonstrated by the differing perceptions of each of the three groups about the roles of the other. Some aspects of practice, involving personal care and advice to patients, were regarded by all groups as a shared role but the dental hygiene students regarded themselves as having a shared role in several tasks identified by dental and dental nurse students as the sole role of the dentist. Dental hygiene students in this study did not see their role as primarily to support the dentist but more as a partner in care. Professional identity and its development are issues that must be

  9. The impact of identification on adherence to group norms in team sports: Who is going the extra mile? : Who Is Going the Extra Mile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates the applicability of the Normative Conflict Model of Dissent (NCMD; Packer, 2008) in the context of team sports. The core assumption of the NCDM is that strongly identified group members adhere to group norms less (i.e., deviate more) when these norms are

  10. Territorial gain dynamics regulates success in attacking sub-phases of team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Fernandes, Orlando; Fonseca, Sofia; Davids, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Field invasion games, such as rugby union, can be conceptualised as dynamic social systems in which the agents continuously interact to contest ball possession and territorial gain. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify the collective system dynamics of rugby union phases-of-play near the try line by investigating whether ball displacement trajectory on the playing field provides insights on successful team performance. Methods: Five rugby union matches ...

  11. Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cuadrado Reyes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   This  research developed a logarithms  for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in  game situations. The sample was made of  thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3   to a  Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test.  Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted  in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were  continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done  to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from  this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing..   Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.

  12. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.

  14. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN SPORT CLUBS- A RESEARCH OF COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES OF SPORT CLUBS IN TURKISH PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Katirci; Ferruh Uztug

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays football game is subjected to open market norm and rules like any commercial sector in all over the world. The sport clubs which aren’t have economic and executive orderly arrangement can’t transfer their assets to future in football world. In this context, sport clubs must execute methods which have achievement in contemporary business administration and corporate governance. The aim of this study is to investigate application methods of corporate communication approach as a cor...

  15. Over the Counter Drugs (and Dietary Supplement) Exercise: A Team-based Introduction to Biochemistry for Health Professional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action,…

  16. Primary Care Sports Medicine: A Part-Timer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Warren B.

    1988-01-01

    A family practice physician describes his part-time sports medicine experience, including the multiple roles he plays as team physician, the way sports medicine is integrated into his family practice, and how it affects his professional life and peer relationships. (Author/MT)

  17. Experiences of pre-licensure or pre-registration health professional students and their educators in working with intra-professional teams: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Diane L; MacKinnon, Karen; Bruce, Anne; Gordon, Carol; Koning, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Inter-professional initiatives are prevalent in the healthcare landscape, requiring professionals to collaborate effectively to provide quality patient care. Little attention has been given to intra-professional relationships, where professionals within one disciplinary domain (such as degree and diploma nursing students) collaborate to provide care. New care models are being introduced where baccalaureate and diploma students of a particular discipline (such as nursing, occupational therapy, dentistry or physiotherapy) work closely together in teams to deliver care. Questions thus arise as to how students and educators learn to work on intra-professional teams. To identify and synthesize evidence regarding experiences of pre-licensure health professional students and their educators on intra-professional teams and to draw recommendations to enhance policy and/or curriculum development. Pre-licensure students and educators, focusing on regulated health professions that have had more than one point of entry into practice. Experiences of intra-professional team learning or teaching within various entry-to-practice categories of a particular health-related discipline. Eight qualitative studies were included in the review. Seven studies were descriptive in nature; one study was a critical analysis. A comprehensive search of various databases was conducted between June 2, 2015 and August 16, 2015, and repeated in March 2016. The search considered all studies reported and published from January 1, 2001 to March 7, 2016. Only studies published in English were included in this review. Included papers were of low-to-moderate quality; however, it is important to consider that post-positivist assumptions underpinned much of the primary research, which could explain why researcher positionality and/or influence on the research would not be addressed. Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and

