WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional shortage areas

  1. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  2. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care...

  3. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  4. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...

  5. Depression and health-related quality of life among persons with sensory disabilities in a health professional shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Trey W; Surya, Shruti; Elliott, Timothy R; Brossart, Daniel F; Burdine, James N

    2016-08-01

    The authors examined depression and health-related quality of life among individuals with self-reported sensory impairments living in a health professional shortage area. Health surveys of residents were conducted in 2006 and 2010. Responses were analyzed by groups of residents reporting vision loss, hearing loss, dual hearing and vision loss, and no sensory loss. In 2006, the total sample size was n = 2,591, and in 2010, it was n = 3,955. The CESD-5 scale (Shrout & Yager, 1989) was included in 2006, and the PHQ-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001) was included in 2010. Rates of depression on the CESD-5 were determined by the recommended cut-off scores and on the PHQ-9 by the recommended algorithm. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Healthy Days instrument (Moriarty, Zack, & Kobau, 2003) was used in both surveys to assess health-related quality of life. In both surveys, individuals who reported sensory loss had higher rates of depression and lower health-related quality of life than individuals with no reported sensory loss. Individuals reporting sensory loss had high rates of depression and a compromised quality of life compared to respondents without these impairments. These data imply strategic community-based health care services, including mental health initiatives, may be indicated for individuals with sensory loss living in underserved regions. Implications for rehabilitation psychology research, service, and policy are discussed as innovations in these areas are needed to better understand and address the disparities that may compromise the overall well-being of residents of underserved communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage... designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as... seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care, podiatric...

  7. Association of health professional shortage areas and cardiovascular risk factor prevalence, awareness, and control in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Norrina B; Diez-Roux, Ana; Liu, Kiang; Bertoni, Alain G; Szklo, Moyses; Daviglus, Martha

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND- Individuals living in primary care health professional shortage areas (PC-HPSA), often have difficulty obtaining medical care; however, no previous studies have examined association of pc-hpsa residence with prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS- To examine this question, the authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline examination (2000-2002). Outcomes included the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity as well as the awareness and control of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Multivariable Poisson models were used to examine the independent association of PC-HPSA residence with each outcome. Models were sequentially adjusted for demographics, acculturation, socioeconomic status, access to health care, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Similar to the national average, 16.7% of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants lived in a PC-HPSA. In unadjusted analyses, prevalence rates of diabetes (14.8% versus 11.0%), hypertension (48.2% versus 43.1%), obesity (35.7% versus 31.1%), and smoking (15.5% versus 12.1%) were significantly higher among residents of PC-HPSAs. There were no significant differences in the awareness or control of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. After adjustment, residence in a PC-HPSA was not independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence, awareness, or control. CONCLUSIONS- This study suggests that increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in PC-HPSAs are explained by the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of their residents. Future interventions aimed at increasing the number of primary care physicians may not improve cardiovascular risk without first addressing other factors underlying health care disparities.

  8. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demographic structure and/or a tradition of interaction or interdependency), have limited interaction with... that tourists are present). (iii) Migratory workers and their families may be included in an area's... primary care specialities—general or family practice, general internal medicine, pediatrics, and...

  9. 77 FR 38838 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care... primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of April 1.... Criteria then were defined for each of seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental...

  10. Where are the food animal veterinarian shortage areas anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-05-01

    In 2010 the United States implemented the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) to address perceived regional shortages in certain veterinary occupations, including food animal practice. With county as the unit of analysis, this paper describes a pair of models to evaluate factors associated with being designated a private practice shortage area in 2010. One model is used to explain food animal veterinarian location choices so as to provide an objective evaluation of comparative shortage. The other model seeks to explain the counties chosen as shortage areas. Model results are then used to evaluate the program. On the whole the program appears to perform quite well. For several states, however, VMLRP shortage designations are inconsistent with the food animal veterinarian location model. Comparative shortage is generally more severe in states that have no VMLRP designated private practice shortage counties than in states that do. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Where Are the Veterinarian Shortage Areas Anyway

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wang; Hennessy, David A.; Annette M. O'Connor

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the United States implemented the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) to address perceived regional shortages in certain veterinary occupations, including food animal practice. With county as the unit of analysis, this paper describes a pair of models to evaluate factors associated with being designated a private practice shortagearea in 2010. One model is used to explain food animal veterinarian location choices so as to provide an objective evaluation of comparative s...

  12. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The Nature of the Current and Anticipated Shortage of Professional Skills and Qualities of Workers in the Russian Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Natal'ia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of the existing and expected deficit of professional skills and qualities of workers employed by Russian companies. Analyzed factors include generic skills, soft or behavioral skills, the influence of the qualification, and shortage on the effectiveness of the companies as a whole. The data is based on a…

  14. A Response to the Commentary Entitled: “Addressing the Shortage of Health Professionals in Rural China: Issues and Progress”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal problems of healthcare services in China are “difficulty in seeing a doctor”and “high expense of getting medical service” (commonly known in Chinese as “kan bing nan, kan bing gui”. The central Chinese government has already launched the bottom-up cascading medical system and two-way referral system recently in order to solve these problems (1. Only when patients go to medical institutions in an orderly fashion, can we see the hope of breaking the kan bing nan, kan bing gui (2. However, we face a number of obstacles when implementing the referral policies. The biggest obstacle is the lack of Human Resource (HR for primary care both in capacity and volume (3. The central Chinese government has launched a series of policies to deal with the shortage of HRs in rural areas. Profound measurements involve postgraduate training for General Practitioner (GP (a three-year plan beginning in 2010 for producing health professionals for rural areas and improving rural retention, “3+2” medical education model (3-year diploma education and 2-year postgraduate GP training, and in-service training for physicians in rural areas (4. It is not the time to assess their effectiveness, however, these measurements are certain to improve the capacity of Community Health Service (CHS institutions.

  15. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K

    2003-01-01

    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is

  16. Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This set of "Professional Competency Areas" is intended to define the broad professional knowledge, skills, and for some competencies, attitudes expected of student affairs professionals working in the U.S., regardless of their area of specialization or positional role within the field. All student affairs professionals should be able to…

  17. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care... geographic areas, population groups, and facilities designated as primary medical care, mental health, and... (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care, podiatric, pharmacy, and veterinary care). The...

  18. 42 CFR 57.312 - Repayment of loans for service in a shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agreement with the Secretary to serve as a full-time registered nurse for a period of not less than 2 years... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT... health facility determined by the Secretary to have a critical shortage of nurses, will have a portion of...

  19. 75 FR 26167 - Designation of Medically Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Areas; Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... poverty, infant mortality or fertility rates, overutilization, or excessive waiting times, and to consider... below the poverty level; primary care physician-to-population ratio; infant mortality rate; and percent... services (including infant mortality rates). What specific underservice/shortage indicators should be...

  20. Accessibility to primary health care in Belgium: an evaluation of policies awarding financial assistance in shortage areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many countries, financial assistance is awarded to physicians who settle in an area that is designated as a shortage area to prevent unequal accessibility to primary health care. Today, however, policy makers use fairly simple methods to define health care accessibility, with physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) within predefined administrative boundaries being overwhelmingly favoured. Our purpose is to verify whether these simple methods are accurate enough for adequately designating medical shortage areas and explore how these perform relative to more advanced GIS-based methods. Methods Using a geographical information system (GIS), we conduct a nation-wide study of accessibility to primary care physicians in Belgium using four different methods: PPR, distance to closest physician, cumulative opportunity, and floating catchment area (FCA) methods. Results The official method used by policy makers in Belgium (calculating PPR per physician zone) offers only a crude representation of health care accessibility, especially because large contiguous areas (physician zones) are considered. We found substantial differences in the number and spatial distribution of medical shortage areas when applying different methods. Conclusions The assessment of spatial health care accessibility and concomitant policy initiatives are affected by and dependent on the methodology used. The major disadvantage of PPR methods is its aggregated approach, masking subtle local variations. Some simple GIS methods overcome this issue, but have limitations in terms of conceptualisation of physician interaction and distance decay. Conceptually, the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method, an advanced FCA method, was found to be most appropriate for supporting areal health care policies, since this method is able to calculate accessibility at a small scale (e.g. census tracts), takes interaction between physicians into account, and considers distance decay. While at

  1. Accessibility to primary health care in Belgium: an evaluation of policies awarding financial assistance in shortage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Bart; Neutens, Tijs; De Weerdt, Yves; Van de Weghe, Nico

    2013-08-22

    In many countries, financial assistance is awarded to physicians who settle in an area that is designated as a shortage area to prevent unequal accessibility to primary health care. Today, however, policy makers use fairly simple methods to define health care accessibility, with physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) within predefined administrative boundaries being overwhelmingly favoured. Our purpose is to verify whether these simple methods are accurate enough for adequately designating medical shortage areas and explore how these perform relative to more advanced GIS-based methods. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we conduct a nation-wide study of accessibility to primary care physicians in Belgium using four different methods: PPR, distance to closest physician, cumulative opportunity, and floating catchment area (FCA) methods. The official method used by policy makers in Belgium (calculating PPR per physician zone) offers only a crude representation of health care accessibility, especially because large contiguous areas (physician zones) are considered. We found substantial differences in the number and spatial distribution of medical shortage areas when applying different methods. The assessment of spatial health care accessibility and concomitant policy initiatives are affected by and dependent on the methodology used. The major disadvantage of PPR methods is its aggregated approach, masking subtle local variations. Some simple GIS methods overcome this issue, but have limitations in terms of conceptualisation of physician interaction and distance decay. Conceptually, the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method, an advanced FCA method, was found to be most appropriate for supporting areal health care policies, since this method is able to calculate accessibility at a small scale (e.g., census tracts), takes interaction between physicians into account, and considers distance decay. While at present in health care research

  2. Risk Assessment in Relation to the Effect of Climate Change on Water Shortage in the Taichung Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J.; Chang, L.; Ho, C.; Niu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid economic development has stimulated a worldwide greenhouse effect and induced global climate change. Global climate change has increased the range of variation in the quantity of regional river flows between wet and dry seasons, which effects the management of regional water resources. Consequently, the influence of climate change has become an important issue in the management of regional water resources. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to risk analysis of shortage of water supply in the Taichung area. This study proposed a simulation model that integrated three models: weather generator model, surface runoff model, and water distribution model. The proposed model was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current water supply system and the potential effectiveness of two additional plans for water supply: the “artificial lakes” plan and the “cross-basin water transport” plan. A first-order Markov Chain method and two probability distribution models, exponential distribution and normal distribution, were used in the weather generator model. In the surface runoff model, researchers selected the Generalized Watershed Loading Function model (GWLF) to simulate the relationship between quantity of rainfall and basin outflow. A system dynamics model (SD) was applied to the water distribution model. Results of the simulation indicated that climate change could increase the annual quantity of river flow in the Dachia River and Daan River basins. However, climate change could also increase the difference in the quantity of river flow between wet and dry seasons. Simulation results showed that in current system case or in the additional plan cases, shortage status of water for both public and agricultural uses with conditions of climate change will be mostly worse than that without conditions of climate change except for the shortage status for the public use in the current system case. With or without considering the effect of

  3. Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Semprebom, Thais Ribeiro; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Mioto, Paulo Tamoso; de Melo Versieux, Leonardo; Calvente, Alice; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-05-01

    Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf portions of Guzmania monostachia, a tank-forming C(3)-CAM bromeliad, play distinct physiological roles in response to water shortage, which is a major abiotic constraint in the epiphytic habitat. Internal and external morphological features, relative water content, pigment composition and the degree of CAM expression were evaluated in basal, middle and apical leaf portions in order to allow the establishment of correlations between the structure and the functional importance of each leaf region. Results indicated that besides marked structural differences, a high level of functional specialization is also present along the leaves of this bromeliad. When the tank water was depleted, the abundant hydrenchyma of basal leaf portions was the main reservoir for maintaining a stable water status in the photosynthetic tissues of the apical region. In contrast, the CAM pathway was intensified specifically in the upper leaf section, which is in agreement with the presence of features more suitable for the occurrence of photosynthesis at this portion. Gas exchange data indicated that internal recycling of respiratory CO(2) accounted for virtually all nighttime acid accumulation, characterizing a typical CAM-idling pathway in the drought-exposed plants. Altogether, these data reveal a remarkable physiological complexity along the leaves of G. monostachia, which might be a key adaptation to the intermittent water supply of the epiphytic niche. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The STEM shortage paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    The UK is believed to suffer from a shortage of scientists and engineers, yet unemployment rates for new graduates in these fields are high. Does that mean the skills shortage doesn't exist, asks Margaret Harris.

  5. Perceptions of Egyptian physicians about drug shortage during political disturbances: Survey in Greater Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A. Abdelrahman

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Prospective studies are required to quantitatively estimate drug shortage related mortality. Enhanced drug shortage communication by drug authorities and targeted education may relieve inter-professional conflicts resulting from drug shortages.

  6. Indiana's Water Shortage Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Unterreiner, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan was recently updated (2009) and established criteria to identify drought conditions and associated “Water Shortage Stages” designated as Normal, Watch, Warning, and Emergency. The three drought triggers are the 1-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), and Percentage of Average Streamflow (28 streamflow gaging sites). The Water Shortage Stage is defined as Normal if no more than one indicator is outside of the normal ra...

  7. Prospective approach to managing antimicrobial drug shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Milena M; Patel, Jean A; Sutton, Sarah H; Bolon, Maureen K; Esterly, John S; Gross, Alan E; Postelnick, Michael J; Zembower, Teresa R; Scheetz, Marc H

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug shortages continue to increase, with few new therapeutic options available. Nationally, proposals have been offered to alleviate drug shortages; however, these recommendations are unlikely to effect change in the near future. Thus, antimicrobial stewardship leaders in acute care hospitals must develop a prospective management strategy to lessen the impact of these shortages on patient care. Herein, we describe several resources available to aid professionals in antimicrobial stewardship and healthcare epidemiology to manage drug shortages. An effective approach should include prospectively tracking shortages and maximizing inventory by appropriately managing usage. Several tenets should underpin this management. Alternative agents should be rationally chosen before the inventory of the primary agent has reached zero, ethical considerations should be taken into account, and timely notification and communication with key stakeholders should occur throughout the prescribing and dispensing process.

  8. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  10. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a doctorate in psychology) who is practicing as a clinical or counseling psychologist and is... in the State of practice, an individual with a doctorate in psychology and two years of supervised... mental hospitals. (e) In cases where there are mental health facilities or institutions providing both...

  11. Rethinking dentist shortages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vujicic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    ... aging and other demographic transitions. Dentistry is part of this debate. Much has been written over the years--empirical research, anecdote, and commentary--on whether the United States is facing, or will face, a dentist shortage...

  12. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... value="Submit" /> Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... vaccination are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage National Vaccine Supply Shortages ...

  13. Skills Shortages: Concepts, Measurement and Implications. Working Paper No. 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Despite wide publicity and common usage, the concept of skills shortage has different meaning to different people depending on their perspective. Understanding the different concepts of skills shortages, their measurement and the causes of skill shortages is important if sound policies are to be developed in the areas of employment, education,…

  14. Global nursing shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Buchan, James

    2002-01-01

    Nursing shortages in the United Kingdom and elsewhere have been a repetitive phenomenon, usually due to an increasing demand for nurses outstripping static or a more slowly growing supply. Demand continues to grow, while projections for supply point to actual reductions in the availability of nurses in some developed and developing countries.

  15. Self-perception of professional competencies in sports professionals - the effect of the occupational area and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Batista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to Cheetham and Chivers (1998, the professional competence is a specific concept influenced by a variety of factors, including self and hetero perception of competence. In this line of understanding Nascimento (1999 says that professional success hinges not only on knowledge and procedures, but also of the domain demonstrated in relation with themselves. This study has, as main purpose, to examine the levels of competence self-perception in sport professionals. The sample consists of 1514 subjects who exercised their profession in three contexts of practice: Physical Education, Coaching and Fitness. We used three likert-type scales of self-perception of professional competence specific for the sport professional (adapted from Nascimento, 1999; Feitosa, 2002: one directed to PE teachers, the other to Coaches, and a third to teachers/instructors of Fitness. In the data processing we used the basic descriptive measures and the multivariate analysis for dependent variables (General Linear Model Multivariate to see if the factors professional area, professional experience and institution are different in the levels of self-perception of professional competence. For additional analysis we also used the T-test for independent measures and the T test for one sample. The significance's level was maintained at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate an interaction of the factors in the professional area, professional experience and institution with self-perception of competence. Keywords:  Competence self-perception, Professional competence

  16. Ethics vs. Prejudice: a challenge for professionals in leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Laudares Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research investigated the perception of prejudice against lesbianism in leisure activities, the motives for such individuals not to make public their sexual orientation and the leisure professional role as ethic posture disseminator during the inclusion process in leisure activities. A sample of 70 lesbians was interviewed via Internet and the data showed the existence of prejudice, fear of loosing social and familiar status and the professional fundamental participation for changing values in the inclusion process.

  17. The dilemma of physician shortage and international recruitment in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs) have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of int...

  18. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  19. Perceptions of staff shortage as a predisposing factor for stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of staff shortage as a predisposing factor for stress among professional orthopaedic nurses at a public hospital in Buffalo City Municipality, Eastern Cape ... Orthopaedic Unit managers should develop strategies to reduce stress in the workplace and promote coping skills for professional orthopaedic nurses.

  20. Core areas of practice and associated competencies for nurses working as professional cancer navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sandra; Fillion, Lise; Fitch, Margaret; Veillette, Anne-Marie; Matheson, Tanya; Aubin, Michèle; de Serres, Marie; Doll, Richard; Rainville, François

    2013-01-01

    Fillion et al. (2012) recently designed a conceptual framework for professional cancer navigators describing key functions of professional cancer navigation. Building on this framework, this study defines the core areas of practice and associated competencies for professional cancer navigators. The methods used in this study included: literature review, mapping of navigation functions against practice standards and competencies, and validation of this mapping process with professional navigators, their managers and nursing experts and comparison of roles in similar navigation programs. Associated competencies were linked to the three identified core areas of practice, which are: 1) providing information and education, 2) providing emotional and supportive care, and 3) facilitating coordination and continuity of care. Cancer navigators are in a key position to improve patient and family empowerment and continuity of care. This is an important step for advancing the role of oncology nurses in navigator positions and identifying areas for further research.

  1. [Professional quality of life in workers of the Toledo primary care health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarín Castro, A; Méndez García, T; Zuzuárregui Gironés, M S; Sánchez Serrano, S; Conejo Ocaña, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the professional quality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area and to analyse its components. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed on workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area with an online self-administered questionnaire. age, sex, health centre, professional group, seniority, management experience, collaboration in working groups, employment situation, and the PQL-35 professional quality of life questionnaire. A total of 430 completed questionnaires were received (45.3%), of which 68.4% were women. The mean age was 47.7±8.6 years old. Mean seniority was 21.5±9.7 years. PQL-35 results were: perception of management support 4.8±1.5; perception of workload 6.2±1.3; intrinsic motivation 7.9±1.1; job disconnection capacity 6.3±2.6; and professional quality of life 5.2±2.1. Gender differences were found in perception of management support (4.5±1.5 in males vs 4.9±1.5 in females; P=.031) and professional quality of life (4.9±2.0 vs 5.3±2.1; p=.044). Depending on the professional group, differences were found in the perception of workload (6.4±1.1 in physicians, 6.3±1.3 in nurses, 5.9±1.6 in non-sanitary professionals, and 5.3±1.2 in support units professionals; PToledo Primary Care Health Area is similar to that of other Spanish Health Areas, even in a time of economic crisis. The intrinsic motivation of the professionals is very high, in contrast with their high perception of workload and their low perception of management support. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in reducing physician shortage in Brazilian Primary Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Sábado Nicolau; Stralen, Ana Cristina de Sousa van; Cella, Joana Natalia; Wan Der Maas, Lucas; Carvalho, Cristiana Leite; Faria, Erick de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program (PMM) was put in place in Brazil aiming to reduce inequalities in access to Primary Healthcare. Based on diverse evidence that pointed to a scenario of profound shortage of doctors in the country, one of its central thrusts was emergency provision of these professionals in vulnerable areas, referred to as the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) Project. The article analyses the impact of the PMM in reducing shortage of physicians in Brazilian municipalities. To do this, it uses the Primary Healthcare Physicians Shortage Index, which identifies and measures the shortage in the periods of March 2003 and September 2015, before and after implementation of the program. The results show that there was a substantial increase in the supply of physicians in primary healthcare in the period, which helped reduce the number of municipalities with shortage from 1,200 to 777. This impact also helped reduce inequalities between municipalities, but the inequities in distribution persisted. It was also found that there was a reduction in the regular supply of doctors made by municipalities, suggesting that these were being simply substituted by the supply coming from the program. Thus, an overall situation of insecurity in care persists, reflecting the dependence of municipalities on the physician supply from the federal government.

  3. Impact of Drug Shortages on Health System Pharmacies in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Brenna; Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Sims, LaVetra D.; Stevenson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug shortages have become all too common and affect all aspects of the health care delivery system. The increased number of drug shortages has had a negative impact on patient care as well as costly financial implications. Objectives: This article identifies the current problems and negative outcomes drug shortages have caused and provides a framework for how to best prepare for and combat future shortages. It highlights specific problems faced by health care system pharmacies in the Southeastern United States and the managerial responses to address these shortage situations. Methods: A 34-question, multiple-choice survey was distributed to pharmacy directors in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Results: Of 549 surveys distributed, 219 (40%) responses were received. Respondents reported that drug shortages cause 1% to 5% error rates in hospitals and that 60% of the time drug shortages create unsafe conditions for patients and staff. Many of the respondents reported a 300% to 500% markup on medications on the shortage list. Seventy-six percent of institutions have autosubstitutions for drug shortages that have been preapproved by Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Conclusions: The causes of drug shortages are multifaceted, and the safety and financial implications can be costly. In the short term, health care institutions can utilize pharmacists to assist in circumventing the drug shortage problem. The combined efforts of all health care professionals, the US government, manufacturers, and the lay public are necessary to bring awareness and plausible solutions to the drug shortage problems in the long term. PMID:26448658

  4. General surgery in crisis – the critical shortage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and other medical specialists as well as other professionals, and to enhance the attractiveness of general surgery as a profession. There were four aspects to the study, including an assessment of the shortage of general surgeons, an assessment of the factors that impact on the choice of general surgery as a career option ...

  5. Identifying biomass fuel shortages in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Michael (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Inst. of Development Studies)

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Sri Lankan Forestry Master Plan and other sources, to explore the causes of biomass shortages, and to identify the areas where interventions are likely to have most impact. Five districts, concentrated in the wet lowland and hill country zones, are found to be in overall biomass fuel deficit whilst in a further five, which include dry zone locations, fuelwood consumption exceeds potential supply, Within the area of overall deficit, poorer urban groups and rural families with no home gardens - who together comprise 15% of all households nationally - are affected most severely. Another 10% of households are likely to suffer to a lesser extent. (author).

  6. Drug shortages: Implications for medical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Hawley, Kristy L; Zocchi, Mark; Fox, Erin; Pines, Jesse M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2015-07-01

    Drug shortages have significantly increased over the past decade. There are limited data describing how shortages impact medical toxicology of drugs. To characterize drug shortages affecting the management of poisoned patients. Drug shortage data from January 2001 to December 2013 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for agents used to treat poisonings were analyzed. Information on drug type, formulation, reason for shortage, shortage duration, marketing, and whether the drug was available from a single source was collected. The availability of a substitute therapy and whether substitutes were in shortage during the study period were also investigated. Of 1,751 shortages, 141 (8.1%) impacted drugs used to treat poisoned patients, and as of December 2013, 21 (14.9%) remained unresolved. New toxicology shortages increased steadily from the mid-2000s, reaching a high of 26 in 2011. Median shortage duration was 164 days (interquartile range: 76-434). Generic drugs were involved in 85.1% of shortages and 41.1% were single-source products. Parenteral formulations were often involved in shortages (89.4%). The most common medications in shortage were sedative/hypnotics (15.6%). An alternative agent was available for 121 (85.8%) drugs; however, 88 (72.7%) alternatives were also affected by shortages at some point during the study period. When present, the most common reasons reported were manufacturing delays (22.0%) and supply/demand issues (17.0%). Shortage reason was not reported for 48.2% of drugs. Toxicology drug shortages are becoming increasingly prevalent, which can result in both suboptimal treatment and medication errors from using less familiar alternatives. Drug shortages affected a substantial number of critical agents used in the management of poisoned patients. Shortages were often of long duration and for drugs without alternatives. Providers caring for poisoned patients should be aware of current shortages and

  7. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  8. [Analysis of the intensity of professional collaboration among nurses in a critical care area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoechea Calpe, L; Marín Fernández, B; Regaira Martínez, E

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the intensity of professional collaboration (IPC) between the nurses in a multidisciplinary critical area (CA) and the relationship with the workplace "intensive care unit (ICU) and special hospitalisation area (SHA)", educational level, age, and years of professional activity in CA. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 57 nurses from CA, recording socio-demographic data: age, educational level, speciality titles, years of professional activity and workday type, years of professional activity in the CA, and involvement in scientific works. Tool: Intensity of Inter-professional Collaboration Questionnaire. SPSS 20.0. The study included a total of 47 nurses (ICU/SHA), with a mean age of 35.91 (9.59) years. Almost three-quarters (74.46%) were nursing graduates with a posgraduate in ICU. Median and interquartile range of professional experience was 14 and 14.50 years, respectively, and years working in CA was 8.50 and 16 years, respectively. Just over half of them (51.10%) worked part-time, and 61.70% participated in scientific works. The mean IPC score was 61.68 (6.84), with 57.40% providing values of high IPC. The relationship between the workplace (ICU/SHA) and educational level with IPC was not statistically significant (p>.05). There are statistical significant differences between IPC with age and years of professional activity in CA (p<.05). The present study demonstrates the existence of good IPC in the CA. Younger nurses obtain a better IPC score, as well as nurses who have been working for less time in CA. Nurses with a Degree or Masters have a higher level of IPC than the rest, as well as nurses who perform professional activity combining ICU and SHA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Doctor Shortage and Health Services*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... Doctor Shortage and Health Services*. 883. C. J. H. BRINK, RA., M.D., B.CH., D.P.H., D.T.M. ... Matriculation Board should have altered the regulations to remove· the stumbling block of English Higher .... emergencies the sick Pantu must resort to r~e witchdoctor or sometimes to the nurse or midwife in the ...

  10. Thinking and creative styles: the impact in educational and professional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Weschler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Styles can be defined as thinking and behaving preferences on specific situations. Assessing thinking and creative styles can give essential information on ways creativity can be expressed in the educational and professional areas. Considering this, a scale entitled Style of Thinking and Creating was developed based on the creative persons’ characteristics. Two main studies with Brazilian samples demonstrated the validity of this scale to identify creative productive individuals. Five additional investigations conducted with high school and university students, as well as professionals on leadership positions, indicated the existence of significant relationships among styles with learning motivation, school achievement, leadership behaviors and creative attitudes, but no relationships among styles and personality types. In conclusion, the need to understand styles for thinking and creating in order to provide better educational and professional guidance was confirmed. 

  11. Stealth voluntarism: an expectation of health professional work in underserviced areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Ostry, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Voluntarism can take many forms, and its boundaries are not always straightforward. In this paper, we explore a particular type of voluntary activities carried out as an add-on to formal duties of health care professionals and administrators. We outline some impressions of what we term 'stealth voluntarism', which we situate at the interstices of health care professionalism, place integration, and welfare retrenchment. Our discussion draws on exploratory research looking at health care and social support in smaller urban centres in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. While stealth voluntarism can occur anywhere, we highlight its unique implications for systems of support in rural and small town places. We conclude by considering the wider implications of stealth voluntarism as an expectation of professional work in underserviced areas, particularly in the context of welfare retrenchment and the offloading of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  13. Romanian Tourism Facing Labour Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Chivu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main tendencies in the Romanian tourism and their impact on the labour market. The first partof the paper presents the main tendencies in travel and tourism sector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market inthe hotel sector, highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration, financial compensations.The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into the travel and tourism sector in order to better manage the multipledimensions of growth.

  14. Why drug shortages are an ethical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2013-11-30

    Drug shortages are a growing problem in developed countries. To some extent they are the result of technical and organisational failures, but to view drug shortages simply as technical and economic phenomena is to miss the fact that they are also ethical and political issues. This observation is important because it highlights both the moral and political imperative to respond to drug shortages as vigorously as possible, and the need for those addressing shortages to do so in ethically and politically sophisticated ways. This brief article outlines the ethical issues that need to be considered by anyone attempting to understand or address drug shortages.

  15. Bioanalytical solutions to acetonitrile shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Williams, John; Carrier, Scott; Brummel, Christopher L

    2010-09-01

    The acetonitrile shortage during 2008 to 2009 challenged bioanalytical scientists due to the ubiquitous role that acetonitrile plays in sample preparation and analysis. Replacement, reduction and reuse of acetonitrile were the core tenants behind each approach used to tackle the shortage. Sample preparation of biological matrices can be accomplished by protein precipitation using a variety of solvents; methanol is usually the best substitute for acetonitrile. The potential liabilities in using methanol can be handled with appropriate modifications. Often methanol is superior to acetonitrile for both protein precipitation and chromatography if phospholipid interference is a problem. Solvent consumption can be minimized by reducing column dimensions and particle size. Separations can be achieved at greatly reduced run times using sub-2-μm and fused-core particle columns. Emerging technologies, such as desorption ESI, direct analysis in real time and laser diode thermal desorption, eliminate the need for chromatography and achieve significant solvent and time savings. Acetonitrile recyclers can purify HPLC waste for reuse.

