For-profit education is increasingly prevalent within international schooling. The language of client, customer and consumer may not yet be embedded in the classroom, but international school leaders, particularly those operating in for-profit contexts, are having to respond not only to the needs of educational stakeholders but also to the…
Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas
The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced
As the American Nuclear Society (ANS) supports scientific and engineering disciplines with a responsibility to communicate with the public they serve, it has been and will continue to be involved in public awareness and public acceptance. Their efforts address two distinct audiences. This was not immediately apparent but time and experience have clarified the two publics concerned. The first of these is the significant audience, an unpolarized, undecided, confused and overwhelmed group which, in the USA, represents 80-90% of the population. This group has been bombarded by technological developments that have evolved at a rate exceeding the educational process and leaving the majority without the tools for understnading. Only the technologists can fill this void. The second public is a very polarized, anti-technology group, that has adopted an anti-nuclear character as one of its costumes. It is a vocal group of limited size, adamantly devoted to its cause. It has attracted the attention of the media and so appears larger than it is. Being strongly polarized, this group cannot be converted but it can be neutralised. It does not seek facts but wants to cultivate a public reaction; here the equally polarized pro-nuclear group must expend its effort. The ANS programmes are responding to these two publics. For the larger public, ANS tries to satisfy their need for information with publications that build on their inherent knowledge and provide information, perspective and assurance in understandable terms and examples. ANS has also organized its members to interface with the public. This interface is very important and the public welcomes it although the professionals have not yet recognized that it is essential. The major single measureable experience of ANS was in California where with Proposition 15 a legal attempt was made to limit nuclear power development. Similar efforts continue elsewhere in the USA but their effects have not been measured. The California
Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.
The "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by…
Feingold, Ronald S.; Estes, Steven G.
This article analyzes various issues related to a professional society's having greater influence on governmental, societal, and global issues. Analysis of association/society missions and goals, support for enhanced connections with other groups and collaboration to other disciplines through scholarly research projects, plus greater relevance and…
Kieffer, S. W.; Palka, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Mogk, D. W.
Codes of Ethics (Conduct) for geoscientists are formulated primarily by professional societies and the codes must be viewed in the context of the Goals (Missions, Values) of the societies. Our survey of the codes of approximately twenty-five societies reveals that most codes enumerate principles centered on practical issues regarding professional conduct of individuals such as plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification, and the obligation of individuals to the profession and society at large. With the exception of statements regarding the ethics of peer review, there is relatively little regarding the ethical obligations of the societies themselves. In essence, the codes call for traditionally honorable behavior of individual members. It is striking, given that the geosciences are largely relevant to the future of Earth, most current codes of societies fail to address our immediate obligations to the environment and Earth itself. We challenge professional organizations to consider the ethical obligations to Earth in both their statements of goals and in their codes of ethics. Actions by societies could enhance the efforts of individual geoscientists to serve society, especially in matters related to hazards, resources and planetary stewardship. Actions we suggest to be considered include: (1) Issue timely position statements on topics in which there is expertise and consensus (some professional societies such as AGU, GSA, AAAS, and the AMS, do this regularly, yet others not at all.); (2) Build databases of case studies regarding geoethics that can be used in university classes; (3) Hold interdisciplinary panel discussions with ethicists, scientists, and policy makers at annual meetings; (4) Foster publication in society journals of contributions relating to ethical questions; and (5) Aggressively pursue the incorporation of geoethical issues in undergraduate and graduate curricula and in continuing professional development.
Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence
For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential
Future professionals will bear the brunt of creating sustainable societies. Equipping them for the task is the challenge of current educators. Educational experiences facilitating the development of sustainable habits of mind are needed. This research reports on the experiences of developing scientists and engineers engaged in a sustainable energy…
Otenko Vasyl I.
Full Text Available Unanticipated crises in various spheres of society are becoming a main object of attention of the mankind and civilization forming a new model of civilization – the risk society. Although this model is reflected in many works by scientists from different areas, methodological and practical justification of mechanisms for complex study of risks both at the society and enterprise level still remain relevant. The main resource for solving the problem of adaptation to life in the risk society is a person, who has both a high level of creativity and social responsibility. The unpredictability of enterprise risks can be overcome by developing professional mobility of its staff. This quality of a person is formed under the influence of a large number of external and internal factors. Among them the most difficult are the creative motivation of a person’s behavior and his/her internal mental set. In order to develop a methodological basis for formation of the staff professional mobility, it is necessary to formulate the main idea and hypothesis of a new theory, justify a list of disciplines studying certain aspects of the risk society and professional mobility, analyze paradigms of related sciences and choose ideas to form foundations of a new paradigm for creating a multidisciplinary system of concepts, principles and methods of research information support, rules of qualitative and quantitative assessment of its subject.
Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R
As health care has become of great importance to both individual citizens and to society, it has become more important to understand medicine's relationship to the society it serves in order to have a basis for meaningful dialogue. During the past decade, individuals in the medical, legal, social sciences, and health policy fields have suggested that professionalism serves as the basis of medicine's relationship with society, and many have termed this relationship a social contract. However, the concept of medicine's social contract remains vague, and the implications of its existence have not been fully explored. This paper endorses the use of the term social contract, examines the origin of the concept and its relationship to professionalism, traces its evolution and application to medicine, describes the expectations of the various parties to the contract, and explores some of the implications of its use.
Morton, Melinda J; Sonnad, Seema S
Membership on a professional medical society or journal editorial board is a marker of influence and prestige for those in academic medicine. This study presents the first comprehensive quantification of women on these boards and the implications for women in medicine. The numbers of women and men on professional society and journal editorial boards across 28 specialties (March 2004) were counted. The number of women holding multiple roles on these boards and the number of women holding top leadership positions on these boards were counted, and these proportions were compared. Three-thousand-four-hundred-seventy-three individuals on 39 professional medical society boards and 54 journal editorial boards were included. Eighty-three percent (2,884) of board members were male. Men occupied > 80% of top leadership positions on these boards. Thirty-five of the 589 women in the study held multiple roles. Anesthesiology (p women on boards in comparison to the total women in the specialty. Internal medicine, plastic surgery, cardiology and general surgery had nearly equivalent proportions; in otolaryngology and family medicine, female board members slightly exceeded the proportion of women in the field. Women's representation on society and editorial boards does not always reflect their presence in medical specialties, and it is critically lacking in certain specialties. Efforts should be made to attain parity of women leaders on these boards. Further efforts should be made to eliminate barriers to women's leadership in medicine.
Nina V. Komleva
Full Text Available Now, there are processes of formation of a knowledge society – the Smart-society – are all the new features, which are characterized by obtaining a new effect from the use of information and communication technologies. The development of computers and communications creates the preconditions for moving the place of work out of the office space in the digital home. In these circumstances, more and more importance is given to the individual skills of the person, its ability to absorb a huge amount of diverse information, generate and innovate. Therefore, empowerment process for every professional who wants to be popular, it becomes continuous, becomes a constant need to learn and lifelong learning. In addition, requirements for the employees are changing, and the person must evaluate its relevance to society. This raises the question: how to evaluate the relevance? What is necessary for the Smart-society?What to learn or re-learn? Focus shifts from classical training to personal development. Traditional methods and approaches to learning have stopped covering the needs of the knowledge. Instead of selecting a limited number of the templates, each person is faced with the necessity to configure your own unique personality, to increasingly use informal learning, providing the individual development.The professional competence of the person in the Smart-society is formed in an interactive learning environment, using content from around the world, which is in the public domain. The assessment level of competence, identifying the need for professional development, early learning with the use of technology, provided by the Smart-education, are essential components of the formation process of professional competence of the person in the Smart-society. It is important to provide the compliance of the business metrics of employees to the content of the assessment test at the stage of internal validation for the purpose of timely identification of those
Robock, A.; Byrne, J.
The obfuscation of authentic science information in North America has reached epidemic proportions. The global warming debate is a classic example - there are a virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, partly as a result of disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters. Should the role of scientists in informing the public change in response to this? What should be the role of scientific societies, such as the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, or the American Association for the Advancement of Science? Should we continue doing what we are doing, or be more proactive in using new technology to educate the public on important scientific issues? Should we devote resources to television advertisements? Should we support ads in the print media? This talk will discuss the pros and cons of individual and group actions in making the case in public for science, and suggest some new directions.
Doherty, Iain; Steel, Caroline; Parrish, Dominique
Professional societies, established to support academic and professional staff in higher education, need to be vigilant of regional and international trends that affect their core business. In this paper, we provide an analysis of political, economic, social and technological factors that are impacting upon the Australasian higher education…
Margaret C. Hardy
Full Text Available Academic, medical, and research communities are struggling to quickly and effectively address unethical conduct within their professional ranks. Without a policy in place, individuals and institutes are subject to convoluted procedures and unnecessary consequences. In addition to policies geared to prevent harassment and assault, it is important to protect the ethical basis for research and provide a set of guidelines for how professionals treat each other, students, and trainees. Since drafting a policy of this nature is complex, 10 guidelines are provided as a framework for how to draft, implement, and establish an ethical code of conduct. Further implications for nonprofit societies and professional societies in particular are discussed.
Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan
About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.
Gollust, Sarah E; Dwyer, Anne M
Cancer experts engage in public communication whenever they promote their research or practice, respond to media inquiries, or use social media. In a changing communication landscape characterized by new technologies and heightened attention to cancer controversies, these activities may pose ethical challenges. This study was designed to evaluate existing resources to help clinicians navigate their public communication activities. We conducted a systematic, qualitative content analysis of codes of ethics, policy statements, and similar documents disseminated by professional medical and nursing societies for their members. We examined these documents for four types of content related to public communication: communication via traditional media; communication via social media; other communication to the public, policy, and legal spheres; and nonspecific language regarding public communication. We identified 46 documents from 23 professional societies for analysis. Five societies had language about traditional news media communication, five had guidance about social media, 11 had guidance about other communication domains, and 15 societies offered general language about public communication. The limited existing guidance focused on ethical issues related to patients (such as privacy violations) or clinicians (such as accuracy and professional boundaries), with less attention to population or policy impact of communication. Cancer-related professional societies might consider establishing more specific guidance for clinicians concerning their communication activities in light of changes to the communication landscape. Additional research is warranted to understand the extent to which clinicians face ethical challenges in public communication.
Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian
This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.
Salpykova, Indira M.; Politaeva, Tatyana I.
The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact, that in modern social circumstances the special attention is given to the formation of a modern highly qualified music teacher, who should be prepared to implement his professional activity in a multicultural society, be able to treat the representatives of various social groups, their…
Makopoulou, Kyriaki; Armour, Kathleen
Background: In the contemporary "knowledge-driven" European society, the quality and relevance of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers and Physical Education teachers (PE-CPD) has come under scrutiny. National contexts within Europe vary considerably, however, so there is a need to gain analytical insights into PE-CPD…
Eudaldo, T.; Millan, E.; Paredes, M.C.; Vano, E.; Peinado, F.; Nunez de Villavicencio, C.; Mateos, J.C.; Pena, J.J.
The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to revise some European Communities' recommendations regarding qualification, education and training of professionals involved in ionisation radiation practices, to respond to the Directive 97/43 EURATOM. And then, as Medical Physicists are directly concerned with these practices, to describe how the Spanish Society of Medical Physics deals with the challenge of improving the competence of Medical Physicists in order to assure the best patient protection against ionisation radiation. Therefore, to achieve the first aim, the point of view of the European Federation of Organisations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) concerning the introduction of the 'Medical Physics Expert' and their guidelines for Continuous Professional Development are reviewed, as well as the point of view of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO) in professional education matters. Referring to the second aim, after succeeding in the recognition of the Medical Physics Speciality in Spain in 1997, the SEFM is now promoting the Continuous Education and Training of their specialists through its Education Committee (Comision de Docencia de la SEFM), so that they can cope with all new professional challenges. Moreover, a number of SEFM members are also involved in education matters to others professionals: Medicine students, nurses, Radiation Technologists, etc. In conclusion, the SEFM has always been aware of the importance of specialisation and continuous education of all professionals involved in radiation ionisation practices, as a way to contribute to guarantee the best radiation protection to the patients. (author)
Radiation protection covers many disciplines from science through philosophy to law, and interacts with many human activities and endeavors. Professional societies for radiation protection were established and evolved throughout the second half of the twentieth century in many countries, and presently represent more than twenty thousand professionals working in more than fifty countries. During the same period a number of international organizations were established, some devoted to radiation safety, others with a role to play in radiation safety; such organizations being either independent non-governmental organizations or intergovernmental organizations of both regional and international dimensions. The national, regional and international radiation protection societies and associations have become the vehicle to provide this conduit from the profession to the international organizations. This is achieved by IRPA having representation within the relevant committees of the various international bodies, such as the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC) of the IAEA. At a national level radiation protection professionals can gain access to all international developments in radiation protection through the national societies and their interactions with IRPA and also as individual members of IRPA. The possibility to provide consolidated comment and feedback to the international organizations through national societies provides excellent opportunities for societies to organize national workshops and discussion platforms on all important areas of radiation protection.
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)
textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if
Waters, John K.
The for-profit sector of higher education has generated some disturbing headlines recently. Widely publicized charges of predatory recruiting practices have prompted new regulations and provided fuel for scorching criticism of the entire business model. But while the spotlight is focused on what for-profits are doing wrong, are people overlooking…
Full Text Available This article is based on the content and outcome of the 5th Annual International Conference on Social Work & Social Work Education in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands on February 5, 2016. It shows how Social Work is embedded in society, and describes the pressure of contemporary (international problems on society, and the way in which authorities respond to it. The article continues with a discussion of the answers given by the 200 conference participants on the question how social workers and social work educators could cope with this pressure without denying their international professional principles and standards.
Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J
Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ana Maria Liberal
Full Text Available A number of private societies and clubs flourished in Oporto in the 19th Century, whose aim was to encourage in their members "benevolence relationships and good society" offering them "an honest and civilized leisure times". Clearly elitist, these nineteenth century recreational clubs had strict membership admission policies, which generally belonged to the higher echelons of society, more specifically the bourgeois, since the titled aristocracy was scarce in Oporto. It is worth mentioning here in parenthesis that Oporto was an essentially bourgeois, commercial city, unlike the capital, Lisbon, where the court "drags with it the whole official and unofficial world which conceitedly flutters around it". Each association organised musical concerts, balls and soirées musicales – weekly, twice a week or once a month – which also offered members other amusements, like conversation, reading, playing cards or dancing. Events of a musical character were normally performed by the club members, usually amateurs – referred to as dilettanti – who would be joined by prestigious Portuguese or foreign professionals. The purpose of this article is to describe the musical activity of the five main venues for private socialising in Oporto in the 1800s, and their contribution to the development of the musical taste of the city's society, taking into account both amateur and professional practice and particularly the repertoire performed.
Daniel Gómez Asensio
Full Text Available The Musical Societies are the cultural agent that produces most musical events in Valencia, gathering around them the vast majorities of local amateur musicians, who are the main support that conforms them and at the same time leads its management. Its rise and proliferation has led to the growth and complexity of their structures, making it increasingly difficult operation with management based on volunteerism. In this study we analyzed each of the areas of Music Societies from the perspective of its managers in charge, aware of its management, and its musicians, who are aware of the real effects of it. Thus checking to what extent each structural framework needs an increasingly dedicated and expert figure, we also show to the Musical Societies some operating possibilities at their fingertips and finally we enable a self-analysis that objectively will assess the advantages of professionalism in management.
Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.
N. G. Osipova
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems associated with the construction of the ideal type of the modern physician, as well as the identification of the key aspects of professional deformations of his personality and the analysis of the effects of these strains on the principles of conduct in relation to a patient. The introduction of market relations in health care system caused the competition between medical institutions, forcing them to look for additional ways to attract patients and as a result, the range of medical services to the population has significantly expended. A positive consequence has become a trend, expressed in an effort to improve the skills of doctors, the quality of work with patients. On the other hand, liberal globalization has led to the devaluation of the structure of the individual doctor and the public interest has strengthened the role and importance of individualistic interests. The result was the alienation of the doctors from the patients took on a mass character, which led to a degradation of the professional medical community and health care system in general. The authors are regarded as normative characteristics of medical practice, and indicators related to the subjectivity of doctor’s behavior, which reflects the perceived boundaries of the doctor’s professional and personal effects to the patient; attitude toward himself as a person and a professional; professional attitude of the society to the doctors and to the prevailing social and historical traditions of healing. The main characteristics that allow to construct an ideal type of physician are: high professionalism and its use for the benefit of man and society; rules of communicating with people who are sick; ethics in relationships in a professional environment; moral principles and ethics of the individual and the social order: the observance of a number of limitations and restrictions. However, under the pressure of contemporary
Sawaya, George F; Smith-McCune, Karen K; Gregorich, Steven E; Moghadassi, Michelle; Kuppermann, Miriam
The American College of Physicians strongly recommends against performing pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant women, citing evidence of harm (false-positive testing, unnecessary surgery) and no evidence of benefit. In contrast, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women beginning at age 21 years, citing expert opinion. We sought to evaluate if providing women with professional societies' conflicting statements about pelvic examinations (recommendations and rationales) would influence their desire for a routine examination. We recruited 452 women ages 21-65 years from 2 women's clinics to participate in a 50-minute face-to-face interview about cervical cancer screening that included a 2-phase study related to pelvic examinations. In the first phase, 262 women were asked about their desire for the examination without being provided information about professional societies' recommendations. In the second phase, 190 women were randomized to review summaries of the American College of Physicians or American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists statement followed by an interview. First-phase participants served as the referent: 79% (208/262) indicated they would want a routine examination if given a choice. In the second phase, a similar percentage of women randomized to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists summary had this desire (82%: 80/97; adjusted odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.70). Women randomized to the American College of Physicians summary, however, were less likely to indicate they would opt for an examination (39%: 36/93; adjusted odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.21). Overall, 94% (179/190) believed the potential benefits and harms should be discussed prior to the examination. Providing women with a professional society's recommendation advising against routine pelvic examinations substantially reduced their desire to
The Anatomische Gesellschaft (anatomical society, AG) was founded in Germany in 1886 as an international society and remains the main organizing body of German anatomists to this day. A previous study of the history of the AG during National Socialism (NS) was based on the published proceedings of the AG and drew the preliminary conclusion that the "AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience toward the new rulers" in contrast to some other professional societies. However, it was noted that archival sources were needed to support this conclusion and to illustrate the decision process within the society. Such sources are now available in the estate papers of Alfred Benninghoff, a leading anatomist at the time. His correspondence supports the previous finding that the AG was able to maintain its international character, thereby enabling it to avoid the active exclusion of "non-Aryan" members. The papers also confirm that the AG did not defend its vulnerable members as valiantly as the official narrative suggests, a fact illustrated in a controversy surrounding Martin Heidenhain. The interactions and conflicts between the leaders of the AG can now be reconstructed, i.e. between the secretary of the AG Heinrich von Eggeling, Benninghoff and Hermann Stieve. The Benninghoff documents also refer to a meeting of a subsection of the AG in November 1942, at which a disturbing radicalization of some anatomists developed. Finally, the papers reflect the political realities for German professionals trying to re-establish their science in a country divided into four occupation zones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
The future of continuing medical education: the roles of medical professional societies and the health care industry: Position paper prepared with contributions from the European Society of Cardiology Committees for Advocacy, Education and Industry Relations, Endorsed by the Board of the European Society of Cardiology.
In recent years, wide ranging biomedical innovation has provided powerful new approaches for prevention, diagnosis and management of diseases. In order to translate such innovation into effective practice, physicians must frequently update their knowledge base and skills through continuing medical education and training. Medical Professional Societies, run as not-for-profit organizations led by peers, are uniquely placed to deliver balanced, disease oriented and patient centred education. The medical industry has a major role in the development of new, improved technology, devices and medication. In fact, the best innovations have been achieved through collaboration with scientists, clinical academics and practicing physicians. Industry has for many years been committed to ensure the optimal and safe application of its products by providing unrestricted support of medical education developed and delivered by international and national learned societies. Recently adopted Codes of Practice for the Pharmaceutical and Device industry were intended to enhance public trust in the relationship between biomedical industry and physicians. Unexpectedly, changes resulting from adoption of the Codes have limited the opportunity for unconditional industry support of balanced medical education in favour of a more direct involvement of industry in informing physicians about their products. We describe the need for continuing medical education in Cardiovascular Medicine in Europe, interaction between the medical profession and medical industry, and propose measures to safeguard the provision of high quality, balanced medical education.
Day, Donald D; Hand, Mikel W; Jones, Ann R; Harrington, Nancy Kay; Best, Robyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B
Combining the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, an Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) leadership think tank, and current evidence, the ONS Leadership Competencies were developed to provide all nurses with a pathway to advance their leadership skills and abilities. Generated through a systematic approach of literature review, data synthesis, and peer and expert review, the ONS Leadership Competencies are divided into five domains: vision, knowledge, interpersonal effectiveness, systems thinking, and personal mastery. Each of the competencies can be measured at the individual, group, and governance levels. They serve as a means of self-assessment, growth, future planning, and professional development. This article describes the process used to develop the ONS Leadership Competencies and offers examples of how they may be used in practice.
Benjamin, Hannah K; Royer, Danielle F
Social media, with its capabilities of fast, global information sharing, provides a useful medium for professional development, connecting and collaborating with peers, and outreach. The goals of this study were to describe a new, sustainable model for Twitter use by professional societies, and analyze its impact on @AACAnatomy, the Twitter account of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists. Under supervision of an Association committee member, an anatomy graduate student developed a protocol for publishing daily tweets for @AACAnatomy. Five tweet categories were used: Research, Announcements, Replies, Engagement, and Community. Analytics from the 6-month pilot phase were used to assess the impact of the new model. @AACAnatomy had a steady average growth of 33 new followers per month, with less than 10% likely representing Association members. Research tweets, based on Clinical Anatomy articles with an abstract link, were the most shared, averaging 5,451 impressions, 31 link clicks, and nine #ClinAnat hashtag clicks per month. However, tweets from non-Research categories accounted for the highest impression and engagement metrics in four out of six months. For all tweet categories, monthly averages show consistent interaction of followers with the account. Daily tweet publication resulted in a 103% follower increase. An active Twitter account successfully facilitated regular engagement with @AACAnatomy followers and the promotion of clinical anatomy topics within a broad community. This Twitter model has the potential for implementation by other societies as a sustainable medium for outreach, networking, collaboration, and member engagement. Clin. Anat. 31:566-575, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Holmes, Mary Anne; McKenzie, Judith
Women are under-represented for science awards and fellow status in professional science societies (accounting for career stage) and are over-represented for teaching and service awards (Ball et al., 2015; Lincoln et al., 2012; Holmes et al., 2011). In addition, for the American Geophysical Union, non-U.S. members are under-represented among all awardees. Gender bias in evaluation processes are well-documented (e.g., Valian, 1999), and cultural differences are at play in the under-representation of non U.S. members. U.S. members are more likely to nominate their peers for awards, and to write effusive letters to support the nomination (Ball et al., 2015). There are effective mechanisms to reduce bias in both nomination and evaluation processes, a few of which are: 1) separate the nomination and evaluation processes by creating nomination committees of a diverse group of people who actively seek potential nominees and promote their nominations; this expands the pool of nominees; 2) educate nomination and evaluation committees on the research that demonstrates the impact of implicit bias on nomination and selection processes (e.g., http://www.enei.org.uk/pages/unconscious-bias.html; http://wiseli.engr.wisc.edu/bias.php); 3) minimize use of simple bibliometric indices, which are known to exhibit gender bias (men self-cite more than women; Maliniak et al., 2013) and nationality bias (papers in English language journals are more likely to be cited than non-English journals (Bornmann et al., 2012; González-Alcaide et al., 2012); 4) members of the selection committee should understand the effects of gender on the quality of letters written for women (Trix and Psenka, 2003); 5) establish and follow clear criteria for the award. Professional societies can promote fairness and inclusion by self-study: find and compile the data on the gender, race, ethnicity and nationality of members who are nominated for and win awards, as well as on who is doing the nominating. Compare
Evaluates professionalism in contemporary context and suggests ways to enhance educational institutions' learning capability. The new professionalism stresses use of democratic collaboration to confront bureaucratic constraints and disciplinary power in an uncertain age. New professionals must self-consciously create and recreate collaborative…
Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel
As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…
Margaret C. Hardy
Academic, medical, and research communities are struggling to quickly and effectively address unethical conduct within their professional ranks. Without a policy in place, individuals and institutes are subject to convoluted procedures and unnecessary consequences. In addition to policies geared to prevent harassment and assault, it is important to protect the ethical basis for research and provide a set of guidelines for how professionals treat each other, students, and trainees. Since draft...
Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.
Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N
Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients.
Battistella, B.; Howsley, R.; Johnson, D.