  18. On career longevity distributions in professional sports and a stochastic mechanism underlying their empirical power-law behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    We provide a simple and intuitive stochastic process that accounts for the observed probability density functions governing career longevity in several professional sports leagues in various countries. Our mechanism characterizes the probability density functions governing career longevity with two parameters, \\alpha and \\tau . The exponent \\alpha < 1 characterizes the scaling in the power-law regime, which is followed by an exponential cutoff after a critical value \\tau, representing the mean lifetime in each sport. In addition, we also show that the probability density functions of career statistical metrics within each sport follow directly from the density functions of career longevity. Thus, our process is a universal mechanism describing longevity in a competitive environment, with the exponent \\alpha representing the role of experience and reputation in career development. Because net career tallies of in-game success ultimately serve as a metric for classifying careers, our findings provide a robus...

  19. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  20. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  1. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.

  2. Does training with 3D videos improve decision-making in team invasion sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Tanja; Obelöer, Hilke; Schlapkohl, Nele; Raab, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of video-based decision training in national youth handball teams. Extending previous research, we tested in Study 1 whether a three-dimensional (3D) video training group would outperform a two-dimensional (2D) group. In Study 2, a 3D training group was compared to a control group and a group trained with a traditional tactic board. In both studies, training duration was 6 weeks. Performance was measured in a pre- to post-retention design. The tests consisted of a decision-making task measuring quality of decisions (first and best option) and decision time (time for first and best option). The results of Study 1 showed learning effects and revealed that the 3D video group made faster first-option choices than the 2D group, but differences in the quality of options were not pronounced. The results of Study 2 revealed learning effects for both training groups compared to the control group, and faster choices in the 3D group compared to both other groups. Together, the results show that 3D video training is the most useful tool for improving choices in handball, but only in reference to decision time and not decision quality. We discuss the usefulness of a 3D video tool for training of decision-making skills outside the laboratory or gym.

  3. Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E

    2016-01-01

    Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Risk Factors for Reoperation and Performance-Based Outcomes After Operative Fixation of Foot Fractures in the Professional Athlete: A Cross-Sport Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer; Larkin, Kevin; Kadakia, Anish; Hsu, Wellington

    2017-09-01

    Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on post-operative performance or league participation. However, National Football League (NFL) athletes would have a significantly greater decline in performance, due to the high impact nature of the sport. Case series. Level 4. Athletes in the National Basketball League (NBA), NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) undergoing operative fixation of a foot fracture were identified through a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were collected for each sport. League participation and game performance data were collected before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed, with significance accepted as P ≤ 0.05. A total of 77 players undergoing 84 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 98.7% (76/77) of players were able to return to play, with a median time to return across all sports of 137 days. Players returned to preoperative performance levels within 1 season of surgery. Six players (7.8%) sustained refracture requiring reoperation, all of whom were in the NBA. Percentage of games started during the season after primary operative treatment was a predictive factor for reinjury (99% vs 40%, P = 0.001). Athletes returned to play at a high rate after foot fracture fixation, with excellent postoperative performance levels, regardless of sport and fracture location. NBA athletes sustaining fifth metatarsal and navicular fractures are at greater risk of reinjury compared with

  5. Achievement motivation, competitiveness and sports performance in a team of sportsmen soccer players between 14 and 24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo García-Naveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found

  6. The Relationships Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load and Intensity in Team Sports: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or

  7. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  8. MARKETING IN AMATEUR SPORTS: HOW TO MARKET A FLOORBALL CLUB WITH LIMITED RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Ville

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the differences that appear in sports marketing in comparison to the more traditional fields of marketing, as well as the differences between marketing in amateur sports and professional sports. A Swedish amateur floorball team was consulted in order to gather information and to provide a practical example and development suggestions for the team’s marketing communications. The findings implicate that there are vast differences between sports marketin...