  16. Strategies for dealing with the national coding shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Jill

    2010-04-01

    Steps providers should consider to deal with a national coding shortage and implementation of ICD-10 include the following: Concentrate on employee retention (consider retention bonuses; upgrade pay scales; and offer flex-time and flexible work schedules). Begin a training program for ICD-10. Target other healthcare professionals and current employees to transition into coding positions. Collaborate with colleges, high schools, and middle schools to draw prospective students to this career path and your organization.

  17. EDITORIAL Influences on the choice of health professionals to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL. The shortage of health care professionals in rural areas is a ... rural health education agenda is that rural people have different ... impact. Internationally it has been found that where learners are randomly assigned to various training programmes, no curriculum effect is found, at least for the typical 1- or 2-month.

  18. Development of an inter-professional educational program for home care professionals: Evaluation of short-term effects in suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rumiko; Yoshie, Satoru; Kawagoe, Shohei; Hirahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishinaga, Masanori; Iijima, Katsuya; Tsuji, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the short-term effects of an inter-professional educational program developed for physicians and other home care specialists to promote home care in the community.Methods From March 2012 to January 2013, an inter-professional educational program (IEP) was held four times in three suburban areas (Kashiwa city and Matsudo city in the Chiba prefecture, and Omori district in the Ota ward). This program aimed to motivate physicians to increase the number of home visits and to encourage home care professionals to work together in the same community areas by promoting inter-professional work (IPW). The participants were physicians, home-visit nurses, and other home care professionals recommended by community-level professional associations. The participants attended a 1.5-day multi-professional IEP. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were used to collect information on home care knowledge and practical skills (26 indexes, 1-4 scale), attitudes toward home care practice (4 indexes, 1-6 scale), and IPW (13 indexes, 1-4 scale). Data from all of the participants without labels about the type of professionals were excluded, and both pre-test and post-test responses were used in the analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test and a paired t-test were conducted to compare pre- and post-program questionnaire responses stratified for physicians and other professionals, and the effect size was calculated.Results The total number of participants for the four programs was 256, and data from 162 (63.3%) were analyzed. The physicians numbered 19 (11.7%), while other professionals numbered 143 (88.3%). Attending this program helped participants obtain home care knowledge of IPW and a practical view of home care. Furthermore, indexes about IPW consisted of two factors: cooperation and interaction; non-physician home care professionals increased their interactions with physicians, other professionals increased their cooperation with other professionals, and

  19. Was there a Skills Shortage in Australia?

    OpenAIRE

    Junankar, P.N. (Raja)

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the problem of a "skills shortage" in Australia. It begins with an analysis of the operation of a labour market in terms of stocks and flows of labour services and human capital acquisition. It discusses the definition of a skills shortage, why it persists, and then looks at evidence from Australia, in particular, the resource rich states of Queensland and Western Australia over the past decade. It discusses possible employer responses to a skills shortage. Finally, it disc...

  20. Diving exposure and health effects in divers working in different areas of professional diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens, Ågot; Troland, Kari; Djurhuus, Rune; Grønning, Marit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare diving exposure and health effects in different areas of professional diving. The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority's Diving Register contains data on all professional inshore divers who have held a diving certificate at any time since 1980. Of these divers, the "Norwegian diver 2011" questionnaire was completed by 2848 (48.7%). A total of 1167 male divers reported that they often worked in one area of diving only (rescue diving, diving instruction, fish farming, quay/construction work and offshore/oil related). In the analysis of these divers, rescue divers were used as referents as they reported the lowest number of dives. Age distribution, the proportion of retired divers and the mean number of dives completed varied between the different areas of professional diving. Compared to rescue divers, divers in fish farming, quay/ /construction work and offshore/oil related work more often experienced physically demanding diving. Divers in fish farming more often had no day off after 3 days of physically demanding work compared to rescue divers. All groups except offshore divers reported making further dives after one physically demanding dive on the same day. All groups reported more frequent decompression sickness than did the referents and divers in quay/construction and offshore/oil related diving reported more frequent episodes of unconsciousness during diving than did the referents. Divers in fish farming, in quay/construction work and oil/ /offshore related diving obtained a higher symptom score than the referents and the two latter groups also reported more frequent adverse health effects due to diving than the referents. Health related physical and mental component summary scores were lower in all other groups than in referents. Compared to the rescue divers, divers in quay/construction work and offshore/oil related divers reported more adverse health effects and obtained a higher symptom score.

  1. eHealth education of professionals in the Baltic Sea Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations. We argue that providing possibilities for applying and experimenting with e-Health system in a concrete and tangible manner is central in order to raise the acceptance and capabilities of health care professionals to use e-Health systems.

  2. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  3. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... 2010, and shortages are becoming more severe as well as more frequent. The affected medicines include... before a shortage becomes a crisis. However, drug manufacturers have not consistently provided the FDA... lifesaving medicines. Sec. 2. Broader Reporting of Manufacturing Discontinuances. To the extent permitted by...

  4. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS – TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Płatkowska-Prokopczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine what had changed in recent years in the field of social and economic activity of rural women, and to determine whether the manifestations of adaptation to changing circumstances are visible. In connection with disabilities in the labour market in rural areas and at the same time increase of the educational aspirations of women, a high risk of losing the potential of rural women emerges. Lack of solution to these problems may lead to weakening of the human potential in rural, both by deepening the isolation of rural areas compared to urban space and outflow of the most active inhabitants seeking opportunities for personal and professional development.

  5. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  6. Continuing Interprofessional Education in Geriatrics and Gerontology in Medically Underserved Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, John A.; Ferguson, K. Della; Sokal, Regina Davis

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a…

  7. eHealth Education of Professionals in the Baltic Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration......In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study...... of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations...

  8. [Drug shortage: determinants, consequences and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    The present study analyzes drug shortage as a problem reaching beyond the logistic aspect of the health field and discusses its consequences with respect to quality, safety and cost of health care delivery. The pharmaceutical supply chain and the factors that determine the distribution and availability of drugs are discussed. The contribution of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee in preventing and managing drug shortage in health institutions is stressed and measures for drug shortage management are suggested. Finally it is emphasized that drugs should be considered health products rather than consumer goods and as such be given a different treatment by the supply chain.

  9. Professional nurses' requests to remove their names from the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide a severe shortage of professional nurses is expected to occur between 2005 and 2020 - when the ";baby boomers"; born between 1947 and 1962 reach retirement age. This shortage will differ from any previous shortage because there will be no large pool of non-practising professional nurses as was the case ...

  10. The Dilemma of Physician Shortage and International Recruitment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Islam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles—recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada’s self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada’s point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs’ home countries’ unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers’ excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries’ (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

  11. The dilemma of physician shortage and international recruitment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul

    2014-06-01

    The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs) have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles-recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada's self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada's point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs' home countries' unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers' excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries' (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system) vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

  12. Medicine shortages in Fiji: A qualitative exploration of stakeholders’ views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Betty B.; Vera, Numa; Pillai, Alvish S.; Lim, Jessy S.; Bero, Lisa; Moles, Rebekah J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Medicine access is a human right; yet, concerningly, there are international instances of shortages. Quantitative data has allowed WHO to propose global solutions; however, individualised understanding of specific regions is still required to work towards national solutions. Fiji has an established issue with medication supply and the aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to gain a fuller understanding of this context. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gain the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the Fijian medicine supply chain in regards to causes, impacts and possible solutions of medicine shortages. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. Results In total, 48 stakeholders participated and the information was synthesised into three main themes, causes, impacts and solutions and the sub-themes including; political, system and patient causes, adverse health effects on patients, professional dissatisfaction, monetary loss and loss of faith in the health system, workarounds, operation improvements, government intervention and education and training. Conclusions The situation in Fiji is not dissimilar to other instances of shortages around the world and hence international solutions like that proposed by WHO are feasible; however, they must be modified to be uniquely Fijian to work in this context. PMID:28582409

  13. Medicine shortages in Fiji: A qualitative exploration of stakeholders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine; Chaar, Betty B; Vera, Numa; Pillai, Alvish S; Lim, Jessy S; Bero, Lisa; Moles, Rebekah J

    2017-01-01

    Medicine access is a human right; yet, concerningly, there are international instances of shortages. Quantitative data has allowed WHO to propose global solutions; however, individualised understanding of specific regions is still required to work towards national solutions. Fiji has an established issue with medication supply and the aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to gain a fuller understanding of this context. Semi-structured interviews were used to gain the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the Fijian medicine supply chain in regards to causes, impacts and possible solutions of medicine shortages. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. In total, 48 stakeholders participated and the information was synthesised into three main themes, causes, impacts and solutions and the sub-themes including; political, system and patient causes, adverse health effects on patients, professional dissatisfaction, monetary loss and loss of faith in the health system, workarounds, operation improvements, government intervention and education and training. The situation in Fiji is not dissimilar to other instances of shortages around the world and hence international solutions like that proposed by WHO are feasible; however, they must be modified to be uniquely Fijian to work in this context.

  14. A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghachavare, Vivek B; Dhumale, Girish B; Kadam, Yugantara R; Gore, Alka D

    2013-08-01

    Various studies across the globe have emphasised that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and dental studies, are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to assess stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 among students of medical, dental and engineering colleges from the urban area of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India, using a convenience sampling technique. The calculated total sample size was 1,200. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Analysis was done using percentage, the chi-square test, binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. Out of the 1,224 respondents, 299 (24.4%) experienced stress. Among them 115 (38.5%), 102 (34.1%) and 82 (27.4%) were dental, medical and engineering students, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between stress and the field of education. Stress was observed in 187 (27.7%) females and 112 (20.4%) males; the association with gender was statistically significant. By applying binary logistic regression, medical studies, health and lifestyle factors, and academic factors were the significant predictors for stress. Students from all the three fields studied were exposed to stress. Academic factors were one of the most important stressors. The introduction of stress management education into the curriculum could prove useful in combatting this problem.

  15. The future shortage of doctoral prepared nurses and the impact on the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Deb; Somera, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Nursing remains at the top of the job growth market and has the potential to positively or negatively impact changes in the delivery of health care today. Professional nurses play a crucial role in the prevention of medication errors, decreasing infection rates, and facilitating a patient's safe transition from acute care into the home environment. Nurses must make critical life-saving decisions associated with caring for the more acutely ill patient. Doctoral prepared nurses have the unique position to assist the direct care nurse because of their advanced education. The doctor in nursing practice concentrates on direct care, specifically research utilization for improved delivery of care, patient outcomes, and clinical systems management There is a future shortage of doctoral prepared nurses, and a resolution is needed. Doctoral prepared nurses with advanced degrees play an important role in mentoring the bedside nurse to promote an interdisciplinary collaborative relationship. The doctor in nursing practice has the ability to effect change in health care systems, organizations, and policy through focusing on the essence of nursing-the care.

  16. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  17. Improving adult learning and professional development in a post-conflict area: the case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, J.; Kalyanpur, M.; Kuiper, Wilmad; van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a

  18. Disaster Impact on Impoverished Area of US: An Inter-Professional Mixed Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Linda H; Davenport, Lisa A; Hayes, Meghan H; McArthur, Moriah A; Toro, Stacey N; King, Cameron E; Vazirani, Hazel M

    2016-12-01

    to have an innate capacity to persevere and utilize resources to manage and transcend adversity and restore equilibrium, which reflected components of resilience that deserve greater recognition and appreciation. Resilience is a foundational concept for disaster science. A model of resilience for the rural Appalachia community was developed to visually depict the encompassing element of community-based interventions that may enhance coping strategies, mitigate risk factors, integrate protective factors, and strengthen access. Community-based interventions are recommended to strengthen resilience, yielding improved outcomes of adaptation, health and wellness, and disaster readiness. Banks LH , Davenport LA , Hayes MH , McArthur MA , Toro SN , King CE , Vazirani HM . Disaster impact on impoverished area of US: an inter-professional mixed method study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):583-592.

  19. The global workforce shortages and the migration of medical professions: the Australian policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D

    2008-05-29

    Medical migration sees the providers of medical services (in particular medical practitioners) moving from one region or country to another. This creates problems for the provision of public health and medical services and poses challenges for laws in the nation state and for laws in the global community.There exists a global shortage of healthcare professionals. Nation states and health rights movements have been both responsible for, and responsive to, this global community shortage through a variety of health policy, regulation and legislation which directly affects the migration of medical providers. The microcosm responses adopted by individual nation states, such as Australia, to this workforce shortage further impact on the global workforce shortage through active recruitment of overseas-trained healthcare professionals. "Push" and "pull" factors exist which encourage medical migration of healthcare professionals. A nation state's approach to health policy, regulation and legislation dramatically helps to create these "push factors" and "pull factors". A co-ordinated global response is required with individual nation states being cognisant of the impact of their health policy, regulations and legislation on the global community through the medical migration of healthcare professionals.

  20. A Synthesis of Professional Development on the Implementation of Literacy Strategies for Middle School Content Area Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper synthesized studies of professional development for middle school content area teachers and the teachers' subsequent implementation of literacy strategies. Four studies were identified as having a majority of participants teaching English/reading, mathematics, science, and social studies in grades 6 through 8. Articles meeting the…

  1. Plan May Ease Faculty Shortage in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Help in solving the engineering faculty shortage crisis is being sought by the American Association of Engineering Societies (New York City) by means of a four-part proposal: establishing a faculty assistance program, graduate student assistance, academic professorial appointments (federally funded), and general improvements of university…

  2. Differences in the Professional Satisfaction of General Internists in Academically Affiliated Practices in the Greater-Boston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jennifer S; Cleary, Paul D; Puopolo, Ann Louise; Burstin, Helen R; Cook, E Francis; Brennan, Troyen A

    1998-01-01

    Managed care has created more professional constraints for general internists. We surveyed 198 general internists at 12 academically affiliated practices in the greater-Boston area to examine professional satisfaction. Overall, these physicians were moderately satisfied (mean of 59.1 on a 100-point scale). Before adjustment, women had lower overall satisfaction than men, as well as poorer satisfaction with the domains of career concerns and patient access. Gender had no independent effect on satisfaction after adjustment for age, income, percentage of time providing direct patient care, work status, and site. Younger physicians also had lower overall satisfaction, and these differences remained after adjustment. Improvements in professional satisfaction may be required to ensure the continued recruitment of young physicians, particularly women, into general internal medicine. PMID:9502374

  3. A study of the professional development needs of Shiraz high schools' principals in the area of educational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Aliasghar; Abdollahi, Bijan; Zainabadi, Hasan Reza; Arasteh, Hamid Reza

    2015-07-01

    The increased emphasis on standards-based school accountability since the passage of the no child left behind act of 2001 is focusing critical attention on the professional development of school principals and their ability to meet the challenges of improving the student outcomes. Due to this subject, the current study examined professional development needs of Shiraz high schools principals. The statistical population consisted of 343 principals of Shiraz high schools, of whom 250 subjects were selected using Krejcie and Morgan (1978) sample size determination table. To collect the data, a questionnaire developed by Salazar (2007) was administered. This questionnaire was designed for professional development in the leadership skills/competencies and consisted of 25 items in each leadership performance domain using five-point Likert-type scales. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed and the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was (a=0.78). To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and Paired-Samples t-test were used. Also, the data was analyzed through SPSS14 software. The findings showed that principals' "Importance" ratings were always higher than their "Actual proficiency" ratings. The mean score of the difference between "Importance" and "Actual proficiency" pair on "Organizing resources" was 2.11, making it the highest "need" area. The lowest need area was "Managing the organization and operational procedures" at 0.81. Also, the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the means of the "Importance" and the corresponding means on the "Actual proficiency" (Difference of means=1.48, t=49.38, pcomplex problems, understanding student development and learning, developing the vision and the mission, building team commitment, understanding measurements, evaluation and assessment strategies, facilitating the change process, solving problems and making decisions. In other words, the principals had statistically

  4. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage ( true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  5. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage (true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  6. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  7. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational......Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied....... Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...

  8. [RIU project: perceived changes by health agents and professionals after a health intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviñó, Dory; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; La Parra Casado, Daniel; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    To describe how health agents and professionals working in a community project perceive the changes related to the population health status and their use of health-care services after the RIU intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage. A qualitative descriptive study based on individual and group interviews and participant observation conducted between October 2008-July 2009. Raval (Algemesí-Valencia) We selected by purposive sample 7 women health agents, all persons who completed the intervention, and 10 professionals for their involvement in the intervention. We conducted a group interview with the women at 6 months and a group and 7 individuals interviews both at 9 months of intervention. We realized a thematic descriptive analysis from health promotion framework. We used participant observation in a meeting with professionals at 9 months and analyzed field notes as: appraisal project, detected changes, challenges and recommendations. Women acquired information about health, contraception, pregnancy and heath services; they noted changes in self-care and social skills and leadership; they internalized the role of health worker disseminating what they learned and showed improvement in self-esteem and social recognition. They caused changes in the people related on health care and access to services. Professionals didn't incorporate at their work the community perspective; they valued positively the project; professionals and women agreed on improving access and use of services and closeness population-professionals. RIU increases the capabilities of the participants, their social recognition and improves access and use of health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy; Reventlow, Susanne; Hempler, Nana Folmann

    2017-09-18

    Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently, assessing professionals' skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. However, learner-centered approaches such as adequate self-reflective tools have been shown to emphasize professional autonomy and promote engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. The study entails of two components: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals were asked to assess their person-centered communication skills using a self-assessment tool based on challenges and skills related to four educator roles: Embracer, Facilitator, Translator, and Initiator. Data were analyzed by hermeneutic analysis. Theories derived from theoretical model 'The Health Education Juggler' and techniques from 'Motivational Interviewing in Groups' were used as a framework to analyze data. Subsequently, the analysis from the field notes and interview transcript were compared with healthcare professionals' self-assessments of strengths and areas in need to effectively facilitate group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Healthcare professionals self-assessed the Translator and the Embracer to be the two most skilled roles whereas

  10. The nursing shortage: a worldwide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Z. Booth

    Full Text Available A worldwide shortage of nurses has been acknowledged by the multidisciplinary Global Advisory Group of the World Health Organization. The shortage is caused by an increased demand for nurses, while fewer people are choosing nursing as a profession and the current nurses worldwide are aging. The shortage applies to nurses in practice as well as the nurse faculty who teach students. The inter-country recruitment and migration of nurses from developing countries to developed countries exacerbates the problem. Although public opinion polls identifies the nurse as the person who makes the health care system work for them, the conditions of the work environment in which the nurse functions is unsatisfactory and must change. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects on the nurse of a healthy work environment and the positive relationships between nursing care and patient outcomes. It is important that government officials, insurance companies, and administrators and leaders of health care systems acknowledge and operationalize the value of nurses to the health care system in order to establish and maintain the integrity and viability of that system.

  11. The nursing shortage: a worldwide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Rachel Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide shortage of nurses has been acknowledged by the multidisciplinary Global Advisory Group of the World Health Organization. The shortage is caused by an increased demand for nurses, while fewer people are choosing nursing as a profession and the current nurses worldwide are aging. The shortage applies to nurses in practice as well as the nurse faculty who teach students. The inter-country recruitment and migration of nurses from developing countries to developed countries exacerbates the problem. Although public opinion polls identifies the nurse as the person who makes the health care system work for them, the conditions of the work environment in which the nurse functions is unsatisfactory and must change. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects on the nurse of a healthy work environment and the positive relationships between nursing care and patient outcomes. It is important that government officials, insurance companies, and administrators and leaders of health care systems acknowledge and operationalize the value of nurses to the health care system in order to establish and maintain the integrity and viability of that system.

  12. Developing personal attributes of professionalism during clinical rotations: views of final year bachelor of clinical medical practice students

    OpenAIRE

    Mapukata-Sondzaba, Nontsikelelo; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Ross, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is un...

  13. A study of the professional development needs of Shiraz high schools’ principals in the area of educational leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIASGHAR HAYAT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased emphasis on standards-based school accountability since the passage of the no child left behind act of 2001 is focusing critical attention on the professional development of school principals and their ability to meet the challenges of improving the student outcomes. Due to this subject, the current study examined professional development needs of Shiraz high schools principals. Methods: The statistical population consisted of 343 principals of Shiraz high schools, of whom 250 subjects were selected using Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. To collect the data, a questionnaire developed by Salazar (2007 was administered. This questionnaire was designed for professional development in the leadership skills/competencies and consisted of 25 items in each leadership performance domain using five-point Likert-type scales. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed and the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was (α=0.78. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and Paired-Samples t-test were used. Also, the data was analyzed through SPSS14 software. Results: The findings showed that principals’ “Importance” ratings were always higher than their “Actual proficiency” ratings. The mean score of the difference between “Importance” and “Actual proficiency” pair on “Organizing resources” was 2.11, making it the highest “need” area. The lowest need area was “Managing the organization and operational procedures” at 0.81. Also, the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the means of the “Importance” and the corresponding means on the “Actual proficiency” (Difference of means=1.48, t=49.38, p<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, the most important professional development needs of the principals included organizing resources, resolving complex problems, understanding student development and learning, developing

  14. Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those with Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167081.html Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those With Allergies Facing expected season-long ... News) -- A shortage of honeybee, wasp and hornet venom extract has allergists concerned. The extract treats people ...

  15. Intergration in community relations: water shortage and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the form/patterns of social conflict generated as a result of water shortage in Akungba-Akoko of Ondo State; precipitating factors for water shortage and social conflict; effects of water shortage and social conflict on residents, and the conflict management style employed. Using both primary and ...

  16. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    , assessing professionals’ skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. However, learner-centered approaches such as adequate self-reflective tools have been shown to emphasize professional autonomy and promote...... to observations of professional skills in educational programs and were confirmed in the interviews. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals self-assessed the same professional skills as observed in practice. Thus, a tool to self-assess professional skills in facilitating group-based diabetes education seems...... to be useful as a starting point to promote self-reflections and identification of healthcare professionals’ strengths and areas of need of professional development....

  17. An audit of drug shortages in a community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, E M; Guinane, M; Nugent, F; Halley, O; Parsons, C

    2015-06-01

    There are no firm data on drug shortages in Irish community pharmacy. This prospective observational study aimed to characterise the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. The primary aim was to determine numbers and durations of drug shortages. Secondary aims included comparing these shortages with Irish Pharmacy Union (IPU) drug shortage lists and determining the frequency with which notifications were received prior to shortages. Further secondary aims were to examine relationships between causes of drug shortages and drug costs and between causes of drug shortages and shortage durations. The study took place in a community pharmacy in a Limerick City suburb between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected daily regarding drugs that were dispensed, but unavailable to purchase. Suppliers/manufacturers provided data on the reasons for shortages. 65/1,232 dispensed drugs (5.3%) were in short supply over the study period. Median shortage duration was 13 days (interquartile range 4-32 days) and median cost was 8.10. Numbers of unavailable drugs by month varied from 13 to 38. Monthly IPU drug shortage lists identified between six and eight of these shortages depending on the month. Two notifications were received from suppliers/manufacturers regarding shortages. Parallel exports had the highest mean costs (mean 38.05) and manufacturing problems were associated with the longest durations (mean 57.44 days). This study highlights the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. We propose that enhanced communication between all stakeholders is the most worthwhile solution. Further studies are needed.

  18. Multi-professional audit supports clinical governance in projecting and implementing a new stroke care area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute stroke have better outcomes in terms of survival or regaining independence if they receive organized inpatient care in a specific setting (Stroke Unit, SU where a coordinated multidisciplinary team can ensure the best level of care. The clinical governance of an SU requires a systematic monitoring of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic processes through a structured audit. The entire project and set up of a new SU in Bentivoglio, Italy, were based on a model that focused on multidisciplinary teamwork and clinical governance. An audit based on the Benjamin audit cycle followed every step of the set up of the new SU. Markers from national and international guidelines and from the Italian Regional Audit, together with a specific database were used. The audit showed a high level of care and a significant improvement in the majority of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters. Only a few markers (i.e. waiting times for ultrasound tomography and prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy required specific projects in order to improve the results. Our experience confirmed that a structured audit can support clinical governance of an SU by monitoring clinical processes and quality of care. Such an audit involves the whole professional team and shows the effects of any single actions. It also helps integration and co-operation among staff. Furthermore, a structured audit is a useful instrument for professional accountability for both qualitative and quantitative aspects of care.

  19. Early Childhood Practicum Students' Professional Growth in the USA: Areas of Confidence and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Weber, Elsa K.; Park, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    This research examines specific areas of confidence and concern as expressed by 40 American undergraduate early childhood students on a practicum (supervised field-based internships); if their beliefs changed over the course of their practicum, and if prior teaching experience had an impact on their confidence levels. Areas of confidence and…

  20. The value of the WIRHE Scholarship Programme in training health professionals for rural areas: Views of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapukata, Nontsikelelo O; Couper, Ian; Smith, Jocelyn

    2017-10-13

    Rural hospitals in South Africa, as elsewhere, face enduring shortages of, and challenges in attracting and retaining, suitably qualified staff. The Wits Initiative for Rural Health Education (WIRHE), based at the University of the Witwatersrand but covering three universities, is a rural scholarship programme established to find local solutions to these challenges in the North West and Mpumalanga provinces. The purpose of this evaluation was to ascertain whether the WIRHE project was achieving its objectives. This article draws from an evaluation commissioned by the Swiss-South African Cooperative Initiative, a major funder of the programme when WIRHE was launched in 2003. Qualitative interviews were conducted either as face-to-face meetings or telephonically with 21 WIRHE students and graduates. Content analysis was undertaken to identify common themes. There was a consistency in the findings as the students and graduates reported similar experiences. Many of the participants were overwhelmed by their initial challenges of having to adapt to a different language, an institutional culture and resources that they previously did not have access to. The participants acknowledged the role of WIRHE staff in facilitating the transition from home to university and, in particular, the value of the financial and academic support. The geographic distance to Wits presented a challenge for the Pretoria- and Sefako Makgatho-based students. The holiday work affirmed clinical advantages for WIRHE students and heightened students' interest in becoming healthcare workers. WIRHE's key success factors are the financial, academic and emotional support offered to students. WIRHE achieved its objectives based on a principled strategic approach and an understanding that students from rural backgrounds are more likely to return to rural areas. The study supports the value of structured support programmes for students of rural origin as they pursue their studies.

  1. The value of the WIRHE Scholarship Programme in training health professionals for rural areas: Views of participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nontsikelelo O. Mapukata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural hospitals in South Africa, as elsewhere, face enduring shortages of, and challenges in attracting and retaining, suitably qualified staff. The Wits Initiative for Rural Health Education (WIRHE, based at the University of the Witwatersrand but covering three universities, is a rural scholarship programme established to find local solutions to these challenges in the North West and Mpumalanga provinces. The purpose of this evaluation was to ascertain whether the WIRHE project was achieving its objectives.Methods: This article draws from an evaluation commissioned by the Swiss-South African Cooperative Initiative, a major funder of the programme when WIRHE was launched in 2003. Qualitative interviews were conducted either as face-to-face meetings or telephonically with 21 WIRHE students and graduates. Content analysis was undertaken to identify common themes.Results: There was a consistency in the findings as the students and graduates reported similar experiences. Many of the participants were overwhelmed by their initial challenges of having to adapt to a different language, an institutional culture and resources that they previously did not have access to. The participants acknowledged the role of WIRHE staff in facilitating the transition from home to university and, in particular, the value of the financial and academic support. The geographic distance to Wits presented a challenge for the Pretoria- and Sefako Makgatho-based students. The holiday work affirmed clinical advantages for WIRHE students and heightened students’ interest in becoming healthcare workers.Conclusion: WIRHE’s key success factors are the financial, academic and emotional support offered to students. WIRHE achieved its objectives based on a principled strategic approach and an understanding that students from rural backgrounds are more likely to return to rural areas. The study supports the value of structured support programmes for students of

  2. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  3. Educator Loss in STEM Area Called Issue: Overall Shortage Disputed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that two University of Pennsylvania researchers are questioning a basic tenet of national efforts to enhance U.S. economic competitiveness: the idea that colleges and universities are producing too few mathematics and science teachers to meet the demand in the nation's classrooms. Richard M. Ingersoll, a professor of education…

  4. Skill shortages in health: innovative solutions using vocational education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, S I; Johns, S S; Millar, P; Le, Q; Routley, G

    2007-01-01

    , priorities and timelines; workplace culture that is resistant to change; and organisational boundaries. For training-only models, additional barriers were: technology; low educational levels of trainees; lack of health professionals to provide training and/or supervision; and cost of training. Key enhancers for the development of models were identified as: commitment by all partners and co-location of partners; or effective communication channels. Key enhancers for model effectiveness were: first considering work tasks, competencies and job (re)design; high profile of the model within the community; community-based models; cultural fit; and evidence of direct link between skills development and employment, for example VET trained aged care workers upskilling for other health jobs. For training only models, additional enhancers were flexibility of partners in accommodating needs of trainees; low training costs; experienced clinical supervisors; and the provision of professional development to trainers. There needs to be a balance between short-term solutions to current skill shortages (training only), and medium to longer term solutions (job redesign, holistic approaches) that also address projected skills shortages. Models that focus on addressing skills shortages in aged care can provide a broad pathway to careers in health. Characteristics of models likely to be effective in addressing skill shortages are: responsibility for addressing skills shortage is shared between the health sector, education and training organisations and government, with employers taking a proactive role; the training component is complemented by a focus on retention of workers; models are either targeted at existing employees or identify a target group(s) who may not otherwise have considered a career in health.