The challenges inherent in managing nuclear and radiological materials are complex and growing; ensuring that such materials remain secure requires competent management supported by ongoing training. The nuclear industry is increasingly becoming aware of the need for nuclear security: numerous dedicated training centres have been established worldwide and the IAEA holds approximately 60 international nuclear security training events annually. International training programmes have been conducted in various fields over decades but assessing their value and having the assurance that these training have had a sustainable impact remain difficult. In the field of nuclear security training, no assessment is being made of the degree to which the investment made is making a difference in building sustainable capacity and capability. This paper aims to discuss a methodology to assess the return on investment of nuclear security training. WINS has established a new professional society called the WINS Academy Alumni, for those individuals who have achieved certification through the WINS Academy. This platform proposes a structure, based on established competency frameworks, through which to measure the return on investment and performance improvement of nuclear security training. The objectives of the WINS Academy society are to stay engaged with certified Alumni, track their continued professional development progress, provide them with additional opportunities, and encourage their continued security competence through recertification. We envision that these certified practitioners will in turn promote certification and continual professional development among their peers to help build a network of security-trained professionals that will lead to meaningful and sustainable changes to security culture worldwide. In the long run (5–10 years), we envision that this group will be at the forefront of new professional requirements for nuclear security competence, with
Carmen SANDU (TODERAȘCU
Full Text Available The option for a knowledge-based society requires investment in the development of human resources so as to encourage employees to acquire new skills and accept occupational mobility. At the same time, it is important to promote work quality during recruitment and develop learning strategies and continuing professional development ones for the benefit of the many. The work shows the most important results of the analysis conducted on the topic of continuing professional development – as a sine qua non condition for the development of organizations. By using a complex methodology that included various research instruments and by investigating multiple categories of actors, we aimed at a theoretical analysis of the policy framework, the means to implement them and the impact categories of continuing professional development in the context of a knowledge - based society. Our approach particularly focuses on the formation experience of employees (public and private institutions and will be further completed by the perspective of other types of beneficiaries. At the moment, the problem of human resources competitiveness is a main area of intervention on the short term against the background of Romania’s efforts to counteract the effects of the world crisis.
Simcoe, Donna; Juneja, Renu; Scott, Gayle Nicholas; Sridharan, Kanaka; Williams-Hughes, Celeste
During the 9th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP, April 29-May 1, 2013 in Baltimore, MD), ∼650 participants attended two of 13 available roundtable sessions. Participants included medical publication professionals from industry, communication agencies, and journals. DISCUSSION TOPICS: Roundtable participants discussed how to best interpret and implement various guidances, such as Good Publication Practices 2 (GPP2), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines, and the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. The impact of and compliance with Corporate Integrity agreements (CIAs) on medical publication planning practices was debated. Roundtable participants also discussed ways of advancing both advocacy for the medical publication professional field and internal and external collaborations. The development of review manuscripts, publications from regions newly emerging in publication planning, medical devices publications, and real-world experience publications were discussed. Participants also considered the benefits and uncertainties of new technologies in medical publications such as multimedia and social media. This is the first ever article to be published following the well-attended ISMPP roundtable sessions. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize key learnings that will aid continued discussions about challenges and opportunities facing medical publication professionals.
McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy
The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.
Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E
There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P < .001), CABG (2.6% NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P < .001), and childbirth (3.1% NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the mean percentage of AMI patients classified as uninsured was similar in NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P < .001 for NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP
A high level of quality is an unequivocal prerequisite for obtaining the highest possible accuracy in symptomatic patients and for reproducing the results concerning mortality reduction, which were obtained in large screening trials. Present deficiencies in Germany are due to legal regulations, which have not been updated and which are thus below European standard. Furthermore, the quality assurance program has not proven sufficiently effective for mammography. In order to promote mammographic quality assurance, the German Roentgen Society proposes an accreditation program. The accreditation, which concerns (A.) mammographic technique and positioning and (B.) mammographic reporting is not obligatory, but will allow acquisition of special official certificates, which may support the patients to find doctors who perform and read mammograms with high quality and expertise. The accreditation shall be performed by personel and/or institutions who are specifically trained surveyed. (orig.) [de
Entwistle, Tom; Matthews, Elaine
Sociologists repeatedly appeal to notions of altruism, bureaucratisation and self interest in their efforts to explain the changing place of the professions in contemporary society. We treat these three readings as institutional logics that are key to understanding the way in which doctors respond to the appraisal system at the heart of the UK's approach to revalidation. Our analysis of a survey of 998 general practitioners (GPs) working in Wales finds an altruistic commitment to learning and improvement, bureaucratic demands for reporting information and self-regarding resentment of changes in the occupational package provided by general practice. But the data also demonstrate that the maintenance of the appraisal regime is dependent on the preparedness and capacity of individual GPs to do micro-level institutional work on all fronts. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Gregory, Paul J; Robbins, Benjamin; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Harmon, Larry
The current research evaluated the potential utility of a 360-degree survey feedback program for measuring leadership quality in potential committee leaders of a professional medical association (PMA). Emotional intelligence as measured by the extent to which self-other agreement existed in the 360-degree survey ratings was explored as a key predictor of leadership quality in the potential leaders. A non-experimental correlational survey design was implemented to assess the variation in leadership quality scores across the sample of potential leaders. A total of 63 of 86 (76%) of those invited to participate did so. All potential leaders received feedback from PMA Leadership, PMA Colleagues, and PMA Staff and were asked to complete self-ratings regarding their behavior. Analyses of variance revealed a consistent pattern of results as Under-Estimators and Accurate Estimators-Favorable were rated significantly higher than Over-Estimators in several leadership behaviors. Emotional intelligence as conceptualized in this study was positively related to overall performance ratings of potential leaders. The ever-increasing roles and potential responsibilities for PMAs suggest that these organizations should consider multisource performance reviews as these potential future PMA executives rise through their organizations to assume leadership positions with profound potential impact on healthcare. The current findings support the notion that potential leaders who demonstrated a humble pattern or an accurate pattern of self-rating scored significantly higher in their leadership, teamwork, and interpersonal/communication skills than those with an aggrandizing self-rating.
今井, 美樹; Miki, IMAI; 昭和女子大学初等教育学科
This study examines the magazine Hocho-Ambai(Wielding Your Kitchen Knives, all 37 issues published from 1886 to 1891)to explore the activities of societies of culinary education for food and cooking in the mid-Meiji era. The author, from the viewpoint of gender, reviewed, selected and analyzed articles describing the activities of the Society of Art of Cooking Research and the Society of Food Research organized by professional cooks and cookery lovers in the period. The following results were...
Swati Mukerjee; Ann Dryden Witte; Sheila Hollowell
This paper estimates cost functions for day care centers in Massachusetts. The production technology assumed is the generalized homothetic Cobb-Douglas production function. The cost function dual to this production function is estimated separately for profit-making (P1Os) and not-for-profit (NPOs) organizations. The results are discussed in the context of current NPO literature. NPOs are found to be operating at higher average coats than PMOs for most output levels as predicted by the literat...
Carlos Rodriguez Monroy
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this document is to review the funding options for Microfinance Institutions (MFIs, define the size of the holdings of international investors in MFI equity and in particular the MFIs listed in stock exchanges, analyze the characteristics of these subset of the financial world and study the stock exchange evolution of some listed MFIs amid the financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach: Since academic literature on listed MFI equity is virtually inexistent, most of the information has been obtained from the World Bank, annual accounts of the listed MFIs, stock exchanges and from equity research documents. Findings and Originality/value: Microfinance Institutions share several common characteristics that make them a resilient business and the few MFIs that are listed in stock exchanges seem to have performed better in the financial crisis. Microfinance can be considered as one of the new frontiers of the expansion of the global banking industry. Practical implications: Presently, international for-profit investors have very few ways of investing in microfinance equity. Most of the equity of the MFI equity is funded locally or thanks to the local public sector. The stock exchange listing of the MFIs should drive MFIs towards a more professional management, more transparency and better governance. Social implications: Microfinance Institutions provide credit to microenterprises in poor countries that have no other alternative sources of external capital to expand its activity. If global investors could easily invest in the listed equity of the MFIs these institutions would expand its lending books and would improve its governance, part of the population living in poor areas or with lower income could ameliorate its standard of living. Originality/value: The number of Microfinance Institutions that are professionally run like commercial banks is still scarce and even more scarce are the MFI listed in public stock exchanges
Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Sunshine, Jonathan H.; Schepps, Barbara
Purpose: To aid in understanding the employment market for radiation oncologists, we present annual data for 1991 to 2000 from the American College of Radiology's placement service, the Professional Bureau. This data series is twice as long as any previously available. Secondarily, we compare these data with other data on the employment market. Methods and Materials: The trends in job listings, job seekers, and listings per seeker in the Bureau are tabulated and graphed. We calculate correlations and graph relationships between the last of these and measures of the job market calculated from annual surveys. Results: Bureau data show listings per job seeker declined from 0.53 in 1991 to a nadir of 0.30 in 1995 and then recovered to 1.48 in 2000. Bureau listings and job seekers, each considered separately, show a similar pattern of job market decline and then eventual recovery to better than the 1991 situation. Bureau listings per job seeker correlate 0.895 with a survey-derived index of program directors' perceptions of the job market, but statistical significance is limited (p=0.04), because very few years of survey data are available. Conclusions: The employment market for radiation oncologists weakened in the first half of the 1990s, as had been widely reported; we present the first systematic data showing this. Data from a professional society placement service provide useful and inexpensive information on the employment market
Banerjee, S; Califano, R; Corral, J; de Azambuja, E; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Martinelli, E; Mountzios, G; Ozturk, M A; Petrova, M; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Qvortrup, C; Volkov, M N M; Tabernero, J; Olmos, D; Strijbos, M H
Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with burnout. Total of 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European countries. Countries were divided into six regions. Results from 595 (81%) YOs were included (81% medical oncologists; 52% trainees, 62% women). Seventy-one percent of YOs showed evidence of burnout (burnout subdomains: depersonalization 50%; emotional exhaustion 45; low accomplishment 35%). Twenty-two percent requested support for burnout during training and 74% reported no hospital access to support services. Burnout rates were significantly different across Europe (P women (60% versus 45% P = 0.0001) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group (P balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors (P balance, access to support services and adequate vacation time may reduce burnout levels. Raising awareness, support and interventional research are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Morey, Ann I.
Globalization and the revolution in technological communications are major forces of change in higher education. This environment, when coupled with the needs of adult learners and the rising costs of tuition at traditional colleges and universities, has stimulated the emergence of for-profit, degree-granting higher education in the United States.…
For-profit colleges are some of the biggest critics of the federal graduation rate, arguing that it gives an inaccurate image of their institutions. They point out that the official calculation doesn't take into account the vast majority of the students who attend their institutions, most of whom are neither "first-time" nor "full-time." So major…
"Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…
Davies, Elin H; Fulton, Emma; Brook, Daniel; Hughes, Dyfrig A
The success of the Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products in the European Union is evidenced by the 127 orphan drugs that have had market authorization since 2000. However, the incentives aimed at stimulating research and development have had the unintended consequence of increasing drug cost, resulting in many orphan drugs not being cost-effective. Orphan drugs command an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market and account for a disproportionate amount of healthcare expenditure. Orphan drug ownership by socially motivated, not-for-profit organizations may facilitate access to more affordable orphan drugs, for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems alike. This study aims to describe opportunities for such organizations to become orphan drug Market Authorization Holders. We reviewed data on the ownership of EMA designated and approved orphan drugs, identified funding opportunities and business models for not-for-profit organizations, and summarised relevant legal and policy documents concerning intellectual property rights and drug regulation. Using repurposed drugs as a paradigm, this narrative review navigates the regulatory hurdles, describes the legal context and identifies funding opportunities, in a bid to facilitate and encourage not-for-profit organizations to lead on the development of affordable orphan drugs. Although the regulatory steps required to obtain an MA for an orphan drug are numerous and challenging, they are not insurmountable and can be achieved by not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce the costs of orphan drugs to the payers of healthcare. Opportunities for orphan drug development resulting in affordable products lie mainly with repurposed drugs. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.
Schmutz, Joel A.
Over 2,000 people are employed in wildlife biology in the United States federal government. The size of this constituency motivated me to examine the amount of formal education federal biologists have received and the extent of continuing education they undertake by reading journals or attending scientific meetings. Most federal biologists who are members of The Wildlife Society (TWS) have a graduate degree. However, one-third have only a Bachelor of Science degree, despite the current trend toward hiring people with graduate degrees. Most federal biologists are not research biologists. Numbers of journals subscribed to was positively related to educational level. Less than one-third of all wildlife biologists employed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service are members of TWS or subscribe to any of its journals. In contrast, the majority of presenters at the TWS 2000 Annual Conference were research biologists and members of TWS. The failure of many federal wildlife biologists to read scientific literature or attend professional meetings indicates a failure to promote the importance of continuing education in the federal workplace. I identify 2 potential adverse impacts of this failing: an inability to recognize important and relevant scientific contributions and an ineffectiveness in carrying out adaptive management.
Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen
The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…
Recent controversies in the hospital sector have questioned whether the levels of charity care, community benefit, and executive compensation provided by not-for-profit hospitals are consistent with mandates of their tax-exempt status and mission statements. This article demonstrates that these recent controversies stem from a combination of historical influences, regulatory inequities, and competitive disadvantages, which are suffocating many not-for-profit hospitals across the nation. Once the current environment is described, the article discusses each threat and offers actionable recommendations to quell current attacks faced by the industry. First, to address the current probe by the Internal Revenue Service, hospitals must begin to link their executive compensation with their organizational mission. Second, to address recent lawsuits, the article presents a standardized definition of community benefit and recommends an alternative model to classify charity care. Finally, to address recent congressional hearings, the article offers a plan for hospitals to gauge their expected benefit to the community they serve.
This paper provides a report on a pilot study that was conducted to inform a DBA research project. It will investigate employee perceptions of their career development in the not-for-profit (NFP) sector. Theoretical and empirically based literature searches were conducted on career development for this study. Some researchers argue that the old career model (which involves an employee working for an organisation and committed to the organisation and in turn, the organisation offers the employ...
Many not-for-profits do not view their organization as a brand. After all, the reason for being lies in the purpose. Branding is something corporate businesses do to justify their existence. But what is an organization's purpose? And what if everyone in the organization does not agree on that purpose over time or across departments? How can an organization formalize a strategy if it isn't sure what the mission is?
Valdovinos, Erica; Le, Sidney; Hsia, Renee Y
In exchange for sizable tax exemptions, not-for-profit hospitals must engage in activities that meet the Internal Revenue Service's community benefit standard. The provision of charity care-free care to those unable to pay-can help meet that standard. Bad debt, the other form of uncompensated care, cannot be used to meet the standard, although Medicaid shortfalls can. However, the ACA lacks guidelines for providing charity care, and federal law sets no minimum requirements for community benefit activities. Using data from California, we examined whether the levels of charity and uncompensated care provided differed across general acute care hospitals by profit status and other characteristics during 2011-13. The mean proportion of total operating expenses spent on charity care differed significantly between not-for-profit (1.9 percent) and for-profit hospitals (1.4 percent), in contrast to the mean proportion spent on uncompensated care. Both types of spending varied widely across hospitals. Policy makers should consider measures that remove disincentives to meeting the persistent considerable need for charity care-for example, increasing supports to offset rising Medicaid shortfalls resulting from program expansion-and facilitate the tracking of ACA impacts on the distribution of charity care and uncompensated care delivery. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles
The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Heuer, Christian; Travers, Mary Ann K
Accounting standards for valuing goodwill and intangible assets are becoming more rigorous for not-for-profit organizations: Not-for-profit healthcare organizations need to test for goodwill impairment at least annually. Impairment testing is a two-stage process: initial analysis to determine whether impairment exists and subsequent calculation of the magnitude of impairment. Certain "triggering" events compel all organizations--whether for-profit or not-for-profit--to perform an impairment test for goodwill or intangible assets.
Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N
Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M
The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.
Pizarro Milian, Roger; Quirke, Linda
This study empirically examines how for-profit career colleges in Ontario, Canada market themselves to prospective students. It uses a mixed-methods approach to review the content of 489 online promotional profiles representing 375 unique for-profit colleges. It finds that for-profit colleges adopt several distinct marketing strategies, including…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management standards for-profit firms. 603.615... § 603.615 Financial management standards for-profit firms. (a) To avoid causing needless changes in participants' financial management systems, an expenditure-based TIA will make for-profit participants that...
Robertson, W. Brett
For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of auditor for for-profit participants. 603... Financial Matters § 603.650 Designation of auditor for for-profit participants. The auditor identified in an... circumstances, as follows: (a) The Federal cognizant agency or an IPA will be the auditor for a for-profit...
Taylor, Catherine A; Fleckman, Julia M; Lee, Shawna J
Hitting children for disciplinary purposes (i.e., spanking or corporal punishment [CP]) is a strong risk factor for child physical abuse and is highly prevalent in the U.S. Yet, little is currently known about the relevant attitudes, beliefs, or training needs of key professionals who often advise parents regarding child discipline strategies. A survey of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) membership, comprised of mental health professionals, physicians, child welfare professionals, and other professionals in the child maltreatment field, was conducted to assess attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, training needs, and motivations to change norms regarding CP (N=571, response rate=51%). Most respondents agreed that spanking is a bad disciplinary technique (82%), is harmful for children (74%), and leads to negative outcomes (M=3.0, SD=0.6) more frequently than positive outcomes (M=2.1, SD=0.6; t=20.8; p<0.0001) for children. Professionals reported perceiving that their colleagues' level of endorsement of CP (M=2.4, SD=1.0) was higher than their own (M=1.9, SD=1.0; t(568)=-10.7, p<0.0001) though still below the midpoint. Professionals reported high levels of preparedness to effectively advise parents on non-physical child discipline strategies, but reported perceiving lower levels of preparedness amongst their colleagues. They reported highly valuing giving such advice to parents and being very motivated to participate in activities designed to change social norms regarding CP. Most APSAC members are poised to change these norms and, in doing so, to help reduce rates of child physical abuse in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo
The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part I of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps are involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I contains the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) that is necessary to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.
Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo
The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.
The problem of professional training of skilled human personnel in the industry of information communication technology, the urgency of which is recognized at the state level of Ukraine and the world, has been considered. It has been traced that constantly growing requirements of the labour market, swift scientific progress require the use of…
The Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society is an organization founded in 1984 to support minority professionals in the Massachusetts criminal justice system. The Society began the sponsorship of statewide Convocations in 1992. These events provide minority criminal justice professionals with the opportunity to focus on pertinent topics through expert presentations, panel discussions, and peer interactions. Because of its increasing importance in the criminal justice process at large, and growing significance to the minority community in particular, the committee determined that the 1994 Convocation would focus on DNA. A decision was made to concentrate both on the science and the ethical and moral considerations pertinent to its application. The committee determined that along with expert presentations, a large portion of each day`s program should be devoted to workshops, designed to provide participants with an opportunity to review, test and discuss the material in a small group environment. Overall objectives of the Convocation were to provide minority and non-minority criminal justice professionals with a basic foundation in the science of genetics as well as current developments in genetic diagnostic technology, to highlight the actual and potential application of DNA technology to the criminal justice system and elsewhere, and to underscore the implications of these developments for criminal justice policy and the law.
The message being sent by local tax boards, state agencies, and the Internal Revenue Service is clear: Not-for-profit hospitals will have to justify their tax-exempt status. But complying with this demand can be a costly administrative burden. Just ask the executives who have been through the experience. CEO Richard Anderson, of St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem, PA, is luckier than some executives who have faced tax-exempt challenges. He won his hospital's case. But he still faces a yearly battle: The hospital must prove its compliance annually to the county board of assessors. Other executives report similar experiences. Our cover story takes an in-depth look at how administrators faced challenges to their hospital's tax status and what they learned about their relationship with their communities, as well as a complete state and federal legislative outlook for future developments.
Vega, Diego; Sanchez, Ron
Effective competence-based management (CBM) requires in the first instance an ability to identify an organization’s competences and the sources of those competences. Identifying competences can be especially challenging in the context of not-for-profit organizations, which have often been...... characterized as being “different” from for-profit organizations. In this paper we argue that not-for-profit organizations have fundamentally the same systemic requirements for survival and success as for-profit organizations – and therefore that not-for-profits ought to be amenable to competence identification...... and analysis through use of CBM concepts and theory in essentially the same way as for-profit organizations. We support this basic proposition through a case study of competence identification and analysis in a humanitarian relief organization (HRO), an increasingly important kind of not-for-profit...
Pevernagie, Dirk; Stanley, Neil; Berg, Sören; Krieger, Jean; Amici, Roberto; Bassetti, Claudio; Billiard, Michel; Cirignotta, Fabio; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Tobler, Irene; Fischer, Jürgen
In recent years, sleep medicine has evolved into a full-grown discipline, featuring a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients with sleep disorders. Sleep medicine cuts across the boundaries of different conventional disciplines and is therefore open to medical and non-medical professionals with different specialty backgrounds. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a qualification for those professionals whose main occupation is to practice sleep medicine in the setting of a sleep medicine centre. The drafting of guidelines dealing with requirements for such qualification was entrusted to a task force by the European Sleep Research Society. The guidelines are the result of a progressive consensus procedure in which standards were defined for education, training, and evaluation. The final step along this pathway is a theoretical and practical examination, providing proof of proficiency in the field of sleep medicine. This paper describes the object of specific competences, the scope of sleep medicine, and the qualification procedures that pertain to three professional categories: medical specialists, non-medical professionals with a university master degree (such as psychologists and biologists), and nurses and technologists. Indices of preceding practical experience and theoretical knowledge are presented in Appendices 1 and 2. These guidelines are a European standard. They may be adapted in the future according to new scientific insights. National certification programs that comply with these guidelines may be subject to homologation by the ESRS.
Sachin R. Jhawar, MD
Conclusion: ASTRO's use of Twitter lags behind ASCO and SSO. Although all 3 societies show increased Twitter use during their annual meetings, they should work toward more meaningful engagement throughout the year. The new metrics of tweet density and supporter ratio will serve as benchmarks for member engagement in future studies.
Approved by the China Association for Science and Technology, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering newly established 'Professional Committee on Waste Underground Disposal'. The committee will organise the national and international academic exchange, and provide advice on discipline development, sustainable industrial development, environmental protection, etc.. This is the establishing conference of the professional committee, as well as the first academic seminar. The following topics on waste underground disposal are discussed: the theory, practice and exploration, project examples, new technologies and new methods. The contents include: waste disposal technology in the new century, the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, LLW and ILW underground waste disposal, urban and industrial waste underground disposal, and etc.