  9. Allergies and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in a Youth Academy and Reserve Professional Soccer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Drouard, François; Legall, Franck; Dupont, Grégory; Wallaert, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players. Prospective cohort design. Youth academy and reserve professional soccer team during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Eighty-five soccer players (mean age: 20 ± 4 years) participated. Players underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Spirometry and a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test were performed on soccer players during the first season 2012 to 2013 (n = 51) to detect EIB. Two self-administered questionnaires on respiratory history and allergic symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes) were also distributed during both seasons (n = 59). The number of positive SPTs, exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, presence of asthma, airway obstruction, and EIB. Forty-nine percent of players were sensitized to at least one respiratory allergen, 33% reported an allergic disease, 1 player presented airway obstruction at rest, and 16% presented EIB. Factors predictive of EIB were self-reported exercise-induced symptoms and sensitization to at least 5 allergens. Questioning players about exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and allergies as well as spirometry at the time of the inclusion medical checkup would improve management of respiratory health of soccer players and would constitute inexpensive preliminary screening to select players requiring indirect bronchial provocation test or SPTs. This study showed that despite low frequencies, EIB and allergies are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young soccer players.

  10. The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either

  11. Bullying, hazing, and workplace harassment: the nexus in professional sports as exemplified by the first NFL Wells report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, Ian R

    2016-12-01

    In the sporting context there is a significant nexus between adult workplace harassment and two other critical, developmentally related areas, that of child and adolescent bullying, and college hazing. These are all addressed, albeit obliquely and perhaps inadvertently, in the Miami Dolphins saga and the subsequent NFL Wells Report of 2013-2014. This is a significant document. It is even a brave, if politically expedient milestone. It evaluates the complex inter-personal and inter- and intra-systemic contributions within a sporting organization. Wells also elucidates a case where there is overlapping damage to individuals and systems as a result of malignant bullying, harassment, and hazing within overlapping systems. Constructive approaches to team building, and other positive alternatives to hazing may be the best place to initiate trust and verify institutional change at all these levels.

  12. Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports…

  13. Injury recurrence is lower at the highest professional football level than at national and amateur levels: does sports medicine and sports physiotherapy deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier division teams (82 team-seasons) and 10 Swedish amateur teams (10 team-seasons). Recurrent injury was defined as an injury of the same type and at the same site as an index injury within the preceding year, with injury 2 months as a delayed recurrence. Seasonal trend for recurrent injury incidence, expressed as the average annual percentage of change, was analysed using linear regression. 13 050 injuries were included, 2449 (18.8%) being recurrent injuries, with 1944 early (14.9%) and 505 delayed recurrences (3.9%). Recurrence proportions were highest in the second half of the competitive season for all cohorts. Recurrence proportions differed between playing levels, with 35.1% in the amateur cohort, 25.0% in the Swedish elite cohort and 16.6% in the European cohort (χ(2) overall effect, pplaying level, and recurrent injury incidence has decreased over the past decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Non-surgical treatment of a professional hockey player with the signs and symptoms of sports hernia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J Scott; Parker, Andrew; Macdonald, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    Case Report Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a "sports hernia" and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the "sports hernia." However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention.

  15. Over the counter drugs (and dietary supplement) exercise: a team-based introduction to biochemistry for health professional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and toxicity of five common over the counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements, and place these familiar medicines in a political and historical context. The objectives of this exercise were to stimulate interest in biochemistry; to provide basic information on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors related to these drugs to be expanded upon later in the course; and to encourage active and interactive learning. Teams of five students were formed, and each student was given an information sheet on aspirin, alpha-galactosidase, orlistat, dextromethorphan, or simvastatin, a low dose statin, which was previously available without prescription at pharmacies in the UK. After each member of the team acquired information on one OTC drug/dietary supplement by reading an assigned information sheet, the team was asked to go through a series of questions, and then submit answers to a quiz as a group. A high rate of success on the quiz, an overwhelmingly positive response on formal course evaluations, and enthusiastic exchanges during class suggested this team-based session accomplished its goals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  17. Ineffectiveness of surveillance to control community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a professional football team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Daniel; Sungar, Gannon; Johnston, Tyler; Rolston, Brice; Ferguson, Jeffrey D; Matheson, Gordon O