  5. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently...... engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. METHODS: The study entails of two components....... Healthcare professionals were asked to assess their person-centered communication skills using a self-assessment tool based on challenges and skills related to four educator roles: Embracer, Facilitator, Translator, and Initiator. Data were analyzed by hermeneutic analysis. Theories derived from theoretical...

  6. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  7. Challenges of preparing allied health professionals for interdisciplinary practice in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertman, Carl I; Dotson, Suzanna; Mazzocco, Gail O; Reitz, S Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Meeting the health needs of individuals in rural communities involves addressing the challenges of complex multifaceted health problems, limited local health resources and services, isolation, and distance. Interdisciplinary collaboration can create solutions to health care problems that transcend conventional, discipline-specific methods, procedures, and techniques. This paper reports on the four-pronged approach of the Western Maryland Area Health Education Center used to prepare allied health students to be interdisciplinary team members in rural areas. It describes the development of four interdisciplinary instructional team member training venues (in-class instruction, Web-based modules, service-learning programs, and faculty development workshops) that integrate opportunities to develop and practice interdisciplinary health promotion skills in rural communities. Challenges to implementing the model are described, including developing faculty and student training participation, integrating training venues into existing programs at participating institutions, and designing a unified program evaluation.

  8. [Appearance of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in the population of professionally active people in the urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierusz-Wysocka, B; Zozulińska, D; Knast, B; Pisarczyk-Wiza, D

    2001-09-01

    Diabetes remains a great social and clinical problem. Therefore, there is a need to focus our efforts on prevention of the disease, especially of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by accelerated development of atherosclerotic changes (macroangiopathy). Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and hyperfibrinogenaemia also play an important role in the development of macroangiopathy. Hyperinsulinemia, which accompanies the visceral type of obesity, is characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Considering all the above mentioned findings, prevention of type 2 diabetes should be based on the population level, concentrating especially on the groups with increased risk of obesity and/or diabetes (early primary prevention). However, in the present conditions, it seems that screening studies can be conducted only in the groups with high risk of type 2 diabetes (late primary prevention). They allow for relatively early detection of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in the population of professionally active inhabitants in Pleszew. 2700 subjects, aged 35-65 years, entered the study. All patients claimed to be healthy. In the first phase of the study, the fasting capillary glycaemia was tested. Fasting blood glucose or oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all cases which fasting capillary glucose was higher then 5.5 mmol/l (100 mg/dl). The screening study revealed 91 cases with glycaemia higher than 6.8 mmol/l (3.4%). 387 subjects (14.3%) with glycaemia ranging from 5.5 to 6.8 mmol/l were qualified to perform the oral glucose tolerance test. Out of this group 138 persons did not come to the laboratory. Thus, the test was conducted in 249 causes (64.3%). The results obtained excluded another 197 subjects as no disturbances in the glucose metabolism were found. Based on the results of the oral glucose tolerance test 39 patients were diagnosed to have an impaired glucose

  9. Awareness of the implementation of the Falsified Medicines Directive among pharmaceutical companies’ professionals in the European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczak U

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD is a response of the European Union to the increasing number of falsified medicines present in the legal supply chain within the Member States of the community. Effective implementation of the new regulations will depend on the effective cooperation of all parties involved in the distribution of medicinal products including the managers of pharmaceutical companies. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine awareness of the Implementation of the FMD among pharmaceutical company professionals in the European Economic Area. Methods: Sampling was conducted using a method called purposive sampling. An appropriate research tool in the form of an original questionnaire was made available to the respondents in electronic form. During the period from January 2016 to June 2016, 1,496 e-mail messages were sent. The response rate was 17.37%. Results: The study included 99 women (39.3% and 153 men (60.7%. In the study group, 95.7% of people had heard of FMD. Doctors had rarely heard about the falsified medicine directive when compared to pharmacists (p=0.0063, people working in the pharmaceutical industry (p=0.0014, and respondents with a different professional profile (p=0.0114. In the study group, 89.6% of people were aware of the role of National Medicines Verification Organization in the process of implementing the provisions of FMD into the national system of distribution of medicinal products. The number of the respondents who knew the deadline for the implementation of FMD was significantly higher in the study population, i.e. 91.9% (p=0.0001. Both the younger respondents and those with lower level of education were less aware of the time requirements posed to national regulators (p=0.0003, p=0.0023, respectively. Conclusions: Awareness of the regulations related to the implementation of the FMD, although relatively high among pharmaceutical company professionals in the EEA, is still

  10. Identifying and Describing Nurse Faculty Workload Issues: A Looming Faculty Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Bechtel, Cynthia Francis

    The purpose of this project was to address factors contributing to the nurse faculty shortage. There is a demonstrated need to sustain and stabilize faculty currently in the workforce to avoid exacerbating the current and future faculty shortage in nursing. Recommendations of previous studies focus on strategies for recruitment, retention, and ongoing faculty development. A survey was employed to identify and describe the workload of nurse faculty and identify the impact of retirement and other retention issues. Findings showed an aging and nondiverse nursing faculty with increased and variable workload. There was no standard means of calculating workload. With identification of increased workload, faculty are considering retirement at a higher than projected rate. Four primary areas to address the nursing faculty shortage include focus on diversity balance, development of collaborative positions (joint appointments), and clear identification of nursing faculty workload.

  11. [Responses of stomata and Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to soil water shortages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Li; Li, Si; Dong, He; Wang, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Xi-Ping; Yao, Ya-Qin

    2014-10-01

    Seedlings of the popular maize cultivar "Zhengdan-958" growing in pots individually were exposed to suitable soil water conditions as control, light water shortage, moderate water shortage, and severe water shortage, corresponding to soil water contents between 75%-85%, 65%-75%, 55%-65%, and 45%-55% of field water capacity, respectively. Responses of stomatal aperture, Kranz anatomy, and vascular bundle structure to different water contents of maize leaves were investigated. Results showed that under increased water shortages, the levels of H2O2 in both guard cells and subsidiary cells were enhanced, also the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 labeled with fluorescent dye increased, while stomatal aperture and conductance decreased gradually. Moreover, Kranz cells were messily arranged and the cell size became smaller and smaller, and the structure of bundle sheath cells went irregular; and the sectional area of the big bundle and xylem, the cell number of phloem, and the thickness of whole leaf and of upper and lower epidermis reduced. In addition, the number of chloroplasts in mesophyll cells and vascular bundle sheath cells decreased, particularly under the moderate water deficit, chloroplasts in Kranz cells which located in the inside of cytoplasmic membrane and cling on the cell wall spread to the direction of cell center. It demonstrated that stomatal closing of maize could be regulated by H2O2 in guard cells and subsidiary cells together, and H2O2 in subsidiary cells maybe played a cooperative role. In conclusion, under increased soil water shortages, drought-induced H2O2 accumulations in both guard cells and subsidiary cells of maize leaves participated in the regulation of stomatal closing. And, the size of Kranz cells and bundle sheath cells, the cell number of phloem, and the area of the xylem and phloem re- duced, thereby, reducing water shortage-induced damage.

  12. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  13. Addressing the community/public health nursing shortage through a multifaceted regional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Staci; Acord, Lea; Schuler, Sue; Hansen, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing needs resulting from emerging societal and health care issues, the number of trained community/public health (C/PH) nurses in the United States is facing a precipitous decline. Numerous factors contribute to this shortage including an aging workforce, a poorly funded public health system, inconsistencies in C/PH nursing educational approaches and opportunities, and a shortage of sites for clinical training. Determined to address the C/PH nursing shortage in their region, a consortium of public health professionals, university deans and faculty, and state nursing leaders in southeastern Wisconsin came together to address these issues from three perspectives: (a) curricular analysis and redesign, (b) expansion of clinical placement opportunities, and (c) paid community/public health nursing internships for seniors in baccalaureate nursing programs. This article outlines briefly the activities undertaken related to curricular review and clinical placements, and then describes in detail the approach, challenges and results of the senior internship program. Together, these programs produced long-lasting results including an unprecedented level of collaboration between academic institutions and public health nursing professionals, the expansion of both traditional and nontraditional clinical sites in the region, and a transformative learning experience for seventeen senior nursing students from five participating universities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  15. The American Nursing Shortage: Implications for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2012-01-01

    This article examines national employment and program trends in the nursing profession, the nursing shortage in Iowa, and state policy and community college responses in Iowa. During the seven-year period 2001-2008, two Iowa governors convened special task forces to study the nursing shortage and to make recommendations. The policy responses dealt…

  16. New Report Predicts Shortage of Geoscientists in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-06-01

    By the end of the next decade, there may be a shortage of 135,000 geoscientists in the workforce, according to a report issued by the American Geosciences Institute on 29 May. This shortage is predicted despite rising enrollment in the geosciences and rising salaries for students graduating with bachelor's, master's, and doctorate degrees.

  17. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  18. The global nursing faculty shortage: status and solutions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Deena A; Gyurko, Charlene C

    2013-09-01

    In addition to a global shortage of nurses, there is also a shortage of academically qualified faculty available to teach in schools of nursing. A systematic review examined proposed solutions to the global shortage of nursing faculty. Metasynthesis was used to compare and critically appraise strategies offered for solving or ameliorating the global nursing faculty shortage by premier nursing organizations. 181 recommendations in 62 publications were categorized into eight major themed solutions, including centralizing data management, international collaboration in nursing research, and increased funding for full-time faculty positions in nursing programs. The nursing faculty shortage is due to a confluence of factors, including the global migration of nurses, a seeming persistent devaluation of faculty by academic programs, disincentives, and an overall reduction in full-time equivalent faculty positions. Results point to a needed change in direction and approach to solving the nursing faculty shortage. By designing new education models that fit global healthcare needs and pooling teaching resources, designing and using the same databases across organizations to track and project faculty needs, and collaborating between schools and businesses to create mutually beneficial agreements for services, nursing faculty capacity can be enhanced, and nursing's capacity to meet global healthcare needs can be expanded. The results of this systematic review can be used as a rubric for the design and development of strategies to end the nursing faculty shortage and expand global nursing capacity. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Insights into European Drug Shortages: A Survey of Hospital Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Kim; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Drug shortages are a complex and global phenomenon. When a drug cannot be delivered at the moment of patient demand, every stakeholder in the health care system is affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, clinical impact, financial impact and management of drug shortages in European hospital pharmacies and identify opportunities for prevention and mitigation of drug shortages in Europe. An online survey was designed based on a review of the literature and interviews and was sent to subscribers of Hospital Pharmacy Europe between June and September 2013. Forty-five percent of respondents (n = 161) indicated that life sustaining or life preserving drugs such as oncology drugs were affected by drug shortages. More than 30% of respondents indicated that drug shortages in Europe were always or often associated with increased costs for hospitals, increased personnel costs and more expensive alternative drugs (n = 161). On the question when information about a drug shortage was obtained, 42% of respondents answered that information from the pharmaceutical company was obtained at the time of no delivery, 50% indicated that information from the wholesaler was obtained at the time of no delivery, while 40% of respondents indicated that information was never or rarely received from the government (n = 161). Fifty seven percent of respondents strongly agreed that an obligation to the producer to notify further shortages could help to solve the problem (n = 161). These results showed that pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers are already involved in the management of drug shortages, while a role is still reserved for the government. Mandatory notification in advance and centralized information can help to reduce workload for hospital pharmacists, will allow early anticipation of drug shortages and will facilitate mitigation of the clinical impact on patients. PMID:25775406

  20. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...

  1. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...

  2. The paradoxical effects of workforce shortages on rural interprofessional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Karen; Mitchell, Rebecca; Parker, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    While interprofessional practice has been promoted as a solution to the challenges besetting rural health services, current evidence does not offer a clear explanation as to why it is effective in some domains and yet is not successful in others. At the same time, rural clinicians are frequently faced with major workforce pressures and this has a significant influence on professional practice. The aim of this study was to explore how these pressures impact on rural interprofessional practice. This study is part of a larger project investigating factors that enhance and detract from effective interprofessional working. We utilised a modified realistic evaluation approach to analyse the context, mechanisms and outcomes of rural interprofessional practice. Approval for this study was granted by an accredited research ethics committee. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 rural clinicians who were purposively recruited from a range of settings, roles, locations and professions. We found that clinicians often invested in interprofessional practice because of the need to manage intense workloads and this necessitated sharing of responsibilities across disciplines and blurring of role boundaries. Paradoxically, participants noted that workload pressures hampered interprofessional working if there were long-term skill shortages. Sharing workload and responsibility is an important motivator for rural practitioners to engage in interprofessional practice; however, this driver is only effective under circumstances where there are sufficient resources to facilitate collaboration. In the context of intransient resource challenges, rural health service managers would be best to focus on enabling IPP through facilitating role understanding and respect between clinicians. This is most feasible via informal workplace learning and allowing time for teams to reflect on collaborative processes. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Teacher Leadership: An Assessment Framework for an Emerging Area of Professional Practice. Research Report. ETS RR-10-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Teresa; Burrus, Jeremy; Bassett, Katherine; Roberts, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines various definitions and frameworks that have been used to justify the emergence of a new category for the teacher professional: teacher leader. The emergence of this new professional category may lead to greater retention levels, and improved knowledge management and transfer within the teaching profession. Various key…

  4. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniela BORISOV; Adrian TANŢĂU

    2013-01-01

    ... in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market...

  5. Retrieval improvement is induced by water shortage through angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has an evolutionary preserved role in determining adaptative responses to water-shortages. In addition, it has been shown to modulate diverse phases of memory. Still, it is not clear whether ANGII improves or spoils memory. We demonstrated that endogenous angiotensins enhance consolidation of a long-term associative memory in the crab Chasmagnathus and that water shortage improves memory consolidation through brain ANGII actions. Here, we show that weakly trained crabs, when water-deprived, exhibit enhanced retrieval. Subsequently, memory retention is indistinguishable from that of strongly trained crabs. ANGII, but not angiotensin IV, is a necessary and sufficient condition for such enhancing effect. We conclude that ANGII released due to water shortage leads to enhanced memory retrieval. Thus, it seems that ANGII has an evolutionary preserved role as a multifunction coordinator that enables an adaptative response to water-shortage. The facilitation of memory consolidation and retrieval would be among those coordinated functions.

  6. 5 CFR 337.204 - Severe shortage of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information such as selective placement factors or other special requirements of the position, as well as... geographic locations. OPM may decide independently that such a shortage exists, or may make this decision in...

  7. Development of biosimilars in an era of oncologic drug shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward Li,1 Janakiraman Subramanian,2 Scott Anderson,3 Dolca Thomas,4 Jason McKinley,5 Ira A Jacobs4 1University of New England College of Pharmacy, Portland, ME, USA; 2Hanna Cancer Associates, Knoxville, TN, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 5Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA Abstract: Acute and chronic shortages of various pharmaceuticals and particularly of sterile injectable products are being reported on a global scale, prompting evaluation of more effective strategies to manage current shortages and development of new, high-quality pharmaceutical products to mitigate the risk of potential future shortages. Oncology drugs such as liposomal doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil represent examples of first-choice drugs critically affected by shortages. Survey results indicate that the majority of hospitals and practicing oncologists have experienced drug shortages, which may have compromised patient safety and clinical outcomes, and increased health care costs, due to delays or changes in treatment regimens. Clinical trials evaluating novel agents in combination with standard-of-care drugs are also being affected by drug shortages. Clinical and ethical considerations on treatment objectives, drug indication, and availability of alternative options may help in prioritizing cancer patients involved in active drug shortages. The United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have identified manufacturing problems, delays in supply, and lack of available active ingredients as the most frequent causes of recent or ongoing drug shortages, and have released specific guidance to monitor, manage, and reduce the risk of shortages. The upcoming loss of exclusivity for a number of anticancer biologics, together with the introduction of an abbreviated approval pathway for biosimilars, raises the question of whether these products will be vulnerable to shortages. Future supply by reliable

  8. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.

  9. New Jersey's natural gas shortage: a policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, J.L.; Morell, D.

    1976-12-01

    The public policy problems associated with New Jersey's natural gas shortage are extremely complex and rather difficult to examine. They involve a blend of technology, politics and economics; of regulatory mandates and profit-motivated initiatives; of Federal and state interaction and conflict. To understand the state's gas shortage and to lay the basis for recommending measures to deal with it, information about the basic technology, the organization of the gas industry, the national regulatory posture, and the possible causes of the gas shortage encompasses Part I of the overall study. In Part II, the analysis turns from the national level to a direct examination of New Jersey's gas situation. In Part III, Chapter VIII, the following are considered: the state's supply of natural gas, distribution of these supply volumes within New Jersey by the four major gas utilities, and gas consumption patterns within the state as a whole and then for each major consuming sector (electric utility, industrial, commercial, and residential). This chapter concludes with an analysis of the impacts of the gas shortage to date in New Jersey, and of its probable effects in the near-term. In the final chapter, some tentative conclusions and broad suggestions are advanced for public policies to mitigate the gravity of the state's position with respect to natural gas. Analysis proceeds, in turn, through consideration of possible state actions in several areas: increasing total interstate gas supplies; increasing New Jersey's share of whatever national total exists; making greater (or more effective) use of alternate fuels; and moderating demand for gas through aggressive conservation policies. Some short-term measures to cope better with whatever level of gas shortage exists in the state at any particular time are suggested. 151 references. (MCW)

  10. E-Health, another mechanism to recruit and retain healthcare professionals in remote areas: lessons learned from EQUI-ResHuS project in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayoko, Cheick-Oumar; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Traoré, Diakaridia; Anne, Abdrahamane; Traoré, Abdel Kader; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2014-12-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived influence of telehealth on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals in remote areas in Mali. After 15 months of diagnosis imaging training and telehealth activities at four project sites in remote Mali, between May 2011 and August 2012, a 75-item questionnaire was administered to healthcare professionals to assess the various factors related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially telehealth, and their influence on health personnel recruitment and retention. Questions assessing perceived impact of telehealth on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals were rated on a five-point Likert scale. Dependent variables were perceived influence of ICT on recruitment and retention and independent variables were access to ICT, ICT training, ICT use, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth, and perceived barriers to recruitment and retention. A multiple linear regression was performed to identify variables explaining the respondents' perceptions regarding telehealth influence on recruitment and retention. Data analysis showed that professionals in remote areas have very positive perceptions of telehealth in general. Many benefits of telehealth for recruitment and retention were highlighted, with perceived benefits of ICT (p = 0.0478), perceived effects of telehealth on recruitment (p = 0.0018), telehealth training (0.0338) and information on telehealth (0.0073) being the strongest motivators for recruitment, while the perceived effects of telehealth on retention (p = 0.0018) was the only factor significantly associated with retention. Based on our study results, telehealth could represent a mechanism for recruiting and retaining health professionals in remote areas and could reduce the isolation of these professionals through networking opportunities.

  11. Organizational impact of nurse supply and workload on nurses continuing professional development opportunities: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Tracey H; Maslin-Prothero, Sian E; Smith, Gilly

    2015-12-01

    To identify the best evidence on the impact of healthcare organizations' supply of nurses and nursing workload on the continuing professional development opportunities of Registered Nurses in the acute care hospital. To maintain registration and professional competence nurses are expected to participate in continuing professional development. One challenge of recruitment and retention is the Registered Nurse's ability to participate in continuing professional development opportunities. The integrative review method was used to present Registered Nurses perspectives on this area of professional concern. The review was conducted for the period of 2001-February 2015. Keywords were: nurs*, continuing professional development, continuing education, professional development, supply, shortage, staffing, workload, nurse: patient ratio, barrier and deterrent. The integrative review used a structured approach for literature search and data evaluation, analysis and presentation. Eleven international studies met the inclusion criteria. Nurses are reluctant or prevented from leaving clinical settings to attend continuing professional development due to lack of relief cover, obtaining paid or unpaid study leave, use of personal time to undertake mandatory training and organizational culture and leadership issues constraining the implementation of learning to benefit patients. Culture, leadership and workload issues impact nurses' ability to attend continuing professional development. The consequences affect competence to practice, the provision of safe, quality patient care, maintenance of professional registration, job satisfaction, recruitment and retention. Organizational leadership plays an important role in supporting attendance at continuing professional development as an investment for the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethnographic video narratives inviting various personal and professional interpretations in the area of care for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    her medicine and the way Benny moves and talks make the research participants draw on embodied knowledge and professional values and goals in various ways depending on their professional background and personal experiences. When they meet each other’s interpretation of the video narratives......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of ethnographic video narratives to initiate informal interdisciplinary learning by exposing the diversity in how different professionals interpret the same situation. In the paper we draw on data from a pilot study in Denmark in which we showed...... two ethnographic video narratives to interdisciplinary focus groups with health care professionals at 3 care centres. The video narratives are about Bodil in her home and Benny in a senior centre. When the participants had watched the video narratives they were asked to write down their impressions...

  13. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  14. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  15. Equipment and skills shortage in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodjibaev, Abdukhakim M; Anvarov, Khikmat; Borisova, Elena; Schmitt, Roger; Murotova, Nigora

    2014-05-01

    In this article, supplied with the help of the International Federation of Hospital Engineering (IFHE), five co-authors from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)--a German organisation that seeks to encourage and co-ordinate international cooperation in areas ranging from sustainable development to fund management, and its partner organisation, IFHE member, the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine (RRCEM) in Uzbekistan, discuss the use of medical technology in the central Asian country. They also explain how a GIZ project is helping to boost the number of skilled staff, improve quality assurance and management in procurement, logistics, and maintenance, and promote good training of medical and technical staff, across Uzbekistan.

  16. A Recommendation for a Professional Focus Area in Data Management for the IS2002 Information Systems Model Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Yarbrough, David M.; Feinstein, David L.

    2010-01-01

    IS2002 has become a well defined standard for information systems curricula. The Data Management Association (DAMA 2006) curriculum framework defines a body of knowledge that points to a skill set that can enhance IS2002. While data management professionals are highly skilled individuals requiring as much as a decade of relevant experience before…

  17. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  18. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  19. Demand for temporary agency nurses and nursing shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sukyong; Spetz, Joanne

    2013-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for the growth of temporary employment of registered nurses (RNs). Some argue that efficiency incentives to increase flexibility and reduce labor costs are the principal cause, while others point to shortages of RNs as the stronger determinant. Using hospital-level data from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, we find a significant trend of increasing demand for agency nurses during the years of RN shortage. Demand rose with inpatient days, patient demand fluctuation, and the level of fringe benefits. Competition between hospitals and unionization, however, did not affect hospitals' demand for temporary RNs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Financial Incentives to Promote Teacher Recruitment and Retention: An Analysis of the Florida Critical Teacher Shortage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.

    2015-01-01

    Staffing problems are pervasive in certain subject areas, such as secondary math and science and special education, where the combination of training requirements and relatively high alternative wages makes it difficult to attract and retain high-quality teachers. This project evaluated the impacts of the Florida Critical Teacher Shortage Program…

  1. The impact of climat change on shortages of rainfall and water resources in Dunajec basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanówka, Danuta; Malota, Agnieszka; Cebulak, Elżbieta; Kasina, Michał; Doktor, Radosław; Pyrc, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Dunajec basin as a one of the larger and with the biggest potential of water resources in the whole Upper Vistula basin, has a big significant impact on the whole Vistula basin. However, there are periods of shortage of rainfall which result are droughts. These may have effects as devastating as excess in rainfall. Analysis of historical "proxy data" and contemporary instrumental measurements and observations allowed to extract the years that have experienced long lasting periods of high temperatures and shortages of rainfall. Drought periods caused low water levels in large areas of the basin. The collected historical material and the measurement was used to develop scenarios for the years 2001-2060 to determine the impact of climate change on the frequency and extent of occurrence of shortage of rainfall in the future and the impact on the water regime across the whole Vistula. In analysis of climate variability for the first time were used daily data derived from the results of six regional simulations generated in different models in the EU project ENSEMBLES Detailed analysis were performed for DMI-HIRLAM 5 ARPEGE & KNMI-RACMO2_ECHAM5 simulation.

  2. Immigration, labor shortages, & U.S. construction markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler

    2006-01-01

    As discussed in last month's column, according to Dr. Ira Wolfe, author of The Perfect Storm Fact Book, we are witnessing the beginning of a "perfect labor storm."" Globalization and demographic trends are colliding, and the result is a growing shortage of workers who possess the right skills to do the available jobs.

  3. The Impact of Water Shortages on Educational Delivery in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of water shortages on educational delivery in selected schools in Harare East District. The population included school heads, teachers and pupils all drawn from selected schools of Harare East District. The sample consisted of five school heads, fifty teachers and one ...

  4. 76 FR 68770 - Product Shortage Report; Availability; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... No: 2011-28723] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0690] Product Shortage Report; Availability; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  5. General surgery in crisis - the critical shortage | Kahn | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 25 general surgeons per year. The changing demographics of medical students may be partly responsible for the decline in registrar applicants. Conclusion. The findings from this study have revealed that the shortage of general surgeons in the state sector has reached critical levels. South African Journal of Surgery Vol.

  6. Doctor shortages: Unpacking the 'Cuban solution' | Bateman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 103, No 9 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Doctor shortages: Unpacking the 'Cuban solution'. C Bateman. Abstract.

  7. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  8. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  9. [Provision of voluntary surgical sterilization in the Campinas Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil: perceptions of public health services managers and professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Maria José Duarte; Carvalho, Luiz Eduardo Campos de; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Bento, Silvana Ferreira; Pádua, Karla Simônia de

    2009-03-01

    This study describes the perceptions of public health services managers and professionals concerning provision of voluntary surgical sterilization in the Campinas Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil. The study adopted a qualitative approach in four municipalities (counties), where semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 health professionals and health services managers involved in the provision of surgical sterilization. The interviewees identified difficulties in scheduling visits at Outpatient Family Clinics or Reference Centers (APF/CR), and the number of available surgeries in the accredited hospitals was insufficient. They emphasized the lack of physical infrastructure and human resources for conducting family planning activities in the primary health units as well as in the APF/CR.They also criticized the legal criteria for authorizing surgical sterilization, and mentioned adaptations to make them more appropriate to the each municipality's situation. According to the health services managers and professionals, despite the efforts, meeting the demand for surgical sterilization in the Campinas Metropolitan Area was jeopardized by its centralization in the APF/CR, which in practice had to cover the gap in family planning activities in each municipality's primary care units.

  10. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Sabiena G; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2011-05-10

    Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT) reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06-3.02); p = 0.030). A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71-1.02); p = 0.083). Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease.

  11. Recent Food Shortage Is Associated with Leprosy Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Sabiena G.; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT) reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. Methods and Findings We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06–3.02); p = 0.030). A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71–1.02); p = 0.083). Conclusions Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease. PMID:21572979

  12. To have and to hold: personnel shortage in a Finnish healthcare organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Pia

    2010-07-01

    Retirements of baby boomers will create a talent shortage in Finnish health care. Concurrently, difficulties exist in recruiting new personnel. This paper provides an overview concerning the bottlenecks in talent management in a Finnish hospital, and finds solutions for recruitment and retention problems of healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians). Because the healthcare staffing shortage is worldwide, the results of this paper are also useful internationally. The research was a qualitative case study and the research method used was group interview. Background data was gathered from the public media and healthcare trade organisations. The bottlenecks of talent management in hospital organisation seem to relate to retaining actions of senior personnel. Concurrently, the organisation should develop new practices for attracting new personnel. Very few efforts on image marketing and recruitment have been done. The Internet has not been fully exploited and recruitment information has not been sent even to the neighbouring nursing college. Job rotation has not been used as a help in recruitment and competence development. Difficulties exist in transmitting tacit knowledge from a retiring nurse to a junior nurse. Leadership skills of the superior seem to be important when retaining and committing senior personnel. Recruitment and retention problems encourage organisations to develop new recruitment and commitment practices as well as management and leadership skills.

  13. Planning, Coordinating, and Managing Off-Site Storage is an Area of Increasing, Professional Responsibility for Special Collections Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To measure the use of off-site storage for special collections materials and to examine how this use impacts core special collections activities. Design – Survey questionnaire containing both structured and open ended questions. Follow-up interviews were also conducted. Setting – Association of Research Libraries (ARL member institutions in the United States of America. Subjects – 108 directors of special collections. Methods – Participants were recruited via email; contact information was compiled through professional directories, web searches, and referrals from professionals at ARL member libraries. The survey was sent out on October 31, 2013, and two reminder emails were distributed before it closed three weeks later. The survey was created and distributed using Qualtrics, a research software that supports online data collection and analysis. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Qualtrics. Main Results – The final response rate was 58% (63 out of 108. The majority (51 participants, or 81% reported use of off-site storage for library collections. Of this group, 91% (47 out of 51 house a variety of special collections in off-site storage. The criteria most frequently utilized to designate these materials to off-site storage are use (87%, size (66%, format (60%, and value (57%. The authors found that special collections directors are most likely to send materials to off-site storage facilities that are established and in use by other departments at their home institution; access to established workflows, especially those linked to transit and delivery, and space for expanding collections are benefits. In regard to core special collections activities, results indicated that public service was most impacted by off-site storage. The authors discussed challenges related to patron use and satisfaction. In regard to management and processing, directors faced challenges using the same level of staff to maintain

  14. Professional accountant’s perspective of skills required to move into management position

    OpenAIRE

    Kgapola, Mmaledimo Prudence

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa skills shortage is a predicament and so is the shortage of professional accountants. Another issue at hand is how educational institutions do not provide studies to equip students with the necessary skills to obtain entry level employment after they graduate. The markets and business environments changing almost every day and so do the skills set required by professional accountants. The purpose of the study is to assist professional accountants in defining the skills required...