Shariff, Afreen I; Fang, Xiangming; Desai, Tejas
Twitter is the fastest growing social media network. It offers participants the ability to network with other individuals. Medical societies are interested in helping individuals network to boost recruitment, encourage collaboration, and assist in job placement. We hypothesized that the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) successfully used Twitter to create a network between participants and itself to stay connected with its members. Tweets from 3 Twitter networking sessions during Kidney Week 2011 were analyzed for content. These messages were used to create a network between all participants of the networking sessions. The network was analyzed for strength and influence by calculating clustering coefficients (CC) and eigenvector centrality (EC) scores, respectively. Eight moderators and 9 trainees authored 376 Twitter messages. Most tweets by trainees (64%) and moderators (61%) discussed 1 of 3 themes: networking, education, or navigating Kidney Week 2011. A total of 25 online network connections were established during the 3 sessions; 20% were bidirectional. The CC for the network was 0.300. All moderators formed at least 1 connection, but 7 of the 9 trainees failed to make any connections. ASN made 5 unidirectional and 0 bidirectional connections with a low EC of 0.108. ASN was unable to form powerful connections with trainees through Twitter, but medical societies should not be discouraged by the results reported in this investigation. As societies become more familiar with Twitter and understand the mechanisms to develop connections, these societies will have a greater influence within increasingly stronger networks. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Empirical studies on healthcare personnel indicate that professionals’ experiences with dying and death become silenced and unutterable within the healthcare service. Aim: To explore and interpret silence about encounters with death and dying among healthcare professionals in Norway. Method: The method used was theoretical exploration, using a psychosocial approach. Findings: This analysis reveals complex interrelations and two-way dynamics between subject-worlds, sociocultural and societal worlds when it comes to dealing with death and dying at work. A performance culture saturates these worlds, and may be implicated in silencing death within the healthcare institutions of the Norwegian welfare state. Conclusions: This article suggests that silence about death and dying among healthcare professionals is indicative of crucial emerging and unresolved tensions in the neoliberal episteme, accompanied and reinforced by the ineluctable basic conditions of life and intrapsychic defence against threats towards the self. Implications for practice: Silence about death and dying presents a serious challenge for dying patients and next of kin. Healthcare professionals should be enabled to acknowledge their thoughts and emotions about death in order to be able to support and contain patients and next of kin Learning activities such as peer support and supervision can help the processing of difficult psychological content and allow for emotional aspects of professionals’ work to be acknowledged and thought about in a way that encourages reflective and sound practice Clinical managers should address whether performance pressures induce shameful feelings in staff, who may believe that by providing appropriate levels of care they are compromising productivity. Shame in turn, may undermine professionals’ emotional wellbeing and ability to continue to provide attuned and adequate care for dying patients Creative approaches to facilitate
McKague, h L
The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent not-for-profit applied engineering and physical sciences research and development organization. This means that SwRI owes no allegiance to organizations other than its clients. As a not-for-profit organization, SwRI reinvests its net income into the organization to improve, strengthen, and expand facilities and to support internal research and development projects. Located in San Antonio, Texas, on 1200 acres, SwRI employs nearly 2800 staff and occupies nearly 2,000,000 square feet of office space. Its business is about equally divided between commercial and government clients, most of whom have specific scientific and technical problems that need to be solved in a timely, cost-effective manner. Governmental clients include local, state, and federal agencies and foreign governments. Commercial clients include local, national, and international businesses. Earth science disciplines at SwRI include geology, geophysics, hydrology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, mining engineering, and natural hazard assessment. Our overall approach is to systematically examine client problems and develop solutions that may include field work, laboratory work, numerical modeling, or some combination of these approaches. This method of problem solving places a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary teamwork. The work environment at SwRI strikes a balance among the freedom to attack technically important problems, consistent support to professional development, and a strong commitment to meeting client's deadlines and goals. Real problems with real consequences are routinely solved on a tight schedule. The diversity of clients gives exposure to an extraordinarily wide range of problems. Successful employees have sound technical backgrounds, are flexible in accommodating varying clients needs, bring creativity and energy to problem solving and applications of technologies, can work on multiple tasks in parallel, and can communicate
Full Text Available The area called motivation in not-for-profit organizations - including public enterprises - has been rather neglected. Most often the opinion prevails that apart from fixed salaries and system of promotion, there are no other ways of motiva ting staff. The aim of this article is to point out that this is not the čase, and that successful and efficient work of the staff which is necessary for the attainment of the goals of the organization, does not depend only on money. Motivating factors can be assessed by means of simple questionnaires.The articlebriefly defines the siginficance of public enterprises, their management and operation, areas which are mainly defined and controlled from outside.Motivation, factors affecting it, Maslow's theory of motivation and Herzberg's bifactorial theory are described. The fourth chapter brings some more on human resources in libraries and on the inquiry carried out on the basis of Herzberg's bifactorial theory; some directions on how we can use ali the different factors at our disposal are added as well.
Full Text Available This study estimates the effects of a prospective payment system on the growth of for-profit hospitals. The empirical results show that the proportion of patient care paid for by Medicare managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals. Medicare managed care reimburses health care providers prospectively, and a larger portion of prospective reimbursements is received by for-profit hospitals, whose market share consequently increases. In addition, the proportion of patients with Medi-Cal and third party managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals.
Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.
... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 603.680 Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit firms. (a) With the two exceptions... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of real property and equipment by for-profit...
Himmelstein, D U; Woolhandler, S; Hellander, I; Wolfe, S M
The proportion of health maintenance organization (HMO) members enrolled in investor-owned plans has increased sharply, yet little is known about the quality of these plans compared with not-for-profit HMOs. To compare quality-of-care measures for investor-owned and not-for-profit HMOs. Analysis of the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Version 3.0 from the National Committee for Quality Assurance's Quality Compass 1997, which included 1996 quality-of-care data for 329 HMO plans (248 investor-owned and 81 not-for-profit), representing 56% of the total HMO enrollment in the United States. Rates for 14 HEDIS quality-of-care indicators. Compared with not-for-profit HMOs, investor-owned plans had lower rates for all 14 quality-of-care indicators. Among patients discharged from the hospital after myocardial infarction, 59.2% of members in investor-owned HMOs vs 70.6% in not-for-profit plans received a beta-blocker (Pinvestor-owned plans vs 47.9% in not-for-profit plans had annual eye examinations (PInvestor-owned plans had lower rates than not-for-profit plans of immunization (63.9% vs 72.3%; Pinvestor ownership was consistently associated with lower quality after controlling for model type, geographic region, and the method each HMO used to collect data. Investor-owned HMOs deliver lower quality of care than not-for-profit plans.
... Accounting Principles (see Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Number 2, “Accounting for Research and... Financial Matters § 603.625 Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit participants. (a) So as... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles or standards applicable to for-profit...
Lechuga, Vicente M.
As the labor market continues to demand more workers with postsecondary credentials, for-profit colleges and universities offer the training, degrees, and credentials that students seek to remain viable in an increasingly competitive job market. This study seeks to provide a new perspective on for-profit institutions by focusing on the roles and…
... for profit or fee objective. 1815.404-471 Section 1815.404-471 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.404-471 NASA structured approach for profit or fee objective. ...
Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.
Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier España.
Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.
Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.
Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel
The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.
The present study compares the performance creation behavior between for-profit institutions and not-for-profit institutions within a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. Based on the stepwise performance creation chain structure of typical R&D logic models, a series of successive binary logistic regression models is newly proposed. Using the models, a sample of n = 2076 completed government-sponsored R&D projects was analyzed. For each institution type, its distinctive behavior is diagnosed, and relevant implications are suggested for improving the R&D performance.
S.J. Magala (Slawomir)
textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy
Lynch, J R; McCue, M J
The financial and operating performance of independent not-for-profit hospitals acquired by US for-profit multi-hospital systems in 10 Southern states between the years 1978 and 1982 was explored. The impact of system ownership on acquired hospitals was investigated by comparing the average financial performance of hospitals in the two years immediately prior to acquisition to the average for 1984 and 1985 and by comparing changes in the performance of acquired hospitals with changes in matched independent facilities. Findings suggest that for-profit multi-hospital systems were able to improve many of the financial and operating problems of acquired facilities. In comparison to independent not-for-profit hospitals, acquired hospitals were found to increase access to long-term debt, make improvements to plant and equipment, improve profitability, and increase efficiency to a greater extent. Prices in acquired hospitals rose more than those in independents and liquidity decreased to a greater extent.
Song, Paula H; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Toth, Matthew; Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
Gender pay equity is a desirable social value and an important strategy to fill every organizational stratum with gender-diverse talent to fulfill an organization's goals and mission. This study used national, large-sample data to examine gender difference in CEO compensation among not-for-profit hospitals. Results showed the average unadjusted annual compensation for female CEOs in 2009 was $425,085 compared with $581,121 for male CEOs. With few exceptions, the difference existed across all types of not-for-profit hospitals. After controlling for hospital- and area-level characteristics, female CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals earned 22.6% less than male CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals. This translates into an earnings differential of $132,652 associated with gender. Explanations and implications of the results are discussed.
Sen, Sounok; Soulos, Pamela R; Herrin, Jeph; Roberts, Kenneth B; Yu, James B; Lesnikoski, Beth-Ann; Ross, Joseph S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gross, Cary P
Little is known about the relationship between operative care for breast cancer at for-profit hospitals and subsequent use of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Among Medicare beneficiaries, we examined whether hospital ownership status is associated with the use of breast brachytherapy--a newer and more expensive modality--as well as overall RT. We conducted a retrospective study of female Medicare beneficiaries who received breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer in 2008 and 2009. We assessed the relationship between hospital ownership and receipt of brachytherapy or overall RT by using hierarchical generalized linear models. The sample consisted of 35,118 women, 8.0% of whom had breast-conserving operations at for-profit hospitals. Among patients who received RT, those who underwent operation at for-profit hospitals were more likely to receive brachytherapy (20.2%) than patients treated at not-for-profit hospitals (15.2%; odds ratio [OR] for for-profit versus not-for-profit: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.23-1.84; P profit hospital was associated with greater overall use of RT (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.03-1.45, P = .03) and brachytherapy use (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.18-2.34, P = .003). Operative care at for-profit hospitals was associated with increased use of the newer and more expensive RT modality, brachytherapy. Among the oldest women who are least likely to benefit from RT, operative care at a for-profit hospital was associated with greater overall use of RT, with this difference largely driven by the use of brachytherapy. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo
Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.
Laurell, A C
The social security counterreform, initiated in 1997, forms part of the neoliberal reorganization of Mexican society. The reform implies a profound change in the guiding principles of social security, as the public model based on integrality, solidarity, and redistribution is replaced by a model based on private administration of funds and services, individualization of entitlement, and reduction of rights. Its economic purpose is to move social services and benefits into the direct sphere of private capital accumulation. Although these changes will involve the whole social security system--old-age and disability pensions, health care, child care, and workers' compensation--they are most immediately evident in the pension scheme. The pay-as-you-go scheme is being replaced by privately managed individual retirement accounts which especially favor the big financial groups. These groups are gaining control over huge amounts of capital, are authorized to charge a high commission, and run no financial risks. The privatization of the system requires decisive state intervention with a legal change and a sizable state subsidy (1 to 1.5 percent of GNP) over five decades. The supposed positive impact on economic growth and employment is uncertain. A review of the new law and of the estimates of future annuities reveals shrinking pension coverage and inadequate incomes from pensions.
Doherty, Jane E
International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased
I exploit a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financial incentives to examine whether the behavior of private not-for-profit hospitals varies with the share of nearby hospitals organized as for-profit firms. My results show that not-for-profit hospitals in for-profit intensive areas are significantly more responsive to an increased incentive to treat low-income patients insured by the Medicaid program than are other not-for-profit providers. The heterogeneity in behavior is not due to di...
Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga
Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leadership practices and organizational performance in not-for-profit organizations. A survey assessing strategic leadership practice and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between strategic leadership variables and organizational performance. The results found R value of 0.730 and R2 value of 0.532 that is 53.2 of corresponding change in the Organizational Performance of NFPs for every change explained by predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders use well the strategic leadership they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined the practice of strategic leadership in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is warranted. This paper proposes the study of strategic leadership as a way of enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.
Sanders, Michael I
Health care exempt organizations have many options regarding their structure and affiliations with for-profit entities. As long as any joint ventures are carefully structured and the nonprofit retains control over the exempt health care activities, the Internal Revenue Service should not question the structure. However, as outlined above, if the for-profit entity effectively gains control over the activities of the venture, the structure is not likely to be upheld by the IRS or the courts, and either the exempt status of the nonprofit will be denied or revoked, or health care income will be subject to the unrelated business income tax. In summary, the health care industry has been severely impacted by many economic forces, including uncertainty in the area of joint ventures between nonprofits and for-profit health care systems. The uncertainty as to whether the joint venture would negatively impact the nonprofit's tax-exempt status undoubtedly caused many nonprofits to form for-profit subsidiaries and otherwise expanded operations in a for-profit marketplace. Fortunately, with the guidance that is currently available in the form of Revenue Ruling 98-15, Redlands, St. David's, and now Revenue Ruling 2004-51, health care institutions can move forward with properly structured joint ventures with greater confidence that the joint venture will not endanger the tax-exempt status of the nonprofit.
Gapenski, L C
The health care finance literature on capital investment decisions generally applies conventional market risk concepts without distinguishing between proprietary and not-for-profit forms of organization. Since proprietary firms have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, a project's relevant risk is its contribution to the riskiness of the equity investors' well diversified stock portfolios, or its market risk. However, not-for-profit organizations do not have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, and thus market risk concepts are not applicable. Rather, the relevant risk in a not-for-profit setting is a project's corporate risk; that is, the project's contribution to the riskiness of the organization. The difference in risk definition and measurement between proprietary and not-for-profit firms has two implications for managerial decisions: (1) in making capital investment decisions, a manager must define and measure a project's riskiness on the basis of the firm's organizational form; and (2) although diversification for the sole purpose of risk reduction is not a valid rationale for proprietary firms because stockholders can achieve the same result at less cost, risk-reducing diversification does make sense for not-for-profit firms.
... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...
Kramer, Jeffrey; Santerre, Rexford E
This paper uses observations from a panel data set of 35 chief executive officers (CEOs) from 29 not-for-profit hospitals in Connecticut over the period 1998 to 2006 to investigate the relationship between CEO performance and pay. Both economic and charity performance measures are specified in the empirical model. The multiple regression results reveal that not-for-profit hospital CEOs, at least in Connecticut, are driven at the margin to increase the occupancy rate of privately insured patients at the expense of uncompensated care and public-pay patients. This type of behavior on the part of not-for-profit hospital CEOs calls into question the desirability of allowing these hospitals a tax exemption on earned income, property, and purchases.
Kwong, Enid Wy; Hung, Maria Sy; Woo, Kevin
A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning), changing (action), and refreezing (results) were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff's practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the revised risk assessment method, the timely and appropriate
Enid WY Kwong
Full Text Available Abstract Background A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. Methods A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning, changing (action, and refreezing (results were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff’s practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. Results The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.
Nicholson, S; Pauly, M V
The rise of the for-profit hospital industry has opened a debate about the level of community benefits provided by non-profit hospitals. Do nonprofits provide enough community benefits to justify the community's commitment of resources to them, and the tax-exempt status they receive? If nonprofit hospitals convert to for-profit entities, would community benefits be lost in the transaction? This debate has highlighted the need to define and measure community benefits more clearly. In this Issue Brief, the authors develop a new method of identifying activities that qualify as community benefits, and propose a benchmark for the amount of benefit a nonprofit hospital should provide.
Joiner Keith A
Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.
A dozen or more regulatory frameworks have been proposed for legal cannabis but many of the "not-for-profit" options have yet to be developed in any detail, reducing the likelihood they will be seriously considered by policy makers. New Zealand's innovative "not-for-profit" regulatory regime for gaming machine gambling (i.e. "slot machines") has reversed the previous increase in gambling expenditure, empowered local councils to cap the number of gambling venues, and is unique in requiring the societies operating gaming machines to distribution 40% of the gross expenditure from machines (i.e. $NZ 262 million in 2015) to community purposes (e.g. sports). However, the regime has been criticised for not addressing the concentration of gaming outlets in poorer communities, and not requiring grants to be allocated in the disadvantaged communities where outlets are located. There have also been cases of gaming societies providing community grants in exchange for direct or indirect benefits. In this paper we adapt this regulatory approach to a legal cannabis market. Under the proposed regime, licensed "not-for-profit" cannabis societies will be required to distribute 20% of cannabis sales to drug treatment and 20% to community purposes, including drug prevention. Grants must be allocated in the regions where cannabis sales are made and grant committees must be independent from cannabis societies. A 20% levy will be used to cover the wider health costs of cannabis use. A further 10% levy will be used to fund the regulator and evaluate the new regime. Local councils will have the power to decide how many, and where, cannabis retail outlets are located. Other important elements include a minimum price for cannabis, effective taxation of cannabis products, regulating CBD in cannabis products, higher taxation of traditional smoking products, advertising restricted to place-of-sale, no internet sales, and restrictions on industry involvement in regulation making and research
Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty
This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…
... determination whether an activity is engaged in for profit is to be made by reference to objective standards... the activity in a businesslike manner and maintains complete and accurate books and records may... accepted business, economic, and scientific practices, or consultation with those who are expert therein...
Grippo, Frank J.; Nassiripour, Sia
The purpose of this case is to help students explore accounting and auditing issues often confronted by auditors of not-for-profit organizations. Given final financial statements, the goal of the case is to require students to prepare the footnotes that would be considered an integral part of the financial statements. The case is intended for…
... audit, unless the participant already had a systems audit due to other Federal awards within the past... to verify that the participant's systems continue to be reliable (the audit then would cover the two... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of periodic audits of for-profit participants...
Carter Winkle provides emperically derived insight into both positive and negative implications of the contemporary phenomena of partnerships between universities and private, for-profit educational service providers resulting in matriculation pathway programs for non-native English speaking students in the United States.
Discusses growth of North America's 40 largest for- profit child care centers. Identifies current threats, including staffing shortage and increasing competition from public schools and among chains. Identifies current opportunities to include employer and franchise child care, upscale child care, elementary school services, and flexible hours.…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audits of for-profit participants. 603.640 Section 603.640 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 603.640...
Not all talk is cheap. Especially not if it comes from the mouths of professors, former corporate executives, or Washington insiders who understand the workings of the $20-billion for-profit higher-education industry and how impending tougher regulations might affect it. Then the talk can be worth hundreds of dollars an hour, thanks to the growing…
Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…
Koyama, Jill P.
A little-discussed aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a mandate that requires failing schools to hire after-school tutoring companies--the largest of which are private, for-profit corporations--and to pay them with federal funds. "Making Failure Pay" takes a hard look at the implications of this new blurring of the…
Once the exclusive domain of the corporate world, now not-for-profit health care organizations are gravitating toward greater financial disclosure. The reason: a growing consensus among boards and executives that accountability boosts investor confidence and may pay off in better bond ratings.
Hentschke, Guilbert C., Ed.; Lechuga, Vicente M., Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.
This book offers a clear-eyed and balanced analysis of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs), reviewing their history, business strategies, and management practices; setting them in the context of marketplace conditions, the framework of public policy and government regulations; and viewing them in the light of the public good. Individual…
Lechuga, Vicente M.; Tierney, William G.; Hentschke, Guilbert C.
In recent years, higher education has witnessed the entry of a new breed of postsecondary education providers. These institutions have reshaped the traditional views of the function and purpose of higher education. For-profit education institutions provide a small but rapidly growing segment of the student population with the knowledge and skills…
Forrester, Robert T.; Collins, Stephen J.
Information on depreciation concepts, accounting procedures, and reporting formats in not-for-profit institutions is provided. Details are included on the requirements and implications of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Statement of Financial Accounting Standards no. 93 (FASB 93). Following highlights of FASB 93, an overview looks at…
This article provides a discussion of the book, "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities" by Martha C. Nussbaum from the perspective of a visiting scholar to the United States from China. It begins by addressing two critical topics discussed by Nussbaum: consequences of focusing only on economic growth and the importance of…
McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy
Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…
Ayalon, Hanna; Menahem, Gila
Israeli universities have recently established for-profit (FP) mid-career programmes, intended for holders of junior managerial positions who wish to acquire a Master's degree and improve their status and salary. We analyse the programmes as a second-chance structure, which provides working people with the opportunity to win a Master's degree from…
Hiatt, Elaine M.
Servant leadership is a challenging leadership philosophy to study empirically. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive case study was to determine if an effective leader of a for-profit career school displays the 10 servant-leader characteristics, identified by Larry R. Spears (1995) in "Reflections on Leadership," according to respondents,…
Compares revenues, debts, investments, and profit margins of for-profit publicly and privately owned day care centers. An evaluation tool was developed through analysis of financial statements of seven privately owned child care businesses and six publicly owned child care chains. (RJC)
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of gendered communication on women's behavioral intentions regarding nonprofit and for-profit entrepreneurship. Women represent half of the U.S. workforce, but only about one third of all American entrepreneurs are women. Feminists have argued that because entrepreneurship is largely understood…
Many people regard the doctorate as the pinnacle of success. Despite the challenges of completing the terminal degree, the dream of earning the doctoral degree remains a goal for many every year. Understanding the phenomenon of African American student enrollment at for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) is necessary because many African…
Starcher, Keith O.
As the for-profit business model and a reliance on adjunct faculty continues to grow among faith-based institutions, little research exists on the differences in the characteristics of part-time online faculty in for-profit versus nonprofit environments that could provide guidance to administrators. This study utilized a descriptive,…
Castagnera, James Ottavio
The fortunes of the for-profit higher education industry rise and fall with the political tides in the United States. During the 8 years of the George W Bush Administration (Republican), the for-profit sector of US higher education prospered. The following two terms of the Obama Administration (Democrat) resulted in the loss of all the ground…
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must I identify as the auditor for a for... auditor for a for-profit participant? The auditor that you will identify in the expenditure-based TIA to... follows: (a) You may provide that an IPA will be the auditor for a for-profit participant that does not...
Hauser, R C; Edwards, D E; Edwards, J T
Cash budgeting is generally considered to be an important part of resource management in all businesses. However, respondents to a survey of not-for-profit health care entities revealed that some 40 percent of the participants do not currently prepare cash budgets. Where budgeting occurred, the cash forecasts covered various time frames, and distribution of the document was inconsistent. Most budgets presented cash receipts and disbursements according to operating, investing, and financing activities--a format consistent with the year-end cash flow statement. By routinely preparing monthly cash budgets, the not-for-profit health care entity can project cash inflow/outflow or position with anticipated cash insufficiencies and surpluses. The budget should be compared each month to actual results to evaluate performance. The magnitude and timing of cash flows is much too critical to be left to chance.
Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.
Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)
Filipova, Anna A
This study investigates ethical climates in government, nonprofit, and for-profit nursing homes and determines their similarities and differences. Surveys were collected from 656 (21.4%) licensed nurses who worked in 100 skilled nursing facilities in one Midwestern state. Shared law and code and caring ethical climates were identified across the 3 sector nursing homes. Those climates were also polarized. Important implications were drawn for consideration of ethical perceptions of each sector during negotiations and contract management.
Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua
Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM). Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs). Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (-4.68) and positive at NFPs (0.08), meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident. © The Author(s) 2015.
In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years
Bird, Matthew L; Dunn, Rebecca L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Burton, Michael E; Britton, Mark L; St Cyr, Mark B
The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described. Pursuant to a 1998 joint operating agreement, the medical center and pharmacy school have achieved a high degree of collaboration on a wide range of educational and clinical initiatives. The close relationship has conferred a number of benefits on both institutions, including (1) expanded experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students, (2) joint faculty and staff funding arrangements that have facilitated the development and accreditation of OU pharmacy residency programs, and (3) patient care initiatives that have increased awareness of pharmacists' important contributions in areas such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, and core measures compliance. In addition to the formal integration of the college of pharmacy into the OUMC organizational structure, ongoing teamwork by clinicians and administrators at the two institutions has strengthened the 14-year partnership while helping to identify creative solutions to evolving communications, technology, and reimbursement challenges. Potential growth opportunities include the expansion of pharmacy services into additional service areas and greater involvement by OU pharmacy school faculty in the training of medical, nursing, and allied health professionals. A large for-profit academic medical center and a college of pharmacy developed a successful collaboration that is mutually beneficial and provides increased clinical, educational, and scholarly opportunities, advancing the mission of both institutions.
The American Nurses Association (ANA) believes that the health of communities benefits from a mix of health care facilities, including both public and nonprofit private facilities where feasible. ANA is concerned by the rate of conversion of nonprofit facilities and plans to for-profit status. Privatization of public facilities and the conversion of nonprofit facilities and health plans to for-profit status requires careful public oversight to ensure continued access to affordable, quality services, including a maintenance of uncompensated care; a fair accounting of the assets of the entity being privatized or converted; and an assurance that converted assets are used to maintain and improve access to affordable, safe and quality health care services. The rights and benefits of employees must be carefully safe-guarded in any privatization or conversion move. All hospitals, regardless of ownership or tax status, should be held accountable for the delivery of safe, quality services, and should be required to disclose data regarding staffing, patient outcomes, cost and delivery of uncompensated care. Continued data collection will be necessary to guide further development of public policy to address privatization and for-profit conversion.
Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Watine, Joseph
Medical practice guidelines (GLs) being tools that are mainly designed to evaluate medical professionals, it sounds logical, and fair, that professionals should in turn evaluate GLs. Microbiology being a medical discipline, we used the AGREE instrument, i.e. an established evaluation tool for GLs, in order to evaluate the quality of two major microbiology guidelines, i.e. the SFM GLs and the ASM GLs). Both guidelines remain sub-optimal in their levels of quality, and obtain scores that are not very different from the average scores obtained by many other guidelines in various medical disciplines. We therefore believe that both guidelines need to be modified before they can be recommended without provisos. A higher degree of multi-disciplinary work, including a more formal implication of methodologists, as well as of infectious disease clinicians, and of economists, might perhaps enable future editions of these guidelines to reach higher levels of quality.
Geriatric assessment in daily oncology practice for nurses and allied health care professionals: Opinion paper of the Nursing and Allied Health Interest Group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).
Burhenn, Peggy S; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Begue, Aaron; Nightingale, Ginah; Cheng, Karis; Kenis, Cindy
The management of older persons with cancer has become a major public health concern in developed countries because of the aging of the population and the steady increase in cancer incidence with advancing age. Nurses and allied health care professionals are challenged to address the needs of this growing population. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Nursing and Allied Health (NAH) Interest Group described key issues that nurses and allied health care professionals face when caring for older persons with cancer. The domains of the Geriatric Assessment (GA) are used as a guiding framework. The following geriatric domains are described: demographic data and social support, functional status, cognition, mental health, nutritional status, fatigue, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and other geriatric syndromes (e.g. falls, delirium). In addition to these geriatric domains, quality of life (QoL) is described based on the overall importance in this particular population. Advice for integration of assessment of these geriatric domains into daily oncology practice is made. Research has mainly focused on the role of treating physicians but the involvement of nurses and allied health care professionals is crucial in the care of older persons with cancer through the GA process. The ability of nurses and allied health care professionals to perform this assessment requires specialized training and education beyond standard oncology knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Structure of pain management facilities in Germany : Classification of medical and psychological pain treatment services-Consensus of the Joint Commission of the Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine].