    2009-11-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is an increasing problem in athletic populations, with outbreaks spreading among team members. Due to this elevated risk, several strategies have been adopted from nonsports settings to avoid and to control CA-MRSA outbreaks within athletic teams, including the use of surveillance nasal cultures to identify CA-MRSA carriers for decolonization. We sought to assess the effectiveness of such a surveillance program in reducing CA-MRSA infections over 1 season in a professional football team. In addition, we measured the prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in players with active CA-MRSA infections and conducted a review of the literature for studies, including CA-MRSA nasal carriage surveys in athletic teams. Prospective cohort. Professional football team, San Francisco 49ers. Players and staff of the 2007 San Francisco 49ers (n = 108). Preseason nasal cultures for CA-MRSA were obtained on players and staff of the San Francisco 49ers. Wound and nasal cultures were performed for all participants with suspected CA-MRSA infections throughout the season. Nasal and wound cultures positive for CA-MRSA. Of 108 total subjects screened on the first day of the 2007 season, 0 cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 5 culture-confirmed CA-MRSA infections occurred during the course of the season. Zero of these 5 players had positive MRSA nasal cultures at the time of infection. Despite the success of surveillance nasal screening in controlling MRSA outbreaks in hospital settings, this strategy is ineffective in athletic populations.

  18. Formation of communicational and informational competence of future professionals of physical education and sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudin A.P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology of formation communication information competency of the future experts of physical training and sports is presented. 240 students of 4 rates of two institutes participated in research. Data of questionnaire of the future experts are used. Importance of use of new information technologies in educational process is exhibited. Milestones of introduction of computer and multimedia means are defined. Necessity of initiating for educational process of discipline «Sports - pedagogical computer science» is justified.

  19. Sport Concussion Assessment Tool: Interpreting day-of-injury scores in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Öhman, Juha; Howell, David R; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-12-12

    To characterize the clinical utility of Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) baseline and normative reference values for the assessment of acute concussion; and to identify the sensitivity of each SCAT3 subcomponent to the acute effects of concussion. Prospective cohort. The day-of-concussion SCAT3 results (n=27) of professional male ice hockey players (mean age=27, SD=4) were compared to athlete's individual baseline and to the league's normative reference values. Normative cutoffs corresponding to 10th percentile and natural distribution change cutoffs corresponding to 90th percentile cumulative frequency were considered uncommon. The percentages of the players with uncommon day-of-injury performance, when post-injury scores were compared to individual baseline versus (vs.) normative values, were as follows: symptoms: 96% vs. 100% (post-injury score: M=12, Md=12, SD=4; severity M=26, Md=23, SD=13); Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): 33% vs. 27% (post-injury M=25, Md=26, SD=3); modified-BESS (M-BESS): 46% vs. 46% (post-injury M=7, Md=5, SD=7); Tandem Gait: 18% vs. 31% (post-injury M=11, Md=12, SD=4); coordination: both 8%. The number and severity of post-injury symptoms were significantly greater, with extremely large effect sizes (Cohen's d=2.44-3.92), than normative values and individual baseline scores. The post-injury SAC score was significantly lower relative to both baseline (d=0.68) and normative values (d=0.88). The post-injury M-BESS performance was significantly worse when compared to both individual baseline (d=1.06) and league normative values (d=1.46). No significant day-of-injury Tandem Gait deficits were observed using either comparison method. SCAT3 league normative values were as sensitive as individual baseline scores during day-of-injury assessments. Symptoms were the most sensitive post-concussion component of the SCAT3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The challenges of playing abroad: How to support sports expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Salzbrenner, Susan

    Professional athletes moving abroad for their career is a novel phenomenon in IHRM. This exploratory paper charts the motives of sports expatriates to move abroad to play, as well as integration support and challenges. A survey was conducted with 108 sports expatriates in nine different sports....... The main motivations to move abroad were the search for new challenges, followed by an interest to experience life abroad. In terms of challenges, different coaching style and team communication were most often mentioned. Support was mainly informal, through team mates rather than professional providers....... Our paper contributes to the literature because it is one of the first studies focusing on sports expatriates from an international HR perspective. Our study provides information on a vulnerable group of expatriates; they are young and live under extreme performance pressure. Sports expatriates need...