  15. PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANTS’ PERSPECTIVE OF SKILLS REQUIRED TO PROGRESS TO MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Fouché; Kgapola, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, not only is the shortage in skills a general predicament, but so also is the shortage of professional accountants. The markets and business environments are changing almost every day and so do the skills sets required by professional accountants. The purpose of the study is to assist professional accountants in defining the skills required for management positions and to enable them to plan their careers better. A cross-sectional survey was used. The majority of participants ...

  16. Educational outreach in a rural underserved area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, G

    1994-01-01

    A school of nursing in a world-renowned urban medical center joined forces with a school of nursing in a rural, underserved, ethnic minority area 350 miles distant. By working together, the two schools of nursing re-energized professional nursing in a geographically remote area of Texas. This underserved region is the fastest growing area in the state; education and health care resources have not kept pace with demand. Consequently, nursing faculty recruitment lagged, two few nurses had advanced practice skills, and morale suffered because of nursing staff and faculty shortages. Leadership in the two schools forged an educational and political partnership to create a collaborative model to meet the higher education needs of this area of southwest Texas. By detailing the eight steps of a unique success story, the article offers a model for meeting the evolving health care and nursing education needs of the '90's.

  17. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  18. Skilled labour shortage : implications, recruitment and workforce planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, A. [Canadian Council of Human Resources Association, St. Catherines, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation provides information on how a long-term recruitment strategy can affect the viability of the oil and gas industry, which is currently facing a shortage of skilled labour in Canada. The problem poses a threat to the competitiveness of the industry and the problem will likely worsen unless action is taken now to prevent a crisis in the near future. A survey of business owners in 2002 indicated that 186,000 of 265,000 jobs remained vacant for at least 4 months. As the aging workforce of baby boomers reaches retirement age, the labour shortage is likely to be more pronounced by 2010 to 2015. The consequences of changing labour demographics affect costs, attracting and retaining talented workers, productivity, culture, creativity and competitiveness. figs.

  19. [Physician Shortage: How to Prevent Generation Y From Staying Away - Results of a Nationwide Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, R; Engelhardt, M; Förch, M; Merk, H; Walcher, F; Fröhlich, S

    2016-04-01

    Medical students' attitudes and expectations about their future working life are changing. To hire the best talents from Generation Y, hospitals must pay attention to these factors to make working in patient care more attractive. However, little detailed knowledge about the professional and career expectations of today's medical students is available to date. In a nationwide online survey, a total of 9079 medical students from all German medical faculties returned the questionnaire. Twenty-one questions related to future career choices and work satisfaction, followed by 21 questions dealing with reasons for not working in patient care. Factor analysis yielded five factors: work-life balance, career, professional needs, working atmosphere, and prestige. A correlation analysis between these factors and respondents' socio-demographic data revealed significant correlations with sex, specialty choice, and marital/parental status. A correlation analysis with "reasons for not working in patient care" revealed that work-life balance, career, professional needs, and working atmosphere had high priority for both sexes. It is crucial to collect data on the work satisfaction of Generation Y, whose members are motivated and willing to perform in today's highly demanding work environment. However, sex-dependent/independent expectations must be met to make the medical profession more attractive, to overcome the Germany-wide shortage of physicians, and to attract young doctors to the hospitals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Skill Shortage versus Subject Choice, Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Atiq, Atiq-ur-Rehman; Anis, Hafsa; Khan, Saud Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Higher Education is believed to be a very important determinant of economic growth. The growth can be optimized with a suitable combination of skills in various subjects. A mismatch between required combination of skills and available combination of skills carries heavy costs for developing economies since import of skill from foreign is much more in expensive for such economies. We compare skill shortage in Pakistan with the subjects choice of students recently enrolled in institutes of high...

  1. The Critical Shortage of Military Chaplains: One Possible Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chaplain (Colonel) Sanford Dresin (USA-Ret), Director of M ilitary Programs for the Aleph Institute for5 advice and guidance on preparing this article...Chassidic Rabbi as a SDF Chaplain (Tenenbaum, 2007). The decision was to contact the Aleph -Institute, a Lubavitch Chabad affiliated national 501(c)(3...missions ( Aleph Institute, n.d.): Providing critical social services to families in crisis The Critical Shortage of Military Chaplains: One Possible

  2. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  3. Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, Patricia; Kirkwood, Craig W

    2010-12-14

    Global warming has profound consequences for the climate of the American Southwest and its overallocated water supplies. This paper uses simulation modeling and the principles of decision making under uncertainty to translate climate information into tools for vulnerability assessment and urban climate adaptation. A dynamic simulation model, WaterSim, is used to explore future water-shortage conditions in Phoenix. Results indicate that policy action will be needed to attain water sustainability in 2030, even without reductions in river flows caused by climate change. Challenging but feasible changes in lifestyle and slower rates of population growth would allow the region to avoid shortage conditions and achieve groundwater sustainability under all but the most dire climate scenarios. Changes in lifestyle involve more native desert landscaping and fewer pools in addition to slower growth and higher urban densities. There is not a single most likely or optimal future for Phoenix. Urban climate adaptation involves using science-based models to anticipate water shortage and manage climate risk.

  4. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  5. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration's Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Valerie; Throckmorton, Douglas C

    2015-08-07

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration’s Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential. PMID:25896999

  7. Dietary diversity scores and nutritional status of women change during the seasonal food shortage in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savy, Mathilde; Martin-Prével, Yves; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis

    2006-10-01

    In developing countries, dietary diversity is usually assessed during a single yearly period and the effects of seasonal variations remain unknown. We studied these variations in women living in a Sahelian rural area (Burkina Faso). A representative sample of 550 women was surveyed at the beginning and at the end of the seasonal cereal shortage in April and September 2003, respectively. For each season, a dietary diversity score (DDS) representing the number of food groups consumed over a 24-h period, was computed and nutritional status was assessed by the BMI. The DDS increased from 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 3.8 +/- 1.5 food groups between the beginning and the end of the shortage season (P foods available during the cereal shortage season and despite the decrease in the consumption of some purchased foods. The increase in DDS was lower in women for whom DDS was already high in April and vice versa. Over the same period, the percentage of underweight women (BMI shortage season, when many women exhibit low DDS.

  8. Addressing the physicians' shortage in developing countries by accelerating and reforming the medical education: Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamsi, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Doctors' shortage has remained a concern worldwide. The developed countries started aids to recruit international medical graduates (IMG) to cope with the defects that the health care system suffers from; however, this solution may not work in developing countries that have a limited resource and poor budget to spend on the health care system. This study aims to present an alternative way to approach the physicians' shortage by accelerating undergraduate medical education and reform some post-graduate courses in order to cope with this problem. The literature in PubMed/Medline and Google scholar were searched using such keywords as undergraduate medical education, physician shortage, health care reform, physicians' performance, medical curriculum. The finding revealed that performance during undergraduate medical school does not have a relationship with the physician's performance post-graduation. Moreover, the overloaded curriculum and the years spent in undergraduate education have a negative impact on the students in terms of burn out, and lack of competency, and loss of motivation in medicine. The method of education was found to have a positive effect on preparing good students and ultimately good physicians. Since performance in undergraduate years does not have an impact on the practice post-graduation, the developing countries may consider the option of changing the context, and abbreviating undergraduate medical education as a solution for physicians' shortage dilemma. Moreover, modifying some post-graduate majors such as family physician, and general practitioner to allow the physicians enter the practice in areas of need is recommended.

  9. Toward a European definition for a drug shortage: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerdt, Elfi; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Drug shortages are currently on the rise. In-depth investigation of the problem is necessary, however, a variety of definitions for 'drug shortages' are formulated in legislations, by different organizations, authorities, and other initiatives. For international comparison, the underlying definition for drug shortages is important to allow appropriate interpretation of national databases and the results of scientific studies. The objective is to identify the different elements which should be considered in a uniform definition for drug shortages in the European Union (EU) and to detect the different conditions for reporting drug shortages. Definitions of drug shortages were searched in the scientific databases as well as in the gray literature. Similar topics were identified and organizations were contacted to formulate the reasoning underlying the definitions. Over 20 different definitions for drug shortages were identified. A distinction is made between general definitions of drug shortages and definitions used for the reporting of drug shortages. Differences and similarities are observed in the elements within the definitions, e.g., when does a supply problem become a drug shortage, permanent and/or temporally shortages, the typology and time frame of a drug shortage. The moment a supply problem is considered as a shortage, can be defined at four levels: (i) demand side, (ii) supply side, (iii) delivery of a drug, and (iv) availability of a drug. Permanent discontinuations of drugs are not always covered in definitions for drug shortages. Some definitions only consider those drugs used for the treatment of serious diseases or drugs for which no alternative is available. Different time frames were observed, varying between 1 day and 20 days. Obtaining a uniform definition for drug shortages is important as well as identifying which conditions are preferable to report drug shortages in order to facilitate international benchmarking. This paper can be used as a

  10. Exploring the potential for foreign-trained dentists to address workforce shortages and improve access to dental care for vulnerable populations in the United States: a case study from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To address dental workforce shortages in underserved areas in the United States, some States have enacted legislation to make it easier for foreign dental school graduates to become licensed dentists. However, the extent to which foreign dental school graduates will solve the problem of dental workforce shortages is poorly understood. Furthermore, the potential impact that foreign-trained dentists have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable patients living in dental Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and those enrolled in public insurance programs, such as Medicaid, is unknown. The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary understanding of the practice behaviors of foreign-trained dentists. The authors used Washington State as a case study to identify the potential impact foreign dental school graduates have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable populations. The following hypotheses were tested: a) among all newly licensed dentists, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to participate in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists; and b) among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to practice in dental HPSAs than U.S.-trained dentists. Methods The authors used dental license and Medicaid license data to compare the proportions of newly licensed, foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who participated in the Medicaid program and the proportions that practiced in a dental HPSA. Results Using bivariate analyses, the authors found that a significantly lower proportion of foreign-trained dentists participated in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists (12.9% and 22.8%, respectively; P = 0.011). Among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, there was no significant difference in the proportions of foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who practiced in a dental HPSA (P = 0.683). Conclusions Legislation that makes it

  11. Projected Supply, Demand, and Shortages of Registered Nurses, 2000-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Center for Health Workforce Analysis.

    The supply, demand, and shortages of registered nurses (RNs) were projected and analyzed for 2000-2020. According to the analysis, the national supply of full-time-equivalent registered nurses in 2000 was estimated at 1.89 million versus an estimated demand of 2 million, leaving a shortage of 110,000 (6%). The shortage is expected to grow…

  12. An inexact risk management model for agricultural land-use planning under water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Changchun; Dai, Chao; Li, Yongping; Li, Chunhui; Liu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Water resources availability has a significant impact on agricultural land-use planning, especially in a water shortage area such as North China. The random nature of available water resources and other uncertainties in an agricultural system present risk for land-use planning and may lead to undesirable decisions or potential economic loss. In this study, an inexact risk management model (IRM) was developed for supporting agricultural land-use planning and risk analysis under water shortage. The IRM model was formulated through incorporating a conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) constraint into an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) framework, and could be used to control uncertainties expressed as not only probability distributions but also as discrete intervals. The measure of risk about the second-stage penalty cost was incorporated into the model so that the trade-off between system benefit and extreme expected loss could be analyzed. The developed model was applied to a case study in the Zhangweinan River Basin, a typical agricultural region facing serious water shortage in North China. Solutions of the IRM model showed that the obtained first-stage land-use target values could be used to reflect decision-makers' opinions on the long-term development plan. The confidence level α and maximum acceptable risk loss β could be used to reflect decisionmakers' preference towards system benefit and risk control. The results indicated that the IRM model was useful for reflecting the decision-makers' attitudes toward risk aversion and could help seek cost-effective agricultural land-use planning strategies under complex uncertainties.

  13. An investigation of the roles and functions of nurse preceptors in the clinical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Cele

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the confusion that exists in the clinical areas concerning proper accompaniment of student nurses. There is a feeling that professional nurses in clinical areas are not always actively involved in clinical teaching. The clinical instructors and nurse educators are unable to accompany student nurses properly because of staff shortages. Some hospitals have identified one professional nurse per unit to work as a nurse preceptor for accompaniment of student nurses. This has resulted in the need to find out if the professional nurse preceptor is solving the problem of lack of student accompaniment in clinical areas. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the roles and functions of nurse preceptors in improving student accompaniment as compared to other professional nurses in clinical areas namely, clinical instructors, nurse educators and professional nurses working in clinical areas as viewed by student nurses themselves. A comparative descriptive study was done in one of the hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal (Region D on a purposely selected sample of (80 4 years comprehensive diploma student nurses, (16 nurse preceptors and (40 randomly-selected professional nurses. Open and closed-ended questions were used for collection of data. The study revealed that the most student nurses 87,5% (70 identified nurse preceptors as playing an important role in their accompaniment as compared to other professional nurses.

  14. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:26959039

  15. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.

  16. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-03-04

    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.

  17. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  18. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  19. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  20. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  1. Skills shortage - identification of needs for engineering training in longwalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Lugg; Dewen Liu; Rebecca Hill [CRC Mining (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This report investigates the impacts of the skills shortage on the productivity of longwall faces. The scope is limited to the supervisors and crews that operate, maintain and procure the longwall face equipment. Using a combination of face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires, the industry was canvassed about the impacts of the skills shortage, the current level of skilling and the competence of the workforce to perform its assigned tasks without supervision. The participants also identified the skillsets and levels of understanding required to allow them to work unsupervised, and the preferred delivery methods for training in the identified skills. An Industry Advisory Group was assembled to provide insight and advice to the research team with regards to the survey process and the interpretation of results. The survey data was drawn from face to face interviews from four mines and questionnaires completed by sixteen mines in Queensland and New South Wales. The data is analysed and the results presented along with conclusions and recommendations for future training.

  2. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  3. [A comparative study of aggression towards Primary Care and Hospital Health professionals in a Madrid health area (2009-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-San-Segundo, M; Granizo, J J; Camacho, I; Martínez-de-Aramayona, M J; Fernández, M; Sánchez-Úriz, M Á

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper is perform an analysis on the incidents and attacks against medical personnel that occurred in the area covered by the Prevention Service Group, comparing the results in Primary Care (PC) with Hospital Care (HC). The information available in the database of the regional Madrid Register of Aggressions Conflict Health Worker between 2009 and 2014 was analysed. This included a total of 8,056 workers, of whom 1,605 were from PC. A total of 1,262 incidents have been reported, of which 61.2% took place in HC and 38.8% in PC (32.2 notifications/100,000 inhabitants, or 12.88 incidents/100 hospital workers compared to 168.98 notifications/100,000 inhabitants, or 30.53 incidents/100 PC workers). Nurses in CP have a higher incidence of assaults (47.4%), while in HC it is the physicians (53.1%) (P<.001). In PC the aggressor is usually the patient (56.9%), while in HC it is the relative or companion (45.3%) (P<.001). HC aggressions occur more frequently in emergency departments (35.5%) compared with 63.9% in PC, where they occur in the consulting room (P<.001). Although it is difficult to make comparisons with previous studies due to methodological differences, a higher incidence of aggression in PC is observed compared with HC. It is necessary to establish improvements in Madrid Register of Aggressions and Conflicts, designed to optimise data quality and use them for preventive purposes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed, with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi, and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts. Recent policies increasing health worker salaries have reduced migration of doctors out of Ghana, but made little difference to distribution within the country. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand how practicing doctors and medical leaders in Ghana describe the key factors reducing recruitment and retention of health professionals into remote areas, and to document their proposed policy solutions. Methods In-depth interviews were carried out with 84 doctors and medical leaders, including 17 regional medical directors and deputy directors from across Ghana, and 67 doctors currently practicing in 3 regions (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo, and Upper West; these 3 regions were chosen to represent progressively more remote distances from the capital of Accra. Results and discussion All participants felt that rural postings must have special career or monetary incentives given the loss of locum (i.e. moonlighting income, the higher workload, and professional isolation of remote assignments. Career 'death' and prolonged rural appointments were a common fear, and proposed policy solutions focused considerably on career incentives, such as guaranteed promotion or a study opportunity after some fixed term of service in a remote or hardship area. There was considerable stress placed on the need for rural doctors to have periodic contact with mentors through rural rotation of specialists, or remote learning centers, and reliable terms of appointment with fixed end-points. Also raised, but given less emphasis, were concerns about the adequacy of clinical

  5. [Job Satisfaction of Young Professionals in Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Gert; Homberg, Angelika; Karstens, Sven; Goetz, Katja; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-05-29

    Background Job satisfaction in health care is currently important in view of workforce shortage in the health care area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction in young health professionals and to identify factors possibly influencing overall job satisfaction. Methods About one year after graduating from vocational training, a total of 579 graduates from various health care professions [Nursing (N), Nursing and Geriatric Nursing; Therapy (TP), Physical therapy and Logopaedics; Diagnostics (D), Diagnostic Radiography and Biomedical Science], were invited to participate in an online-survey. Job satisfaction was assessed with the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall (WCW) job satisfaction questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of the WCW was performed, and the impact of various factors on job satisfaction was determined by stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In total, 189 graduates (N, n=121; TP, n=32; D, n=36) were included in data analysis (32.6% response rate). Overall job satisfaction in all young professionals was 4.9±1.6 (mean±SD) and was slightly higher in TP (5.4±1.4) compared with N (4.7±1.6) and D (5.0±1.5), respectively. Highest satisfaction was identified with "colleagues" and lowest satisfaction with "income" was identified in all professional groups. Colleagues and fellow workers showed the highest score of association regarding overall job satisfaction in regression analysis. Conclusions As a whole, our data suggest good to very good satisfaction in various WCW items of job satisfaction. "Colleagues" were shown to have a high impact on job satisfaction. To improve the attractiveness of job profiles in health care, the presented results may provide a valuable input regarding workforce shortage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haolong

    2017-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  7. Is there a shortage of neurosurgeons in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Judy; Slane, Steve; Dery, Beth; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-08-01

    Neurosurgical workforce decision-making is typically driven by the 1 neurosurgeon per 100,000 population ratio proposed in 1977 in the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report. The actual ratio has always been higher than suggested. We evaluated whether the 1:100,000 ratio from the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report is still valid, whether there are enough neurosurgeons in the United States to meet patient needs, and whether demand is driven by patient need. For our analysis, the distribution of practicing US neurosurgeons was merged with census data to yield density indices of neurosurgeons by state; a survey assessing practice characteristics was e-mailed to practicing neurosurgeons; and a compilation of job advertisements for US neurosurgeons was evaluated. Multivariant statistical analyses yielded inconclusive results regarding patient demand because existing data sets are not designed to establish patient demand and many neurosurgeons are subspecialized. The data indicated that the ratio of neurosurgeons to total US population is 1:65,580. In the survey responses, neurosurgeon-to-patient ratios varied dramatically by state and were inconsistently correlated with whether neurosurgeons indicated they were overworked or underworked. The 305 job advertisements may indicate a shortage. Twenty-four percent of advertising practices indicated that they are recruiting only for emergency department coverage, and an additional 26% indicated that they might not be recruiting if not for the need for emergency coverage. Demand ratios should be reevaluated by region and subspecialty to consider changes in neurosurgery practice. A "shortage" in the employment market may reflect factors other than patient need.

  8. An analysis of the pediatric vaccine supply shortage problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C; Proano, Ruben A

    2006-11-01

    In 2002, several factors resulted in pediatric vaccine manufacturers not being able to produce a sufficient number of vaccines to vaccinate all the children in the United States according to the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule. The resulting vaccine supply shortage resulted in thousands of children not being fully immunized according to this schedule, and hence, created an unnecessary risk for epidemic outbreaks of several childhood diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention responded to this crisis by using pediatric vaccine stockpiles to mitigate the impact of future shortages. This paper presents a stochastic model that captures the vaccine supply during production interruptions. This model is used to assess the impact of pediatric vaccine stockpile levels on vaccination coverage rates, by considering the probability that all children can be immunized according to the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule over a given time period and the expected minimum vaccine supply. The model is also used to assess the proposed pediatric vaccine stockpile levels recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The results of this analysis suggest that the proposed vaccine stockpile levels are adequate to meet future vaccine production interruptions, provided that such production interruptions do not last more than six months (which is not surprising, given that is the time period for which they were designed). However, given that recent vaccine production interruptions have lasted (on average) for over one year, the proposed vaccine stockpile levels are insufficient to meet the nation's pediatric immunization needs during such time periods, which in turn could lead to localized and/or widespread disease outbreaks. Moreover, a moderate investment in higher vaccine stockpile levels would lead to a significantly reduced risk of such events.

  9. The global health workforce shortage: role of surgeons and other providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George F; Ricketts, Thomas C; Charles, Anthony; King, Jennifer; Fraher, Erin P; Meyer, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the status of the physician workforce seems to be concluded. It now is clear that a shortage of physicians exists and is likely to worsen. In retrospect it seems obvious that a static annual production of physicians, coupled with a population growth of 25 million persons each decade, would result in a progressively lower physician to population ratio. Moreover, Cooper has demonstrated convincingly that the robust economy of the past 50 years correlates with demand for physician services. The aging physician workforce is an additional problem: one third of physicians are over 55 years of age, and the population over the age of 65 years is expected to double by 2030. Signs of a physician and surgeon shortage are becoming apparent. The largest organization of physicians in the world (119,000 members), the American College of Physicians, published a white paper in 2006 titled, "The Impending Collapse of Primary Care Medicine and Its Implications for the State of the Nation's Health Care" [37]. The American College of Surgeons, the largest organization of surgeons, has published an article on access to emergency surgery [38], and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science has published a book on the future of emergency care (Fig. 10). The reports document diminished involvement and availability of emergency care by general surgeons, neurologic surgeons, orthopedists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and others. The emergency room has become the primary care physician after 5 PM for much of the population. A survey done by the Commonwealth Fund revealed that less than half of primary care practices have an on-call arrangement for after-hours care. Other evidence of evolving shortage are reports of long wait times for appointments, the hospitalist movement, and others. The policies for the future should move beyond dispute over whether or not a shortage exists. The immediate need is for the United States, as a society, to commit to

  10. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  11. Developing an EPQ Model with Considering Preventive Maintenance, Imperfect Product, Shortage and Work in Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal production lot size has been always noticed by researchers and various models have been proposed in this area. Among the subjects, which has been less considered in these models is machine failure. Obviously, a machine may encounter random failures during its working period and this makes clear the need for applying an appropriate maintenance policy for the machinery. In this paper based on assumptions such as authorized shortage, work in process inventory and possibility of producing defective products with and without the ability to re-work, EPQ model has been investigated and developed to select Preventive Maintenance (PM policy for the machinery. In addition, by minimizing system’s total cost over a period of time, a formula has been presented for determining optimal production lot size and its application has been examined using various numerical examples.

  12. Registered nurse job satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Karen; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Donahue, Moreen; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the initial assessment of job satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice environment of registered nurses working on units where a professional practice model was implemented and the relationship between these two variables. The nursing shortage has been linked to overall job satisfaction and specifically to nurses' satisfaction with the professional practice environment. Initiatives to increase retention and recruitment and decrease turnover have been linked to work satisfaction among nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used with participants (N = 101) from four patient care units; this represented a 55% response rate. The nurses were moderately satisfied with the professional practice environment but had overall low job satisfaction. There was a significant negative relationship between overall work satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice environment (P job satisfaction that were not being met. Thus, the nurses may have become more knowledgeable about the potential needs in these areas. Nurse managers and leaders must recognize that job satisfaction consists of many dimensions, and each of these dimensions is important to nurse retention. Implementation of a professional practice model may heighten awareness of the missing components within a practice environment and lead to decreased overall satisfaction. A broader understanding of characteristics associated with increased satisfaction may aid in development of organizational change necessary to retain and attract nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  14. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level. This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  15. The health workforce crisis in Bangladesh: shortage, inappropriate skill-mix and inequitable distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RajaChowdhury Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is identified as one of the countries with severe health worker shortages. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on human resources for health (HRH in the formal and informal sectors in Bangladesh. This data is essential for developing an HRH policy and plan to meet the changing health needs of the population. This paper attempts to fill in this knowledge gap by using data from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in 2007. Methods The study population in this survey comprised all types of currently active health care providers (HCPs in the formal and informal sectors. The survey used 60 unions/wards from both rural and urban areas (with a comparable average population of approximately 25 000 which were proportionally allocated based on a 'Probability Proportion to Size' sampling technique for the six divisions and distribution areas. A simple free listing was done to make an inventory of the practicing HCPs in each of the sampled areas and cross-checking with community was done for confirmation and to avoid duplication. This exercise yielded the required list of different HCPs by union/ward. Results HCP density was measured per 10 000 population. There were approximately five physicians and two nurses per 10 000, the ratio of nurse to physician being only 0.4. Substantial variation among different divisions was found, with gross imbalance in distribution favouring the urban areas. There were around 12 unqualified village doctors and 11 salespeople at drug retail outlets per 10 000, the latter being uniformly spread across the country. Also, there were twice as many community health workers (CHWs from the non-governmental sector than the government sector and an overwhelming number of traditional birth attendants. The village doctors (predominantly males and the CHWs (predominantly females were mainly concentrated in the rural areas, while the paraprofessionals were concentrated in the urban

  16. The health workforce crisis in Bangladesh: shortage, inappropriate skill-mix and inequitable distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Md Awlad; Rajachowdhury, Ahmed Mushtaque; Bhuiya, Abbas Uddin

    2011-01-22

    Bangladesh is identified as one of the countries with severe health worker shortages. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on human resources for health (HRH) in the formal and informal sectors in Bangladesh. This data is essential for developing an HRH policy and plan to meet the changing health needs of the population. This paper attempts to fill in this knowledge gap by using data from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in 2007. The study population in this survey comprised all types of currently active health care providers (HCPs) in the formal and informal sectors. The survey used 60 unions/wards from both rural and urban areas (with a comparable average population of approximately 25 000) which were proportionally allocated based on a 'Probability Proportion to Size' sampling technique for the six divisions and distribution areas. A simple free listing was done to make an inventory of the practicing HCPs in each of the sampled areas and cross-checking with community was done for confirmation and to avoid duplication. This exercise yielded the required list of different HCPs by union/ward. HCP density was measured per 10 000 population. There were approximately five physicians and two nurses per 10 000, the ratio of nurse to physician being only 0.4. Substantial variation among different divisions was found, with gross imbalance in distribution favouring the urban areas. There were around 12 unqualified village doctors and 11 salespeople at drug retail outlets per 10 000, the latter being uniformly spread across the country. Also, there were twice as many community health workers (CHWs) from the non-governmental sector than the government sector and an overwhelming number of traditional birth attendants. The village doctors (predominantly males) and the CHWs (predominantly females) were mainly concentrated in the rural areas, while the paraprofessionals were concentrated in the urban areas. Other data revealed the number of faith

  17. Development of a novel information and communication technology system to compensate for a sudden shortage of emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumiko; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Fukuma, Hiroshi; Nakao, Shota; Masunaga, Naohisa; Tomita, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yosuke; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2017-01-23

    A sudden shortage of physician resources due to overwhelming patient needs can affect the quality of care in the emergency department (ED). Developing effective response strategies remains a challenging research area. We created a novel system using information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to a sudden shortage, and tested the system to determine whether it would compensate for a shortage. Patients (n = 4890) transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan during 2012-2015 were studied. We assessed whether the system secured the necessary physicians without using other means such as phone or pager, and calculated fulfillment rate by the system as a primary outcome variable. We tested for the difference in probability of multiple casualties among total casualties transferred to the ED as an indicator of ability to respond to excessive patient needs, in a secondary analysis before and after system introduction. The system was activated 24 times (stand-by request [n = 12], attendance request [n = 12]) in 24 months, and secured the necessary physicians without using other means; fulfillment rate was 100%. There was no significant difference in the probability of multiple casualties during daytime weekdays hours before and after system introduction, while the probability of multiple casualties during night or weekend hours after system introduction significantly increased compared to before system introduction (4.8% vs. 12.9%, P introduction 6.2% vs. 13.6%, P < 0.0001). After introducing the system, probability of multiple casualties increased. Thus the system may contribute to improvement in the ability to respond to sudden excessive patient needs in multiple causalities. A novel system using ICT successfully secured immediate responses from needed physicians outside the hospital without increasing user workload, and increased the ability to respond to excessive patient needs. The system appears to be able to compensate for a shortage

  18. Addressing the physicians’ shortage in developing countries by accelerating and reforming the medical education: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA AL-SHAMSI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doctors’ shortage has remained a concern worldwide. The developed countries started aids to recruit international medical graduates (IMG to cope with the defects that the health care system suffers from; however, this solution may not work in developing countries that have a limited resource and poor budget to spend on the health care system. This study aims to present an alternative way to approach the physicians’ shortage by accelerating undergraduate medical education and reform some post-graduate courses in order to cope with this problem. Methods: The literature in PubMed/Medline and Google scholar were searched using such keywords as undergraduate medical education, physician shortage, health care reform, physicians’ performance, medical curriculum. Results: The finding revealed that performance during undergraduate medical school does not have a relationship with the physician’s performance post-graduation. Moreover, the overloaded curriculum and the years spent in undergraduate education have a negative impact on the students in terms of burn out, lack of competency, and loss of motivation in medicine. The method of education was found to have a positive effect on preparing good students and ultimately good physicians. Conclusion: Since performance in undergraduate years does not have an impact on the practice post-graduation, the developing countries may consider the option of changing the context, and abbreviating undergraduate medical education as a solution for physicians’ shortage dilemma. Moreover, modifying some postgraduate majors such as family physician, and general practitioner to allow the physicians enter the practice in areas of need is recommended.