Müller-Schwefe, G H H; Nadstawek, J; Tölle, T; Nilges, P; Überall, M A; Laubenthal, H J; Bock, F; Arnold, B; Casser, H R; Cegla, T H; Emrich, O M D; Graf-Baumann, T; Henning, J; Horlemann, J; Kayser, H; Kletzko, H; Koppert, W; Längler, K H; Locher, H; Ludwig, J; Maurer, S; Pfingsten, M; Schäfer, M; Schenk, M; Willweber-Strumpf, A
On behalf of the Medical/Psychological Pain Associations, Pain Patients Alliance and the Professional Association of Pain Physicians and Psychologists, the Joint Commission of Professional Societies and Organizations for Quality in Pain Medicine, working in close collaboration with the respective presidents, has developed verifiable structural and process-related criteria for the classification of medical and psychological pain treatment facilities in Germany. Based on the established system of graded care in Germany and on existing qualifications, these criteria also argue for the introduction of a basic qualification in pain medicine. In addition to the first-ever comprehensive description of psychological pain facilities, the criteria presented can be used to classify five different levels of pain facilities, from basic pain management facilities, to specialized institutions, to the Centre for Interdisciplinary Pain Medicine. The recommendations offer binding and verifiable criteria for quality assurance in pain medicine and improved pain treatment.
The purpose of this presentation is to show through visualizations how the Los Angeles, California milieu of the early 20th century benefited the advancement of astronomy and captured the public consciousness through popular press accounts of these advancements and of the scientists who made them. The thesis of this presentation purports that a symbiosis developed between astronomers of Los Angeles-area scientific and educational institutions and a local community of interested laypersons, and was the catalyst that sparked future generations to enter the fields of astronomy, the allied sciences, education and technology. This presentation attempts to highlight the importance of continued public outreach by the professional astronomical community, for the ultimate benefit to itself, in Los Angeles and beyond.
Coombs, Maureen A; Davidson, Judy E; Nunnally, Mark E; Wickline, Mary A; Curtis, J Randall
To explore the importance, challenges, and opportunities using qualitative research to enhance development of clinical practice guidelines, using recent guidelines for family-centered care in the ICU as an example. In developing the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal ICU, PICU, and adult ICU, we developed an innovative adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations approach to explicitly incorporate qualitative research. Using Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations and the Council of Medical Specialty Societies principles, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to establish family-centered domains and outcomes. Thematic analyses were undertaken on study findings and used to support Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome question development. We identified and employed three approaches using qualitative research in these guidelines. First, previously published qualitative research was used to identify important domains for the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome questions. Second, this qualitative research was used to identify and prioritize key outcomes to be evaluated. Finally, we used qualitative methods, member checking with patients and families, to validate the process and outcome of the guideline development. In this, a novel report, we provide direction for standardizing the use of qualitative evidence in future guidelines. Recommendations are made to incorporate qualitative literature review and appraisal, include qualitative methodologists in guideline taskforce teams, and develop training for evaluation of qualitative research into guideline development procedures. Effective methods of involving patients and families as members of guideline development represent opportunities for future work.
A new version of the FASB accounting standard covering not-for-profit healthcare organizations contains potentially significant changes to the statement of operations and changes in net assets, statement of cash flows, and notes to the financial statements. Healthcare organizations already have tremendous flexibility with disclosures around all aspects of their business. Although auditors prefer to see only information that can be effectively audited, this preference does not prevent organizations from expanding on certain activities or transactions covered by GAAP in their footnotes.
Reeves, Terrie C; Ford, Eric W
Despite mixed and contradictory findings, for-profits (FPs) and nonprofits (NPs) are assumed to be similar health services organizations (HSOs). In this study, a fifteen-item scale assessing HSOs' strategic management capacity was developed and tested using fifty-seven FP and twenty NP organizations. Then, using item response theory, the items were hierarchically profiled to produce two strategic profile models, a general and an FP anchored model. We find that deviation from the general profile, but not capability attainment level, is related to two of three financial measures. We conclude that studying FPs and NPs together is appropriate.
Harrison, Jeffrey P; Sexton, Christopher
By using data-envelopment analysis (DEA), this study evaluates the efficiency of religious not-for-profit hospitals. Hospital executives, healthcare policy makers, taxpayers, and other stakeholders benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. Results indicate that overall efficiency in religious hospitals improved from 72% in 1998 to 74% in 2001. What is more important is that the number of religious hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier increased from 40 in 1998 to 47 in 2001. This clearly documents that religious hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the healthcare industry.
In the last 20 years the UK’s elderly residential care system has become progressively more privatised with an increase in the number of for-profit organisations delivering these services. This study is a participant observation of care work in one privatised elderly residential care home (‘Meadowvale’), owned and operated by a large provider of such services (‘Moonlight Care’). It provides a rich ethnographic depiction of life at Meadowvale both from the point of view of the workers and the ...
Howard, Thomas J.
Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches...... to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit....
... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...
Despite the recent growth of for-profit colleges, scholars are only beginning to understand the labor market consequences of attending these institutions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that for-profit associate's degree holders encounter lower hourly earnings than associate's degree holders educated at public or private, nonprofit colleges, and earnings that are not significantly different than high school graduates. However, individuals who complete a bachelor's degree by attending college in either the for-profit or nonprofit sectors encounter positive returns. These findings, robust to model selection, suggest that the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit colleges constitutes an important axis in the horizontal dimension of education at the sub-baccalaureate level, and complicate notions of vertical stratification such that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily guarantee a wage premium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, National Academy of Neuropsychology, and Society for Clinical Neuropsychology (APA Division 40) 2015 TCN Professional Practice and 'Salary Survey': Professional Practices, Beliefs, and Incomes of U.S. Neuropsychologists.
Sweet, Jerry J; Benson, Laura M; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Moberg, Paul J
The current survey updated professional practice and income information pertaining to clinical neuropsychology. Doctoral-level members of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association, and the National Academy of Neuropsychology and other neuropsychologists, as well as postdoctoral trainees in the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology and at other training sites were invited to participate in a web-based survey in early 2015. The sample of 1777 respondents, of whom 1579 were doctoral-level practitioners and 198 were postdoctoral trainees, was larger than the prior 2010 income and practice survey. The substantial proportional change in gender has continued, with women now a clear majority in the postdoctoral trainee sample as well as in the practitioner sample. Dissimilar from the median age trajectory of American Psychological Association members, the median age of clinical neuropsychologists remains essentially unchanged since 1989, indicating a substantial annual influx of young neuropsychologists. The question of whether the Houston Conference training model has become an important influence in the specialty can now be considered settled in the affirmative among postdoctoral trainees and practitioners. Testing assistant usage remains commonplace, and continues to be more common in institutions. The vast majority of clinical neuropsychologists work full-time and very few are unemployed and seeking employment. The numbers of neuropsychologists planning to retire in the coming 5-10 years do not suggest a "baby boomer" effect or an unexpected bolus of planned retirements in the next 10 years that would be large enough to be worrisome. Average length of time reported for evaluations appears to be increasing across time. The most common factors affecting evaluation length were identified, with the top three being: (1) goal of evaluation, (2) stamina
We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdicti...... countries. We demonstrate that the latter effect may dominate the former effects so that countries, on balance, benefit from the presence of tax havens.......We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction...... countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...
Prince, T R; Ramanan, R
Many not-for-profit community hospitals had major shifts in their annual collection performance between 1986 and 1988. The collection performance is measured by excess collection time; this is computed as the difference between the actual average collection time for a hospital and the median for one of the six panels to which the hospital is assigned based on ownership, control code, and financial reporting practices. The sample for this study has 1,246 not-for-profit hospitals comprising over 50 percent of total revenue and expenses of all community hospitals (about 5,500). More than 16 percent of these hospitals had annual changes of ten-plus days in each of the years. Excess collection time within the six panels was examined by state, payer mix (Medicare, Medicaid, and Blue Cross), membership in the Council of Teaching Hospitals, medical school affiliation, case-mix index for Medicare, contractual allowance rate, debt-service coverage, return on assets, new investments, age of property, and urban location. Major findings were that collection patterns are different among some states. The proportions of Medicare, Medicaid, and Blue Cross are negatively associated with excess collection time in three of the panels. Contractual allowance is positively related, and return on assets is negatively associated with excess collection time in two of the panels. The other factors had virtually no effect on the collection performance.
Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D
Background Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries. Search methods For related systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2015, Issue 4; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) 2015, Issue 1; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) 2015, Issue 1; all part of The Cochrane Library, and searched 28 April 2015. For primary studies, we searched MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 16 June 2016); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1987 to present, and Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 3 May 2016 for papers citing included studies); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 3, part of The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 28 April 2015); Embase 1980 to 2015 Week 17, OvidSP (searched 28 April 2015); Global Health 1973 to 2015 Week 16, OvidSP (searched 30 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 30 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1975 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 30 April 2015); Health Management, ProQuest (searched 22 November 2013). In addition, in April 2016, we searched the reference lists of relevant
Cross, Harry E; Sayedi, Omarzaman; Irani, Laili; Archer, Lauren C; Sears, Kathleen; Sharma, Suneeta
Since 2003, Afghanistan's largely unregulated for-profit private health sector has grown at a rapid pace. In 2008, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) launched a long-term stewardship initiative to oversee and regulate private providers and align the sector with national health goals. We examine the progress the MoPH has made towards more effective stewardship, consider the challenges and assess the early impacts on for-profit performance. We reviewed publicly available documents, publications and the grey literature to analyse the development, adoption and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations. We carried out a series of key informant/participant interviews, organizational capacity assessments and analyses of hospital standards checklists. Using a literature review of health systems strengthening, we proposed an Afghan-specific definition of six key stewardship functions to assess progress towards MoPH stewardship objectives. The MoPH and its partners have achieved positive results in strengthening its private sector stewardship functions especially in generating actionable intelligence and establishing strategic policy directions, administrative structures and a legal and regulatory framework. Progress has also been made on improving accountability and transparency, building partnerships and applying minimum required standards to private hospitals. Procedural and operational issues still need resolution and the MoPH is establishing mechanisms for resolving them. The MoPH stewardship initiative is notable for its achievements to date under challenging circumstances. Its success is due to the focus on developing a solid policy framework and building institutions and systems aimed at ensuring higher quality private services, and a rational long-term and sustainable role for the private sector. Although the MoPH stewardship initiative is still at an early stage, the evidence suggests that enhanced stewardship functions in the MoPH are leading to a
the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....
Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...
Magnus, Stephen A; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C
Not-for-profit hospitals undertook unprecedented amounts of debt in the mid to late 1990s. Corporate finance theory and the literature on hospital financing suggest that debt may constrain hospitals' capacity to deliver uncompensated care. Using data from audited financial statements for a sample of hospitals, this article explores whether debt financing is associated with hospitals' provision of uncompensated care, an output central to many hospitals' service missions. Contrary to expectations, our analysis finds that higher debt is associated with higher levels of uncompensated care. However, the results may reflect the unusual economic and stock-market conditions prevailing in the mid 1990s, and they are consistent with the views of hospital financial managers and other practitioners whom we interviewed.
Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L
The delivery of health care is a capital-intensive industry, and thus, hospital investment strategy continues to be an important area of interest for both health policy and research. Much attention has been given to hospitals' capital investment policies with relatively little attention to investments in financial assets, which serve an important role in not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals. This study describes and analyzes trends in aggregate asset structure between NFP and investor-owned (IO) hospitals during the post-capital-based prospective payment system implementation period, providing the first documentation of long-term trends in hospital investment. The authors find hospitals' aggregate asset structure differs significantly based on ownership, size, and profitability. For both NFP and IO hospitals, financial securities have remained consistent over time, while fixed asset representation has declined in IO hospitals.
Knight, Joe; Angus, Brad; Case, John
If your work involves projects, then this book is for you. It will show every company owner and project manager—at businesses large and small—how to run projects differently. You’ll benefit if you’ve ever: • been over budget on a project • exceeded a timeline on a project • worked on a project that completely stalled as you neared the finish line • lost money on a sure-thing project and had no idea why • noticed that scope and feature creep held you back • watched a project take three times as long as planned • felt too embarrassed to perform a review of your successes and failures • wondered whether your project actually made any money By the time you finish the book, you’ll be ready to implement Project Management for Profit in your own company—and be prepared to keep your projects on track and on budget.
Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).
Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja
The present guideline (S2k) on allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) was established by the German, Austrian and Swiss professional associations for allergy in consensus with the scientific specialist societies and professional associations in the fields of otolaryngology, dermatology and venereology, pediatric and adolescent medicine, pneumology as well as a German patient organization (German Allergy and Asthma Association; Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) according to the criteria of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF). AIT is a therapy with disease-modifying effects. By administering allergen extracts, specific blocking antibodies, toler-ance-inducing cells and mediators are activated. These prevent further exacerbation of the allergen-triggered immune response, block the specific immune response and attenuate the inflammatory response in tissue. Products for SCIT or SLIT cannot be compared at present due to their heterogeneous composition, nor can allergen concentrations given by different manufacturers be compared meaningfully due to the varying methods used to measure their active ingredients. Non-modified allergens are used for SCIT in the form of aqueous or physically adsorbed (depot) extracts, as well as chemically modified allergens (allergoids) as depot extracts. Allergen extracts for SLIT are used in the form of aqueous solutions or tablets. The clinical efficacy of AIT is measured using various scores as primary and secondary study endpoints. The EMA stipulates combined symptom and medication scores as primary endpoint. A harmonization of clinical endpoints, e. g., by using the combined symptom and medication scores (CSMS) recommended by the EAACI, is desirable in the future in order to permit the comparison of results from different studies. The current CONSORT recommendations from the ARIA/GA2LEN group specify standards for the
Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D
Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries. For related systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2015, Issue 4; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) 2015, Issue 1; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) 2015, Issue 1; all part of The Cochrane Library, and searched 28 April 2015. For primary studies, we searched MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 16 June 2016); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1987 to present, and Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 3 May 2016 for papers citing included studies); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 3, part of The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 28 April 2015); Embase 1980 to 2015 Week 17, OvidSP (searched 28 April 2015); Global Health 1973 to 2015 Week 16, OvidSP (searched 30 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 30 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1975 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 30 April 2015); Health Management, ProQuest (searched 22 November 2013). In addition, in April 2016, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles, WHO International Clinical
Laurino, Mercy Y; Leppig, Kathleen A; Abad, Peter James; Cham, Breana; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Kejriwal, Saahil; Lee, Juliana M H; Sternen, Darci L; Thompson, Jennifer K; Burgess, Matthew J; Chien, Shu; Elackatt, Niby; Lim, Jiin Ying; Sura, Thanyachai; Faradz, Sultana; Padilla, Carmencita; Paz, Eva Cutiongco de-la; Nauphar, Donny; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Zayts, Olya; Vu, Dung Chi; Thong, Meow-Keong
The Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia (PSGCA) was recently established as a special interest group of the Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics. Fostering partnerships across the globe, the PSGCA's vision is to be the lead organization that advances and mainstreams the genetic counseling profession in Asia and ensures individuals have access to genetic counseling services. Its mission is to promote quality genetic counseling services in the region by enhancing practice and curricular standards, research and continuing education. The PSGCA was formally launched during the Genetic Counseling Pre-Conference Workshop held at the 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Genetics in Hanoi, Viet Nam, September 16, 2015. The pre-conference workshop provided an opportunity for medical geneticists and genetic counselors from across 10 Asia Pacific countries to learn about the varied genetic counseling practices and strategies for genetic counseling training. This paper provides an overview of the current status and challenges in these countries, and proposed course of unified actions for the future of the genetic counseling profession.
Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia
, was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...
Leider, Jonathon P; Tung, Greg J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Johnson, Emily K; Hardy, Rose; Castrucci, Brian C
Community Benefit spending by not-for-profit hospitals has served as a critical, formalized part of the nation's safety net for almost 50 years. This has occurred mostly through charity care. This article examines how not-for-profit hospitals spent Community Benefit dollars prior to full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Using data from 2009 to 2012 hospital tax and other governmental filings, we constructed national, hospital-referral-region, and facility-level estimates of Community Benefit spending. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2015 and 2016. Data were matched at the facility level for a non-profit hospital's IRS tax filings (Form 990, Schedule H) and CMS Hospital Cost Report Information System and Provider of Service data sets. During 2009, hospitals spent about 8% of total operating expenses on Community Benefit. This increased to between 8.3% and 8.5% in 2012. The majority of spending (>80%) went toward charity care, unreimbursed Medicaid, and subsidized health services, with approximately 6% going toward both community health improvement and health professionals' education. By 2012, national spending on Community Benefit likely exceeded $60 billion. The largest hospital systems spent the vast majority of the nation's Community Benefit; the top 25% of systems spent more than 80 cents of every Community Benefit dollar. Community Benefit spending has remained relatively steady as a proportion of total operating expenses and so has increased over time-although charity care remains the major focus of Community Benefit spending overall. More than $60 billion was spent on Community Benefit prior to implementation of the ACA. New reporting and spending requirements from the IRS, alongside changes by the ACA, are changing incentives for hospitals in how they spend Community Benefit dollars. In the short term, and especially the long term, hospital systems would do well to partner with public health, other social services, and even
Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga
Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leaders practice of determining strategic direction and organizational performance. An embedded mixed method research assessing the impact of strategic leadership variable determining strategic direction and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between determining strategic direction and organizational performance. The results found r value of 0.676 and r2 value of 0.457 that is 45.7 of corresponding change in the organizational performance of not-for-profits for every change is explained by the predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders clearly determine the organizations strategic direction they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined how determining strategic direction strategic planning in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is recommended. This paper proposes the study of determining strategic direction strategic planning as way of improving strategic leadership practices hence enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.
Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".
Sear, A M
It is often assumed that investor-owned hospitals are more market driven than are not-for-profit hospitals, and that they will maximize output and minimize inputs, to the exclusion of other management strategies. To resolve the conflicting research evidence, this study analyzed efficiency and profitability measures for approximately 50 investor-owned and 60 not-for-profit hospitals in Florida for the period from 1982 through 1988. The results indicate that the investor-owned hospitals used significantly fewer FTE staff per bed, had significantly fewer manhours per adjusted patient day, and paid significantly less in wages and had significantly higher operating margins (profit) than did the not-for-profit institutions.
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[Work and Training Conditions of Young German Physicians in Internal Medicine - Results of a Second Nationwide Survey by Young Internists from the German Society of Internal Medicine and the German Professional Association of Internists.
Raspe, Matthias; Vogelgesang, Anja; Fendel, Johannes; Weiß, Cornelius; Schulte, Kevin; Rolling, Thierry
Medical specialty training is the basis for career development of young internists and it is vital for the delivery of high-quality medical care. In 2014 the young internists of two professional bodies in Germany conducted a survey among their young members and described major factors influencing training and working conditions. We present the results of a follow-up survey to describe changes of these factors over time. An additional focus is set on the difficulties of balancing medical career and family. In the end of 2016 we conducted an online-based survey of all members in training of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and the Professional Association of German Internists (BDI). The questionnaire used in the 2014 survey was modified and items investigating the balance between career and family were added. A total of 1587 questionnaires were returned and analysed. Mayor findings did not change over time. Psychosocial strain remains very high among medical trainees in internal medicine. A structured training curriculum and meaningful feedback are associated with lower psychosocial strain and higher work satisfaction. Internists - and here especially women - with children experience the daily balance of medical career and family as extremely challenging. These results demonstrate that there is still a serious need for adjusting training and working conditions of young internists in Germany. Especially the role and increasing importance of female physicians has to be recognized by enabling a successful integration of medical career and family. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Champney, Thomas H
Human cadavers are a scarce resource that have educational, research and clinical value. While the tissues have great value, it is illegal in many countries to pay for them. In the United States, a number of for-profit body acquisition companies have been established over the past decade. These companies obtain bodies which were freely donated by the individuals or their families. The companies distribute the specimens to surgical training organizations, researchers and educational institutions. These businesses do not charge the receiving organizations for the bodies; they do, however, charge a fee that covers the transport, handling and other services which creates a profit for their companies. These types of businesses are described and analyzed as to whether they constitute an ethically appropriate mechanism to obtain and distribute bodies. The role of organizations and governments in establishing policies and regulations for the appropriate treatment of human remains is addressed. Recommendations are given for best practices in the ethical use and regulation of willed bodies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto
This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators. However, these benefits and political potential against biomedical interventions were undermined after being relabeled as a "reverse innovation," a business concept that encourages corporate investments in low-income countries to develop technologies that can both solve global health problems and boost multinational corporations profits. In response, I propose "subaltern health innovations" as a label for KMC that accounts for the power dynamics in global health between health care initiatives that originate in the Global South and neoliberal configurations of for-profit biomedicine. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.
Tierney, William G.
Although for-profit colleges and universities have had a long history in the United States, they have garnered significant attention only in the last decade. In the early 20th century, career colleges existed primarily in urban areas to provide training for specific trades or professions--plumbing, restaurant management, art and design,…
Sandlin, Deborah L.
This research project is a study comparing for-profit schools and traditional universities related to student persistence, graduation rate, and job placement. The results based on a sample size of 92 students indicate that there is no significant difference between persistence, graduation rates and successful job placement at either school. There…
Harrington, Charlene; Jacobsen, Frode F; Panos, Justin; Pollock, Allyson; Sutaria, Shailen; Szebehely, Marta
This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability. PMID:28634428
Berger, Joseph B.; Ramírez, Gerardo Blanco; Hudson, Katherine Edmund
Higher education is rapidly expanding and diversifying across all regions of the globe. Much of that growth has been absorbed by the expansion of the private and for-profit sector, a trend that is particularly prevalent in Asia. Higher education is not only expanding but is also becoming increasingly global, with a mix of different corporate,…
Online programming has expanded greatly within higher education and much attention has been spent on public two year colleges (more commonly known as community colleges) and both private and public four year institutions. This research seeks to expand understanding of the small market of private not-for-profit two year colleges within the United…
María Elena Macías Llanes
Full Text Available La Educación Superior en general ha arribado al siglo XXI abocada al reclamo de la pertinencia, a satisfacer la necesidad de contribuir al desarrollo económico, a ocupar cada vez mayor espacios en la construcción endógena de conocimiento, todo ello en el contexto de sus misiones en el campo de la enseñanza, la investigación y la extensión universitaria, el presente trabajo toma estas consideraciones en cuenta para reflexionar entorno a la educación médica en particular. En especial se analiza el significado del presente proceso de universalización en ese contexto, para finalmente fundamentar la pertinencia de la educación en Ciencia-Tecnología-Sociedad en la formación del profesional de la saludHigh Education in general has arrived to the XXI century to satisfy the necessity to contribute to the economic development, to occupy more spaces in the endogenous construction of knowledge, all this in the field of teaching, the investigation and university extension. The present work takes these considerations into account to reflect on the medical education mainly. Especially the meaning of the present universalization is analysed in that context, to base finally the relevancy of the Science, Technology and Society education in the formation of the professionals of medicine
Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper
the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....
Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper
the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....
Watt, J M; Derzon, R A; Renn, S C; Schramm, C J; Hahn, J S; Pillari, G D
We examined the differences in the economic performance of 80 matched pairs of investor-owned chain and not-for-profit hospitals in eight states during 1978 and 1980, and considered how their operating strategies might affect their relative success in a more price-conscious market. We found that total charges (adjusted for case mix) and net revenues per case were both significantly higher in the investor-owned chain hospitals, mainly because of higher charges for ancillary services; there were no significant differences between the two groups of hospitals in regard to patient-care costs per case (adjusted for case mix), but the investor-owned hospitals had significantly higher administrative overhead costs; investor-owned hospitals were more profitable; investor-owned hospitals had fewer employees per occupied bed but paid more per employee; investor-owned hospitals had funded more of their capital through debt and had significantly higher capital costs in proportion to their operating costs; and the two groups did not differ in patient mix, as measured by their Medicare case-mix indexes or the proportions of their patients covered by Medicare or Medicaid. We conclude that investor-owned chain hospitals generated higher profits through more aggressive pricing practices rather than operating efficiencies - a result not unexpected in view of past cost-based reimbursement policies. Recent changes in these policies are creating new pressures for cost control and moderation in charges, to which both types of hospitals must adapt. Neither type has a clear-cut advantage in the ability to make the necessary changes.
Kondilis, Elias; Gavana, Magda; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Dombros, Nikolaos; Benos, Alexis
Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision.