  19. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  20. Professional Burnout among School Counselors in Basic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kovač

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available School counsellors are often stressed due to the nature of their work. This stress can, when unsatisfyingly treated, easily evolve to a professional burnout. In Slovenia no research with the specific aim to explore the professional burnout among school counsellors has been performed so far. Hence the aim of the present research is to compensate this shortage in the area of school counselling. The paper presents some theoretical foundations of occupational burnout and results of empirical research. The purpose of the empirical research was to determine the perceptions of occupational burnout among school counselors. We were interested in the level of occupational burnout and existing differences in terms of age, education and presence of supervision. We analysed the results of the present study according to three dimensions of occupational burnout in school counselors, namely lesser fulfilment, exhaustion and depersonalization. Results have shown that the perceived level of the avarage occupational burnout in most school counsellors is relatively homogenous. Within the individual dimensions of professional burnout among school counselors the sense of lesser fulfillment has proven to be the most strongly expressed. The study also showed that the greatest differences are seen in the dimension of lesser fulfilment and emotional exhaustion with regard to education and presence of supervision.

  1. Professional development needs of nurse educators. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprescu, Florin; McAllister, Margaret; Duncan, David; Jones, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Because there is a global shortage of nurse educators, highly productive and committed nurse educators are needed to supply a rapidly expanding and changing health landscape. To support the aforementioned effort professional development needs of nurse educators must be systematically identified. This study explores practical issues around professional development needs of nurse educators. One hundred and thirty eight Australian nurse educators based in Queensland answered an online survey around professional development needs. Results indicate that 83% (n = 115) of the respondents were enthusiastic about nurse education yet only 45% (n = 62) were confident in their skills and less than 10% (n = 13) saw themselves as expert nurse educators. The most desired areas of future development in teaching were information technology skills, assessment and technical knowledge. There seems to be a shared need for developing global online and offline support resources and communities of practice to support nurse educators in their teaching and research endeavours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, M S; Zhang, G P

    2010-02-24

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not.

  3. Understanding the pediatric dermatology workforce shortage: mentoring matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Caufield, Maura; Kim, Silvia S; Siegfried, Elaine C; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2014-02-01

    To target pediatric dermatologists directly in order to evaluate their current demographics and the most important motivating factors that influenced their career choice. Pediatric dermatology is one of the pediatric subspecialties with an inadequate supply to meet current patient needs. A survey was designed to evaluate the training pathway, employment status, participation in teaching, and clinical practice characteristics of pediatric dermatologists. The survey was administered to attendants of the 2010 Society for Pediatric Dermatology annual meeting. Any remaining board certified pediatric dermatologists who had not previously responded were queried via Survey Monkey. There was a 71% response rate. The majority chose a career in pediatric dermatology early, often prior to starting a dermatology residency. The vast majority of respondents noted mentorship as the most important influence on their decision to pursue a career in pediatric dermatology. The most common obstacles cited by respondents were financial hardship and resistance of some dermatology programs to accept applicants previously trained in pediatrics. Our survey provides evidence to support the importance of early exposure to the field and, most importantly, to committed pediatric dermatologists who can serve as mentors. This information may be helpful in approaching solutions to the workforce shortage in the field of pediatric dermatology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-05-01

    Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as "morzae", "sady", "pestan", "sheer", "sheerkhar", and "hifzossehhe". The content analysis was used after collecting data. According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  5. The choice of healthcare providers for febrile children after introducing non-professional health workers in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eTsukahara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively affected the utilization of health services; however, price effect on healthcare demand decisions has not been explored. Empirical studies on household’s affordability as well as accessibility of healthcare services contribute to policy implications such as efficient introduction of out-of-pocket costs and effective allocation of health facilities. Therefore, we investigate price responsiveness and other determinants of healthcare provider choice for febrile children in a malaria endemic rural area wherein VHVs were introduced.Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a structured questionnaire distributed in a health center’s catchment area of East Sepik Province in the 2011/2012 rainy seasons. Caretakers were interviewed and data on fever episodes of their children in the preceding two weeks were collected. Mixed logit model was employed to estimate the determinants of healthcare provider choice.Results: Among 257 fever episodes reported, the main choices of healthcare providers were limited to self-care, VHV, and a health center. Direct cost and walking distance negatively affected the choice of a VHV and the health center. An increase of VHV’s direct cost or walking distance did not much affect predicted probability of the health center, but rather that of self-care. While, drug availability and illness severity increased the choice probability of a VHV and the health center. Conclusion: The results suggest that the net healthcare demand

  6. Routine referrals: A possible solution for transplantation shortages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-16

    Jun 16, 2017 ... donation: Only professionals specifically trained should be in charge of the family approach. Organ donation should never be requested until the family has understood and accepted the inevitability of death. 7. Education and training: ICU staff should receive comprehensive training on organ donations. 8.

  7. Estimate of Current Hospice and Palliative Medicine Physician Workforce Shortage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupu, Dale

    2010-01-01

    ... do not want, thus decreasing health care costs and increasing quality. However, delivery of high-quality hospice and palliative care cannot take place without sufficient number of health professionals with appropriate training and skills. The rapid expansion of hospice and palliative care programs over the past two to three decades has tak...

  8. Tackling Nurse Shortages in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Villeneuve, Mike; Hurst, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    There are reports of current nurse shortages in all but a few OECD countries. With further increases in demand for nurses expected and nurse workforce ageing predicted to reduce the supply of nurses, shortages are likely to persist or even increase in the future, unless action is taken to increase flows into and reduce flows out of the workforce…

  9. 78 FR 75959 - Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for... determine State homes eligibility and the appropriate amount of funding. An agency may not conduct or...

  10. 78 FR 55778 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes... agencies must obtain approval from OMB for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. This...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring and...

  11. 75 FR 45207 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes... obtain approval from OMB for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. This request for...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring and...

  12. 75 FR 62185 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring and... conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to a collection of information unless it...

  13. Zinc deficiency in a parenteral nutrition-dependent patient during a parenteral trace element product shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Parenteral nutrition product shortages are common and place vulnerable patients at risk for nutrient deficiencies. This case report describes a parenteral nutrition-dependent patient who was found to have zinc deficiency during a parenteral nutrition product shortage. The management of the patient's zinc deficiency is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, James F.

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges's Nurse Shortage Project was designed to alleviate the nurse shortage by helping community colleges improve recruitment, retention, and graduation in nursing programs through direct mini-grants, with a special emphasis on Tech Prep/Associate Degree initiatives between secondary schools and…

  15. Ámbitos de profesionalización del educador/a social: perspectivas y complejidad (Areas of social educator professional development: perspectives and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V. Amador Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    has steadily become clear the importance of their work that transcends and even complements the areas of formal education or school. At the same time, about the development and educational intervention to individuals and groups in order to promote social change educational. It is in this context and premises where the figure of the Educator / Social at from the aspect of their professional role, areas of intervention and pretend contexts an approach to this complex figure. It is evident that in recent decades we have witnessed the evolution of a profession, Social Education. The development of it has been determined primarily by two factors: first, the crisis of education systems, unable to respond to new challenges and needs and expectations, and second, the idea of state. We must not forget that the socioeconomic and cultural changes have led to new ideas and perspectives that are embodied in the professional field of Social Educator. It is a permanent construction given profession's need to respond to changes in society itself, to contexts, groups and individuals. Not to mention the role that the university should have in this process, companies, institutions and subject himself to self-employment.

  16. Impact of Injectable Furosemide Hospital Shortage on Congestive Heart Failure Outcomes: A Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vivian S; Nash, Danielle M; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X; Juurlink, David N; Weir, Matthew A

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in February 2012, there was a shortage of injectable furosemide in the province of Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the furosemide shortage on heart failure outcomes in Ontario, Canada. We determined which hospitals experienced a shortage of injectable furosemide using an online survey. We then used health administrative data to identify all patients who presented to those hospitals with congestive heart failure. Using 40 months of data from before the shortage, we determined the proportion of patients with heart failure expected to die each month. We then used time series analysis to forecast the 30-day mortality rate during the shortage period and compared it with the observed rate. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, transfer to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation during the hospital stay, and risk of 30-day readmission for heart failure. Survey results were obtained for 82% of hospitals, 28 of which experienced a severe shortage of injectable furosemide in the year 2012. The 30-day mortality among patients presenting to these hospitals with congestive heart failure before the shortage period was 11.2%. We forecasted a mortality rate of 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 8.2-14.4) for the shortage period, which was not significantly different from the observed rate of 10.9%. Similarly, we found no significant effect of the shortage on secondary outcomes. A severe shortage of injectable furosemide did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients who presented to the hospital with congestive heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetics/genomics education for nongenetic health professionals: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Divya; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Foster, Margaret; Xu, Lei; Chen, Lei-Shih

    2017-07-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project has enhanced avenues for disease prevention, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the shortage of genetic professionals, genetics/genomics training has been provided to nongenetic health professionals for years to establish their genomic competencies. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and evaluate the existing genetics/genomics education programs for nongenetic health professionals. Five electronic databases were searched from January 1990 to June 2016. Forty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. There was a growing publication trend. Program participants were mainly physicians and nurses. The curricula, which were most commonly provided face to face, included basic genetics; applied genetics/genomics; ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics/genomics; and/or genomic competencies/recommendations in particular professional fields. Only one-third of the curricula were theory-based. The majority of studies adopted a pre-/post-test design and lacked follow-up data collection. Nearly all studies reported participants' improvements in one or more of the following areas: knowledge, attitudes, skills, intention, self-efficacy, comfort level, and practice. However, most studies did not report participants' age, ethnicity, years of clinical practice, data validity, and data reliability. Many genetics/genomics education programs for nongenetic health professionals exist. Nevertheless, enhancement in methodological quality is needed to strengthen education initiatives.Genet Med advance online publication 20 October 2016.

  18. Identifying emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooker, Barbara Molina; Shoultz, Jan; Codier, Estelle E

    2007-01-01

    The National Center for Health Workforce Analysis projects that the shortage of registered nurses in the United States will double by 2010 and will nearly quadruple to 20% by 2015 (Bureau of Health Professionals Health Resources and Services Administration. [2002]. Projected supply, demand, and shortages of registered nurses, 2000-2020 [On-line]. Available: http:bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/rnprojects/report.htm). The purpose of this study was to use the conceptual framework of emotional intelligence to analyze nurses' stories about their practice to identify factors that could be related to improved nurse retention and patient/client outcomes. The stories reflected evidence of the competencies and domains of emotional intelligence and were related to nurse retention and improved outcomes. Nurses recognized their own strengths and limitations, displayed empathy and recognized client needs, nurtured relationships, used personal influence, and acted as change agents. Nurses were frustrated when organizational barriers conflicted with their knowledge/intuition about nursing practice, their communications were disregarded, or their attempts to create a shared vision and teamwork were ignored. Elements of professional nursing practice, such as autonomy, nurse satisfaction, respect, and the professional practice environment, were identified in the excerpts of the stories. The shortage of practicing nurses continues to be a national issue. The use of emotional intelligence concepts may provide fresh insights into ways to keep nurses engaged in practice and to improve nurse retention and patient/client outcomes.

  19. Find Shortage Areas: HPSAs Eligible for the Medicare Physician Bonus Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HPSAs Eligible for the Medicare Physician Bonus Payment advisor tools allows the user (physician) to determine if an address is eligible for bonus payments....

  20. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The new regulatory tools of the 2016 Health Law to fight drug shortages in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, François; Degrassat-Théas, Albane; Peigné, Jérôme; Paubel, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    Drug shortages are becoming worrying for public health in the European Union. The French public authorities first took action against the causes of drug shortages in 2011 with a law, followed by a decree in 2012 to overcome the dysfunctions of the pharmaceutical distribution channel. These texts would establish emergency call centres implemented by pharmaceutical companies for pharmacists and for wholesalers to inform of shortages, and would oblige pharmaceutical companies to inform health authorities of any risk of potential shortage situation; they would also reinforce the declaration regime of the territory served by wholesalers. Through the Health Law of January 2016, France acquired new regulatory tools in order to fight against these shortages and wanted to target the drugs for which they are the most detrimental: the major therapeutic interest (MTI) drugs. Furthermore, this new text reinforces the legal obligations of pharmaceutical companies and of wholesalers for drug shortages and sets out the enforcement of sanctions in case of breach of these obligations. France's goal is ambitious: to implement coercive measures aiming at making the actors of the drug distribution channel aware of their responsibilities in order to take up the public health challenge triggered by drug shortages. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  3. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Yang

    Full Text Available Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China.A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities.Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1 let the market decide the drug price; 2 establish an information platform; 3 establish a reserve system; 4 enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5 improve hospital inventory management.Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  4. Internship as a mechanism for professional preparation of sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internship as a mechanism for professional preparation of sport management personnel: an empirical study of students' perceptions. ... As a result, the recruitment drives of many organisations currently focus heavily on attracting skills as well as experience. One of the ways in which the skills shortage and lack of experience ...

  5. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills.Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used.Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy.Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  6. Online availability and safety of drugs in shortage: a descriptive study of internet vendor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K

    2012-02-09

    Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs-that is, offers for sale of each drug, including characteristics of online drug sellers and intermediary sites marketing these drugs. Of the 72 FDA shortage-listed drugs, 68 (94%) were offered for sale online. We found 291 offers for these drugs, the vast majority (n = 207, 71.1%) by online drug sellers selling direct to consumers. Intermediary sites included data aggregators (n = 22, 8%), forum links (n = 23, 8%), and personal page data links (n = 34, 12%), as well as Flickr social media links (n = 5, 2%), all advertising drugs without a prescription. Of the 91 online drug sellers identified, 31 (34%) had more than 1 shortage drug offered for sale, representing most (n = 148, 71%) of all online drug seller sales offers. The majority of these online drug sellers (n = 21, 68%) were on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended Sites list. Finally, for shortage drugs with an online drug seller (n = 58, 85%), 53 (91%) had at least one site on the Not Recommended list and 21 (36%) had only sites on the Not Recommended list. FDA shortage drugs are widely marketed over the Internet. Suspect online drug sellers and intermediaries dominate these sales offers. As a critical risk management issue, patients, providers, and policymakers should be extremely cautious in procuring shortage drugs through Internet sourcing.

  7. Solving the nurse faculty shortage: exploring retention issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Georgine R; Anderko, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have explored reasons why nurse faculty leave academia, but few have focused on factors that encourage them to stay. Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, an online cross-sectional survey was completed by 1,171 tenured nurse faculty nationwide. Factor analysis revealed that the most significant factor influencing retention was professional satisfaction with faculty identity, including the ability to shape nursing practice. Academia may benefit by considering these factors to promote nurse faculty retention. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  8. Teacher Professional Development outside the Lecture Room: Voices of Professionally Unqualified Practicing Teachers in Rural Zimbabwe Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukeredzi, Tabitha Grace

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to address global pressure to achieve Education for All have been hampered by two fundamental challenges in developing countries, namely an acute shortage of teachers and large rural populations in these countries. In addition, qualified, competent teachers shun working in rural settings. While recruitment of professionally unqualified…

  9. The Attending Nurse Caring Model: integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean; Foster, Roxie

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a proposed model: The Attending Nursing Caring Model (ANCM) as an exemplar for advancing and transforming nursing practice within a reflective, theoretical and evidence-based context. Watson's theory of human caring is used as a guide for integrating theory, evidence and advanced therapeutics in the area of children's pain. The ANCM is offered as a programme for renewing the profession and its professional practices of caring-healing arts and science, during an era of decline, shortages, and crises in care, safety, and hospital and health reform. The ANCM elevates contemporary nursing's caring values, relationships, therapeutics and responsibilities to a higher/deeper order of caring science and professionalism, intersecting with other professions, while sustaining the finest of its heritage and traditions of healing.

  10. An Examination of Career Satisfaction for Medical Laboratory Professionals Using Wlodkowski's Motivational Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Medical laboratory science professionals are healthcare practitioners who provide laboratory data that aids in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. However, there is a large shortage of these professionals who perform the laboratory tests behind the scenes with very minimal patient contact. The purpose of this research was to…

  11. Keeping the Physical Educator "Connected" an Examination of Comfort Level, Usage and Professional Development Available for Technology Integration in the Curricular Area of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matthew R.; Worrell, Vicki; Unruh, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Schools continue to integrate the use of technology, and gymnasiums are not an exception. The purpose of the study was to determine the comfort level of Physical Education teachers integrating technology in the gymnasium, determine types of professional development provided for technology use, and potential barriers associated with technology…

  12. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valerie F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that turnover is a major issue in IT environments (Armstrong & Riemenschneider, 2011; Carayon, Schoepke, Hoonakker, Haims, & Brunette, 2006; Moore, 2000a; Rigas, 2009). In fact, the research literature in IT and the popular press suggest that IT professionals are particularly vulnerable to burnout (Armstrong &…

  13. Continuing interprofessional education in geriatrics and gerontology in medically underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.

  14. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  15. Factors Other Than Climate Change, Main Drivers of 2014/15 Water Shortage in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; King, Andrew; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Wada, Yoshihide; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Haarsma, Rein; Haustein, Karsten; Uhe, Peter; van Aalst, Maarten; hide

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Brazil experienced profound water shortages in 2014/15. Anthropogenic climate change is not found to be a major influence on the hazard, whereas increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability.

  16. Immigration and the tech industry: As a labour shortage remedy, for innovation, or for cost savings?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norman Matloff

    2013-01-01

      The two main reasons cited by the U.S. tech industry for hiring foreign workers- remedying labour shortages and hiring "the best and the brightest"-are investigated, using data on wages, patents...

  17. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  18. Energy-allocation in avian nestlings facing short-term food shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This thesis investigates effects of short-term food shortage on growth, body composition and metabolic development of Pekin ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and European shag nestlings (Phalacrocorax aristotelis), two species representing extremes within the altricial-precocial spectrum. The aims of the thesis were to 1) characterise patterns of growth and development in response to short-term food shortage during early development, 2) examine aspects of energy allocation during thes...

  19. Access to influenza vaccine in East Harlem and the Bronx during a national vaccine shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Galea, Sandro; Blaney, Shannon; Coady, Micaela H; Sisco, Sarah; Glidden, Kathryn; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    In October 2004, one of the major producers of the U.S. influenza vaccine supply announced that their vaccine would not be available because of production problems, resulting in approximately half of the anticipated supply suddenly becoming unavailable. This study was part of a larger effort using community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to distribute influenza vaccine to hard-to-reach populations. Given the extant literature suggesting economic and racial disparities in influenza vaccine access in times of adequate supply and our inability to distribute vaccine due to the shortage, we sought to examine vaccine access as well as awareness of the vaccine shortage and its impact on health-seeking behaviors in eight racially-diverse and economically-disadvantaged neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) during the shortage. In our study few people had been vaccinated, both among the general community and among high risk groups; vaccination rates for adults in priority groups and non-priority groups were 21.0% and 3.5%. Awareness of the 2004 vaccine shortage was widespread with over 90% being aware of the shortage. While most attributed the shortage to production problems, almost 20% said that it was due to the government not wanting to make the vaccine available. Many respondents said they would be more likely to seek vaccination during the current and subsequent influenza seasons because of the shortage. The target neighborhoods were significantly affected by the national influenza vaccine shortage. This study highlights the challenges of meeting the preventive health care needs of hard-to-reach populations in times of public health crisis.

  20. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  1. Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Jin, P K

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the present condition of the water shortage in north China where annual rainfall is low and per capita water resource is below the line of regular water stress, or even the line of absolute water scarcity. Of the available water resources, the percentge of water withdrawal in all the north basins is high--the Yellow River and Huai River basins being greater than 80% and the Hai River basin mainly depending on interbasin water transfer. Over-withdrawal of water also results in serious water environmental problems including "flow cut-off" of the Yellow River main channel and water pollution of many rivers. The paper also analyses the potential of wastewater as a resource and the demand for treated wastewater re-use. In north China, due to low rainfall and high potential evaporation environmental re-use, gardening, afforestation, etc. is considered as the main usage of the treated wastewater. Considering the economic restrictions in the less developed area, a decentralised system can be taken as an important option in formulating water re-use strategies.

  2. Pediatric nurse educator shortage: implications for the nursing care of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Barbara J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rose, Diane; Christy, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are vital to caring for the nation's infants, children, and adolescents. A shortage of pediatric nursing educators has important consequences for the preparation of the next generation of MCH nurses. A Web-based survey of administrators and pediatric nursing faculty from U.S. schools of nursing with baccalaureate and advanced degree programs was conducted to assess perceptions of a pediatric nursing faculty shortage, and implications and solutions to such a shortage. Deans (n = 191) and pediatric faculty (n = 237) from schools of nursing responded to the survey. Institutions are representative of the 660 schools of nursing across the United States. Fifty percent of deans and 70% of pediatric nursing faculty members reported a shortage of pediatric nursing faculty. Large, public institutions (total school student enrollment over 15,000) expressed the most concern. The educational impact of the reported shortage included increased faculty workload, difficulty getting appropriate clinical practice settings, elimination of acute care clinical experiences, and reduction in pediatric content in curricula. Expected retirements of the current workforce (76% were over 45 years of age) without an increase in replacements will deepen the shortage in the coming decade. Pediatric faculty members focused on the need for competitive salaries (particularly compared to clinical salaries) and active mentoring programs as important factors in recruitment and retention of new faculty. Recommendations for stemming the decline in availability of pediatric nursing faculty are provided.

  3. Higher education in tourism, hospitality, and gastronomy: an answer to the need for professional staff in this area in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako; Metodijeski, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this article is tourism and the role that higher education institutions have in shaping the professional staff in the field of tourism, hospitality and gastronomy in Republic of Macedonia. For this purpose the need of higher education institutions in the field of tourism is explained, and a review of universities in Macedonia in which function faculties of tourism, hospitality and gastronomy is made. Republic of Macedonia is not a country with a long tradition in tourism but st...

  4. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  5. Modeling the national pediatric vaccine stockpile: supply shortages, health impacts and cost consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sundar S; Wallace, Gregory S; Meltzer, Martin I

    2010-08-31

    Pediatric vaccine stockpiles have been in place in the U.S. since 1983 to address the potential disruption in supply of routine pediatric vaccines. Increases in the number of vaccines recommended for pediatric and adolescent patients have increased the cost of stocking and maintaining the stockpile. Based on a spreadsheet-based model (VacStockpile) we developed, we estimated potential supply shortages of 14 stockpiled vaccines as of August 1, 2008 and its health and financial impacts under various shortage and stockpile scenarios. To illustrate the implications of policy options, we compared "high" to "low" stockpile scenarios. The high stockpile scenario ensures a 6-month vaccine supply to vaccinate all children according to recommended schedules. The low scenario comprised of 50% of the high scenario or existing stocks, whichever is smaller. For each vaccine, we used a weighted average of five shortage scenarios ranging from 0% to 100%, in 25% increments. Demand for each vaccine was based on current distribution or birth cohort size. The probabilities of shortages were based on number of manufacturers, market stability, history of manufacturing problems, and production complexity. CDC contract prices were used to estimate costs. Expert opinion and literature provided estimates of health impacts due to shortages. Applying the probabilities of shortages to all vaccines in a single year, the "low" scenario could cost $600 million, with 376,000 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 1774 deaths. The "high" scenario could cost $2 billion, with an additional $1.6 billion initial stocking, and result in 7100 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 508 deaths. Based on the assumptions in the model, there is the potential for large differences in outcomes between the scenarios although some outcomes could potentially be averted with measures such as catch-up campaigns after shortages. Using the VacStockpile policy makers can readily evaluate the implications of

  6. Forecasting the global shortage of physicians: an economic- and needs-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Liu, Jenny X; Kinfu, Yohannes; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2008-07-01

    Global achievements in health may be limited by critical shortages of health-care workers. To help guide workforce policy, we estimate the future demand for, need for and supply of physicians, by WHO region, to determine where likely shortages will occur by 2015, the target date of the Millennium Development Goals. Using World Bank and WHO data on physicians per capita from 1980 to 2001 for 158 countries, we employ two modelling approaches for estimating the future global requirement for physicians. A needs-based model determines the number of physicians per capita required to achieve 80% coverage of live births by a skilled health-care attendant. In contrast, our economic model identifies the number of physicians per capita that are likely to be demanded, given each country's economic growth. These estimates are compared to the future supply of physicians projected by extrapolating the historical rate of increase in physicians per capita for each country. By 2015, the global supply of physicians appears to be in balance with projected economic demand. Because our measure of need reflects the minimum level of workforce density required to provide a basic health service that is met in all but the least developed countries, the needs-based estimates predict a global surplus of physicians. However, on a regional basis, both models predict shortages for many countries in the WHO African Region in 2015, with some countries experiencing a needs-based shortage, a demand-based shortage, or both. The type of policy intervention needed to alleviate projected shortages, such as increasing health-care training or adopting measures to discourage migration, depends on the type of shortage projected.

  7. Improving Primary Care Retention in Medically Underserved Areas: What's a Clinic to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbrough, Amanda W; Moore, Marianne; Shelton, Steve R; Knox, Regina J

    To reduce health professional shortage areas, the National Health Service Corps has attempted to increase the number of primary care providers in underserved communities through scholarships and loan repayment. Program evaluations assessed Loan Repayment Program (LRP) propensity to work in underserved communities. The National Health Service Corps LRPs were asked about preferences for particular retention strategies and which strategies were utilized by their clinical sites. Loan Repayment Programs were asked to rank retention strategies. Loan Repayment Program top choices were competitive salary, 88%; professional development, 70%; knowledgeable/competent support staff, 59%, and professional support, 58%. Loan Repayment Programs were also asked to rank retention strategies provided by their clinical sites: professional development, 74.2%; competitive salary, 71.2%; policies that prohibit abusive behavior, 63.6%, and knowledgeable/competent support staff, 60.6%. Loan Repayment Programs indicated professional support was an important retention element. However, when asked if professional support opportunities were offered, LRP indicated that these were not in the strategies offered by sites.

  8. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies’ purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06% reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  9. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  10. Does food shortage delay development of homeothermy in European shag nestlings (Phalacrocorax aristotelis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, B; Brunvoll, S; Mork, D; Brobakk, T E; Bech, C

    2005-01-01

    Nestlings seem to face a trade-off between reducing the basal level of energy metabolism, as an energy-saving response, and maintaining thermogenic capacity during temporal food shortage. In the present study we examined developmental responses to short-term diet restriction of 12-16 day old nestling European shags kept under laboratory conditions and tested whether temporal food shortage delay the development of homeothermy. During food shortage the European shag nestlings substantially reduced basal level of energy metabolism, resulting in significant energy savings. The reduction in basal level of energy metabolism corresponded with a reduction in peak metabolic rate. At the same time, the low peak metabolic rate of diet-restricted nestlings was offset by a lower mass-specific minimal thermal conductance, and an increased mass-specific absolute scope. Consequently, the insulation and the portion of peak metabolic rate available for regulatory thermogenesis seemed to develop normally, as expected from age, during the period of food shortage. Further, the degree of homeothermy, measured as the index of homeothermy, was not significantly lower in diet-restricted nestlings compared to controls at the same age. We conclude that temporal food shortage did not significantly delay the development of homeothermy in the European shag nestlings despite substantial reductions in basal level of energy metabolism and peak metabolic rate.

  11. Local health department responses during the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James; Bashir, Zarnaaz; Phillips, Cynthia

    2007-08-01

    During the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine shortage, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) coordinated distribution of post-October 5th 2004 doses of influenza vaccine to state and local health departments (LHDs), who subsequently distributed vaccine to community providers. The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) conducted three Web-based surveys throughout the 2004-2005 influenza season to assess in real-time how LHDs were 1) dealing with the vaccine shortage, 2) implementing the interim recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and 3) making efforts to reallocate and redistribute doses of influenza vaccine toward high-priority populations within their communities. This paper highlights LHD responses that alleviated adverse impacts during this public health emergency. The first survey asked LHDs to quantify their community's vaccine supply; the second survey asked them to describe their specific responses to the crisis; and the third survey asked them to reflect and evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts to vaccinate high-priority groups during the crisis. Six hundred five (605) of 717 (84%) LHDs in 44 states responded to the three surveys. Results show that LHDs leveraged preparedness plans, formed strategic community partnerships, and practiced vaccination drills to address the problems of vaccinating high-priority and hard-to-reach populations that arose out of the vaccine shortage. The practices used by LHDs during this shortage may provide valuable response lessons to minimize the impact of future influenza vaccine shortages and other public health emergencies.

  12. Drug shortage-associated increase in catheter-related blood stream infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, Matthew W; Blackwood, R Alexander; Arnold, Meghan A; Partipilo, M Luisa; Dimond, James; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has been shown to reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in intestinal failure (IF) patients. Dosing and frequency remains undefined. Scrutiny of pharmaceutical facilities by the Food and Drug Administration led to the voluntary shutdown of the sole supplier of ethanol, resulting in a nationwide shortage. To conserve supply, we reduced ELT frequency from a daily regimen. We examined the impact that reduction in ELT frequency had on CRBSI in pediatric IF patients. We retrospectively reviewed our parenteral nutrition-dependent IF children. Primary outcome measure was CRBSI per 1000 catheter days after ELT frequency reduction. Data were compared (paired t test) to the same group over 1 year before ethanol shortage and to historical controls. During the shortage 13 outpatients received ELT. Eight met study criteria. Mean ± SD age was 9.1 ± 7.8 years. Mean CRBSI rate per 1000 catheter days was 0.7 ± 1.3 before ELT shortage. This increased to 6.2 ± 2.5 after frequency reduction (P Gram-negatives (6), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (1), and Candida spp (1). ELT frequency reduction resulted in complete failure in CRBSI prophylaxis. The nationwide shortage of this drug has been costly both financially and in patient morbidity.

  13. Experience of Approbation and Target Reference Points of Introduction of the Professional Standard "Pedagogue-Psychologist (Educational psychologist" in Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyagina N.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of application of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist (educational psychologist" in the Sverdlovsk region is described. A regional model for the application of the professional standard developed on the basis of the principles of unity of centralization and decentralization, interdepartmental and network interaction developed by the authors is presented. The main forms and methods of work on the application of a professional standard in the region are disclosed; the results of the Sverdlovsk region internship site are described, including mechanisms for identifying personnel shortages and development of personalized trajectories of the professional development of psychology teachers in the region. The following are highlighted as priority areas: the development of regional normative legal acts regulating the professional activity of pedagogue-psychologists, the application of the professional standard of the pedagogue-psychologist in the formation of the personnel policy in the field of education, and the modernization of the system of vocational training and additional vocational education of psychologists.

  14. Towards equity and sustainability of rural and remote health services access: supporting social capital and integrated organisational and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Adrian; Lawn, Sharon; Carson, Dean

    2016-04-02

    Access to rural health services is compromised in many countries including Australia due to workforce shortages. The issues that consequently impact on equity of access and sustainability of rural and remote health services are complex. The purpose of this paper is to describe a number of approaches from the literature that could form the basis of a more integrated approach to health workforce and rural health service enhancement that can be supported by policy. A case study is used to demonstrate how such an approach could work. Disjointed health services are common in rural areas due to the 'tyranny of distance.' Recruitment and retention of health professionals in rural areas and access to and sustainability of rural health services is therefore compromised. Strategies to address these issues tend to have a narrow focus. An integrated approach is needed to enhance rural workforce and health services; one that develops, acknowledges and accounts for social capital and social relations within the rural community.

  15. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  16. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  17. Strain-specific responses of inbred mice to ethanol following food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroff, Karl C; Cowen, Michael S; Koch, Sabrina; Spanagel, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Specific inbred mouse strains such as C57BL/6J and DBA/2J show differences in consumption of and reaction on drugs of abuse. For example, C57BL/6J mice voluntarily consume greater amounts of ethanol than DBA/2J mice. Recently, it could be shown that a short environmental experience--12 days of food shortage followed by a recovery period--has a strong impact on strain-specific reactions to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether food shortage experience has an effect on ethanol responses. The effect of a period of 12 days food restriction which resulted in a weight loss of 20% body weight and which was followed by a complete recovery period was studied on ethanol self-administration and ethanol-induced locomotor activity in C57BL/6Ico and DBA/2Ico inbred mouse strains. The experience of food shortage led to a higher ethanol intake and preference in C57BL/6Ico mice compared to control animals without food shortage experience. In contrast DBA/2Ico showed no difference in ethanol intake or preference following this experience. The effect of ethanol onto locomotor activity of both mice strains was affected only in the case of DBA/2Ico mice, where food shortage experience resulted in a significantly higher ethanol-induced locomotor activity. The present data show that in inbred mouse strains environmental experiences can have a strong impact onto the effects of ethanol. In conclusion, in the field of preclinical alcohol research gene x environment interactions in specific inbred mouse strains can contribute strongly to the outcome of studies and more specifically food shortage can profoundly affect the outcome of alcohol studies in mice.

  18. Housing shortage and communal politics in European cities around 1900: the cases of Basel 1889 and Belgrade 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Nataša

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, European cities faced a problem well known in postindependence India: the population escalated due to immigration from the rural areas causing rapid and considerable housing shortage. This forced large parts of the poorer classes into miserable living conditions. Lack of space, money and hygiene facilitated the epidemic spread of diseases such as tuberculosis and diarrhoea. The town authorities were called upon to stop speculation and to launch state financed housing projects. However, in reality the situation was very different depending on the place, political aims and financial possibilities arising out of the particular crisis. This article discusses the issue in two continental European cities of around 100,000 inhabitants. The Swiss town of Basel was a hub of trade in Central Europe, while Belgrade was the capital of the Southeastern European kingdom of Serbia.

  19. Leadership and professional workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F; Madaan, Vishal

    2008-03-01

    On an average, 4% of medical students from medical schools in the United States choose psychiatry as an option. Although in recent years psychiatry residency match statistics have improved, in general terms it is less competitive to enter this specialty. Most psychiatrists practice as generalists, either in private practice or in the public mental health system. There are marked shortages in child psychiatry and in upcoming new subspecialties. There are ongoing efforts to enhance the core competency of psychiatrists-in-training, with particular emphasis on research literacy to foster lifelong learning skills and (for some) to stimulate interest in a research career track. This article chronicles the trajectory of workforce development and professional growth in psychiatry.

  20. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  1. How the US Food and Drug Administration can solve the prescription drug shortage problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Stuart O

    2013-05-01

    Drug shortages are threatening care quality and cost-containment efforts. I describe the pharmaceutical marketplace changes that have caused the problem, and propose new policies to solve it, through changing incentives for producers and purchasers. I propose a grading scheme for the Food and Drug Administration when it inspects manufacturing facilities in the United States and abroad. The inspections' focus would change from closing unsafe plants to improving production process quality, reducing the likelihood that plants will be closed-the most frequent cause of drug shortages.

  2. Immigration and the tech industry: As a labour shortage remedy, for innovation, or for cost savings?

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Matloff

    2013-01-01

    The two main reasons cited by the U.S. tech industry for hiring foreign workers-remedying labour shortages and hiring “the best and the brightest”-are investigated, using data on wages, patents, and R&D work, as well as previous research and industry statements. The analysis shows that the claims of shortage and outstanding talent are not supported by the data, even after excluding the Indian IT service firms. In-stead, it is shown that the primary goals of employers in hiring foreign workers...

  3. Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Din Salar Salah Muhy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of applying renewable energy strategies in Kurdistan Region of Iraq to overcome the shortage of electricity supply. Finding alternative renewable sources could overcome the problem. The renewable energy will reduce CO2 emission in the cities which considers the main source of pollution. That will participate in reducing the effect of global warming. The study tries to investigate the direct solar renewable energy through two of the main renewable energy categories to produce electricity based on a survey of literature review. Photovoltaic and wind power technologies are possible to be conducted in the region to overcome power shortage.

  4. Production-inventory Management model for a weibull deteriorating item with linear demand and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical decay or deterioration of goods in stock is an important feature of real inventory systems. Material and methods: In the present paper, we discuss an production inventory model for a Weibull deteriorating item over a finite planning horizon with a linearly time-varying demand rate and a uniform production rate, allowing shortages, which are completely backlogged. Results and conclusions:  A production inventory model is developed for a Weibull deteriorating item over a finite planning horizon with a linear time varying demand, finite production rate and shortages. The optimal number of production cycles that minimizes the average system cost is determined.

  5. Deterministic inventory model for items with Time varying demand, weibull distribution deterioration and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kun-Shan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an EOQ inventory model is depleted not only by time varying demand but also by Weibull distribution deterioration, in which the inventory is permitted to start with shortages and end without shortages. A theory is developed to obtain the optimal solution of the problem; it is then illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples. Moreover, we also assume that the holding cost is a continuous, non-negative and non-decreasing function of time in order to extend the EOQ model. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal solution to changes in the values of different system parameters is also studied.

  6. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  7. Social Stigma in the Care Service of People with Hiv/Aids for Students and Professionals of the Areas of Health, Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Tamayo-Zuluaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The social stigma in people with HIV/AIDS by students and health professionals hinders early diagnosis, timely treatment and increases the spread risk of the pandemic. Objective: To describe the social stigma in the care of people with HIV/AIDS by socioeconomic, demographic and academic conditions. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study in 1,253 individuals. The scale of social stigma was validated with criteria of appearance, content, construct, internal consistency, reliability and usefulness. The analyzes included Pearson correlations, Cronbach,factor analysis, frequencies, summary measures, Mann Whitney U, Anova and multivariate linear regression in SPSS 21.0 R. Results: The highest frequencies for stigma were related to the differential treatment delivered to people with HIV/AIDS (57.2 %, accounting necessary to create exclusive hospitals for this group (52.5 %, the attention of these patients increases the risk of infection (49.7 %, and the need to isolate HIV-positive (43.3 %. The main predictors of social stigma were the academic program, performing the presumptive test and semester of study. Conclusion: Social stigma attitudes were higher in individuals of the first cycle of formation, without performing the test screening, and medical students; this corroborates the need to improve communication, information and health education strategies to combat stigma.

  8. Professional Cosmetology Practices. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.

    This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…

  9. Teacher Efficacy and Professional Development Needs of Mid-Career Agriculture Educators Integrating the Next Generation Science Standards and Other Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drape, Tiffany A.; Lopez, Megan; Radford, Donna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the phenomenon regarding agriculture education teacher's efficacy by integrating the Next Gen Science Standards and other content areas into their classroom teaching. This was a single case study with two units of analysis consisting of two agriculture education programs in the Eastern United States…

  10. 42 CFR 405.2417 - Visiting nurse services: Determination of shortage of agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visiting nurse services: Determination of shortage of agencies. 405.2417 Section 405.2417 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2417 Visiting nurse services...

  11. Using Optical Sensors to Identify Water Deprivation, Nitrogen Shortage, Weed Presence and Fungal Infection in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos G. Peteinatos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of precision agriculture relies largely on our ability to identify how the plants’ growth limiting factors vary in time and space. In the field, several stress factors may occur simultaneously, and it is thus crucial to be able to identify the key limitation, in order to decide upon the correct contra-action, e.g., herbicide application. We performed a pot experiment, in which spring wheat was exposed to water shortage, nitrogen deficiency, weed competition (Sinapis alba L. and fungal infection (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici in a complete, factorial design. A range of sensor measurements were taken every third day from the two-leaf stage until booting of the wheat (BBCH 12 to 40. Already during the first 10 days after stress induction (DAS, both fluorescence measurements and spectral vegetation indices were able to differentiate between non-stressed and stressed wheat plants exposed to water shortage, weed competition or fungal infection. This meant that water shortage and fungal infection could be detected prior to visible symptoms. Nitrogen shortage was detected on the 11–20 DAS. Differentiation of more than one stress factors with the same index was difficult.

  12. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  13. Solving the Nation's Teacher Shortage: How Online Learning Can Fix the Broken Teacher Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinal, Mallory

    2015-01-01

    As the link between teacher quality and student performance becomes increasingly apparent, education leaders have invested significant time and energy into recruiting high-quality educators. Unfortunately, chronic teacher shortages have undercut these efforts, and many school leaders continue to struggle with staffing each year. A closer…

  14. Lake States Pulpwood Production Hampered by Adverse Weather and Labor Shortage, 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn

    1966-01-01

    Demand for Lake States pulpwood gained strength in 1965, but production failed to rise. Adverse weather during part of the year and a general shortage of woods labor were deterrents to a larger harvest. The total pulpwood cut was 3,636,000 cords in 1965, representing very little change over the level of the 2 previous years. The tempo of pulpwood activities started...

  15. Physiological flexibility and acclimation to food shortage in a heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2011-02-15

    As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' with a food restriction experiment. The experimental design consisted of acute calorie restriction (2 weeks, 80% restriction) in the middle of winter, after a fattening season with low (11 weeks, 40% restriction) versus high (ad libitum) food availability. This design aimed at simulating the combined effects of the quality of the fattening season (acclimation effect) and a sudden, severe food shortage during the lean season. Hour of start and duration of torpor were the most flexible components of energy savings, increasing in response to the acute food shortage with facilitation by chronic restriction (acclimation effect). Modulations of locomotor activity did not support the hypothesis of energy savings, as total locomotor activity was not reduced. Nonetheless, acutely restricted individuals modified their temporal pattern of locomotor activity according to former food availability. We provide the first experimental evidence of different temporal levels of flexibility of energy-saving mechanisms in a heterotherm exposed to food shortage. The acclimation effect of past food scarcity suggests that heterothermic organisms are better able to respond to unpredicted food scarcity during the lean season. The flexible control of energy expenditure conferred by heterothermy may facilitate the plastic response of heterothermic species to more frequent climatic hazards.

  16. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is opening a comment period for the...

  17. Impact of a Temporary Food Shortage on Children and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mary Alice; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a drought and temporary food shortage on 248 Kenyan mother-child dyads' energy intake, weight, and behaviors. Found that school-age children were affected more negatively than toddlers, showing significant declines in energy intake, age-corrected weight, activity on the playground, and classroom attention. Behavior…

  18. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop regarding the...

  19. Solving the Teacher Shortage: Revisiting the Lessons We've Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Shields, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, at a time when much of the country faced looming teacher shortages, a number of states invested in comprehensive strategies for strengthening the teaching profession. For example, and drawing upon recommendations from the National Commission on Teaching & America's Future, both California and North Carolina built statewide…

  20. Shortage of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania: A case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shortage of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania: A case study at the Catholic University of Health and Allied Health Sciences. ... the establishment of a residents-as-teachers training programme, and a faculty development programme to groom junior faculty to take on leadership roles and develop strategies to improve the ...

  1. The Congruence of Vocational Interests and the Workplace Environment: Reducing the Language Teacher Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    There is a shortage of second/foreign language (S/FL) teachers in many parts of the world, and the rates of attrition are cause for alarm in North America. Canadian and US teachers' (N = 323) were administered the Self-Directed Search vocational interest inventory and the Coping in Stressful Situations scale. Results from this quantitative study…

  2. A Qualitative Case Study of the Bilingual Teacher Shortage in One Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how stakeholders in one Texas school district perceive, experience, and respond to the Spanish bilingual teacher shortage. The research design was qualitative with an exploratory, single case study approach. The case study school district was a mid-sized suburban district in Texas that utilized a dual…

  3. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the Veterinary...

  4. The strategic relevance of manufacturing technology: An overall quality concept to promote innovation preventing drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Ponti, Mauro; Bruno, Giorgio; Cois, Giancarlo; D'Arpino, Alessandro; Minghetti, Paola; Mendicino, Francesca Romana; Perioli, Luana; Ricci, Maurizio

    2017-01-10

    Manufacturing is the bridge between research and patient: without product, there is no clinical outcome. Shortage has a variety of causes, in this paper we analyse only causes related to manufacturing technology and we use shortage as a paradigm highliting the relevance of Pharmaceutical Technology. Product and process complexity and capacity issues are the main challenge for the Pharmaceutical Industry Supply chain. Manufacturing Technology should be acknowledged as a R&D step and as a very important matter during University degree in Pharmacy and related disciplines, promoting collaboration between Academia and Industry, measured during HTA step and rewarded in terms of price and reimbursement. The above elements are not yet properly recognised, and manufacturing technology is taken in to consideration only when a shortage is in place. In a previous work, Panzitta et al. proposed to perform a full technology assessment at the Health Technological Assessment stage, evaluating three main technical aspects of a medicine: manufacturing process, physicochemical properties, and formulation characteristics. In this paper, we develop the concept of manufacturing appraisal, providing a technical overview of upcoming challenges, a risk based approach and an economic picture of shortage costs. We develop also an overall quality concept, not limited to GMP factors but broaden to all elements leading to a robust supply and promoting technical innovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nursing Faculty Shortage Nurses' Perceptions as a Key to Administrative Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Evelyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The nursing faculty shortage is well documented. Higher education administrators turn away qualified student applicants because of the lack of qualified nursing faculty. Furthermore, they find recruitment and retention of qualified nursing faculty a challenge. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of the nursing faculty role, causes…

  6. Projecting shortages and surpluses of doctors and nurses in the OECD: what looms ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R

    2018-01-23

    There is little debate that the health workforce is a key component of the health care system. Since the training of doctors and nurses takes several years, and the building of new schools even longer, projections are needed to allow for the development of health workforce policies. Our work develops a projection model for the demand of doctors and nurses by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the year 2030. The model is based on a country's demand for health services, which includes the following factors: per capita income, out-of-pocket health expenditures and the ageing of its population. The supply of doctors and nurses is projected using country-specific autoregressive integrated moving average models. Our work shows how dramatic imbalances in the number of doctors and nurses will be in OECD countries should current trends continue. For each country in the OECD with sufficient data, we report its demand, supply and shortage or surplus of doctors and nurses for 2030. We project a shortage of nearly 400,000 doctors across 32 OECD countries and shortage of nearly 2.5 million nurses across 23 OECD countries in 2030. We discuss the results and suggest policies that address the shortages.

  7. Emigration and labour shortages: an opportunity for trade unions in new member states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Kahancová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Emigration from the post-socialist states which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 has reduced unemployment rates and created shortages of some skills. This should provide opportunities for trade unions to improve their situation, by facilitating union organizing and strengthening their bargaining

  8. Management of nurse shortage and its impact on pathogen dissemination in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Salomon, Jérôme; Miliani, Katiuska; L'Hériteau, François; Astagneau, Pascal; Temime, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Studies provide evidence that reduced nurse staffing resources are associated to an increase in health care-associated infections in intensive care units, but tools to assess the contribution of the mechanisms driving these relations are still lacking. We present an agent-based model of pathogen spread that can be used to evaluate the impact on nosocomial risk of alternative management decisions adopted to deal with transitory nurse shortage. We constructed a model simulating contact-mediated dissemination of pathogens in an intensive-care unit with explicit staffing where nurse availability could be temporarily reduced while maintaining requisites of patient care. We used the model to explore the impact of alternative management decisions adopted to deal with transitory nurse shortage under different pathogen- and institution-specific scenarios. Three alternative strategies could be adopted: increasing the workload of working nurses, hiring substitute nurses, or transferring patients to other intensive-care units. The impact of these decisions on pathogen spread was examined while varying pathogen transmissibility and severity of nurse shortage. The model-predicted changes in pathogen prevalence among patients were impacted by management decisions. Simulations showed that increasing nurse workload led to an increase in pathogen spread and that patient transfer could reduce prevalence of pathogens among patients in the intensive-care unit. The outcome of nurse substitution depended on the assumed skills of substitute nurses. Differences between predicted outcomes of each strategy became more evident with increasing transmissibility of the pathogen and with higher rates of nurse shortage. Agent-based models with explicit staff management such as the model presented may prove useful to design staff management policies that mitigate the risk of healthcare-associated infections under episodes of increased nurse shortage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  9. Certification and clinical ladder as the impetus for professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Misty D

    2010-01-01

    With today's healthcare challenges of nursing shortages and financial instability, it is imperative that healthcare organizations retain clinically competent nurses at the bedside. Professional development and recognition are key motivators to increase nursing job satisfaction, thus reducing shortages and turnover. Implementation of specialty certification and clinical advancement programs is of benefit to the public, employers, and nurses alike. Clinical ladder and Magnet recognition are often the impetus for specialty nursing certification in healthcare institutions. Clinical ladder history, purpose, models, perceptions, and satisfiers are discussed. Certification statistics, types, impetus, benefits, incentives, and barriers are highlighted, as well as a facility's innovative strategy to increase specialty certification. Certification and clinical ladder programs demonstrate commitment of healthcare organizations and nursing staff to provide high-quality care and professional nursing development, an investment that hospitals cannot afford to overlook.

  10. A fatal case of Brazilian spotted fever in a non-endemic area in Brazil: the importance of having health professionals who understand the disease and its areas of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Because of its high case-fatality rate and apparent increase in areas of transmission, it is considered to be the rickettsial illness of primary public health interest. Cases of this disease have historically occurred in Southeastern Brazil. This article reports the first fatal case of BSF in Southern Brazil. This case high lights the importance of BSF to be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute hemorrhagic fever in areas where cases of BSF may not be expected.

  11. Organ donor shortage in the Netherlands : definition of the potential donor pool and the role of family refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer-Jansen, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of post-mortem organ donors in the Netherlands is a prominent problem for patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. As long as there is a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation, the need to identify bottlenecks in the organ donation process is crucial to further

  12. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  13. 78 FR 9928 - Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for... on drug shortages as required by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, the...

  14. Professional Employability: Executive Secretariat in Focus on Northern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aline Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the difficulties encountered by the Executive Secretary of professionals concerning their integration in the labor market in the city of Boa Vista, Roraima, in the northern Amazon. Therefore, it was a qualitative study, with in-depth interviews with professionals from the Executive Secretary and Human Resources managers. After data analysis, it was found that the insertion difficulties in the labor market for these professionals are: shortage of jobs in the private sector in Roraima; low pay to the profession; lack of recognition and lack the powers of managers, which indicate the versatility and employability security for Executive Secretariat professionals. Seeing a gap is seen in two views as to the professionals of the Executive Secretariat, only the versatility is not employment guarantee.

  15. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professio......The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the...... professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...... ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periods and in the traineeships....

  16. Grounding our practice in nursing professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-07-01

    The Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice is foundational to the work of nurses in a continuing professional development role. Use of the practice and professional performance aspects of the standards supports both quality of learning activities and the continuous growth process of nurses engaged in this area of practice. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Early Intervention Practices for Children with Hearing Loss: Impact of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prudent, Angi; Lartz, Maribeth; Borders, Christina; Meehan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and appropriate intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing significantly increase the likelihood of better language, speech, and social-emotional development. However, current research suggests that there is a critical shortage of professionals trained to provide early intervention services to deaf and…

  18. Valuable and Professional Orientations as a Social and Psychological Resource of Development of a Modern Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeer, Evald F.; Bragina, Iuliia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that at present there is the sharpest shortage of highly skilled personnel at the Russian enterprises and, therefore, studying of features of valuable and professional orientations of representatives of working professions is of special interest. The purpose of the article consists in…

  19. The Importance of the System of Primary Professional Education for Russia's Innovative Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, E. I.; Kroshilin, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in educational policy in Russia will affect the proportion of young people who obtain their occupational qualifications in a university and in secondary-level professional training schools. There is currently a shortage of skilled blue-collar workers in Russia, and more needs to be done to ensure high-quality training for this sector of…

  20. Recruitment and retention of health professionals across Europe : A literature review and multiple case study research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Dussault, Gilles; Craveiro, Isabel; Dieleman, Marjolein; Jansen, Christel; Buchan, James; Barriball, Louise; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bremner, Jeni; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Many European countries are faced with health workforce shortages and the need to develop effective recruitment and retention (R&R) strategies. Yet comparative studies on R&R in Europe are scarce. This paper provides an overview of the measures in place to improve the R&R of health professionals

  1. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    augmentation from reservoirs. The management of these reservoirs are a human intervention in a natural flow and therefore necessarily limited by environmental regulations. During a heavy drought, the available water storage in the reservoir may not be sufficient to cater for the demand and consequently......Water resources are economically important and environmentally extremely vulnerable. The electrical power system in Iceland is hydropower based and due to the country's isolation, power import is not an option as elsewhere in Europe. In the hydropower system, a water shortage is met by flow...... important to have mathematical tools to estimate the risk of water shortage in the system when searching for the best management method. In view of the fact that the subject is to estimate the risk of events that have to be very rare, i.e. with large recurrence time, stochastic simulation is used to produce...

  2. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  3. Strategies for overcoming labour shortage challenges : best practices of industry leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, N. [Matrikon Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined strategies for addressing labour shortage challenges in the oil and gas industry. Thousands of new operations positions are likely to be established over the next decade. More than 4000 trades positions are needed to build projects that have been announced and approved for 2008. Currently, there is a housing shortage and pressing requirements for infrastructure such as education, health services and highways. This presentation addressed the issue of retirement of senior and mid-level leaders in the industry, growth opportunities in new markets, demographics, investment by competitors and environmental protection. Attraction and retention strategies such as salaries and leadership programs were discussed along with the value of flying employees in and out of field camps, increasing the luxury of camp accommodation, education, and establishment of remote control, collaborative performance centres. tabs., figs.

  4. Analysis of a government policy to address nursing shortage and nursing education quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhicharttibutra, K; Kunaviktikul, W; Turale, S; Wichaikhum, O-A; Srisuphan, W

    2017-03-01

    A well-educated, sufficient nursing workforce improves population health and standards of nursing care. Analysing workforce policies assists nurses to learn from the past and develop better future policies. Describe policy-making processes in the first Thai government plan to increase nursing capacity and improve nursing education quality. A qualitative study employing Longest's model to examine policy-making processes. Data were obtained from 28 in-depth interviews with key informants, who had been committee members and former deans of nursing involved with the policy processes in the 1990s. Both qualitative and quantitative data were extracted from relevant documents, and content analysis employed with all data. Three policy phases were identified. Policy formulation, where three streams of problems, politics and policy resulted in identification of nursing shortage, changes of government incumbents and needing to increase nurse production; Policy implementation included creating methods of implementation, appointing responsible people and committees, creating operational plans, producing more nurses and faculty development projects and Policy modification which incorporated implementing the first Thai international doctoral degree in English, a collaborative programme between universities. Not all key informants could be accessed due to the passage of time. Findings are unique to Thailand but inform internationally of nurses' abilities and need to be involved in policy. Nurses were involved in all policy phases. While the policy produced positive developments in growing nursing capacity and education in the past, nursing shortages remained and are now acute in Thailand. Lessons learned from this policy analysis help explain why the nursing education and nursing shortage policy was legislated through the government agenda, and the active involvement of Thai nurses in this process. Nurses globally need to be at the policy-making table to try to reduce nursing

  5. Stuck Between Surplus and Shortage: Demand for Skills in the Russian Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gimpelson, Vladimir; Kapelyushnikov, Rostislav; Lukiyanova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, firms need to keep the quantity and composition of jobs close to the optimal for their given output. Since the beginning of the transition period, Russian industrial firms have been widely reporting that the quantity and composition of hired labor is far from being close to optimal. This paper discusses what kinds of firms in the Russian manufacturing sector are not able to optimize their employment and why. Do they suffer from a labor shortage induced by rapid...

  6. Context of the inventory management expenses in the case of planned shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korponai János

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present the relations between the different cost factors of the inventory management systems, and the context between the order quantities and the cost level. The theoretical approach of the model assumes a deterministic operational environment with planned shortages. We make the examination of the contexts by applying the ceteris paribus principle; we change only one cost factor from among the initial conditions at once and examine its effect on the cost level.

  7. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    (99m)Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of (99)Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce (99)Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's (99)Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving (99m)Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of (99m)Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  8. Two strategies for coping with food shortage in desert golden spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Yosha, Dotan; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2007-01-30

    Desert rodents face periods of food shortage and use different strategies for coping with it, including changes in activity level. Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) inhabit rock crevasses and do not dig burrows nor store food. When kept under 50% food restriction most, but not all, golden spiny mice defend their body mass by physiological means. We tested the hypothesis that these rodents use two different behavioral strategies, i.e., increasing activity level and searching for food or decreasing activity level and conserving energy to cope with food shortage. Twelve golden spiny mice were fed ad libitum for 14 days, followed by 40 days of 50% food restriction, and 14 days of refeeding. Body mass, food consumption and general activity were monitored. Seven mice significantly reduced activity level, concentrating their activity around feeding time, lowering energy expenditure and thus keeping their body mass constant ("resistant"), while five ("non-resistant") significantly increased activity level (possibly searching for food) and thus energy expenditure, thereby losing mass rapidly (more than 25% of body mass). The non-resistant golden spiny mice were active throughout many hours of the day, with high variability both between and among individuals. The use of two strategies to cope with food shortage as found in the golden spiny mice may be of evolutionary advantage, since it allows a more flexible reaction to food restriction at the population level.

  9. A New Way for Incorporating GCM Information into Water Shortage Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Beom Seo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change information is essential for water resources management planning, and the majority of research available uses the global circulation model (GCM data to project future water balance. Despite the fact that the results of various GCMs are still heterogeneous, it is common to utilize GCM values directly in climate change impact assessment models. To mitigate these limitations, this study provides an alternative methodology, which uses GCM-based data to assign weights on historical scenarios rather than to directly input their values into the assessment models, thereby reducing the uncertainty involved in the direct use of GCMs. Therefore, the real innovation of this study is placed on the use of a new probability weighting scheme with multiple GCMs rather than on the direct input of GCM-driven data. Applied to make future projections of the water shortage in the Han River basin of Korea, the proposed methodology produced conservative but realistic projection results (15% increase compared to the existing methodologies, which projected a dramatic increase (144% in water shortage over 10 years. As a result, it was anticipated that the amount of water shortages in the Han River basin would gradually increase in the next 90 years, including a 57% increase in the 2080s.

  10. Causes of shortage and delay in material supply: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, N. R.; Dullah, M. A.; Shamsuddin, M. S. W.

    2017-11-01

    Shortage and delay in materials supply is argued to be one of the most important factors that lead to delay in construction project delivery globally. However, the relevant underlying reasons vary from country to country. As such, this paper summarises the outcomes of a study that targeted identifying causes of shortage and delay in materials supply in Brunei Darussalam. The study was conducted through fifteen semi-structured interviews of contractors and materials suppliers in Brunei. The study identified six causes of shortageof materials and nine causes of delay in materials supply in Brunei. The most importantcausefor shortage of materials relates to the origin or availability of construction materials. On the other hand, the most influential cause of delay in material supply was found to be poor materials procurement and inventory management system, which has other underlying reasons such as late identification of the type of materials needed. The observations are expected to help in formulating or reviewing relevant policies, in order to ensure on-time project delivery.