Hernandez, R; Hill, D B
The relative competitive advantages of regional and national systems are summarized in Figure One. As illustrated, each type of system has unique competitive advantages at the corporate level. While it is difficult to state that either system has distinct advantages that place it in a superior position relative to the other, it seems that in the short-run investor-owned systems have operating characteristics that may result in more efficient internal functioning because of more centralized control over resource allocation and performance systems, greater possibilities for economies of scale, and greater access to capital. However, it was previously noted that growing pressures from government and the business community will lead to tighter constraints on the profitability of investments in the health care sector. The possibility of this shift suggests that the access to capital advantage enjoyed by investor-owned systems may not continue. Additionally, regional systems that are part of larger affiliated organizations such as the Sun Alliance and the Voluntary Hospitals of America are developing means to pool their access to debt funds, thus reducing the cost of capital for member institutions. The group purchasing contracts developed by these large systems also have resulted in significant savings. The distinction between regional and national systems on centralized control are becoming less pronounced. Investor-owned systems are seeking to determine how they might best decentralize selected decisions to be more responsive to local markets while not-for-profit regional systems are recognizing that they must centralize selected decisions to obtain more efficient, rational operation. The long-run outlook suggests that the competitive advantages that have been identified will become less pronounced and that both systems will survive in the marketplace.
Walker, Peter; Hein, Karen; Russ, Catherine; Bertleff, Greg; Caspersz, Dan
International humanitarian response to crises employs 210,000 people and accounts for nearly $15 billion in spending globally each year. Most action is carried out by not-for-profit organizations working with United Nations (UN) agencies, military organizations, and commercial entities. UN agencies employ many technical experts, often retaining them for five or more years. As yet there is no international professional apparatus to promote the quality and integrity of this workforce. This paper reports on research exploring the case for professionalizing humanitarian action through an international professional association, the development of core competencies, and the creation of a universal certification system for aid workers.
This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...
Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth
There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richman, Barbara T.
Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.
In the biggest deal of its kind, not-for-profit giant Ascension is going to build ambulatory surgery centers with for-profit United Surgical Partners, which already has a deal with Baylor, left. "Hospitals are realizing that outpatient services are the future. This strategy is sound," one healthcare consultant said.
This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014) based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE) Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP) organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisat...
Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, Nico; Roth, Natalie
Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public-dominated incubat......Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public......-dominated incubation landscape may influence established theoretical frameworks. Within this context, this paper analyses 11 German business incubators to look at the most common types of for-profit business incubators in Germany and their main characteristics. Moreover, it introduces classification criteria...... for these incubators. Another aspect of the analysis is the effect of the triple helix dimensions of the different incubation types. The results show that two additional types of incubators can be identified in addition to the traditional public business incubator model, namely 'company builders' and 'accelerators...
Shah, Kanira; Bjørndal, Trond
The focus of this paper is on evaluating how Café Femenino Peru, an organically grown coffee produced by women, is successful in promoting gender equity, while being a for-profit business. Using the ‘pro-poor perspective’ of Porter’s value chain analysis as its primary methodology, this research identifies links and dynamics in the value chain of Café Femenino Peru but with a gender lens perspective. Results reveal that the combined increases in income and the increased access to assista...
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.
Ceccaldi, J; Thibert, J-B; Haddad, A; Bouësseau, M-C; Pottier, R; Danic, B; Noël, S; Monsellier, M; Tissot, J-D; Sannié, T; Clavier, B; Mamzer, M-F; Cartron, J-P; Vernant, J-P; Hervé, C; Garraud, O
The not-for-profit issue has been debated in November 2016 in Paris; this issue is one of the four canonical pillars of ethical blood donation. It is intimately bound to benevolence though it is distinct, as not-for-profit calls for institutions while benevolence calls for individuals. It is indeed intended that voluntary blood donors do not benefit from their donation and are thus non-remunerated. Not-for-profit is essential since it refers to the public character of blood as a putative public resource aimed at being shared as a tribute of solidarity. A central question however is linked to the capacity- or not -of public sectors to ensure that blood components are universally available, with special mention to plasma derived drugs, without the contribution of the for profit, private sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? 37.675 Section 37.675 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? Yes, you must include...
de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo
Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not-for-profit
Natalie Jane de Vries
Full Text Available Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score. A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not-for-profit
Sutherland, Karen Elizabeth
Not-for-profit organisations have looked to social media as a less expensive option to build relationships with those they rely on for survival: donors, supporters and volunteers. While recent research has explored ways not-for-profits have used social media to strengthen brands, engagement and relationships, less attention has focused on stakeholders of charities in relation to habits, attitudes and approaches to social media technology, particularly within Australia. To address this gap, a ...
Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt
This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.
Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki
While the distinct behaviors of for-profit and non-profit providers in the healthcare market have been compared in the economic literature, their choices regarding market entry and exit have only recently been debated. Since 2000, when public Long-Term Care Insurance was introduced in Japan, for-profit providers have been able to provide formal long-term homecare services. The aim of this study is to determine which factors have affected market entry of for-profit providers under price regulation and in competition with existing non-profit providers. We used nation-wide panel data from 2002 to 2010, aggregated at the level of local public insurers (n = 1557), a basic area unit of service provision. The number of for-profit providers per elderly population in the area unit was regressed against factors related to local demand and service costs using first-difference linear regression, a fixed effects model, and Tobit regression for robustness checking. Results showed that demand (the number of eligible care recipients) and cost factors (population density and minimum wage) significantly influenced for-profit providers' choice of market entry. These findings indicate that for-profit providers will strategically choose a local market for maximizing profit. We believe that price regulation should be redesigned to incorporate quality of care and market conditions, regardless of the profit status of the providers, to ensure equal access to efficient delivery of long-term care across all regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, O. Meredith
Traditionally, universities have independently sought and preserved knowledge and prepared students for professional careers, although society has influenced and supported their objectives. Today's universities, challenged by the increasingly complex needs of society, are responding with educational innovations that are usually profitable to both.…
Full Text Available SORGING is a non-profit, non-governmental society, opened to all professionals interested in Engineering Graphics and Design. It aims to promote the research, development and innovation activities, together with the dissemination of best practices and assistance for educational purposes. In this paper the research and educational activities of the Romanian Society for Engineering Graphics will be briefly reviewed.
Reports that greater numbers of scholarly societies, though American in name, are increasingly international in membership and outlook. Suggests that this trend has been driven by the expanding global outlook of scholars, the collapse of communism, and growth of the Internet. Efforts to encourage local professional societies, fears of American…
Carlson, Jamie; Kitchens, Brent; Kozary, Ben; Zaki, Mohamed
Using a small-scale descriptive network analysis approach, this study highlights the importance of stakeholder networks for identifying valuable stakeholders and the management of existing stakeholders in the context of mental health not-for-profit services. We extract network data from the social media brand pages of three health service organizations from the U.S., U.K., and Australia, to visually map networks of 579 social media brand pages (represented by nodes), connected by 5,600 edges. This network data is analyzed using a collection of popular graph analysis techniques to assess the differences in the way each of the service organizations manage stakeholder networks. We also compare node meta-information against basic topology measures to emphasize the importance of effectively managing relationships with stakeholders who have large external audiences. Implications and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:27711236
Venkataramani, Prakash; Johnson, Tricia; O'Neil, Patricia; Poindexter, Victoria; Rooney, Jeffrey
The utilization of interest rate derivative instruments in US for-profit companies has grown exponentially since the early 1980s. International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA), reported that the amount of outstanding standard swaps grew by 25 percent during the first six months of 2003. The growth rate of all interest rate derivatives, which includes single-currency interest rate swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps, and interest rate options, grew by 24 percent during the same period. The total outstanding amount of interest rate derivatives now totals $123.9 trillion compared to $99.9 trillion at the end of 2002 (Dodd, 2003). This explosion in usage is a testament to the efficacy and flexibility of the instruments and the increased appreciation by financial managers of the importance of financial risk management in a volatile interest rate environment.
Full Text Available Using a small-scale descriptive network analysis approach, this study highlights the importance of stakeholder networks for identifying valuable stakeholders and the management of existing stakeholders in the context of mental health not-for-profit services. We extract network data from the social media brand pages of three health service organizations from the U.S., U.K., and Australia, to visually map networks of 579 social media brand pages (represented by nodes, connected by 5,600 edges. This network data is analyzed using a collection of popular graph analysis techniques to assess the differences in the way each of the service organizations manage stakeholder networks. We also compare node meta-information against basic topology measures to emphasize the importance of effectively managing relationships with stakeholders who have large external audiences. Implications and future research directions are also discussed.
What is a profession? According to Cruess, it is an occupation whose core element is work that is based on the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning, or the practice of an art founded on it, is used in the service of others. Its members profess a commitment to competence, integrity, morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Although medical professionals share the role of healer, there are wide variations between individuals. Professionalism is the basis of medicine's contract with society. Public trust is essential to that contract, and public trust depends on the integrity of both individual professionals and the whole profession. The introduction to this important symposium includes definitions of professions and of medical professionalism. It also includes discussions of reciprocal altruism, conflicts of interest in medical societies, the theory of cognitive dissonance, and the moral foundations of professionalism.
Jeffrey J. Bagraim
This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also ...
Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.
This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by
Nohlgren, Ingrid; Gunnarsson, Emma; Lundqvist, Per; Stigander, Haakan; Widmark, Annika (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))
During the last 5-10 years, research and development efforts have been made in the field of polygeneration of heat and power with production of 'other green' products such as transport fuels or wood pellets. The driving force for heat and power producers is the potential of increased profitability through additional sales of heat. The driving force for wood pellet and some transport fuel producers is the potential of low cost process steam or heat. However, in the case of gasification based transport fuel production processes the situation is different. The process generates a surplus of heat, which can benefit from the proximity of a district heating net. In addition, some polygeneration combinations could provide other advantages such as more efficient raw material handling. Together with these driving forces, the EU renewable energy directive (which targets 10 % renewable energy use in the transport sector by 2020), shows that the market for production of renewable transport fuel is expanding. To refine Swedish biomass resources to more highly valuable products such as wood pellets or renewable transport fuels would maintain industry and employment opportunities within Sweden and at the same time fulfils the international and national climate targets. The overall aim with this project is to describe the factors which are crucial for the opportunity for profitable polygeneration of heat, power and wood pellets or renewable transport fuels and how these factors influence the location of such a plant within Sweden. The important factors can be categorized as: (1) Supply of raw material, (2) distribution of raw material and products, (3) Demand of products and (4) Integration between the different plants. In this project, only general aspects are described and should be seen as guidance for the industry (both energy and forest industry) which has an interest in polygeneration. The project gives an overview of different possibilities, opportunities and
 The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.
Sullivan, Brendan; Morse, Annie
Professional development in the art museum setting represents an opportunity for corporate and for-profit enterprises to enhance employees' skills in observation, creative thinking, teamwork, and sensitivity in diversity. Using original works of art as a point of departure for in-depth discussion of what appears as narrative content, participants…
A decontamination operation will only be successful if cost-efficient methods are used. The cost-effectiveness depends, among many other factors, including the qualifications and training of the personnel and the capability of the equipment. The personnel must be able to handle the equipment in a professional way and should also know how to protect themselves. To fulfil these requirements they need courses in radiation protection. The equipment must be suitable for the selected countermeasure. Societies planning and preparedness for reclamation should meet realistic demands for early actions and outline a cost-effective strategy that implies reasonable use of personnel and equipment resources. Planning for early cleanup actions is different from that of long term planning with respect to the available time and quantity and quality of available information on which to base decisions. Available resources vary, of course, between the Nordic countries, but in all countries there are organisations with both knowledgeable staff and suitable equipment accessible for decontamination operations. (EG)
Shumba, Constance Sibongile; Kielmann, Karina; Witter, Sophie
An in-depth understanding of how organizational culture is experienced by health workers (HWs), and influences their decisions to leave their jobs is a fundamental, yet under-examined, basis for forming effective retention strategies. This research examined HWs' working experiences and perceptions of organisational culture within private-not-for-profit, largely mission-based hospitals, and how this influenced retention. Thirty-two HWs, including managers, in 19 health facilities in Uganda were interviewed using a semi-structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Interviews showed that the organizational culture was predominantly hierarchical, with non-participative management styles which emphasized control and efficiency. HWs and managers held different perceptions of the organizational culture. While the managers valued results and performance, HWs valued team work, recognition and participative management. The findings of this study indicate that organizational culture influences retention of HWs in health facilities and provide a useful context to inform health care managers in the PNFP sub-sector in Uganda and similar contexts. To improve retention of HWs, a gradual shift in organizational culture will be necessary, focussing on the values, beliefs and perceptions which have the greatest influence on observable behaviour.
... participant's records do I include in a TIA? 37.915 Section 37.915 National Defense Department of Defense... What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA? (a) If a for... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32 CFR...
Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie
Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…
Scott, George A.
To respond to Congress' interest in student outcomes at different types of schools, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What does research show about graduation rates, employment outcomes, student loan debts, and default rates for students at for-profit schools compared to those at nonprofit and public schools, taking differences in…
A guide to guidelines for professional societies and other developers of recommendations: introduction to integrating and coordinating efforts in COPD guideline development. An official ATS/ERS workshop report.
Schünemann, Holger J; Woodhead, Mark; Anzueto, Antonio; Buist, A Sonia; Macnee, William; Rabe, Klaus F; Heffner, John
Organizations around the world are recognizing that guidelines should be based on the best available evidence, that the development of recommendations needs to be transparent, and that appropriate processes should be followed. In June 2007, we convened an American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS)-sponsored workshop with over 60 representatives from 36 international organizations to provide advice to guideline developers about the required steps and processes for guideline development using the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as an example. Following the workshop, participants completed a series of 14 review articles that underwent peer review and incorporated key new literature until June 2011 for most articles in this series. The review articles evaluate the guideline cycle including: priority setting, question formulation, managing conflict of interest, defining appropriate outcomes, stakeholder involvement, grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations, integration of values and preferences, considering resource use, reporting of guidelines, implementation, and adaptation. In this Introduction we frame the background and methods of these reviews and provide the key conclusions of the workshop. A summary of the workshop's conclusions and recommendations was published in The Lancet. Given the enormous resources that are spent on research and the importance of providing the best guidance to healthcare decision makers, attributing appropriate funds to research syntheses and transparent, independent guidance for the development of evidence-based guidelines is justified. Furthermore, given the immense amount of work that is required, individuals and organizations need to collaborate to achieve the best possible and cost-effective coordination of these efforts.
WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.
their employees to inculcate a professional identity. On the other hand, there is a prima facie case to be made that employees of the security...violates international obligations is attributable to a State if it is committed by the government of the State or any of its po- litical subdivisions...of social obligation to utilize this craft for the benefit of society.19 Charles Moskos suggested that vocations motivated by economic re- wards are
Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh
Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential
Tung, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara
The bottom of the pyramid concept suggests that profit can be made in providing goods and services to poor people, when high volume is combined with low margins. To-date there has been very limited empirical evidence from the health sector concerning the scope and potential for such bottom of the pyramid models. This paper analyzes private for-profit (PFP) providers currently offering services to the poor on a large scale, and assesses the future prospects of bottom of the pyramid models in health. We searched published and grey literature and databases to identify PFP companies that provided more than 40,000 outpatient visits per year, or who covered 15% or more of a particular type of service in their country. For each included provider, we searched for additional information on location, target market, business model and performance, including quality of care. Only 10 large scale PFP providers were identified. The majority of these were in South Asia and most provided specialized services such as eye care. The characteristics of the business models of these firms were found to be similar to non-profit providers studied by other analysts (such as Bhattacharya 2010). They pursued social rather than traditional marketing, partnerships with government, low cost/high volume services and cross-subsidization between different market segments. There was a lack of reliable data concerning these providers. There is very limited evidence to support the notion that large scale bottom of the pyramid models in health offer good prospects for extending services to the poor in the future. In order to be successful PFP providers often require partnerships with government or support from social health insurance schemes. Nonetheless, more reliable and independent data on such schemes is needed.
Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.
Jenlink, Patrick M.
Determining the priorities for leadership education in a democratic society is a complex, challenging responsibility, not a task to be taken lightly. It is complex on one level in that to be a leader in schools "today is to understand a profoundly human as well as a professional responsibility." It is challenging on another level in that preparing…
American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...
Philip E. Steinberg
Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.
Full Text Available This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014 based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisations reported that they found it difficult to make effective use of their websites. One of the proposed solutions was to develop an online community of the participating organisations that would be self-supporting, member-driven and collaborative, and enable the organisations to share information about web-based technology. The research reported here explored the usefulness of developing such an online community for the organisations involved and sought alternative ways to assist the organisations to maintain an effective and sustainable web presence. The research used a three-phase ethnographic action research approach. The first phase was a content analysis and review of the editing records of 135 organisational websites hosted by the SOCE project. The second phase was an online survey sent to 145 community organisation members responsible for the management of these websites, resulting in 48 responses. The third phase consisted of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 of the website managers from 12 of these organisations. The research revealed the extent to which organisations were unable to manage their websites and found that the proposed solution of an online community would not be useful. More importantly, it suggested other useful strategies which have been implemented. In Furco’s (2010 model of the engaged campus, public engagement can be used to advance the public service, teaching and research components of higher education’s tripartite
Ubeda, Jonny de la Caridad
This paper deals with the librarian’s professional role within the context of the society of knowledge. The objective was to characterize the professional performance of librarians consequently the study was carried out by means of theoretical methods and procedures to systematize the ideas of contemporary author on the topic. Data has been multiplied geometrically as a result of scientific development, such a prolific production of data together with innovation in the field of the sciences o...
Janssen, Sandra; Kreijns, Karel; Theo, Bastiaens; Stijnen, Sjef; Vermeulen, Marjan
Professional development of teachers has become an essential condition in today’s knowledge-based society to sustain the quality of teaching. Therefore, the Dutch government promotes this now professional development. As a result, Professional Development Plans (PDPs) are now increasingly used to
A. V. Reshetnichenko
Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.
For-Profit Colleges: Undercover Testing Finds Colleges Encouraged Fraud and Engaged in Deceptive and Questionable Marketing Practices. Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. GAO-10-948T
Kutz, Gregory D.
Enrollment in for-profit colleges has grown from about 365,000 students to almost 1.8 million in the last several years. These colleges offer degrees and certifications in programs ranging from business administration to cosmetology. In 2009, students at for-profit colleges received more than $4 billion in Pell Grants and more than $20 billion in…
Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.
This presentation outlines the functions of the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Activities of the organization include professional development, recruiting, retention, public outreach, leadership, networking, workforce issues, mentoring and communications
Michael, Kimberly; Tran, Xuan; Keller, Shelby; Sayles, Harlan; Custer, Tanya
To gather data on educational program requirements for student membership in a state or national professional society, organization, or association. A 10-question online survey about student involvement in professional societies was emailed to 616 directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)-accredited radiography programs. A total of 219 responses were received, for a 36% response rate. Of these, 89 respondents (41%) answered that their programs require students to join a professional organization. The society respondents most often required (70%) was a state radiography society. Sixty respondents (68%) answered that students join a society at the beginning of the radiography program (from matriculation to 3 months in). Of programs requiring student membership in professional societies, 42 (49%) reported that their students attend the state or national society annual conference; however, participation in activities at the conferences and in the society throughout the year is lower than conference attendance. Some directors stated that although their programs' policies do not allow membership mandates, they encourage students to become members, primarily so that they can access webinars and other educational materials or information related to the profession. Survey data showed that most JRCERT-accredited radiography programs support but do not require student membership in professional organizations. The data reveal that more programs have added those requirements in recent years. Increased student participation could be realized if programs mandated membership and supported it financially. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Dostie, Benoît; Javdani, Mohsen
We use Canadian linked employer-employee data to examine gender differences in probability, duration, and intensity of firm-sponsored training. We find that women in the for-profit sector are less likely to receive classroom training, and receive shorter classroom training courses. However, we find the reverse in the non-profit sector, with women being more likely to receive both classroom and on-the-job training, and also receiving longer classroom training courses. Our results suggest that ...
Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N
Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to othe...
A Senate hearing last week helped boost not-for-profit hospitals' chances of facing a new standard for reporting community benefits. At stake for hospitals are billions in tax breaks. The standard for exemption hasn't been modified since 1969, and "has not kept up with the substantial unfunded health needs of communities," says Nancy Kane, right, a member of MedPAC.
Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N
Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death.
McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M
To assess the financial and operational differences in freestanding inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) that are operated by HealthSouth Corporation relative to other for-profit and nonprofit system-affiliated ownership groups. Since 2003, when it faced fraud charges and financial penalties, HealthSouth has experienced new management and refocused its business strategy. Because HealthSouth is the largest provider of freestanding IRF services, it is important to understand how their performance may differ relative to other ownership groups. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess differences in median values for financial and operational variables of HealthSouth-owned IRFs compared with other for-profit system IRFs and nonprofit system IRFs. System-affiliated freestanding IRFs in the United States. Sixty-four HealthSouth IRFs, 18 nonprofit system-affiliated IRFs, and 18 for-profit system-affiliated IRFs. Not applicable. Net patient revenue per adjusted discharge, operating expense per adjusted discharge, salary expense per full-time equivalent, and cash flow margin. HealthSouth IRFs had significantly lower net patient revenue per adjusted discharge and operating expense per adjusted discharge; however, its cash flow margin was significantly higher than other comparison groups. HealthSouth IRFs treated a higher case mix of patients relative to these comparison groups. The financial and operating performance of HealthSouth IRFs is stronger than other ownership groups. Strong cash flow will enable HealthSouth to pay down long-term debt.
moral philosophy at the University of Oxford, contributed "Can I be Blamed for Obeying Orders?" Taylor’s article distinguishes between the...accountability for moral agency, dedication to duty, and commitment to the greater good of the society the military serves. For the military...focusing on duty, moral obligation, and service to society. 3 Texts covering two broad areas of military professionalism are referenced in the
Saha, T. K.
The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of
Aprile, A E
Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.
An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....
... Other Meetings Publications Clinical Care Recommendations Chapter 1: Menopause Chapter 2: Midlife Body Changes Chapter 3: Clinical ... Nonprescription Options Chapter 8: Prescription Therapies Professional Publications Menopause Journal Contents Position Statements & Other Reports Menopause Practice ...
Long, Francis M.
Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)
Ruh, H.; Seiler, H.
The aim of the workshops which was reported in this volume, was the interpretation and evaluation of catastrophic risks for society in an interdisciplinary dialogue between representation of society, ethics, as well as natural science and technology. (author) figs., tabs., refs
Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria
lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…
The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....
and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...
Jensen, Anne Winther
professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...
Discusses the neglect of foreign languages by LIS (library and information science) departments in English-speaking countries and the problems this will cause in an increasingly multicultural environment. Topics include monolingualism in United Kingdom LIS departments; and suggestions for how to integrate new modules into LIS courses to overcome…
Macías Llanes, María Elena
La Educación Superior en general ha arribado al siglo XXI abocada al reclamo de la pertinencia, a satisfacer la necesidad de contribuir al desarrollo económico, a ocupar cada vez mayor espacios en la construcción endógena de conocimiento, todo ello en el contexto de sus misiones en el campo de la enseñanza, la investigación y la extensión universitaria, el presente trabajo toma estas consideraciones en cuenta para reflexionar entorno a la educación médica en particular. En especial se analiza...
Dirk Postma; P. van Heijst
6th European Conference for Social Work Research In this paper, qualitative data are presented and analyzed to comprehend how social workers, volunteers, and users participate and construct change within hybrid practices. In the Nordic countries, there is an increasing concern about the stability
Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie; Ugal, David Betelwhobel; Ingwu, Justin Agorye
Lower availability of medicines in Nigerian public health facilities-the most affordable option for the masses-undermines global health reforms to improve access to health for all, especially the chronically ill and poor. Thus, a sizeable proportion of healthcare users, irrespective of purchasing power, buy medicines at higher costs from for-profit pharmacies. We examined user evaluation of medicine availability in public facilities and how this influences their choice of where to buy medicines in selected states-Cross River, Enugu and Oyo-in Nigeria. We approached and interviewed 1711 healthcare users using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire as they exited for-profit pharmacies after purchasing medicines. This ensured that both clients who had presented at health facilities (private/public) and those who did not were included. Information was collected on why respondents could not buy medicines at the hospitals they attended, their views of medicine availability and whether their choice of where to buy medicines is influenced by non-availability. Respondents' mean age was 37.7±14.4 years; 52% were males, 59% were married, 82% earned ≥NGN18, 000 (US$57.19) per month, and 72% were not insured. Majority (66%) had prescriptions; of this, 70% were from public facilities. Eighteen percent of all respondents indicated that all their medicines were usually available at the public facilities, most (29%), some (44%) and not always available (10%). Reasons for using for-profit pharmacies included: health workers attitudes (43%), referral by providers (43%); inadequate money to purchase all prescribed drugs (42%) and cumbersome processes for obtaining medicines. Lower availability of medicines has serious implications for healthcare behavior, especially because of poverty. It is crucial for government to fulfill its mandate of equitable access to care for all by making medicines available and cheap through reviving and sustaining the drug revolving
Duff, Alistair S
We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc
Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...
Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Hanehøj, Malin; Das, Ashima Rani
OBJECTIVES: To determine health care provider cost and household cost of the treatment of severe pneumonia in infants and young children admitted to secondary and tertiary level health care facilities. METHODS: The study was done in a private, not-for-profit medical college hospital, in Vellore...... comprised travel, accommodation and special food during the period of illness, and indirect costs of productivity loss for family members. Patient specific resource consumption and related charges were recorded from charts, nursing records, pharmacy lists and hospital bills, and the providers view point...
Kwong, Enid Wai-yung; Lee, Paul Hong; Yeung, Kwan-mo
Because the demand for government-subsidized nursing homes in Hong Kong outstrips the supply, the number of for-profit private nursing homes has been increasing rapidly. However, the standard of care in such homes is always criticized. Pressure ulcers are a major long-term care issue that is closely associated with the quality of care delivered in nursing home settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention programme for residents in private for-profit nursing homes. This is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated sample size of 1088 residents and 74 care staff from eight for-profit private nursing homes. Eligible nursing homes will be those classified as category A2 homes in the Enhanced Bought Place Scheme (EBPS), having a capacity of around 130-150 beds, and no structured PU prevention protocol and/or programmes in place. Care staff will be health workers, personal care workers, and nurses who are front-line staff providing direct care to residents. Eight nursing homes will be randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will be provided with an intensive training programme and will be involved in the implementation of a 16-week pressure ulcer prevention protocol, while the control group will deliver the usual pressure ulcer prevention care. The study outcomes are the pressure ulcer prevention knowledge and skills of the care staff and the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. Data on the knowledge and skills of care staff, and prevalence of pressure ulcer will be collected at the base line, and then at the 8(th) week and at completion of the implementation of the protocol. The assessment of the incidence of pressures will start from before the commencement of the intensive training course to the end of the implementation of the protocol. In view of the negative impact of pressure ulcers, it is important to have an effective and evidence
relates to actual development work, where a social worker education program is restructured and developed, with the aim of creating optimal transfer. The social worker must 'be able to co-operate, organize, coordinate, implement, evaluate and develop social efforts’ in accordance with the curriculum. How...... does that look in practice? Based on interviews with newly-educated social workers, I have analyzed which competences the social worker (hereafter ‘he’) uses in practice, how these competences are developed, and how the student learns to apply the competences acquired in the educational program.......The purpose of the professional bachelor’s degree is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Anecdotal experience and research have shown that limited transfer between what is learned during the coursework and the subsequent professional practice. This article...
... SAMBA Link Digital Newsletter Educational Bibliography Research IARS/Anesthesia & Analgesia SCOR About SCOR Sponsor SAMBA Meetings Affinity Sponsor Program We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, ...
Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281
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Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus
Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)
Grand, Karina Lykke
The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...
Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Oyama, Kosuke
This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)
Vélez-González, Heltie; Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert
Non-financial measures have found increasing acceptance in the business world--however, their application in the health care industry remains limited. The purpose of this article is to understand the influence of non-financial measures (efficiency, productivity, and quality) on the financial performance of for-profit system hospitals. The sample consists of 499 for-profit system hospitals in the United States from 1999 to 2002. Data analyzed include the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey, Medicare Cost Reports, Joint Commission's quality scores, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Hospital Case Mix Index. Dependent variables consist of financial measures (operating and total margins), while independent variables include measures of efficiency, productivity, and quality. Our results suggest the influence of non-financial performance measures on financial performance; occupancy rate positively influences financial performance while greater labor intensity may have negative implications for financial performance. In addition, we show that quality positively influences financial performance thereby offering a potential business case for quality. This result has important managerial and policy implications as it may incentivize capital and human resource investments required to improve hospital quality of care.
Singh, Simone Rauscher
For decades, not-for-profit hospitals have been required to provide community benefit in exchange for tax exemption. To fulfill this requirement, hospitals engage in a variety of activities ranging from free and reduced cost care provided to individual patients to services aimed at improving the health of the community at large. Limited financial resources may restrict hospitals' ability to provide the full range of community benefits and force them to engage in trade-offs. We analyzed the composition of not-for-profit hospitals' community benefit expenditures and explored whether hospitals traded off between charity care and spending on other community benefit activities. Data for this study came from Maryland hospitals' state-level community benefit reports for 2006-2010. Bivariate Spearman's rho correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships among various components of hospitals' community benefit activities. We found no evidence of trade-offs between charity care and activities targeted at the health and well-being of the community at large. Consistently, hospitals that provided more charity care did not offset these expenditures by reducing their spending on other community benefit activities, including mission-driven health services, community health services, and health professions education. Hospitals' decisions about how to allocate community benefit dollars are made in the context of broader community health needs and resources. Concerns that hospitals serving a disproportionate number of charity patients might provide fewer benefits to the community at large appear to be unfounded.
Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,
Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina
The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.
the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....
in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation...... countries. Nevertheless, as Moutsios suggests, the European tradition, notwithstanding its ideological usage by much of social sciences, contains an indissoluble critical and self-reflective dimension, which needs to be sustained and advanced in education and its cross-cultural comparison, perhaps, more......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...
Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias
Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...
The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)
The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)
Ubeda, Jonny de la Caridad
Full Text Available This paper deals with the librarian’s professional role within the context of the society of knowledge. The objective was to characterize the professional performance of librarians consequently the study was carried out by means of theoretical methods and procedures to systematize the ideas of contemporary author on the topic. Data has been multiplied geometrically as a result of scientific development, such a prolific production of data together with innovation in the field of the sciences of education and information make new demands for the training of librarian and their subsequent performance, which the study attempt to portray.
Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.
Patouillard, Edith; Goodman, Catherine A; Hanson, Kara G; Mills, Anne J
Background There has been a growing interest in the role of the private for-profit sector in health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The private sector represents an important source of care for all socioeconomic groups, including the poorest and substantial concerns have been raised about the quality of care it provides. Interventions have been developed to address these technical failures and simultaneously take advantage of the potential for involving private providers to achieve public health goals. Limited information is available on the extent to which these interventions have successfully expanded access to quality health services for poor and disadvantaged populations. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting the results of a systematic literature review on the effectiveness of working with private for-profit providers to reach the poor. Methods The search topic of the systematic literature review was the effectiveness of interventions working with the private for-profit sector to improve utilization of quality health services by the poor. Interventions included social marketing, use of vouchers, pre-packaging of drugs, franchising, training, regulation, accreditation and contracting-out. The search for published literature used a series of electronic databases including PubMed, Popline, HMIC and CabHealth Global Health. The search for grey and unpublished literature used documents available on the World Wide Web. We focused on studies which evaluated the impact of interventions on utilization and/or quality of services and which provided information on the socioeconomic status of the beneficiary populations. Results A total of 2483 references were retrieved, of which 52 qualified as impact evaluations. Data were available on the average socioeconomic status of recipient communities for 5 interventions, and on the distribution of benefits across socioeconomic groups for 5 interventions. Conclusion Few studies provided
Hanson Kara G
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a growing interest in the role of the private for-profit sector in health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The private sector represents an important source of care for all socioeconomic groups, including the poorest and substantial concerns have been raised about the quality of care it provides. Interventions have been developed to address these technical failures and simultaneously take advantage of the potential for involving private providers to achieve public health goals. Limited information is available on the extent to which these interventions have successfully expanded access to quality health services for poor and disadvantaged populations. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting the results of a systematic literature review on the effectiveness of working with private for-profit providers to reach the poor. Methods The search topic of the systematic literature review was the effectiveness of interventions working with the private for-profit sector to improve utilization of quality health services by the poor. Interventions included social marketing, use of vouchers, pre-packaging of drugs, franchising, training, regulation, accreditation and contracting-out. The search for published literature used a series of electronic databases including PubMed, Popline, HMIC and CabHealth Global Health. The search for grey and unpublished literature used documents available on the World Wide Web. We focused on studies which evaluated the impact of interventions on utilization and/or quality of services and which provided information on the socioeconomic status of the beneficiary populations. Results A total of 2483 references were retrieved, of which 52 qualified as impact evaluations. Data were available on the average socioeconomic status of recipient communities for 5 interventions, and on the distribution of benefits across socioeconomic groups for 5 interventions
Patouillard, Edith; Goodman, Catherine A; Hanson, Kara G; Mills, Anne J
There has been a growing interest in the role of the private for-profit sector in health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The private sector represents an important source of care for all socioeconomic groups, including the poorest and substantial concerns have been raised about the quality of care it provides. Interventions have been developed to address these technical failures and simultaneously take advantage of the potential for involving private providers to achieve public health goals. Limited information is available on the extent to which these interventions have successfully expanded access to quality health services for poor and disadvantaged populations. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting the results of a systematic literature review on the effectiveness of working with private for-profit providers to reach the poor. The search topic of the systematic literature review was the effectiveness of interventions working with the private for-profit sector to improve utilization of quality health services by the poor. Interventions included social marketing, use of vouchers, pre-packaging of drugs, franchising, training, regulation, accreditation and contracting-out. The search for published literature used a series of electronic databases including PubMed, Popline, HMIC and CabHealth Global Health. The search for grey and unpublished literature used documents available on the World Wide Web. We focused on studies which evaluated the impact of interventions on utilization and/or quality of services and which provided information on the socioeconomic status of the beneficiary populations. A total of 2483 references were retrieved, of which 52 qualified as impact evaluations. Data were available on the average socioeconomic status of recipient communities for 5 interventions, and on the distribution of benefits across socioeconomic groups for 5 interventions. Few studies provided evidence on the impact of private sector
Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.
Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational
in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....
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This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's
Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.
A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.
The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included
Schorr, Alvin L.
The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)
In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...
The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the
Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...
Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.
The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…
Friedman, B; Shortell, S
This article analyzes determinants of cost and profitability, including the influence of Medicare prospective payment (PPS), between 1983 and 1985 for nearly 300 hospitals belonging to investor-owned (IO) and not-for-profit (NFP) systems. Using approaches that assure comparability of financial data, and including case mix, quality, competition, and regulation measures, the findings indicate that (1) in both years, competitive environment, case mix, age of facility, and scope of diversified services were important determinants of average cost, while a process measure of quality was insignificant and the independent effect of ownership type was insignificant for cost; (2) effects of HMO competition and hospital strategy were stronger in 1985 than in 1983; (3) operating margins for all types of hospitals showed increases, with a somewhat greater improvement for NFP system members; and (4) significantly greater declines in volume of care occurred for IO system members. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:3133323
Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese
This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.
In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...
Kangasniemi, Mari; Pakkanen, Piiku; Korhonen, Anne
To conduct an integrative review and synthesize current primary studies of professional ethics in nursing. Professional ethics is a familiar concept in nursing and provides an ethical code for nursing practice. However, little is known about how professional ethics has been defined and studied in nursing science. Systematic literature searches from 1948-February 2013, using the CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus electronic databases to look at previously published peer-reviewed studies. A modified version of Cooper's five-stage integrative review was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Fourteen papers were included in this research. According to our synthesis, professional ethics is described as an intra-professional approach to care ethics and professionals commit to it voluntarily. Professional ethics consist of values, duties, rights and responsibilities, regulated by national legislation and international agreements and detailed in professional codes. Professional ethics is well established in nursing, but is constantly changing due to internal and external factors affecting the profession. Despite the obvious importance of professional ethics, it has not been studied much in nursing science. Greater knowledge of professional ethics is needed to understand and support nurses' moral decision-making and to respond to the challenges of current changes in health care and society. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wye, Lesley; Brangan, Emer; Cameron, Ailsa; Gabbay, John; Klein, Jonathan H; Anthwal, Rachel; Pope, Catherine
The use of external consultants from private and not-for-profit providers in the National Health Service (NHS) is intended to improve the quality of commissioning. The aim of this study was to learn about the support offered to healthcare commissioners, how external consultants and their clients work together and the perceived impact on the quality of commissioning. NHS commissioning organisations and private and not-for-profit providers. Mixed methods case study of eight cases. 92 interviews with external consultants (n=36), their clients (n=47) and others (n=9). Observation of 25 training events and meetings. Documentation, for example, meeting minutes and reports. Constant comparison. Data were coded, summarised and analysed by the research team with a coding framework to facilitate cross-case comparison. In the four contracts presented here, external providers offered technical solutions (eg, software tools), outsourcing and expertise including project management, data interpretation and brokering relationships with experts. In assessing perceived impact on quality of commissioning, two contracts had limited value, one had short-term benefits and one provided short and longer term benefits. Contracts with commissioners actively learning, embedding and applying new skills were more valued. Other elements of success were: (1) addressing clearly agreed problems of relevance to managerial and operational staff (2) solutions co-produced at all organisational levels (3) external consultants working directly with clients to interpret data outputs to inform locally contextualised commissioning strategies. Without explicit knowledge exchange strategies, outsourcing commissioning to external providers resulted in the NHS clients becoming dependent. NHS commissioning will be disadvantaged if commissioners both fail to learn in the short term from the knowledge of external providers and in the longer term lose local skills. Knowledge exchange mechanisms are a vital
Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi
Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)
Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....
Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has recorded phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social
Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.
The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...
Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in
The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout hi...
Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi
Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...
Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.
Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)
Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.
Full Text Available As educators in an increasingly global society, we realize that we need to train students-undergraduate and graduate-to live and work in a global environment. This idea is not a new one; scholars, administrators, and government officials have been promoting similar notions for several decades, especially since the advent of the Cold War. David Ward, president of the American Council on Education, emphasized at the 2003 annual meeting of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges that international education can no longer be considered "business as usual." The concept that graduates must have cross-cultural knowledge and expertise -long recognized in the languages and humanities-has steadily gained support to become an important goal and a marker of achievement for many professional schools in the United States today.
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.
Most medical photographers, unless working as dedicated ophthalmic photographers or retinal screeners, will shoot portraits or publicity pictures. Many will spend a proportion of their time producing brochure shots for patient information material or their Trust's Annual Report. High-quality images of staff at work are often required by the strategic planning departments of Trusts to support bids for business from service commissioners. This "non-clinical" work is in reality commercial work - the jobs that high street portrait and general practice photographers would undertake in different settings. Medical photographers use many of the same tools as their commercial cousins. They use the same DSLR cameras and lenses. They use Adobe Photoshop to manipulate images. However, one software tool extensively used by portrait and social photographers, but possibly unfamiliar to many medical photographers, is Portrait Professional. Currently in its 10th version, it is produced by Anthropics Technology ( http://www.anthropics.com ), a London-based company specialising in image manipulation software.
White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.
Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.
Tubiana, M.; Vrousos, C.; Pages, J.P.; Carde, C.
This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the
Eba Gaminde Egia
Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017
The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)
This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.
awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......, for driving innovation or for disseminating results to the scientific community and beyond. And, as a look at the CRIS2010 conference program will tell, there are many more, often little known purposes for which CRIS are used. These applications stimulate with their demands the progress in designing, building...
Jørgensen, Martin Bak
The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...
Mez, L.; Richter, M.
The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de
Niemi, Antti; Paasivaara, Leena
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity. Background: The conceptualisation of professional identity in terms of radiographers' perceptions of their role focuses on their preferred role-content and perception of the professional self. Professional identity defines values and beliefs that guide the radiographer's thinking, actions and interaction. Method: The present study employs the method of discourse analysis to gain a profound understanding of the cultural meaning contents related to the formation of the professional identity of radiographers. Material for the study was gathered from articles published in the professional journal of the Society of Radiographers in Finland between the years 1987 and 2003. Findings: Technical discourse emphasised the importance of responding to the changes in radiology in the 1990s. Safety discourse emerged as the second content of meaning describing the formation of professional identity. The third content of meaning in professional identity was professional discourse, a central aspect being to promote the esteem of one's profession and emphasise professional identity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the professional identity of a radiographer is dual in nature. On one hand, the professional identity of a radiographer is based on solid command of scientific-mechanic technology in a technical working environment; while on the other hand, it consists of mastering the humane, humanistic nursing work
How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...
A treatise consisting of the following sections: Development of modern society (Origin of modern society; Industrial society; The year 1968; Post-industrial society; Worldwide civic society); Historic breaks in the development of the stationary power sector (Stationary thermal power; Historic breaks in the development of nuclear power); Czech nuclear power engineering in the globalization era (Major causes of success of Czech nuclear power engineering; Future of Czech nuclear power engineering). (P.A.)
Okechukwu Chude, Victor
The Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN) founded in 1968, is a registered member of the African Soil Science Association, International Union of Soil Science and the Global Soil Partnership. The Society aims at promoting and fostering better understanding of basic and applied Soil Science in Nigeria. The society also strives to enhance the dissemination of knowledge in all aspects of Soil science and shares ideas with National and International Societies through conferences, symposium, lectures, seminars and journal publications. The numerical strength of the society is 600 members (student, ordinary ,life and corporate). The soil science society of Nigeria has provided invaluable services in the formulation of agricultural land and fertilizer use strategies and policies of the country. The existing reconnaissance soil map of Nigeria typifies one of the major professional services rendered to the country by the society and its members. Despite the numerous contributions the society has made to the advancement of soil science in the country, the larger society is not aware of the its existence. This is largely because of our limited soil extension activities to land users due to lack of funds. If the society can attract donor funds, this will go a long way in enhancing the capacity and capability of the society.
Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, M.
Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts of competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need
Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Beatrice
Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need to
Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie
"Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research
Keller, Kenneth H.
Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public
Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L
Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...
Krapfl, Jon E
A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.
van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.
The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)
In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised.
In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised
Pimental, D; Pimental, M
Twelve chapters are presented in this book - the first four of which concern hunter-gatherer society, the development of agricultural systems, and an introduction to the relative energy costs of manpower, animal power and machines in food production. The main section of the book (Chapters 6-9) documents the energy use in the production of livestock, grain and legumes, fruit, vegetable and forage, and fish. Comparisons of energy inputs and outputs are made for different crops and for countries at different levels of development. The final section of the book covers food processing, packaging and transport costs. The message of the book is that a switch from the high overall protein and high animal protein diet in the industrialized countries is overdue. Such a move, the author maintains, will reduce the total fossil fuel requirements for food production and enable more people to be adequately fed. The author also recommends extensive use of bicycles for transportation.
Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.
Kim, Jang Han
What is medical professionalism and does it matter to the patients? Medical professionals take responsibility for their judgements and the consequences that ensue. Traditionally medical professionalism is defined as a set of values, behaviors, and relationships which support the trust the public has in doctors. The public is well aware that absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is endangered by the political and cultural environment. The values of professionalism have been changed throughout the medical history and the meaning of it was also changed according to social theories. Traditional medical professionalism was based on the virtue of autonomy, self-regulation and competency etc. However, in the new millenium era, the meaning of professionalism has changed under the concept of responsibility which includes the classical virtues. The meaning of professionalism nowadays is only based on the structure and conflicting theories which cannot solve all the issues surrounding professionalism in medical practice. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. The interaction between doctor and patient is central to the medical care, and medical professionalism has roots in almost every aspect of medical care. I argue that doctors have responsibility to act according to the values which have been determined by the medical profession, history and surrounding society. The new millennium medical professionalism which based on the responsibility could initiate a public dialogue about the role of the doctor in creating a fairer society.
Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have
Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.
The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.
Kuei Tien Chou
Full Text Available In the past two decades, despite seemingly violating its policy of sustainable development, the government of Taiwan has continued to develop its petrochemical industry. As a result of which public resistance has emerged. This study examines the social robustness and sub-politics capacity of the movement against Kuo Kuang Petrochemical Corp. from 2010 to 2011. Among the various civil groups engaged in the movement, the anti-expert coalition was formed by local environmental, literary and medical groups as well as universities and university professors. These groups mobilized independently, while supporting one another; leading to a multi-risk movement coalition. One significant difference between this anti-expert coalition and past environmental movements was that it not only constructed systematic risk knowledge and resisted official discourse from a professional perspective, but also developed perceptual literary thought, triggering a response from the general public. Therefore, no matter whether it be through systematic, rational participation in the environmental assessment process, proposing socio-economic assessment and health risk paths or their more perceptual initiation of green thought processes (generation justice, land subsidence, good and agriculture safety and the sustainability of villages and methods of promoting civil trust, the sub-political pluralism has been able to break through authoritative expert politics, and seek for a dynamic reflexive governance of social sustainable development.
Dewenter, Heike; Thun, Sylvia
As the reference terminology SNOMED CT is gaining in significance and seems without alternative in interoperable Electronic Health Records, the holder of its intellectual property, the non-for-profit organization SNOMED International has achieved a quasi-monopoly status as a provider. We examine the current dealing with corporate transparency regarding SNOMED CT licensing together with policy recommendations derived from the research project ASSESS CT, in the context of collaboration with Standardization Organizations. In addition, transparency improvement is proposed based on the economic Principal-Agent-Theory, assuming SNOMED CT Licensees as principals. In this paper we introduce improvement measures with regard to increase transparency in the licensing process addressing to the reference terminology users and especially the terminology provider. The aim is to present strategies towards transparency, with the intent to remove barriers concerning indecisive organization stakeholders and users of a license and fee-based terminology solutions, as well as to overcome resentments connected to the quasi-monopoly status of the provider.
Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y; Melnick, Glenn
Analyze trends in hospital cost and revenue, as well as price and quantity (1994-2005) as a function of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration, HMO concentration, and for-profit (FP) HMO market share. Medicare hospital cost reports, AHA Annual Surveys, HMO data from Interstudy, and other supplemental data. A retrospective study of all short-term, general, nonfederal hospitals in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States from 1994 to 2005, using hospital/MSA fixed-effects translog regression models. A 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment is associated with 4.1-4.2 percent reduction in costs and revenues in the pre-2000 period but only a 2.1-2.5 percent reduction in the post-2000 period. Hospital revenue in HMO-dominant markets (highly concentrated HMO market and competitive hospital market) is 19-27 percent lower than other types of markets, and the difference is most likely due mainly to lower prices and to a lesser extent lower utilization. The historical difference of lower spending in high HMO penetration markets compared with low HMO markets narrowed after 2000 and the relative concentration between HMO and hospital markets can substantially influence hospital spending. Additional research is needed to understand how different aspects of these two markets have changed and interacted and how they are causally linked to spending trends.
Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y; Melnick, Glenn
Objective Analyze trends in hospital cost and revenue, as well as price and quantity (1994–2005) as a function of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration, HMO concentration, and for-profit (FP) HMO market share. Data Medicare hospital cost reports, AHA Annual Surveys, HMO data from Interstudy, and other supplemental data. Study Design A retrospective study of all short-term, general, nonfederal hospitals in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States from 1994 to 2005, using hospital/MSA fixed-effects translog regression models. Principal Findings A 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment is associated with 4.1–4.2 percent reduction in costs and revenues in the pre-2000 period but only a 2.1–2.5 percent reduction in the post-2000 period. Hospital revenue in HMO-dominant markets (highly concentrated HMO market and competitive hospital market) is 19–27 percent lower than other types of markets, and the difference is most likely due mainly to lower prices and to a lesser extent lower utilization. Conclusions The historical difference of lower spending in high HMO penetration markets compared with low HMO markets narrowed after 2000 and the relative concentration between HMO and hospital markets can substantially influence hospital spending. Additional research is needed to understand how different aspects of these two markets have changed and interacted and how they are causally linked to spending trends. PMID:19840134
Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Larsson, Lise-Lotte Franklin; Norberg, Astrid
Caring for people with dementia and working in dementia care is described as having both rewarding and unpleasant aspects and has been studied to a minor extent. This study aims to explore care providers' narrated experiences of caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD. Nine care providers were interviewed about their experiences, the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that participants were struggling to perform person-centred care, which meant trying to see the person behind the disease, dealing with troublesome situations in the daily care, a two-edged interaction with relatives, feelings of shortcomings and troubled conscience, and the need for improvements in dementia care. The analysis also revealed an ambiguous work situation, which meant a challenging value base, the differently judged work environment, feelings of job satisfaction and the need for a functional leadership and management. The results illuminate participants' positive as well as negative experiences and have identified areas requiring improvements. It seems of great importance to strive for a supportive and attendant leadership, a leadership which aims to empower care providers in their difficult work. Using conscience as a driving force together in the work group may benefit care providers' health. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
An attempt was made to link organizational structure and strategic management and, in the process, to identify how organizational structure impacts on the strategic management role of Directors of Nursing working in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Directors of Nursing are recognized as holding a pivotal role in health care delivery. The need for their involvement in strategic management is acknowledged, yet it is not clear if this role is influenced by organizational structure. It is recognized that strategic involvement increases the likelihood that middle managers' initiatives will be in line with top management's concept of corporate strategy. The principal thesis is that organizational members will exercise a higher level of strategic consensus if they have been initially involved in the development of strategy. The study was undertaken in not-for-profit health service organizations, through a series of 25 semi-structured interviews with Directors of Nursing. The review of the literature was undertaken simultaneously with grounded theory analysis of the interviews. This research suggests that structure does impact on the role, conferring both positive benefits and negative consequences. Structure is identified in this study, in terms of organizational hierarchy, and the locus of control pertaining in each organization. Two predominating structure models are discussed and analysed.
Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark
European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.
Asher, Shellie L; Iserson, Kenneth V; Merck, Lisa H
The integrity of the research enterprise is of the utmost importance for the advancement of safe and effective medical practice for patients and for maintaining the public trust in health care. Academic societies and editors of journals are key participants in guarding scientific integrity. Avoiding and preventing plagiarism helps to preserve the scientific integrity of professional presentations and publications. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Ethics Committee discusses current issues in scientific publishing integrity and provides a guideline to avoid plagiarism in SAEM presentations and publications. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Holmes, Mary Anne; Asher, Pranoti; Farrington, John; Fine, Rana; Leinen, Margaret S.; LeBoy, Phoebe
AGU is a participant in a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project called Advancing Ways of Awarding Recognition in Disciplinary Societies (AWARDS), which seeks to examine whether gender bias affects selection of recipients of society awards. AGU is interested in learning why there is a higher proportion of female recipients of service and education awards over the past 2 decades. Combined with a lower rate of receipt of research awards, these results suggest that implicit (subconscious) bias in favor of male candidates still influences awardee selection. Six other professional societies (American Chemical Society, American Mathematical Society, American Society of Anesthesiologists, Mathematical Association of America, Society for Neuroscience, and Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) are participating in the project. Volunteers from each participant society attended an Association for Women in Science (AWIS)-sponsored workshop in May 2010 to examine data and review literature on best practices for fair selection of society awardees. A draft proposal for implementing these practices will be brought before the AGU Council and the Honors and Recognition Committee at their upcoming meetings.
Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.
This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession. PMID:22211117
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession.
This paper re-conceptualizes the relationship between the citizens and the state in view of praxes, dilemmas and contradictions found in modern multicultural societies. The new concept of citizenship is construed through a joint project for the state and human service professionals designated as organic intellectuals within a Gramscian framework…
Roos-Eysbouts, Y.K.; Bie-Rocks, B. De; Dijk, J. van; Nap, A.W.
Background/Aim Study Question: Endometriosis is associated with a significant reduction in the quality of life and higher depression and anxiety rates. The Dutch Endometriosis Society (ES) was founded to increase the recognition and knowledge in patients and health care professionals, stimulate
Maignan, I.S.J.; Ralston, D.; Egry, C.
With a 41-society sample of 9990 managers and professionals, we used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the impact of both macro-level and micro-level predictors on subordinate influence ethics. While we found that both macro-level and micro-level predictors contributed to the model
Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano
The responsibility and role of the scientific community in the proper exploitation of natural resources, in the defense against natural hazards and in building geoeducational strategies for the population are key themes of Geoethics. But, what is the awareness among Geoscientists about the importance of an ethical debate within Earth Sciences? With the goal to increase this awareness, in 2012 the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics was founded (http://www.iapg.geoethics.org). The IAPG aims to join forces of geoscientists all over the world, by creating an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussing on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, for promoting Geoethics themes through scientific publications and conferences, for strengthening the research base on Geoethics, for focusing on case-studies to be taken as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. The IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), it is among the collaborative organizations of the IUGS - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism (TGGGP), and it has been recognized as an International Associate Organization of the American Geosciences Institute (AGI). The IAPG network is growing fast and currently it is going to reach 500 members in more than 75 countries in 5 continents. The IAPG is working to offer its contribution in building a framework of values for a new model of development, more respectful towards the Geosphere. After 2 years of successful results and numerous ongoing activities, IAPG appears to be on the right way in promoting new ideas to research and practice geosciences. This work aims to give an overview on the IAPG activities, to illustrate the IAPG impact on public through web-statistics, to present publications, events and other initiatives on Geoethics carried out by its members.
Angel Maya, Augusto
This article is a reproduction of parts the fourth chapter of the book the return of Icaro, Death and life of the philosophy; the Universidad Autonoma de Occidente will publish that. The book intends to debate the crossroad in which any environmental interpretation is finned: penned between the reductionism of natural sciences and the philosophical sobrenaturalism of the social science. Between some natural sciences that don't understand the man and some social sciences that don't recognize the bonds with the nature if this approach is applied to the study of society or of culture, it would be necessary to understand it as the result of a evolutionary process, but also at the same time as a rupture with the previous evolutionary forms. The culture is not in the genes, but it has relationships with nature, the social sciences have not wanted to accept this fact. It has ethical and political consequences. As well as there is no ecosystem ethics, all human ethics should be aware of its relationships with the environment. Maybe this proposal will bring a new vision of what is freedom
Douglass, John Aubrey
For-profit colleges and universities in the US have been growing at a staggering pace in enrollment, in profits, and in the corporate value of those traded on the New York Stock Exchange. From 2000 to 2010, the sector grew by some 235 percent in enrollment, increasing its market share from 3 to 9.1 percent of all tertiary enrolled students. What…
Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier
The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...
Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university
Ceclan, Mihail; Ionescu, Tudor Basarab; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, Cristian; Georgescu, Luisa Maria
The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)
Milgrom, Daniel P; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Valsangkar, Nakul P; Lad, Neha; Bell, Teresa M; Wojcik, Brandon; Zimmers, Teresa A
Professional society membership enhances career development and productivity by offering opportunities for networking and learning about recent advances in the field. The quality and contribution of such societies can be measured in part through the academic productivity, career status, and funding success rates of their members. Here, using Scopus, NIH RePORTER, and departmental websites, we compare characteristics of the Shock Society membership to those of the top 55 NIH-funded American university and hospital-based departments of surgery. Shock Society members' mean number of publications, citations and H-indices were all significantly higher than those of non-members in surgery departments (P productive group of investigators. For surgery faculty, membership is associated with greater academic productivity and career advancement. While it is difficult to ascribe causation, certainly the Shock Society might positively influence careers for its members.
The success of a profession will be determined upon its education and training. A profession is required to encompass: a core body of knowledge; a set of ethical codes of practice; and have practitioners with humanistic qualities. In order to maintain the success of a profession it is necessary to have continuing education, which enhances professional development. Continuing professional education includes a form of self-regulation, which ensures the maintenance of a minimum standard of practice in this ever-changing workplace, and by regulating this standard, the discipline becomes more accountable to the client and the profession as a whole. In Australia, the Nuclear Medicine society's continuing education programs and Universities offering postgraduate programs promote continuing education. If technologists are to successfully keep up with developments in instrumentation, protocols and changing health care requirements, we must ensure that the education of practitioners does not cease at certification of entry to the workplace (Au)
Teachers play an important role in society, whose career is considered to be the most glorious one under the sun. They have deep and lifelong influence on students and the prosperity of a country and even the bright future of the whole world. Teacher should be a person with great virtue that sets good examples for the students. However, nowadays, there exist various problems about teacher’s ethics due to complex social, economical, cultural or personal issues. It’s urgent and imperative for teachers to learn and improve professional ethics to be a better mentor. This paper begins with the definition of ethics, emphasizes the importance of teachers’professional ethics, talks about current situation in this area, analyzes the reasons why there are im-moral problems about teachers and suggests some practical strategies on how to improve it.
Paul Ciprian Patic
Full Text Available The Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary, together with the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, held on May 30th 2017, starting from 11.00h, in the Rotonda of Engineering Faculties, the tenth edition of the professional students contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION".
Paul Ciprian Patic
Full Text Available The organizers of the 9th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" were, as usual, the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League.
The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN. "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...
Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C
Increased financial pressures on hospitals have elevated the importance of working capital management, that is, the management of current assets and current liabilities, for hospitals' profitability. Efficient working capital management allows hospitals to reduce their holdings of current assets, such as inventory and accounts receivable, which earn no interest income and require financing with short-term debt. The resulting cash inflows can be reinvested in interest-bearing financial instruments or used to reduce short-term borrowing, thus improving the profitability of the organization. This study examines the relationship between hospitals' profitability and their performance at managing two components of working capital: accounts receivable, measured in terms of hospitals' average collection periods, and accounts payable, measured in terms of hospitals' average payment periods. Panel data derived from audited financial statements for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals for 2000-2007 were analyzed using hospital-level fixed-effects regression analysis. The results show a negative relationship between hospitals' average collection period and profitability. That is, hospitals that collected on their patient revenue faster reported higher profit margins than did hospitals that have larger balances of accounts receivable outstanding. We also found a negative relationship between hospitals' average payment period and their profitability. Hospital managers did not appear to delay paying their vendors. Rather, the findings indicated that more profitable hospitals paid their suppliers faster, possibly to avoid high effective interest rates on outstanding accounts payable, whereas less profitable hospitals waited longer to pay their bills. The findings of this study suggest that working capital management indeed matters for hospitals' profitability. Efforts aimed at reducing large balances in both accounts receivable and accounts payable may frequently be
Singh, Simone Rauscher; Wheeler, John
Effective revenue cycle management--from appointment scheduling and patient registration at the front end of the revenue cycle to billing and cash collections at the back end--plays a crucial role in hospitals' efforts to improve their financial performance. Using data for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit US hospitals for 2000 to 2007, this study analyzed the relationship between hospitals' performance at managing the revenue cycle and their profitability and ability to build equity capital. Hospital-level fixed effects regression analysis was used to model four different measures of profitability and equity capital as functions of two key financial indicators of revenue cycle management--amount of patient revenue and speed of revenue collection. The results indicated that higher amounts of patient revenue in relation to a hospital's assets were associated with statistically significant increases in operating and total profit margins, free cash flow, and equity capital (p < 0.01 for all four models); that is, hospitals that generated more patient revenue per dollar of assets invested reported improved financial performance. Likewise, a statistically significant link existed between lower revenue collection periods and all four indicators of hospital financial performance (p < 0.01 for three models; p < 0.05 for one model). Hospitals that collected faster on their patient revenue reported higher profit margins and larger equity values. For revenue cycle managers, these findings represent good news: Streamlining a hospital's management of the patient revenue cycle can advance the organization's financial viability by improving profitability and enabling equity growth.
Song, Paula H; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C
Not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals' accumulations of financial assets have been growing steadily over the past 10 years. Surprisingly, little is known about how much investment reserves represent and how they are handled among NFP hospitals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate investment strategies in financial assets among NFP hospitals. Specifically, this article seeks to explore how NFP hospitals allocate and manage financial assets, how much risk hospitals employ in their investment strategies, and the risk and return trade-off under contrasting market conditions. Using two years of survey data from the Common fund Benchmarks Study for Health Care Institutions for fiscal years 2002 and 2003, we analyze NFP hospitals' investment strategies by comparing asset size, investment management characteristics, board characteristics, asset allocation, levels of risk, and annual returns. Univariate regression analysis is used to evaluate the relationship between risk and return. NFP hospitals have sizeable long-term financial assets, averaging over $558 million in 2002 and $634 million in 2003. Two thirds of these funds are invested in long-term operating funds followed by defined benefit pension funds and insurance reserves; management of these funds is primarily outsourced. NFP hospitals allocate, on average, 50% of their operating fund assets to equities. During the stock market downturn in 2002, each 1% investment in equities was significantly associated with a -0.18% decrease in annual returns. In contrast, the relationship is almost exactly opposite--consistent with the relationship typically associated with risk and return--in 2003. NFP hospitals with heavy reliance on investment income to boost total profit margins may have difficulty adjusting to periods of low performance. Evaluation of the performance and financial condition of the hospital must account for the size and composition of financial assets.
Bradley, Stacy; Drapeau, Martin; Destefano, Jack
Continuing education is one of the means by which professionals maintain and increase their level of competence. However, the relationship between continuing education and the professional's sense of personal competence and other practice-related variables remains unclear. This study examined practicing psychologists' continuing education activities and how these relate to feelings of perceived competence, professional value, and professional support. Psychologists (n = 418) licensed to practice in Quebec were surveyed by pencil-and-paper mail-in survey concerning their continuing education activities, as well as their perceptions of their competence in practice, and their feelings of being professionally valued and professionally supported. Results indicated that feelings of competence in practice were related to professional reading, taking courses/workshops, years being licensed, and attending psychology conferences/conventions. Feelings of professional value were related to age and participating in psychology networking groups, and feelings of professional support were related to participating in case discussion groups, supervision groups, and psychology networking groups. The results showcase the complexity of professional development. Although relationships were found between continuing education activities and the 3 factors of interest, these relationships were moderate. Findings are discussed in the context of their value to individual psychologists, as well as to psychology licensing and regulatory boards, such as promoting participation in those activities related to feelings of competence and support. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Turner Luke, Joy
In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as
Sulović, V; Pavlović, B
In the second half of the last century and under the influence of the European civilization, Serbia abandoned the conservative and patriarchal way of life and began to introduce a new, contemporary political, cultural and social spirit into the country. The development of these civilizing features was under the influence of young intelectuals who, as former scholarship holders of the Serbian government, were educated in many European countries. Among them, there was a group of physicians who returned to the country after having completed their education. They were carriers and holders of the contemporary medical science in Serbia and the neighbouring areas. On April 22, 1872 a group of 15 physicians founded the Serbian Medical Society with the intention to offer an organized medical help and care to the population. The first president was Dr. Aćim Medović and the first secretary Dr. Vladan Dordević. At the meeting held on May 15, 1872 the text of the Statute of the Society was accepted and immediately submitted for approval to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the letter addressed to the minister of internal affairs the following reasons were cited: "... The Belgrade physicians feeling a need for having the main office for their professional and scientific meetings, for which they will find the opportunity and the funds, and in spite of their hard medical labor which requires almost all their time, decided to establish the Serbian Medical Society because they wish to be in trend and follow-up the medical progress and exchange the latest medical information not only among them but also with other graduated doctors living in areas with the Serblan population as well as with all scientists who are willing to contribute to the development of medical science in Serbia...". In the first year of its existence the Serbian Medical Society had 9 regular members, 1 honorary member and 34 corresponding members from Serbia, Slavic and other foreign countries. On August 5
Horn, Line Helverskov
in educational science through the last couple of decades, exploring the characteristics and development of professional identity. Simultaneously, the technological development in society has massively affected how we live and our work practices, increasing the intensity of Information and Communication...... Technology adoption and application of professionals. Educational practices of higher education are equally affected. New educational programmes emerge and course titles, pedagogies, and curricula are adapted to reflect technological changes. Thus, ICT has become a significant aspect of the content...... and practices of professions and disciplines, and consequently higher education. There is a lack of knowledge with regards to how professional identity are affected by developments and adoption of ICTs in society in general and higher education specifically. The author of this paper suggest Actor-Network Theory...
Palmeirim, Isabel; Aréchaga, Juan
We revise the historical evolution of the societies devoted to Developmental Biology from the early activities of the Institut International dEmbryologie (IIE), founded in 1911, with particular emphasis on the more recent constitution of the Spanish Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarrollo (SEBD), founded in 1994, and the Portuguese Sociedade Portuguesa de Biologia do Desenvolvimento (SPBD), founded in 2006. We also describe the role played by The International Journal of Developmental Biology (IJDB) in the constitution of the SEBD and its projection and support to international Developmental Biology societies and individual researchers in the world, according to its mission to be a non-for-profit publication for scientists, by scientists.
António Pedro de Andrade Dores
Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins
White, K C
Once again, I find Mr. Cooper quote-worthy for his statement, "It is incumbent upon the trial bar not to support the status quo merely because it is in our economic interest. Change is in the wind, and our tort system will be blown away on the winds of change for change's sake unless we participate in correcting deficiencies in the tort system and civil jury trial process." I suggest that we cannot ask for change for our own economic interest, nor can we lay blame exclusively to the other etiologic elements. We must improve those elements within our purview. The prayer of serenity may serve us well: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. In the game of professional liability litigation as played by the rules extant there are clearly winners and losers. The winners are the legal profession, both plaintiff and defense, and the insurers, who in the face of adversity simply increase premiums or withdraw from the market. The losers are the medical profession, the patients for whom they care and, in the broadest sense, our society as a whole. So as not to close on a note of gloom, one last quote. Lawrence H. Cooke, former Chief Judge of New York State, in remarks to the April 1986 National Symposium on Civil Justice Issues stated, "Our justice systems are beset with very real problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Groundwater-Smith, Susan; Sachs, Judyth
States there has been an expectation that the education industry can be managed like any other commercial enterprise with an emphasis on forms of accountability that limit professional judgment on the part of practitioners. Examines growth of the audit society and its consequences for professional practices in education. (BT)
Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would ...
Full Text Available Teacher professional development are the teachers’ learning process throughout their career stages to ensure that teachers have knowledge, skills and needed competencies for teaching among rapid changes in social, economic and technology which have the impact on learning and teaching. This article deals with the topics of the framework for teaching, teacher career stages and teacher professional development. The research findings related to teacher professional development, teacher professional development activities, suggestions for planning the professional development. Those research findings can be applied and implemented by the school principals, educational supervisors and other professional developers.
Buřita, Ladislav; Ondryhal, Vojtěch
The MilUNI knowledge portal, based on the knowledge base developed in ATOM software has been created at the authors' workplace with the aim to form a collaborative society of military universities. The analysis of the collaborative society concept is presented. The description of the MilUNI project is included. Some areas for university cooperation are proposed, as well as the measures facilitating the formation and development of the collaborative society.
Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social media is no longer a new concept, with social media platforms dominating how many communicate. It would be unrealistic to expect that dentistry would not become involved in the use of social media for professional reasons, as well as professionals using social media platforms privately. Despite it being acceptable for dental professionals to have social media presence, those dental professionals have a framework of professional, ethical and legal obligations to which they must conform when using social media. This article seeks to discuss how unintentionally professionalism may be breached by dental professionals not making a distinction between social media and other facets of professional life. There is need for a discussion about how as a profession, dentistry may perceive the effects of professional interaction with social media on the profession's wider relationship with society and whether current regulatory advice goes far enough to protecting the interests of patients. It is important for the use of social media by dental professionals to fit within the established social contract between the profession and society and failure to observe the terms of this will cause damage to the patient-professional relationship. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten
for a welfare society. However, globalisation and the spreading use of new information and communication technologies and services challenge this position. This article examines Denmark's performance in implementing its IS 2000 plans, the background to the Digital Denmark report, and its implications......The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... national governments everywhere. Denmark provides an interesting case study because it ranks high in the benchmark indicators of information network society developments. This position has been obtained largely by public sector initiatives and without erosion of the highly reputed Scandinavian model...
Macpherson, Cheryl C
Medical professionalism is reflected in attitudes, behaviors, character, and standards of practice. It is embodied by physicians who fulfill their duties to patients and uphold societies' trust in medicine. Professionalism requires familiarity with the ethical codes and standards established by international, governmental, institutional, or professional organizations. It also requires becoming aware of and responsive to societal controversies. Scientific uncertainty may be used to teach aspects of professionalism in science courses. Uncertainty about the science behind, and the health impacts of, climate change is one example explored herein that may be used to teach both professionalism and science. Many medical curricula provide students with information about professionalism and create opportunities for students to reflect upon and strengthen their individually evolving levels of professionalism. Faculties in basic sciences are rarely called upon to teach professionalism or deepen medical students understanding of professional standards, competencies, and ethical codes. However they have the knowledge and experience to develop goals, learning objectives, and topics relevant to professionalism within their own disciplines and medical curricula. Their dedication to, and passion for, science will support basic science faculties in designing innovative and effective approaches to teaching professionalism. This paper explores topics and formats that scientists may find useful in teaching professional attitudes, skills, and competencies in their medical curriculum. It highlights goals and learning objectives associated with teaching medical professionalism in the basic sciences. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie; Ssengooba, Freddie
Northern Uganda suffered 20 years of conflict which devastated lives and the health system. Since 2006, there has been investment in reconstruction, which includes efforts to rebuild the health workforce. This article has two objectives: first, to understand health workers' experiences of working in public and private not-for-profit (PNFP) sectors during and after the conflict in Northern Uganda, and second, to understand the factors that influenced health workers' movement between public and PNFP sectors during and after the conflict. A life history approach was used with 26 health staff purposively selected from public and PNFP facilities in four districts of Northern Uganda. Staff with at least 10 years' experience were selected, which resulted in a sample which was largely female and mid-level. Two thirds were currently employed in the public sector and just over a third in the PNFP sector. A thematic data analysis was guided by the framework analysis approach, analysis framework stages and ATLAS.ti software version 7.0. Analysis reveals that most of the current staff were trained in the PNFP sector, which appears to offer higher quality training experiences. During the conflict period, the PNFP sector also functioned more effectively and was relatively better able to support its staff. However, since the end of the conflict, the public sector has been reconstructed and is now viewed as offering a better overall package for staff. Most reported movement has been in that direction, and many in the PNFP sector state intention to move to the public sector. While there is sectoral loyalty on both sides and some bonds created through training, the PNFP sector needs to become more competitive to retain staff so as to continue delivering services to deprived communities in Northern Uganda. There has been limited previous longitudinal analysis of how health staff perceive different sectors and why they move between them, particularly in conflict-affected contexts
Latimore, Amanda D; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D
Despite Thailand's war on drugs, methamphetamine ("yaba" in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit amongst young Thai yaba users. Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioural intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviours and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SASv9.1). Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95% CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95% CI: .20, .71). Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug rehabilitation programmes and
Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.
Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Mar 8,2018 After a cardiac event ... shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get ...
Haseltine, F P; Wentz, A C
This article reports survey responses from 71 female members of the American Fertility Society during the Society's 1984 annual meeting. Survey questions concern 1) demographic factors such as rank, degree, title, address, and number of children, 2) field of specialization and research interests, and 3) what the Society can do for its meeting participants. The typical respondent is a physician living in the Eastern United States and employed as an assistant professor in an academic setting. In vitro fertilization is the greatest area of interest, followed by general practice, endocrine and male infertility, contraception, and fertility surgery. Survey responses show that women are interested in 1) networking, 2) increased visibility at professional meetings, 3) information about research possibilities and grants, 4) child care provision at Society meetings, and 5) more basic science and physiology oriented presentions in the program. In response to networking interests, the Society will make available information from the surveyed members. Since 16% of respondents have a PH.D., and 77% are employed in academics, the Society should consider more basic presentations. The need for day care indicates changes in Society membership. The Society plans to conduct similar surveys on a regular basis.
Rubio, J. F.
Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performan...
DeVries, Ubaldus R M Th
This thesis examines the concept of professional negligence. In doing so, it aims to find the distinguishing factors that characterize professional negligence as against other types of negligence. It seeks to emphasize the functions, duties and activities of professional people, rather than any examination of their status. The thesis demonstrates that this concept is based on a "broadspectrum" duty of care with specific obligations, particular to professional conduct. ...
The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge
In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…
Edens, Geraldine E.
Professional socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and interests needed to perform their professional roles acceptably. The following interacting domains of potential professional self-growth can be defined as outcomes of the socialization process: self-image, role…
The article’s focus is on how public libraries are affected by structural changes in the wake of the transition to the knowledge society. Their attempts to match the knowledge society are illustrated by processes of sensemaking and sensegiving made in public libraries in Canada, the UK and Denmark....
Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo
Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.
Tempero, Howard E., Ed.
The essays contained in this booklet are 1) "Education for a 'Learning Society': The Challenge" by Ernest Bayles in which he calls for focus on learning to live, developing skills of reflection and judgment applicable to vital issues, and reflective teaching; 2) "Teacher Education in a Learning Society" in which David Turney demands teacher…
Full Text Available This article approaches the fundamental role which education has in the information society. The continuous evolution of information and communication technologies requires that all citizens have the necessary skills have to use these technologies and to access information for efficient individual functioning in the information society. In this context, the information literacy programmes have a growing importance.
Full Text Available Physical education is one of the most important parts of schoolchildren studies and it could influence of social and academic performance of children, significantly. This paper studies physical education among schoolchildren who attend elementary schools in city of Esfahan, Iran over for the educational calendar of 2010-2011. The study selects 52 schools as sample, 18 non-for-profit and 34 governmental schools and half of them belong to female students. The results of this study indicate that physical education has a somewhat better quality in non-for-profit educational system compared with governmental ones although this difference is not statistically significance (P<0.05. In our survey, ten percent of time, physical education was performed poorly, twenty five percent was in average condition, forty eight percent was in good condition and seventeen percent was in excellent condition.