  11. The Use of Assessment Center Technology for the Prevention and Reduction of Professional Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalnova I.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamism of professional activity, increasing workload and working time shortage, high social responsibility for results and other factors increase the probability of formation of burnout in government employees. This actualizes the search for new forms and methods of professional qualification of government employees based on an assessment of their psychological qualities. We discuss the problem of professional and personal burnout in Rosreestr employees, reveal the symptoms of this syndrome. As a tool for preventing and reducing the negative impact of professional deformation in Rosreestr workers, we propose the use of assessment center technology successfully tested in the international practice and requiring adaptation to Russian realities.

  12. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  13. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  14. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  15. Is The Water Shortage Crisis Really One of the Most Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The author has reported on this in his previous AGU presentations. In the next four decades, more than half of the world’s population will have to deal with sever water shortages. The United States has been blessed with several large fresh water lakes. In spite of having this fresh water supply, some states like Arizona could be facing sever fresh water shortages in the next couple of decades. Sid Wilson, general manager of the Central Arizona Project has indicated "It's not a question of if there is a water shortage anymore. It is in reality, when there will be a water shortage. " Several states share water from the Colorado river. The river has limited water supply to cater to the needs of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. World Health Organization, NASA, Department of the Interior, NOAA and several organizations have observed that there is a real water shortage crisis. This is because the world’s population has tripled in the twentieth century. This has resulted in a six-fold increase of water usage. Fresh water supply is limited. This is because water cannot be replaced with an alternative. It is important to observe that petroleum can be replaced with alternative fuel resources. It is necessary to recognize that fact that irrigation necessitates almost 65% to 70% of water withdrawal. Industry may utilize about 20% and domestic consumption is about 10% Evaporation from reservoirs is also a major factor, depending upon the climate and environment. Therefore there is an urgent need for all the countries to establish a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water

  16. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  17. Professional behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Janna Marie

    Professional socialization is a process that individuals experience as members of a profession and consists of the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences that influence and shape their professional identity. The process of professional socialization has not been studied in the clinical laboratory science profession. Clinical laboratory science is an allied health profession that is faced by a workforce shortage that has been caused by a decrease in new graduates, decreased retention of qualified professionals, and increased retirements. Other allied health professions such as nursing, athletic training, and pharmacy have studied professional socialization as a way to identify factors that may influence the retention of early career professionals. This mixed method study, which quantitatively used Hall's Professionalism Scale (1968) in addition to qualitative focus group interviews, sought to identify the professional attitudes and behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists. Early career clinical laboratory scientists were divided into two groups based upon the amount of work experience they had; new clinical laboratory science graduates have had less than one year of work experience and novice clinical laboratory scientists had between one and three years of work experience. This study found that early career clinical laboratory scientists have established professional identities and view themselves as members of the clinical laboratory science field within four proposed stages of professional socialization consisting of pre-arrival, encounter, adaptation, and commitment. New CLS graduates and novice clinical laboratory scientists were found to be at different stages of the professional stage process. New CLS graduates, who had less than one year of work experience, were found to be in the encounter stage. Novice clinical laboratory scientists, with one to three years of work experience, were found to

  18. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  19. Evaluation of Stress Levels of Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Janet K.; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    This study was conducted to analyze levels and areas of stress of professionals in selected service professions and to establish national norms of stress for these professions. The 60-item Tennessee Stress Scale-R (TSS-R) is a work-related stress inventory for professionals which provides a measure of stress in three areas: stress producers,…

  20. Professional Competencies for Student Affairs Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Patty; Cortez, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the integration of the ACPA/NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners (ACPA/NASPA, 2010) on community college campuses. The competencies provide specific skill sets for a broad range of student affairs practice areas that should be met by professionals throughout their careers.…

  1. An EOQ inventory model for items with ramp type demand, three-parameter Weibull distribution deterioration and starting with shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present paper an inventory model is developed with ramp type demand, starting with shortage and three - parameter Weibull distribution deterioration. A brief analysis of the cost involved is carried out by an example.

  2. Adaptive policy responses to water shortage mitigation in the arid regions--a systematic approach based on eDPSIR, DEMATEL, and MCDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnivand, Ali; Chitsaz, Nastaran

    2015-02-01

    Most of the arid and semi-arid regions are located in the developing countries, while the availability of water in adequate quantity and quality is an essential condition to approach sustainable development. In this research, "enhanced Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (eDPSIR)" sustainability framework was applied to deal with water shortage in Yazd, an arid province of Iran. Then, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was integrated into the driven components of eDPSIR, to quantify the inter-linkages among fundamental anthropogenic indicators (i.e. causes and effects). The paper's structure included: (1) identifying the indicators of DPSIR along with structuring eDPSIR causal networks, (2) using the DEMATEL technique to evaluate the inter-relationships among the causes and effects along with determining the key indicators, (3) decomposing the problem into a system of hierarchies, (4) employing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique to evaluate the weight of each criterion, and (5) applying complex proportional assessment with Grey interval numbers (COPRAS-G) method to obtain the most conclusive adaptive policy response. The systematic quantitative analysis of causes and effects revealed that the root sources of water shortage in the study area were the weak enforcement of law and regulations, decline of available freshwater resources for development, and desertification consequences. According to the results, mitigating the water shortage in Yazd could be feasible by implementation of such key adaptive policy-responses as providing effective law enforcement, updating the standards and regulations, providing social learning, and boosting stakeholders' collaboration.

  3. Visão de profissionais e estudantes da área de saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente View of health area professionals on the interface between health and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviamar Camponogara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a visão de profissionais e estudantes da área da saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente. Estudo de abordagem qualitativa, descritivo, desenvolvidos com diferentes atores sociais que integram o processo de formação profissional e laboral da área da saúde em um município do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com questões norteadoras sobre o objeto de estudo, feita com trabalhadores hospitalares, enfermeiros, docentes, acadêmicos da área da saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde. Cada subprojeto foi analisado individualmente, com base no referencial sobre análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciam que os sujeitos possuem visões dicotômicas sobre meio ambiente e reconhecem os efeitos prejudiciais da atual crise ambiental, alegando que o ser humano é o principal causador. Os sujeitos do estudo entendem que há estreita interface entre saúde e meio ambiente, sendo as populações menos privilegiadas economicamente as mais afetadas pelos danos ambientais. Conclui-se que o aprofundamento do debate sobre o tema no processo de formação e prática profissional em saúde é fundamental no sentido de se buscar a efetiva responsabilidade socioambiental por parte dos atores sociais atuantes no setor.This article presents the view health area professionals and students have concerning the interface between health and the environment. It is a qualitative, descriptive study undertaken with different social players that are part of the vocational training process in the health care area in a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected through a semistructured interview comprising gui-ding questions on the study subject and carried out among hospital workers, nurses, health care professors and students, and community health agents. Each subproject was analyzed individually based on the content analysis framework. The results show that the

  4. [Expression of ZmPIP1 subgroup genes in maize roots under water shortage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Hui; Zhang, Sui-Qi; Deng, Xi-Ping; Shan, Lun; Liu, Xiao-Fang

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the role of ZmPIP1-1 and ZmPIP1-2 in water uptake of roots and drought resistance of crops, semi-quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of ZmPIP1-1 and ZmPIP1-2 in root systems of different maize genotypes under water deficit. These genotypes showed different resistance to water shortage under field conditions. The reference gene to target genes was tubulin. Maize seedlings were grown by hydroponics in a growth chamber. Water deficit was imposed on the seedlings with PEG-6000. The result showed that ZmPIP1-1 was up-regulated under water deficit in root systems of plants of the filial generation 'Hudan 4' and the mother line 'Tiansi', which were resistant to water shortage, but there was no noticeable up-regulation of ZmPIP1-1 in the root systems of the father line '803', which was sensitive to water deprivation. The result also showed that the extent of up-regulation was positively correlated with drought resistance of maize (Fig.3). On the other hand, the expression of ZmPIP1-1 showed different degrees of tendency after different duration of water stress in the root systems of the maize seedlings of different genotypes. The result showed that ZmPIP1-2 was identically expressed in three different species of maize and under different water conditions. The results support the theory that the intercellular water transport contributes to increased water uptake in root systems under water deficit by up-regulating the number of some kinds of aquaporins. The increases amount of transcripts of aquaporins is positively correlated to drought resistance of plant varieties. But not all kinds of number of aquaporins is up-regulated during water shortage, some kinds of aquaporins are identically expressed under water deficit conditions and well watered conditions.

  5. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  6. Desabastecimento de medicamentos: determinantes, conseqüências e gerenciamento Drug shortage: determinants, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o desabastecimento de medicamentos como um problema que transcende o aspecto logístico da área de saúde, discutindo suas implicações para a qualidade, segurança e custo da assistência. A cadeia de abastecimento farmacêutico e os fatores que interferem na capilaridade da distribuição e na disponibilidade do medicamento são discutidos. Ressalta a contribuição da comissão de farmácia e terapêutica para a prevenção e gerenciamento do desabastecimento de medicamentos nos estabelecimentos de saúde. Sugestões de medidas para gestão do desabastecimento de medicamentos são apresentadas. Enfatiza-se a necessidade do medicamento ser considerado pelos componentes da cadeia logística um produto de saúde, com tratamento diferenciado dos bens de consumo comuns.The present study analyzes drug shortage as a problem reaching beyond the logistic aspect of the health field and discusses its consequences with respect to quality, safety and cost of health care delivery. The pharmaceutical supply chain and the factors that determine the distribution and availability of drugs are discussed. The contribution of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee in preventing and managing drug shortage in health institutions is stressed and measures for drug shortage management are suggested. Finally it is emphasized that drugs should be considered health products rather than consumer goods and as such be given a different treatment by the supply chain.

  7. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    the problem of Mathematics and Science teacher shortage in Grades 10 to 12, their success, challenges and factors internal to the Department of Education that may deter Provincial Education Departments from achieving their objectives. The findings revealed that Provincial Education Departments (PEDs) do take heed of strategies developed by the national Department of Basic Education (DBE). However implementation is far removed from the original intention and no significant impact results. Although the reasons are not always obvious from this study, a few important aspects did emerge. First, the strategy developed may not be popular with a particular province - employing foreign teachers is a case in point. Secondly, focusing on just a number of schools to improve their results (e.g. as with the Dinaledi schools) may meet with resistance from educators and teachers unions. Thirdly, creating bursaries for initial teacher education in certain key areas can only be successful if the number of teachers in need is known. Finally, even the best strategies are doomed if post provisioning and appointment of staff are dealt with by different stakeholders. Based on the findings, it is recommended that both the DBE and PEDs ensure that quality education management information is collected and maintained. Information that is reliable and accurate will inform planning and key decisions to ensure that the supply of teachers is based on a specific need. As such, deficiencies in skills that are in short supply such as Science and Mathematics can be averted and better opportunities can be created for new teacher graduates. While an improved performance of learners in these subjects is requisite for related study fields at universities, the Dinaledi schools must be adequately supported and such a model applied to other schools. The employment of foreign teachers on short-term contracts does not create stability in schools, therefore, their employment must be standardised. (Abstract

  8. Field evidence for a proximate role of food shortage in the regulation of hibernation and daily torpor: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuarin, Pauline; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Hibernation and daily torpor (heterothermy) have long been assumed to be adaptive responses to seasonal energy shortage. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that food shortage alone can trigger the use of heterothermy. However, their potential to predict heterothermic responses in the wild is limited, and few field studies demonstrate the dependence of heterothermy on food availability under natural conditions. Thus, the view of heterothermy as an energy saving strategy to compensate for food shortage largely remains an untested hypothesis. In this paper, we review published evidence on the proximate role of food availability in heterothermy regulation by endotherms, and emphasize alternative hypotheses that remain to be tested. Most studies have relied on correlative evidence. Manipulations of food availability, that demonstrate the proximate role of food availability, have been conducted in only five free-ranging heterotherms. Several other metabolic constraints covary with food availability and can confound its effect. Shortage in water availability, the nutritional composition of food, or subsequent conversion of food in fat storage all could be actual proximate drivers of heterothermy regulation, rather than food shortage. Social interactions, competition for food and predation also likely modulate the relative strength of food shortage between individuals. The ecological relevance of the dependence of heterothermy on food availability remains to be assessed in field experiments that account for the confounding effects of covarying environmental and internal factors.

  9. Inventory Model for deteriorating Items with Four level System and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inventory model for deteriorating items in which shortages are allowed. It is assumed that the production rate is proportional to the demand rate and greater than demand rate. The inventory model is developed by considering four different circumstances. The optimal of the problem is obtained with the help of Mathematica 7 software. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the model for different parameters. Sensitivity analysis of the model has been developed to examine the effect of changes in the values of the different parameters for optimal inventory policy. Truncated Taylor’s series is used for finding closed form optimal solution.

  10. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivhulawi Malwela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives.Setting: The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini.Methods: A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Nonprobability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method.Result: One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards.Conclusion: Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  11. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sheila; Lincoln, Michelle; Smith, Tony

    2012-06-22

    Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD); the impact of management; and career progression. 'Pull factors' favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. 'Push factors' discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel); limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by informants. While personal factors affecting recruitment and

  12. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  13. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  14. Student characteristics, professional preferences, and admission to medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesternich, Iris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians’ choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students’ attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (; whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector.Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender, their parents’ occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (, and First National Boards Examination grade (. In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods ( as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector.Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school.Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the supply of country doctors. Instead of focusing on the high-school grade point average, universities could even more intensely screen for study motivation

  15. The peripheries of development: development and labour in circumstances of constant shortages, as exemplified by the Frías district of Peru*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny Miroslawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research into social vulnerability – and into strategies that allow people to persist or secure their existence – has most often concerned itself with peripheral, poorly-developed regions with a long history of shortages; frequently even ones in which a failure to solve socio-political problems over decades or even centuries, manifests itself in a permanent crisis. One such region is north–western Peru, presented in this article by the authors who have proceeded on the assumption that the socioeconomic development of the country’s mountainous areas (including Frías, the district selected for study not only reflects a peripheral location as regards central areas of Peru and the department of Piura, but is also an outcome of the workings of political and environmental factors that do not help sustain (or in many cases even obstruct processes of development.

  16. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  17. [Simplification of crop shortage water index and its application in drought remote sensing monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anlin; Li, Xingmin; He, Yanbo; Deng, Fengdong

    2004-02-01

    Based on the principle of energy balance, the method for calculating latent evaporation was simplified, and hence, the construction of the drought remote sensing monitoring model of crop water shortage index was also simplified. Since the modified model involved fewer parameters and reduced computing times, it was more suitable for the operation running in the routine services. After collecting the concerned meteorological elements and the NOAA/AVHRR image data, the new model was applied to monitor the spring drought in Guanzhong, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the monitoring results from the new model, which also took more considerations of the effects of the ground coverage conditions and meteorological elements such as wind speed and the water pressure, were much better than the results from the model of vegetation water supply index. From the view of the computing times, service effects and monitoring results, the simplified crop water shortage index model was more suitable for practical use. In addition, the reasons of the abnormal results of CWSI > 1 in some regions in the case studies were also discussed in this paper.

  18. Metabolic and Kidney Diseases in the Setting of Climate Change, Water Shortage, and Survival Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal, Carlos; Song, Zhilin; Bankir, Lise; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    Climate change (global warming) is leading to an increase in heat extremes and coupled with increasing water shortage, provides a perfect storm for a new era of environmental crises and potentially, new diseases. We use a comparative physiologic approach to show that one of the primary mechanisms by which animals protect themselves against water shortage is to increase fat mass as a means for providing metabolic water. Strong evidence suggests that certain hormones (vasopressin), foods (fructose), and metabolic products (uric acid) function as survival signals to help reduce water loss and store fat (which also provides a source of metabolic water). These mechanisms are intricately linked with each other and stimulated by dehydration and hyperosmolarity. Although these mechanisms were protective in the setting of low sugar and low salt intake in our past, today, the combination of diets high in fructose and salty foods, increasing temperatures, and decreasing available water places these survival signals in overdrive and may be accelerating the obesity and diabetes epidemics. The recent discovery of multiple epidemics of CKD occurring in agricultural workers in hot and humid environments may represent harbingers of the detrimental consequences of the combination of climate change and overactivation of survival pathways. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Addressing a Yellow Fever Vaccine Shortage - United States, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Mark D; Angelo, Kristina M; Ritchey, Julian; Greenberg, David P; Muhammad, Riyadh D; Brunette, Gary; Cetron, Martin S; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-05-05

    Recent manufacturing problems resulted in a shortage of the only U.S.-licensed yellow fever vaccine. This shortage is expected to lead to a complete depletion of yellow fever vaccine available for the immunization of U.S. travelers by mid-2017. CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Sanofi Pasteur are collaborating to ensure a continuous yellow fever vaccine supply in the United States. As part of this collaboration, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug (eIND) application to FDA in September 2016 to allow for the importation and use of an alternative yellow fever vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur France, with safety and efficacy comparable to the U.S.-licensed vaccine; the eIND was accepted by FDA in October 2016. The implementation of this eIND protocol included developing a systematic process for selecting a limited number of clinic sites to provide the vaccine. CDC and Sanofi Pasteur will continue to communicate with the public and other stakeholders, and CDC will provide a list of locations that will be administering the replacement vaccine at a later date.

  20. Uncovering blind spots in education and practice leadership: towards a collaborative response to the nurse shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Thorne, Sally; Mildon, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    As the nursing shortage becomes an increasingly prominent everyday pressure for practice leaders, the search for quick solutions has intensified. A widespread perception has emerged within the service sector that nursing education is failing to fulfill its responsibility to prepare the next generation of nurses. This perception is escalating tensions between leaders in the education and practice sectors, and creating new barriers towards finding collaborative solutions. Although the "job ready/practice ready" debate between practice and education has been a long-standing undercurrent within nursing, extreme shortages affecting practice sector performance across the country create conditions that fuel heightened distrust and division. In this context, it becomes increasingly important that nursing leaders in education and practice engage in thoughtful and respectful dialogue to ensure that tensions between the two sectors are managed and counterproductive schisms prevented. In this paper, we deconstruct some of the current thinking regarding responsibility for the current problem by describing differences in the distinct cultures and contexts of the practice and education sectors, noting potential "blind spots" that interfere with our mutual understanding and encouraging a better-informed, shared responsibility to promote constructive engagement in preparing tomorrow's nursing workforce.

  1. Predicted shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom: A matter for debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2016-10-01

    Vascular surgery became a new independent surgical specialty in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2013. In this matter for debate we discuss the question, is there a "shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom?" We used data derived from the "Vascular Surgery United Kingdom Workforce Survey 2014", NHS Employers Electronic Staff Records (ESR), and the National Vascular Registry (NVR) surgeon-level public report to estimate current and predict future workforce requirements. We estimate there are approximately 458 Consultant Vascular Surgeons for the current UK population of 63 million, or 1 per 137,000 population. In several UK Regions there are a large number of relatively small teams (3 or less) of vascular surgeons working in separate NHS Trusts in close geographical proximity. In developed countries, both the number and complexity of vascular surgery procedures (open and endovascular) per capita population is increasing, and concerns have been raised that demand cannot be met without a significant expansion in numbers of vascular surgeons. Additional workforce demand arises from the impact of population growth and changes in surgical work-patterns with respect to gender, working-life-balance and 7-day services. We predict a future shortage of Consultant Vascular Surgeons in the UK and recommend an increase in training numbers and an expansion in the UK Consultant Vascular Surgeon workforce to accommodate population growth, facilitate changes in work-patterns and to create safe sustainable services. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  3. Realizing Potential: Improving Interdisciplinary Professional/Paraprofessional Health Care Teams in Canada's Northern Aboriginal Communities through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    To address shortages of health professional human resources and overcome cultural barriers, interdisciplinary health care teams in most northern Canadian aboriginal communities include paraprofessionals recruited locally. This paper identifies factors fundamental to effective team functioning, arguing for an extension of the information on…

  4. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  5. Union citizens and the recognition of professional qualifications: Where do we go from here?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamo, Silvia; Binder, Tom

    2018-01-01

    A fast and efficient recognition procedure can open the door to an easy insertion into a foreign EU labour market. Since the 1960s, EU legislations and institutions have fostered a detailed system for recognition of professional qualifications to help Union citizens make use of their titles...... and skills across the Union. The system for mutual recognition of professional qualifications is supposed to alleviate the national markets’ shortage of labour, enhancing the intra-mobility of professionals and acting as a guarantee for their skills. However, the agreement on this mutual system has not been...

  6. Hydrological Regime and Water Shortage as Drivers of the Seasonal Incidence of Diarrheal Diseases in a Tropical Montane Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boithias, Laurie; Choisy, Marc; Souliyaseng, Noy; Jourdren, Marine; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves; Thammahacksa, Chanthamousone; Silvera, Norbert; Latsachack, Keooudone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Pierret, Alain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Becerra, Sylvia; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. To our knowledge, few studies have related diarrhea incidences to catchment scale hydrological factors such as river discharge, and loads of suspended sediment and of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli, together with sociological factors such as hygiene practices. We hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and FIB counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. Using E. coli as a FIB, the objectives of this study were thus (1) to characterize the epidemiological dynamics of diarrhea in Northern Laos, and (2) to identify which hydro-meteorological and sociological risk factors were associated with diarrhea epidemics. Considering two unconnected river catchments of 22 and 7,448 km2, respectively, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature), hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature), and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported at 6 health centers located in the 5 southern districts of the Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. We also examined the socio-demographic factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources, hygiene habits, and recreational water exposure. Using thus a mixed methods approach, we found E. coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 Most Probable Number or MPN 100 mL-1) indicating that

  7. Hydrological Regime and Water Shortage as Drivers of the Seasonal Incidence of Diarrheal Diseases in a Tropical Montane Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Boithias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. To our knowledge, few studies have related diarrhea incidences to catchment scale hydrological factors such as river discharge, and loads of suspended sediment and of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB such as Escherichia coli, together with sociological factors such as hygiene practices. We hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and FIB counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. Using E. coli as a FIB, the objectives of this study were thus (1 to characterize the epidemiological dynamics of diarrhea in Northern Laos, and (2 to identify which hydro-meteorological and sociological risk factors were associated with diarrhea epidemics.Considering two unconnected river catchments of 22 and 7,448 km2, respectively, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature, hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature, and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported at 6 health centers located in the 5 southern districts of the Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. We also examined the socio-demographic factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources, hygiene habits, and recreational water exposure.Using thus a mixed methods approach, we found E. coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 Most Probable Number or MPN 100 mL-1

  8. Addressing the primary care physician shortage in an evolving medical workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care physicians have been shown to play an important role in the general health of the communities in which they serve. In spite of their importance, however, there has been a decrease in the number of physicians interested in pursuing primary care fields, while the proportion of specialists continues to increase. The prediction of an overall physician shortage only augments this issue in the US, where this uneven distribution is particularly evident. As such, serious effort to increase the number of practicing primary care physicians is both necessary and beneficial for meeting this country's health care needs. Discussion There are several factors at play which contribute to the decrease in the number of practicing physicians in primary specialties. Lifestyle concerns, such as schedule and income, as well as the lack of prestige associated with this field seem to be among the most prevalent reasons cited for the diminishing interest. Multifaceted concerns such as these, however, are difficult to adequately invalidate; doing so would not only require a great deal research, but also a good deal of time – a resource which is in short supply given the current physician shortage being faced. Thus, a more immediate solution may lie in the increased recruitment and continued support of those individuals who are already associated with primary care service. This is particularly relevant given the Association of American Medical College's goal of increasing medical school enrollment by 15% over the next 10 years. Several groups have been shown to be large contributors to primary care in the US. Here, we focus on three such groups: minority students, International Medical Graduates (IMGs and Osteopathic Physicians (DOs. Although these groups are highly diverse individually, they all share the distinction of being underutilized in regard to the current primary care shortages faced. Thus, through more fully accentuating these

  9. Land-Water-Food Nexus and indications of crop adjustment for water shortage solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dandan; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Richards, Keith; Zhou, Xinyao

    2018-01-11

    While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and 8.77 bn m3 of virtual water used in nearly 2 million ha of cropland to overproduce 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing & Tianjin imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong Province. Then, Hebei Province, as an exporting-based sub-region with severe water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions, which aggravated the water crisis. To achieve an integrated and sustainable development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Hebei Province should stop undertaking the breadbasket role for Beijing & Tianjin and pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effects on food supply. It

  10. Drug tendering: drug supply and shortage implications for the uptake of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Ira Jacobs,2 Carol Kirchhoff,3 Robert Popovian,4 Lesley G Shane5 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Global Technology Services, Biotechnology and Aseptic Sciences Group, Pfizer Inc, Chesterfield, MO, 4US Government Relations, Pfizer Inc, Washington, DC, 5Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market. Consequently, drug shortages can occur, resulting in changes to treatment plans to products that may have lower efficacy and/or an increased risk of adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that tendering does not negatively impact patient care or the health care system. A large and expanding portion of total pharmaceutical expenditure is for biologic therapies. These agents have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions; however, patient access to biologic drugs can be limited due to availability, insurance coverage, and cost. As branded biologic therapies reach the end of patent- and data-protection periods, biosimilars are being approved as lower-cost alternatives. Biosimilars are products that are highly similar to the originator product with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. As more biosimilars receive regulatory approval and adoption increases, these therapies are expected to have an

  11. Parenteral Nutrition Additive Shortages: The Short-Term, Long-Term and Potential Epigenetic Implications in Premature and Hospitalized Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Anderson-Berry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition support practitioners are currently dealing with shortages of parenteral nutrition micronutrients, including multivitamins (MVI, selenium and zinc. A recent survey from the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN indicates that this shortage is having a profound effect on clinical practice. A majority of respondents reported taking some aggressive measures to ration existing supplies. Most premature infants and many infants with congenital anomalies are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the first weeks of life to meet nutritional needs. Because of fragile health and poor reserves, they are uniquely susceptible to this problem. It should be understood that shortages and rationing have been associated with adverse outcomes, such as lactic acidosis and Wernicke encephalopathy from thiamine deficiency or pulmonary and skeletal development concerns related to inadequate stores of Vitamin A and D. In this review, we will discuss the current parenteral shortages and the possible impact on a population of very low birth weight infants. This review will also present a case study of a neonate who was impacted by these current shortages.

  12. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  13. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  14. Optimal inventory policies for imperfect inventory with price dependent stochastic demand and partially backlogged shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhowmick Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a single period imperfect inventory model with price dependent stochastic demand and partial backlogging. The backorder rate is a nonlinear non-increasing function of the magnitude of shortage. Two special cases are considered assuming that the percentage of defective items follows a truncated exponential distribution and a normal distribution respectively. The optimal order quantity and the optimal mark up value are determined such that the expected total profit of the system is maximized. Numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model which is compared with the traditional model of perfect stock. Sensitivity analysis is performed to explain the behavior of the proposed model with respect to the key parameters.

  15. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  16. Uranium surge-staff shortage: where are the human resources for the next generation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggitt, P., E-mail: P.Waggitt@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium production is cyclic and for most of the past 25 years it has been at a low point. The price increase that began in 2003 has steadied now after reaching record values in 2007; but exploration is now surging ahead - in 2009 we saw at least three new mines commence production. But the personnel to support all these activities, both operators and regulators, are a dwindling and ageing group with few replacements available and few young people entering the industry over the past 25 years. The skills shortages we are experiencing cover a wide variety of disciplines. How is the global uranium industry going to cope with the staff needs for the expansion that is happening? Both operators and regulators face a crisis. This paper examines the current situation and discusses options for the future. (author)

  17. EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Shortages and Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sundararajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments with constant demand rate is a function of time which differs from before and after deterioration for a single item. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged which is a function of time. Under these assumptions, this paper develops a retailer's model for obtaining an optimal cycle length and ordering quantity in deteriorating items of an inventory model. Thus, our objective is retailer's cost minimization problem to nd an optimal replenishment policy under various parameters. The convexity of the objective function is derived and the numerical examples are provided to support the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the model is included and the implications are discussed.

  18. Mutual Recogniton of Professional Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Plimmer, Francis

    The publication aims to review the concept of mutual recognition of qualifications within the world wide surveying community, and to develop a framework for the introduction of standards of global professional competence in this area. The publication also includes a number of case studies from...