Full Text Available The problem is in the sense of professional mobility not only as a process of retraining or adaptation to the profession, as well as continuous personal self-development, transition to another stage career and the acquisition of new social and psychological competences. We considered professional mobility as the foundation a basis of effective response of the personality to the “call” of modern society, the peculiar personal resource which is the cornerstone of effective transformation of public environment and itself in it; the system multilevel phenomenon that requires the integrated, cross-disciplinary approach to the research; internal (motivational and intellectual and strong-willed potential of the personality, the cornerstone of flexible orientation and activity reaction in dynamic social and professional conditions according to own living positions; provides readiness for changes and realization of this readiness in the activity (readiness of the personality for modern life with his multidimensional factors of the choice determines professional activity, subjectivity, the creative relation to professional activity, personal development, promotes the effective solution of professional problems. In professional mobility of young students it is important to consider the socio-economic aspects.
Herdman, Elizabeth A
Globalization is often seen as the final stage in the transition towards a market economy. It is argued that a side-effect of globalization is cultural homogeneity and loss of life world, or 'McDonaldization'. McDonaldization represents the rationalization of society in the quest for extreme efficiency. More recently, Mestrović has argued that the rationalization of emotions has also occurred and that Western societies are entering a postemotional phase. In postemotional societies there has been a separation of emotion from action. The result is synthetic, manufactured emotions manipulated and standardized for mass consumption. In this paper I explore what it means to nurse in a 'postemotional society' and what impact this dulling of the emotions has had on a profession that locates 'care' as its central defining concept. My aim is to generate critical discussion of the shape and direction of contemporary society and the role of nursing within it.
Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik
The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....
Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.
Jeffrey J. Bagraim
Full Text Available This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993 is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also showed that South African actuaries are highly committed to their profession. Opsomming Hierdie artikel ondersoek die dimensionaliteit van professionele toewyding by ‘n steekproef van 240 Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse. Die data is verkry deur ‘n posvraelys aan lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Aktuariële Vereniging wat in die finansiële dienstesektor werksaam was. Statistiese ontledings wat uitgevoer is op die data dui aan dat die driekomponentmodel, aanvanklik voorgestel deur Meyer, Allen en Smith (1993, geskik is om professionele toewyding by Suid-Afrikaanse beroepslui te verstaan. Die ontleding dui verder aan dat Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse hoogs toegewyd is aan hulle professie.
Clegg, N.; Rae, V.
'Full text:' Plant Engineering and Maintenance Association of Canada (PEMAC) is a national not-for-profit association providing global leadership, education and certification in world class maintenance, reliability and physical asset management practices. This presentation will introduce the MMP (Maintenance Management Professional) education and certification program and its 8 Modules. You will see the learning elements and learning outcomes of each of the 8 Modules which are delivered through selected colleges, institutes and universities across Canada using in-class, on-site and live, on-line formats in both official languages. (author)
Nino, Lana S.
Professionalism is a desirable quality linked to the evolution of democratic society and values (Brint, 1996; Freidson, 2001; Millerson, 1964). Nearly 68% of senior-level undergraduate students are driven to enter the professional world and serve society in their respective areas of expertise such as nursing, engineering, education, and business…
Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.
Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Steinert, Yvonne
Professionalism, which is fundamental to medical practice, must be taught explicitly. It is the basis of medicine's relationship to society, which most observers call a "social contract." The social contract serves as the basis for society's expectations of medicine and medicine's of society. It therefore directly influences professionalism. The role of the healer is universal, but how professionalism is expressed will differ between countries and cultures due to differences in their social contracts. When professionalism is taught, it should be related to the different cultures and social contracts, respecting local customs and values.
Rubio, J. F.
Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.
Learned societies are a reality in the medical sector. They are currently tending to become a federation of professionals, which targets are to secure the independence of training programs and perpetuate the scientific knowledge of blood transfusion. This is the way the French Society of Blood Transfusion (SFTS) built its role and scope of action in the service of patients.
Holcombe, Sarah Jane
Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake. Using interviews with 10 obstetrician-gynaecologists and 44 other leaders familiar with Ethiopia's reproductive health policy context, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this research examines why, counter to theoretical expectations from the sociology of medical professions literature and experience elsewhere, the Ethiopian Society of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ESOG) actively supported reform of national law on abortion. ESOG leadership participation was motivated by both individual and ESOG's organizational commitments to reducing maternal mortality and also by professional training and work experience. Further, typical constraints on medical society involvement in policymaking were relaxed or removed, including those related to ESOG's organizational structure and history, and to political environment. Findings do not contradict theory positing medical society avoidance of socially conflictual health policymaking, but rather identify how the expected restrictions were less present in Ethiopia, facilitating medical society participation. Results can inform efforts to encourage medical society participation in policy reform to improve women's health elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vijay Rajput, MD
Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century
Halabi, Abdel K.
The Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) recognises education as a lifelong process, and there is a need for continuing education and training to be available to rural communities. This paper examines the satisfaction levels of accounting continual professional development (CPD) when provided by a rural accounting…
Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen
Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.
Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.
As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…
This article explores how universities might engage more effectively with the imperative to develop students' twenty-first century skills for the information society, by examining learning challenges and professional learning strategies of successful digital media professionals. The findings of qualitative interviews with professionals from…
The Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) is a non-profit association, made up of professionals and institutions, in order to promote awareness and dissemination of nuclear science and technology. The 41 Annual Meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Society was held in A Coruña from 23 to 25 September 2015. This Annual Meeting allows professionals and companies in the sector to analyze the current state of nuclear energy and its future challenges, covering different topics from engineering to R & D, nuclear safety, also impact on health and the environment, climate change, nuclear facilities, experience spanish companies in the management of knowledge in the nuclear sector. This congress has involved some 600 experts who have dealt with current issues and maximum interest.
Niemi, Antti [University of Oulu, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: email@example.com; Paasivaara, Leena [University of Oulu, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity. Background: The conceptualisation of professional identity in terms of radiographers' perceptions of their role focuses on their preferred role-content and perception of the professional self. Professional identity defines values and beliefs that guide the radiographer's thinking, actions and interaction. Method: The present study employs the method of discourse analysis to gain a profound understanding of the cultural meaning contents related to the formation of the professional identity of radiographers. Material for the study was gathered from articles published in the professional journal of the Society of Radiographers in Finland between the years 1987 and 2003. Findings: Technical discourse emphasised the importance of responding to the changes in radiology in the 1990s. Safety discourse emerged as the second content of meaning describing the formation of professional identity. The third content of meaning in professional identity was professional discourse, a central aspect being to promote the esteem of one's profession and emphasise professional identity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the professional identity of a radiographer is dual in nature. On one hand, the professional identity of a radiographer is based on solid command of scientific-mechanic technology in a technical working environment; while on the other hand, it consists of mastering the humane, humanistic nursing work.
Matthews, Jacob H; Morley, Gabriella L; Crossley, Eleanor; Bhanderi, Shivam
All health care professionals in the UK are expected to have the medical leadership and management (MLM) skills necessary for improving patient care, as stipulated by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills, despite all UK medical schools reporting that MLM is taught within their curriculum. A medical student society organised a series of extracurricular educational events focusing on leadership topics. The society recognised that the events needed to be useful and interesting to attract audiences. Therefore, clinical leaders in exciting fields were invited to talk about their experiences and case studies of personal leadership challenges. The emphasis on personal stories, from respected leaders, was a deliberate strategy to attract students and enhance learning. Evaluation data were collected from the audiences to improve the quality of the events and to support a business case for an intercalated degree in MLM. When leadership and management concepts are taught through personal stories, students find it interesting and are prepared to give up their leisure time to engage with the subject. Students appear to recognise the importance of MLM knowledge to their future careers, and are able to organise their own, and their peers', learning and development. Organising these events and collecting feedback can provide students with opportunities to practise leadership, management and quality improvement skills. These extracurricular events, delivered through a student society, allow for subjects to be discussed in more depth and can complement an already crowded undergraduate curriculum. Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter
This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....
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Nedeljković Radica M.
Full Text Available The modern world is the world of change. Modernity changed all aspects of life in width and depth. The changes are so fast and so many people have impression that they are trapped in a multitude of events that they cannot understand nor control. Instead of society as a system, we are talking about society as a network of different relationships of individuals and social groups. Instead of a harmonious society as a space in which the man resides, developing their potential and needs, we are talking about society as a threatening force that destroys everything in its way as 'Moloch' (Giddens, the 'risk society' (Beck in which the doctrine produced in equal measure the conditions for prosperity, but also the risks and destruction; the simulation of society (Baudrillard which glorifies lies and deceit. Instead of society as a community, we are talking about the disappearance of society (Popper. Can we, therefore, rationally understand and express the world, the world of modernity; this world of profound change resembles the maze in which we are lost and wandering without meaning? Starting with Ulrich Beck and his theory of the risk society, the author points out that the way in which the western civilization started, which is imposed as a mandatory form for the rest of the world, leads to amoral morality. The ideology of progress, which is irrational and without a clear vision and clearly defined values, pushes us into an uncertain future of numerous risks and ever growing individualism. Thus we come to the conviction that without common values, collective values, we are lost in this world of risk. Solidarity and trust are the key values for the stable community, but they are non-existent in the risk society dominated by individualism. In the period of uncertainty in the risk society, only religion provides a healthy basis for communal living. Therefore, the way out of the crisis is not in politics, which is placed at the service of the economy, but
Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina
In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.
The approach of an individual in the nuclear training environment to his colleagues, trainees, and his own personal growth should be determined by his desire to be a professional. This paper discusses professionalism as an on-going process. That is, professionalism is not an entity that a person can acquire; rather it is a complicated superposition of many facets of an individual's attempt to work for solutions to problems, not problems with solutions
Moss, R; Thompson, J
The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.
Larson, M S
Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.
Hunt, M E
A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.
Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Paul S. Mueller
Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.
Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.
How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…
Full Text Available ttendees will learn about the research and development which will be effected by scientists in the branch of Conscience Society creation in next decades of XXI century. Conscience is usually seen as linked to a morality inherent in all humans, to a beneficent universe and/or to divinity. It is increasingly conceived of as applying to the world as a whole and as a main feature of conscience society. It has motivated its numerous models, characteristics and functions of Conscience for creation the societal intelligent adaptable information systems in Conscience Society. The moral life is a vital part for the world to maintain a Conscience (civilized Society, so always keep in mind to: accept differences in others; respond promptly to others; leave some "free" time; care about others as if they were you; treat everyone similarly; never engage in violent acts; have an inner sense of thankfulness; have a sense of commitment. Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, for Society in general, and for Conscience Society in special. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence’ Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence’ Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence’ Creativity should be developed and they could be enhanced over the level of Natural Intelligence. The basic idea for present communication represent the research results communicated at the last two annual AESM conferences  .
Frush, Donald P
Defining, measuring and promoting professionalism in medicine, including radiology, has been increasingly emphasized by organizations such as ACGME, the ACR and ABR. It is clear that we as imaging experts have as an ultimate responsibility the welfare of our patients. This is the essence of professionalism, and major societies such as the ACR, ABR and RSNA are embracing professionalism through ongoing safety and training efforts. Some of those efforts in accreditation of equipment and certification of medical professionals will be discussed.
Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje
Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and
Korthagen, Fred A. J.
In this commentary on the paper by the Bank Street Reading and Literacy Alumnae Group, Korthagen states that, while it provides an excellent example of how fruitful professional development can be when it is grounded in the needs and strengths of the people involved; regretfully, many traditional approaches to professional development are based on…
Professional Engineer, 1979
Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)
Tremblay, Christopher W.
Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…
Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette
Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....
Guskey, Thomas R
This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.
Lam, Y. L. Jack
Reports a study of the effect of variables at the personal, school, and district/division level on these aspects of the attitudinal professionalism of 1,205 Manitoba teachers: use of professional organization as major referent, belief in public service, belief in self-regulation, sense of calling to the field, and autonomy. (SB)
Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen
The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.
Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for office ...
Blyler, Nancy Roundy
Describes a protocol study of 10 professional writers which examined the meaning and influence of purpose on writers in the workplace. Explores the interactions of various purpose considerations derived from situation, reader, and text. Suggests that professional writers have a range of meanings in mind when they think about purpose. (MM)
Literacy specialists are often overlooked when determining the professional development needs within a school, and yet they are arguably the school's best resource to empower teachers with professional growth to meet state mandates. How can literacy specialists be supported to increase their knowledge and skills so that all educators' and…
Zengler, Cynthia J.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…
Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy
on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...
Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver
Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.
Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher
To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)
This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\
All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…
CERN will host the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on Monday and Tuesday, focusing on how science-driven information and communication technologies can help close the digital divide. There will be an army of bodyguards at CERN at the beginning of December. CERN will not only host the official visits, but also around 500 scientists, politicians, and members of civil society who will descend on the Main Auditorium for the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on 8-9 December. The RSIS conference hosted by CERN is a high-profile event focusing on how to make information technologies work for the greatest human benefit - a marked change from keeping a relatively low profile so far, making its discoveries available to all with little input in how they are applied. The RSIS, held 8-9 December at CERN, will be a Summit Event of the World Summit on the Information Society taking place at Palexpo on 9-13 December. RSIS participants will apply a scientific point of...
Under the theme Architecture in the Network Society, participants were invited to focus on the dialog and sharing of knowledge between architects and other disciplines and to reflect on, and propose, new methods in the design process, to enhance and improve the impact of information technology...
Olesen, Henning Salling
The article relates the different types of adult education, continuing education and training to an overall societal context of socio-economic modernization by focussing on the multiple functions of adult learning. Each of well known empirical categories is seen in its historical relation to mode...... embracing form which set a new framework for human participation in the new global society....
In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...
Ashiq Ali Shah
Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.
Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.
This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…
Ibraeva B. M.
Full Text Available the authors of the article consider that modern life is still full of various stereotypes. One of the most controversial questions in this article is the issue of discrimination against women in contemporary American society, and it is hard to believe, because this country claims to be a main guarantor of the human rights and freedoms.
Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J
Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hunt, John; Scott, John
The Society for Radiological Protection (the Society) began to consider the potential for incorporation by Royal Charter, an important goal for many professional bodies in the UK, in the mid-1980s. Impetus grew during the 1990s; contributing to this in 1998 was the Society's new status as direct UK IRPA associate. In 2002, to emphasise that the Society is active over all sectors of radiation protection, sectorial committees were established, dealing with professional interests in the component sectors. Application for a Charter begins with a Memorandum to Her Majesty the Queen's Privy Council Office (PCO) with details of the Society, its achievements and why grant of a Charter would be in the public interest. The Society prepared a Memorandum and submitted it to the PCO in 2003. In 2004, the application was declined for several reasons, which were then considered. Contacts in Government Departments were briefed on the Society's activities. The Society and the Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP) had been considering amalgamation, and in 2005 the annual general meetings of the Society and IRP agreed to proposals for a merger. A new Memorandum was submitted to the PCO in 2005, and early in 2006 it was accepted. It was then necessary to draft a Charter and a Petition to HM the Queen in Council. One of the opportunities incorporated in the Charter is the provision to award the title 'Chartered Radiation Protection Professional' with the post-nominal letters 'CRadP' to suitable members. Draft documents were presented to the Society's 2007 annual general meeting, and passed through Society's governance procedures. Public consultation by the PCO took place during summer 2007. On 10 October 2007 an order granting a Charter of Incorporation was approved at the Privy Council held by the Queen. The Charter was presented to the Society on 11 December 2007. (author)
Stieb, James A
Engineering societies such as the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) and associated entities have defined engineering and professionalism in such a way as to require the benefit of humanity (NSPE 2009a, Engineering Education Resource Document. NSPE Position Statements. Governmental Relations). This requirement has been an unnecessary and unfortunate "add-on." The trend of the profession to favor the idea of requiring the benefit of humanity for professionalism violates an engineer's rights. It applies political pressure that dissuades from inquiry, approaches to new knowledge and technologies, and the presentation, publication, and use of designs and research findings. Moreover, a more politically neutral definition of engineering and/or professionalism devoid of required service or benefit to mankind does not violate adherence to strong ethical standards.
Schott, Carina; Van Kleef, Daphne; Noordegraaf, Mirko
Public professionalism is increasingly subject to organizational and societal pressures, which has led to ambiguity concerning its nature. Professionals face conflicting situations due to potential clashes between multifaceted professional, organizational, and societal factors. This raises questions
Full Text Available The article deals with the specific characteristics of professional communication teachers in the course of his career. Characterized by the basic communication skillsfor professional communication teachers, distinguished social and psychological characteristics of professional educator.
Wilga, Cheryl A D; Nishiguchi, Michele; Tsukimura, Brian
The goal of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology's Broadening Participation Committee (SICB BPC) is to increase the number of underrepresented group (URG) members within the society and to expand their capabilities as future researchers and leaders within SICB. Our short-term 10-year goal was to increase the recruitment and retention of URG members in the society by 10%. Our long-term 25-year goal is to increase the membership of URG in the society through recruitment and retention until the membership demographic mirrors that of the US Census. Our plans to accomplish this included establishment of a formal standing committee, establishment of a moderate budget to support BPC activities, hosting professional development workshops, hosting diversity and mentor socials, and obtaining grant funds to supplement our budget. This paper documents broadening participation activities in the society, discusses the effectiveness of these activities, and evaluates BPC goals after 5 years of targeted funded activities. Over the past 5 years, the number of URG members rose by 5.2% to a total of 16.2%, members who report ethnicity and gender increased by 25.2% and 18%, respectively, and the number of members attending BPC activities has increased to 33% by 2016. SICB has made significant advances in broadening participation, not only through increased expenditures, but also with a commitment by its members and leadership to increase diversity. Most members realize that increasing diversity will both improve the Society's ability to develop different approaches to tackling problems within integrative biology, and help solve larger global issues that are evident throughout science and technology fields. In addition, having URG members as part of the executive committee would provide other URG members role models within the society, as well as have a voice in the leadership that represents diversity and inclusion for all scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by
Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz
To evaluate the psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals compared to non-voice professionals and in both genders. Cross-sectional analysis. Forty-eight 48 voice professionals and 52 non-voice professionals with dysphonia were included in this study. All participants underwent a complete ear, nose, and throat examination and an evaluation for pathologies that might affect vocal quality. Participants were asked to complete the Turkish versions of the Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). HADS scores were evaluated as HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Dysphonia status was evaluated by grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale perceptually. The results were compared statistically. Significant differences between the two groups were evident when the VHI-30 and PSS data were compared (P = .00001 and P = .00001, respectively). However, neither HADS score (HADS-A and HADS-D) differed between groups. An analysis of the scores in terms of sex revealed that females had significantly higher PSS scores (P = .006). The GRBAS scale revealed no difference between groups (P = .819, .931, .803, .655, and .803, respectively). No between-sex differences in the VHI-30 or HADS scores were evident We found that voice professionals and females experienced more stress and were more dissatisfied with their voices. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Roder, C; Whittlestone, K; May, S A
In many western countries, there has been a marked change in the demographic profile of those entering the veterinary profession, with a shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female intake. There have been parallel changes in society, with greater emphasis on human rights and work-life balance. It is, therefore, timely to consider what constitutes correct professional conduct for the profession, as there is the potential for problems to arise over the interpretation of 'professionalism' due to cultural and generational differences. A cross-section of staff and students within one veterinary institution were invited to take part in a survey exploring their prioritisation of 10 aspects of the professional role. A cluster analysis was performed, and four distinctly different profiles were established according to the views held by the cluster members. Cluster membership was found to significantly correlate to career stage, with altruism and social justice progressively giving way to professional autonomy and dominance. All four clusters in this educational environment prioritised technical and interpersonal competences above all other aspects of the professional role.
Full Text Available Introduction. We discuss the concept of core competencies applied to policies for teaching and training information professionals, particularly librarians. Method. Sixty graduates of the Institute were employed as information professionals. These sixty were asked to attribute degrees of importance to specific items associated with knowledge and skills that, within the scope of this research, were considered core competencies for meeting the demands of their jobs. Participants were also asked to cite knowledge they acquired in school and knowledge they use in exercising their profession, the skills that they consider necessary but that they did not gain in school, and the difficulties they encounter in exercising their profession and for which they were not sufficiently well prepared. Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. The data were tabulated using Access and several reports and cross-tabulations were generated. Results. The results suggest a gulf between knowledge and skills acquired in library school and those that are required by the job market. In particular, participants lacked the skills they needed to work with information and communication technologies. Conclusion. The concept of core competencies is increasingly taken into account by the productive sector of the economy. The educational system ought to keep up with this change. The empirical research described shows that there is a need to establish advanced and modern policies for the education of librarians, participants in the market for information professionals.
Wood, Ben D
Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.
2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS): Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
Galiè, Nazzareno; Humbert, Marc; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Gibbs, Simon; Lang, Irene; Torbicki, Adam; Simonneau, Gérald; Peacock, Andrew; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Beghetti, Maurice; Ghofrani, Ardeschir; Gomez Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Hansmann, Georg; Klepetko, Walter; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Matucci, Marco; McDonagh, Theresa; Pierard, Luc A; Trindade, Pedro T; Zompatori, Maurizio; Hoeper, Marius
Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence on a particular issue at the time of the writing process, with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk-benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society. All rights reserved. © 2015 European Society of Cardiology & European Respiratory Society.
Schein, Edgar H.; Kommers, Diane W.
This is a plea for planning for impending changes in professional education. The author analyzes new features of professional practice and shifting expectations of professional students and then undertakes a perceptive analysis of the anatomy of change itself. (MJM)
Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.
As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one
Brooks, Anthony Lewis
The evolution and effects of the information society can be exemplified via many threads, both in hard and soft science, according to ones’ discipline and field. In this contribution, the speaker’s three decades of applied research acts as a vehicle to demonstrate development and impact via...... commercial product, national and international projects, and industry startups (including impactful third party research investigations) form the basis for discussion. Beyond this, a wider more generic perspective reflects on product adoption that illustrate todays’ contemporary e-society tendencies where...... recent influx and uptake of consumer-targeted artificial reality products point to society’s desire for alternative sensory experiences. Posited is how aligned with this desire there is a need for new ethical considerations in research as was found in the speaker’s research at the end of the 20th century...
von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan
Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393
Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...
Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin
Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet the chal...... Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet...... the challenges new designs for teaching and learning emerge while teacher-student relations transform and the children and young people's competencies are resources in the processes of learning. The chapter present research based on the proactive schools and exemplifies possible outlines of the school...
Chen Cathy Yi-Hsuan
Full Text Available Data Science looks at raw numbers and informational objects created by different disciplines. The Digital Society creates information and numbers from many scientific disciplines. The amassment of data though makes is hard to find structures and requires a skill full analysis of this massive raw material. The thoughts presented here on DS2 - Data Science & Digital Society analyze these challenges and offers ways to handle the questions arising in this evolving context. We propose three levels of analysis and lay out how one can react to the challenges that come about. Concrete examples concern Credit default swaps, Dynamic Topic modeling, Crypto currencies and above all the quantitative analysis of real data in a DS2 context.
Title: Art education, Creativity and Society Author: Michal Filip Department: Department of Art Education Supervisor: doc. PaedDr. Pavel Šamšula, CSc. Abstract: The dissertation addresses the issue of creativity in art education. The theoretical part of the work first explains the general foundation of the social context, which plays a key role in education focused on the development of creativity. The author outlines the historical roots of the relationship between art education and creativi...
Keenan, Siobhan; Giddens, Eugene
Collections XVII is the latest volume in the Malone Society's pioneering series of editions of miscellaneous documents relating to English theatre and drama before 1642. It is likely to be of special interest not only to early theatre historians but to those working on Tudor and Stuart court and civic culture, manuscript writing, household drama and early modern women's writing, as it publishes new material in each of these fields. The book includes items such as Revels Office accounts, a pla...
Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.
The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)
Bhattarai, M D
In the modern medical systems the active pharmacological ingredients, effective against any disease is identified, purified and studied for its various effects and side-effects whereas it is not so in the traditional systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that safety concerns have often been raised about the traditional medical products. The major issue now, is to make appropriate situation with basic supports to bring all the available experts and resources together for the identification, purification, and study of efficacy and safety of the active molecules of the popular traditional medicines. Government and public sectors in the countries with such rich traditional medicinal and plant systems have related experts, but they also have much hurdle regarding recruitment and retention of expert human resources, getting fund, purchase and maintenance of equipment, bureaucratic formalities and others. The pharmaceutical companies have basic laboratories with related infrastructure and human resources as well as interest about bringing the drug molecules. To bridge the gap, there is a need of the regulation which will make the pharmaceutical companies to invest certain percentage of their profit in the field of research to identify new drug molecules and to study their effects. It is just not an issue of discovering the active molecule but also of creating the concept and culture of research, purity and quality of drugs, safety of people, and future direction of the human society.
Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...
Full Text Available ... you talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find ... Can I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - ...
Full Text Available ... follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow-up ... or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, ...
Full Text Available ... getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ...
Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...
Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list ... Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - ...
Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...
Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...