  19. Till death do us part: stable sponge-bacteria associations under thermal and food shortage stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Lucía; Erwin, Patrick M; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic mass mortality events of Mediterranean sponges following periods of anomalously high temperatures or longer than usual stratification of the seawater column (i.e. low food availability) suggest that these animals are sensitive to environmental stresses. The Mediterranean sponges Ircinia fasciculata and I. oros harbor distinct, species-specific bacterial communities that are highly stable over time and space but little is known about how anomalous environmental conditions affect the structure of the resident bacterial communities. Here, we monitored the bacterial communities in I. fasciculata (largely affected by mass mortalities) and I. oros (overall unaffected) maintained in aquaria during 3 weeks under 4 treatments that mimicked realistic stress pressures: control conditions (13°C, unfiltered seawater), low food availability (13°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater), elevated temperatures (25°C, unfiltered seawater), and a combination of the 2 stressors (25°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater). Bacterial community structure was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As I. fasciculata harbors cyanobacteria, we also measured chlorophyll a (chl a) levels in this species. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences in bacterial T-RFLP profiles among treatments for either host sponge species, indicating no effect of high temperatures and food shortage on symbiont community structure. In I. fasciculata, chl a content did not significantly differ among treatments although TEM micrographs revealed some cyanobacteria cells undergoing degradation when exposed to both elevated temperature and food shortage conditions. Arguably, longer-term treatments (months) could have eventually affected bacterial community structure. However, we evidenced no appreciable decay of the symbiotic community in response to medium-term (3 weeks) environmental anomalies

  20. Till death do us part: stable sponge-bacteria associations under thermal and food shortage stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Pita

    Full Text Available Sporadic mass mortality events of Mediterranean sponges following periods of anomalously high temperatures or longer than usual stratification of the seawater column (i.e. low food availability suggest that these animals are sensitive to environmental stresses. The Mediterranean sponges Ircinia fasciculata and I. oros harbor distinct, species-specific bacterial communities that are highly stable over time and space but little is known about how anomalous environmental conditions affect the structure of the resident bacterial communities. Here, we monitored the bacterial communities in I. fasciculata (largely affected by mass mortalities and I. oros (overall unaffected maintained in aquaria during 3 weeks under 4 treatments that mimicked realistic stress pressures: control conditions (13°C, unfiltered seawater, low food availability (13°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater, elevated temperatures (25°C, unfiltered seawater, and a combination of the 2 stressors (25°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater. Bacterial community structure was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. As I. fasciculata harbors cyanobacteria, we also measured chlorophyll a (chl a levels in this species. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences in bacterial T-RFLP profiles among treatments for either host sponge species, indicating no effect of high temperatures and food shortage on symbiont community structure. In I. fasciculata, chl a content did not significantly differ among treatments although TEM micrographs revealed some cyanobacteria cells undergoing degradation when exposed to both elevated temperature and food shortage conditions. Arguably, longer-term treatments (months could have eventually affected bacterial community structure. However, we evidenced no appreciable decay of the symbiotic community in response to medium-term (3 weeks environmental

  1. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Swedish sperm donors are driven by altruism, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerhovd, Erling; Faurskov, Anders; Werner, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Swedish legislation requires that sperm donors are identifiable to offspring. In Denmark sperm donors remain anonymous. The aim of this study was to examine sperm donation in Sweden by identifying socio-demographic backgrounds, motivations and attitudes among donors and to describe options and plans of sperm recipients. Furthermore, the willingness of Swedish health care providers to assist in treatment abroad, where sperm from an anonymous donor were to be used, was assessed. The extent of travelling to Denmark for reproductive purposes was also examined. Thirty Swedish sperm donors completed a questionnaire and were interviewed about their backgrounds, motivations and attitudes. Thirty couples where the infertility workup had shown azoospermia were interviewed about their options for achieving parenthood. The willingness to assist in fertility treatment abroad and the extent of reproductive cross border travelling were assessed by interviewing health care providers and by contacting Danish clinics. Almost all donors were Caucasian. The main motivation for sperm donors was to help others. Owing to shortage of sperm donors many Caucasian recipients intended to have treatment abroad. For most non-Caucasian recipients sperm from a donor of appropriate ethnicity were not available in Sweden. Whether the sperm donor was anonymous or identifiable was not of major importance to most sperm recipients. Health care providers expressed unanimous willingness to assist in treatment with sperm from an anonymous donor. Our inquiry indicated that more than 250 Swedish sperm recipients travel to Denmark annually. Identifiable sperm donors are driven by altruistic motives, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. Recruitment strategies to increase the number of sperm donors in Sweden are therefore warranted.

  3. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Hurwitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million and seeks to raise at least another $800 million from outside investors; and iv how a separate decision in the federal 2013 budget to phase out federal tax credits for labour-sponsored venture capital funds could imperil the 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan.

  4. Professional competence of social workers’: management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudaryov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of social workers’ professional competence is actualized. It is proved that finding ways to optimize the specialists for social welfare system professional training is in line with common didactic problems of the high school pedagogies. The theoretical analysis of Ukrainian and foreign scientists’ works connected with the aspects of social workers’ professional competence is done. The definition of «competence» and «professional competence» is given. The main components of social workers’ professional competence are defined. These are: motivation (psychological readiness to professional activity; value and semantic (orientation, values, meanings; cognitive and professional (general culture, literacy, vocational education; action and professional (work with people at different social levels, work with information, achievement, etc.; auto­psychological (personal and professional reflection; regulatory (emotional and volitional self­regulation. The general structure and content criteria of social worker’s professional competence are under analysis. The characteristic of innovative forms and methods of social workers’ professional competence management (such as case­study, socio­psychological training is given. The causes for social workers’ successful training in high school are defined. The conclusions of the study are made and promising areas for future studies of the issues related to the subject under consideration are defined.

  5. Evaluating your professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven; Neve, Hilary; Leung, Yee

    2016-11-02

    What does being professional look like? Does it mean that you do the 'right' thing, even when no-one is looking? How do you evaluate your professionalism knowledge, values and behaviour? How do you identify and address underperformance in professionalism? How can you transfer your professionalism to different circumstances?

  6. Supporting health professionals through information and communication technologies: a systematic review of the effects of information and communication technologies on recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Pollender, Hugo; Trépanier, Amélie; Duplàa, Emmanuel; Ly, Birama Apho

    2011-05-01

    Healthcare personnel shortage is a growing concern in many countries, especially in remote areas, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have often been proposed as having positive effects on certain dimensions of the recruitment and retention of professionals working in the healthcare sector. This study aims to explore the impact of interventions using ICTs on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, including the following steps: exploring scientific and gray literature through established criteria and data extraction of relevant information by two independent reviewers. Of the 2,225 screened studies, 13 were included. Nine studies showed a positive, often indirect, influence that ICTs may have on recruitment and retention. Despite the conclusions of 9 of 13 studies reporting a possible positive influence of ICTs on the recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals, these results highlight the need of a deeper reflection on that topic. Therefore, more research is needed.

  7. What is the veterinary professional identity? Preliminary findings from web-based continuing professional development in veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A

    2016-03-26

    Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Educating Health Professionals about the Electronic Health Record (EHR: Removing the Barriers to Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Bellwood

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare industry we have had a significant rise in the use of electronic health records (EHRs in health care settings (e.g. hospital, clinic, physician office and home. There are three main barriers that have arisen to the adoption of these technologies: (1 a shortage of health professional faculty who are familiar with EHRs and related technologies, (2 a shortage of health informatics specialists who can implement these technologies, and (3 poor access to differing types of EHR software. In this paper we outline a novel solution to these barriers: the development of a web portal that provides facility and health professional students with access to multiple differing types of EHRs over the WWW. The authors describe how the EHR is currently being used in educational curricula and how it has overcome many of these barriers. The authors also briefly describe the strengths and limitations of the approach.

  9. The role of the uncertainty in assessing future scenarios of water shortage in alluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Guyennon, Nicolas; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences that the combined effects of variations in precipitation and temperature due to climate change can result in a significant change of the recharge to groundwater at different time scales. A possible reduction of effective infiltration can result in a significant decrease, temporary or permanent, of the availability of the resource and, consequently, the sustainable pumping rate should be reassessed. In addition to this, one should also consider the so called indirect impacts of climate change, resulting from human intervention (e.g. augmentation of abstractions) which are feared to be even more important than the direct ones in the medium term: thus, a possible increase of episodes of shortage (i.e. the inability of the groundwater system to completely supply the water demand) can result both from change in the climate forcing and change in the demand. In order to assess future scenarios of water shortage a modelling chain is often used. It includes: 1) the use of General Circulation Models to estimate changes in temperature and precipitation; 2) downscaling procedures to match modeling scenarios to the observed meteorological time series; 3) soil-atmosphere modelling to estimate the time variation of the recharge to the aquifer; 4) groundwater flow models to simulate the water budget and piezometric head evolution; 5) future scenarios of groundwater quantitative status that include scenarios of demand variation. It is well known that each of these processing steps is affected by an intrinsic uncertainty that propagates through the whole chain leading to a final uncertainty on the piezometric head scenarios. The estimate of such an uncertainty is a key point for a correct management of groundwater resources, in case of water shortage due to prolonged droughts as well as for planning purposes. This study analyzes the uncertainty of the processing chain from GCM scenarios to its impact on an alluvial aquifer in terms of exploitation

  10. Comparison of water-energy trajectories of two major regions experiencing water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Lant, Paul A; O'Brien, Katherine R; Kenway, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Water shortage, increased demand and rising energy costs are major challenges for the water sector worldwide. Here we use a comparative case study to explore the long-term changes in the system-wide water and associated energy use in two different regions that encountered water shortage. In Australia, South East Queensland (SEQ) encountered a drought from 2001 to 2009, while Perth has experienced a decline in rainfall since the 1970s. This novel longitudinal study quantifies and compares the urban water consumption and the energy use of the water supply systems in SEQ and Perth during the period 2002 to 2014. Unlike hypothetical and long-term scenario studies, this comparative study quantifies actual changes in regional water consumption and associated energy, and explores the lessons learned from the two regions. In 2002, Perth had a similar per capita water consumption rate to SEQ and 48% higher per capita energy use in the water supply system. From 2002 to 2014, a strong effort of water conservation can be seen in SEQ during the drought, while Perth has been increasingly relying on seawater desalination. By 2014, even though the drought in SEQ had ended and the drying climate in Perth was continuing, the per capita water consumption in SEQ (266 L/p/d) was still 28% lower than that of Perth (368 L/p/d), while the per capita energy use in Perth (247 kWh/p/yr) had increased to almost five times that of SEQ (53 kWh/p/yr). This comparative study shows that within one decade, major changes in water and associated energy use occurred in regions that were similar historically. The very different "water-energy" trajectories in the two regions arose partly due to the type of water management options implemented, particularly the different emphasis on supply versus demand side management. This study also highlights the significant energy saving benefit of water conservation strategies (i.e. in SEQ, the energy saving was sufficient to offset the total energy use for

  11. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  12. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period

  13. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  14. Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning: Creating Global Citizens to Meet the Economic Crisis and the Skills Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Natalie; Patrick, Carol-joy; Peach, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…

  15. Collaborations between Foreign-Invested Enterprises and China's VET Schools: Making the System Work amid Localised Skill Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqiong; Sheldon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines collaborative initiatives individual foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) develop with China's vocational education and training (VET) schools amid localised shortages of skilled workers. It thus focuses on employer initiatives in responding to VET system weaknesses rather than, as is common, those weaknesses. Using Suzhou…

  16. Metaphorical expressions used in Swedish news media narratives to portray the shortage of nurses and their working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Helena; Stier, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to uncover and reveal how nurses as a profession and their working conditions are dramatized and portrayed in Swedish media narratives about the shortage of nurses. The media is an arena where stakeholders can air their views of the healthcare sector in general and the situation for nurses in particular. The focus in this study is the debate in Sweden on the shortage of nurses. Qualitative discursive study. A discourse analysis of media narratives about nurses and their working conditions published in several Swedish newspapers from 2009-2014. 1779 articles were included in the study. A selection (113 articles) of these articles was further analysed using a qualitative discursive psychological approach. Nurses are portrayed as being good, concerned about and critical of healthcare managers and politicians for not taking action. The accused actors justify their actions by partially accepting or displacing responsibility. The shortage of nurses is framed as a social problem - a threat to patients' safety. Seven different types of metaphorical expression frame the problem as inevitable, beyond control, abstract, an individual and collegial problem and nurses as replaceable. In addition, nurses and patients are dehumanized and no-one is held responsible. This study analyses the role of the media in emphasizing the seriousness or obscurity of the problem and possible solutions to it. Alternative narratives are needed to re-frame the nursing shortage and to find sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Education for Self Reliance--South Africa's Alternative for Addressing Skills Shortage and Job Creation: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twalo, T.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's democratic state has been clouded by various social and economic ills like joblessness, skills shortage, poverty and crime. These are a result of various complex issues which include the apartheid legacy, misdirected education system and poor planning for long term national priorities. This article looks at the lost opportunities to…

  18. Recommendations on reintroduction of agalsidase Beta for patients with fabry disease in europe, following a period of shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linthorst, Gabor E; Burlina, Alessandro P; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    The interruption of the manufacturing process of agalsidase beta has led to a worldwide shortage of this drug. In the EU, nearly all patients initially reduced their agalsidase beta dose, and many of these switched to agalsidase alfa (Replagal Shire HGT). The clinical consequences of this period...

  19. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  20. Professional development of distance education professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Professional development of distance education professionals (DEPs) at TSA: a profile of functions. J.F. van Koller. Institute for Staff Development, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 South Africa jvcoller@tsa.ac.za. This article deals with the development of a profile of the functions and required competencies of ...

  1. Teacher Professionalism: Analysis of Professionalism Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Cipto; Herdiani, Aulia; Sulikah

    2017-01-01

    Teacher professionalism has become a distinctive concern in educational discussions. Based on Teacher and Lecturer Act No.14 2005 carried out by Indonesian Government, teacher professionalism, considered as an assessment aspect of teacher quality, could be drawn by four competences, pedagogical competence, personal, competence, social competence,…

  2. Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional…

  3. Transforming Professional Development to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…

  4. Professional Development Plus: Rethinking Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of professional development is to enhance educator practices so that students may achieve at high levels. Too often, professional development tends to be too broad, general, or unrelated to problems of practice that teachers face in their own classrooms. This action research project builds upon the scholarly research that recognizes…

  5. The role of the circuit inspector in the professional development of principals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ed. (Educational Management) The present crisis in Black education in South Africa centres largely around the problem of educating and re-educating principals. Major deficiencies in the teaching of Mathematics and Physical Science exacerbate the acute shortage of adequately qualified teachers. During the past two decades there have been even greater uncertainties, fears and instabilities in the field of professional development. The problem of upgrading Black principals also seems to hav...

  6. Making the Case for Uniformity in Professional State Licensure Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice A. Brannon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth, the use of communication and information technologies to deliver health services, was initially envisioned as a way for persons in rural or remote settings to receive otherwise unavailable healthcare services. Now, in addition to overcoming personnel shortages for underserved populations, telehealth shows promise in meeting the needs of a constantly mobile U.S. society and workforce.  Fortunately, telerehabilitation can meet the needs of a mobile society and workforce by enabling continuity of care for individuals who are out-of-town, on vacation, in temporary residence as a university student, or on business travel. Unfortunately, outdated legislative and regulatory policies and inhospitable infrastructures currently stand in the way of a seamless continuum of care.In 2010, the American Telemedicine Association’s Telerehabilitation Special Interest Group (TR SIG convened a License Portability Sub-Committee to explore ways to diminish barriers for state licensure portability with a particular focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and audiology.  In 2011, the Subcommittee published a factsheet that detailed the challenges and potential solutions that surround the difficult issue of licensure portability.  Concurrently, the American Telemedicine Association is advocating for national reform of professional licensure.At the heart of all licensure requirements is the ability to determine who should be granted the authority to practice in a particular profession.  This is done by focusing on educational, examination and behavioral requirements that are deemed the minimum necessary to protect the public from harm.  States, however, with whom authority for licensure of health professionals rests, have independently determined those minimum requirements.  This approach has led to a myriad of requirements that vary from state to state. Licensure portability will best succeed when variability between

  7. Making the case for uniformity in professional state licensure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Janice A; Cohn, Ellen R; Cason, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Telehealth, the use of communication and information technologies to deliver health services, was initially envisioned as a way for persons in rural or remote settings to receive otherwise unavailable healthcare services. Now, in addition to overcoming personnel shortages for underserved populations, telehealth shows promise in meeting the needs of a constantly mobile U.S. society and workforce. Fortunately, telerehabilitation can meet the needs of a mobile society and workforce by enabling continuity of care for individuals who are out-of-town, on vacation, in temporary residence as a university student, or on business travel. Unfortunately, outdated legislative and regulatory policies and inhospitable infrastructures currently stand in the way of a seamless continuum of care. In 2010, the American Telemedicine Association's Telerehabilitation Special Interest Group (TR SIG) convened a License Portability Sub-Committee to explore ways to diminish barriers for state licensure portability with a particular focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and audiology. In 2011, the Subcommittee published a factsheet (1) that detailed the challenges and potential solutions that surround the difficult issue of licensure portability. Concurrently, the American Telemedicine Association is advocating for national reform of professional licensure. (2) At the heart of all licensure requirements is the ability to determine who should be granted the authority to practice in a particular profession. This is done by focusing on educational, examination and behavioral requirements that are deemed the minimum necessary to protect the public from harm. States, however, with whom authority for licensure of health professionals rests, have independently defined those minimum requirements. This approach has led to a myriad of requirements that vary from state to state. Licensure portability will best succeed when variability between licensure requirements is

  8. Progress in alternative neutron detection to address the helium-3 shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T., E-mail: rkouzes@pnl.gov; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the main uses for {sup 3}He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Such detectors are used at neutron scattering science facilities and in radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation applications. Other uses of {sup 3}He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, lung imaging, for targets in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The supply of {sup 3}He comes entirely from the decay of tritium produced for nuclear weapons in the U.S. and Russia. Due to the large increase in use of {sup 3}He for science and homeland security (since 2002), the supply could no longer meet the demand. This has led to the development of a number of alternative neutron detection schemes. - Highlights: • There is a shortage of {sup 3}He for gas proportional counters for neutron detection. • This has led to the development of alternative neutron detection schemes. • Both thermal and fast neutron detection approaches have been developed. • Thermal neutron solutions are mostly boron-based or lithium-based. • Fast neutron solutions include liquid/plastic scintillators, bubble chambers or {sup 4}He.

  9. Opportunities to Create New General Surgery Residency Programs to Alleviate the Shortage of General Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Ashley D; Beadles, Christopher A; Sheldon, George F; Charles, Anthony G

    2016-06-01

    To estimate the capacity for supporting new general surgery residency programs among U.S. hospitals that currently do not have such programs. The authors compiled 2011 American Hospital Association data regarding the characteristics of hospitals with and without a general surgery residency program and 2012 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education data regarding existing general surgery residencies. They performed an ordinary least squares regression to model the number of residents who could be trained at existing programs on the basis of residency program-level variables. They identified candidate hospitals on the basis of a priori defined criteria for new general surgery residency programs and an out-of-sample prediction of resident capacity among the candidate hospitals. The authors found that 153 hospitals in 39 states could support a general surgery residency program. The characteristics of these hospitals closely resembled the characteristics of hospitals with existing programs. They identified 435 new residency positions: 40 hospitals could support 2 residents per year, 99 hospitals could support 3 residents, 12 hospitals could support 4 residents, and 2 hospitals could support 5 residents. Accounting for progressive specialization, new residency programs could add 287 additional general surgeons to the workforce annually (after an initial five- to seven-year lead time). By creating new general surgery residency programs, hospitals could increase the number of general surgeons entering the workforce each year by 25%. A challenge to achieving this growth remains finding new funding mechanisms within and outside Medicare. Such changes are needed to mitigate projected workforce shortages.

  10. Addressing the Primary Care Shortage on a Shoestring: A Successful Track in an Internal Medicine Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislen, Heather; Dunn, Angela; Parada, Alisha; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Nationally, shortages of primary care providers are of major concern. Internal medicine programs, once the major supplier of primary care physicians, are no longer producing large numbers of primary care providers to help meet the needs of the growing patient population. In 2009, residents at the University of New Mexico created a resident-driven Primary Care Track (PCT) within the internal medicine residency, and after six years this track is thriving. The PCT allows residents to designate blocks of time specifically devoted to primary care training. Residents opt in to the track at the end of intern year and arrange their own schedules over large blocks of time in the last two years of training to allow for an individualized curriculum that prepares them for independent practice in primary care. Approximately 85% (11/13) of residents who have graduated from the track have gone on to practice in primary care after graduation, and the internal medicine residency program as a whole has also seen an increase in the fraction of residents pursuing primary care since the inception of this track. The PCT is currently at maximum capacity and may be forced to turn away applicants. To expand while still maintaining the core principles of the track, the PCT will strive to find additional ways to use New Mexico's existing resources and to develop a more robust mentoring structure and didactic programs. Formalized financial, faculty, and administrative support of the program also will be needed.

  11. Effect of food shortage on the physiology and competitive abilities of sand martin (Riparia riparia) nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, P; Konarzewski, M

    2001-09-01

    We examined developmental and behavioural plasticity of sand martin (Riparia riparia) nestlings hand-reared under laboratory conditions. We created six broods of six 4-day-old nestlings and randomly assigned them to one of the two following feeding regimens, each lasting for 3 days: (1) all nestmates fed a similar, limited amount of food (FR nestlings). This simulated synchronous hatching under conditions of food restriction. (2) Half the brood were food-restricted (FR/AL nestlings), and half were fed ad libitum (AL nestlings), as in asynchronously hatched broods with differential food allocation. Under both regimens, food restriction resulted in a reduction in body mass, intestinal mass, pectoral muscle mass, fat reserves, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR). However, it simultaneously triggered a significant increase in intestinal uptake rates of L-proline and locomotor activity, quantified as frequency of crawling into the artificial nest tunnel by individual nestlings. Locomotor activity and intestinal uptake rates of L-proline by FR nestlings were higher than those of FR/AL young, while body temperature and RMR of FR nestlings were lower. We conclude that food-restricted nestlings responded actively to food shortages by upregulating their gut function, reducing the energy costs of maintenance and increasing locomotor activity. These behavioural and physiological responses were strongest in broods of similar-sized FR nestlings, which can be interpreted as an escalation of sibling competition. Thus, developmental and behavioural plasticity may be an important factor in the evolution of sibling rivalry.

  12. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  13. Modeling the effects of aerosols to increase rainfall in regions with shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J. B.; Sundar, Shyam; Misra, A. K.; Naresh, Ram

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that the emissions of hot gases from various power stations and other industrial sources in the regional atmosphere cause decrease in rainfall around these complexes. To overcome this shortage, one method is to introduce artificially conducive aerosol particles in the atmosphere using aeroplane to increase rainfall. To prove the feasibility of this idea, in this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model is proposed involving five dependent variables, namely, the volume density of water vapour, number densities of cloud droplets and raindrops, and the concentrations of small and large size conducive aerosol particles. It is assumed that two types of aerosol particles are introduced in the regional atmosphere, one of them is of small size CCN type which is conducive to increase cloud droplets from vapour phase, while the other is of large size and is conducive to transform the cloud droplets to raindrops. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. The model analysis shows that due to the introduction of conducive aerosol particles in the regional atmosphere, the rainfall increases as compared to the case when no aerosols are introduced in the atmosphere of the region under consideration. The computer simulation confirms the analytical results.

  14. The importance of a relative shortage of food in animal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T C R

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that for many if not most animals - both herbivore and carnivore, vertebrate and invertebrate - the single most important factor limiting their abundance is a relative shortage of nitrogenous food for the very young. Any component of the environment of a plant, by varying the amount of adequately nutritious plant tissue available to herbivores, may consequently affect the abundance of food through all subsequent trophic levels; in this regard weather may be important more often than is immediately obvious.The hypothesis proposes that animals live in a variably inadequate environment wherein many are born but few survive, and leads to a concept of populations being "limited from below" rather than "controlled from above". And it may lead to a reappraisal of the role of predation, competition and social and territorial behaviour as factors likely to influence the numbers of animals in the environment, the response of "pests" to manipulation of populations of their food plants by Man, and the likely effectiveness of agents of biological control.

  15. Exploring incentives for RNs to return to practice: a partial solution to the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Joanne C; Tadych, Rita A; Kao, Chia-Chan

    2007-01-01

    Although many have suggested strategies to resolve the nursing shortage, few have considered inactive RNs. This pilot study investigated reasons why nurses leave the practice, the type of work environment and resources necessary to entice RNs to return to practice, and the specific skills required to assist RNs in feeling confident and competent to return to practice. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory was used to study motivation and hygiene factors enticing RNs to practice. A screening questionnaire was sent to 1,004 randomly selected RNs in Missouri to determine who were licensed but not practicing. Fifty-two full questionnaires were mailed and 33 (63%) were returned. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS, whereas qualitative data were coded and analyzed using manifest content analysis. The lack of motivators such as recognition of one's work and achievements was one reason why RNs left the practice. The hygiene factors of money, improved working conditions, refresher courses, and health insurance would motivate RNs to return to practice. Those wishing to entice inactive nurses to practice will need to offer sign-on bonuses or make the hourly wages and benefits package very competitive. This study indicates that nurses value flexible working hours, part-time opportunities, consideration of family lives, and positive relationships with administrators.

  16. Colorado State University (CSU) Sixteen State Project for Training Community Teams of Professionals for the Development of Coordinative, Adult Basic Education Programs in Rural Areas (Project COMMUNI-LINK). First Year Report: FY 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Dept. of Education.

    The fundamental purpose of the project during its first year of operation was to facilitate the establishment or improvement of an inter-organizational communicative linkage system in each pilot community. Specific objectives were to develop teams of professionals, paraprofessionals, and volunteer community level workers and to train those teams…

  17. A Framework for Using Rural Markets to Analyze Local Food Shortage Resilience and Mitigation Potential in sub-Saharan Africa based on Evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. J.; Baylis, K.; Evans, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to have negative impacts on agriculture and food security in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Regional and temporal climate variability will disburse these effects, creating opportunities to mitigate food shortages through well-studied international, regional, and national food flows and associated food prices. However, most food products consumed and traded by rural smallhold farmers rely on local market exchanges that take place outside the scope of prevalent regional and national market analysis. There is little empirical evidence on these rural markets outside of their potential for smallholder agribusiness. However, they offer an unopened window into local food supply and the nuances of food movements in rural areas. Our research explores how to analyze the cost and availability of food products in rural markets and their connection with each other, as well as with nearby households' food security. This new approach of using food markets as a unit of analysis necessitates a new framework that groups markets based on a hierarchy of variables relevant to their role as food movers and suppliers. In our research, we collected price and source data for 22 commodities bought and sold within 52 rural markets in 12 districts spatially distributed throughout Zambia. We continue to collect data via phone interviews with 206 traders and market managers within these markets each month. We used this data to develop a typology of stationary rural food markets based on their size in terms of traders and buyers, the diversity of commodities available year-round and seasonally, their price transmission with other markets, and their trading scheme and governance. The result is a dynamic framework with varying weights on each variable that classifies which characteristic of markets under which conditions increase their potential for local food shortage resilience and mitigation. We also allocate for commodity-specific scenarios to allow for modeling

  18. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with your healthcare team about your concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and ... or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals ...

  19. Professionalism in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer

    2017-02-01

    Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications. Professionalism in anesthesia has a long history. While there are many definitions for professionalism, some very dated, all are based on virtues, behaviour, or professional identity. Professionalism plays a central role in the balance between physician autonomy and social contract, and it has a significant impact on patient safety and medicolegal litigation. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that professionalism must be treated seriously, particularly in these times of social accountability and budgetary pressures.

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  1. Communicating with Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  2. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  3. REDUCED-SIZE LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION, SPLIT LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION, AND LIVING-RELATED LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN RELATION TO THE DONOR ORGAN SHORTAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOOFF, MJH

    Because of the shortage of cadaveric donors, three techniques of partial liver grafting have been developed. These techniques are placed in perspective in relation to the organ shortage. Reduced size liver transplantation (RSLTx) is widely used and has results comparable to those from whole liver

  4. Teacher Educators' Constructions of Professionalism: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses an under-researched area of teacher education by analysing teacher educators' constructions of their professionalism and the constituent professional resources and senses of identity on which that professionalism draws. The research is an embedded case study of 36 teacher educators in two Schools of Education in England,…

  5. Evidence-based practice for information professionals a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Examines to what extent the skills and techniques of evidence-based practice are transferable to the areas of professional practice of librarians and information professionals? Is it desirable for information professionals to integrate research findings into their day-to-day decision making?

  6. Managing boundaries between professional and lay nursing following the influenza pandemic, 1918-1919: insights for professional resilience today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    To examine lay-professional nursing boundaries, using challenges to the New Zealand nursing profession following the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic as the example. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 had an overwhelming international impact on communities and the nursing profession. After the pandemic, the expectation for communities to be able to nurse the sick reflects today's increasing reliance on families to care for people at home. It similarly raised questions about the profession's role and professional boundaries in relation to volunteer or lay nursing. In New Zealand, the postpandemic challenge to build community lay nursing capacity tested these boundaries. Historical research. Analysis of historical primary sources of official reports, newspaper accounts, articles in New Zealand's professional nursing journal Kai Tiaki and the memoir of Hester Maclean, the country's chief nurse. Interpretation of findings in relation to secondary sources examining similar historical tensions between professional and lay nursing, and to the more recent notion of professional resilience. Maclean guarded nursing's professional boundaries by maintaining considerable control over community instruction in nursing and by strenuously resisting the suggestion that this should be done in hospitals where professional nurses trained. This historical example shows how the nursing profession faced the perceived threat to its professional boundaries. It also shows how competing goals of building community lay nursing capacity and protecting professional boundaries can be effectively managed. In the context of a global nursing shortage, limited healthcare budgets and a consequently increasing reliance on households to provide care for family members, this historical research shows nurses today that similar issues have been faced and effectively managed in the past. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Professionalism in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Susan R.; Mistry, Gianna Limone

    2012-01-01

    Professionalism in Dance Education is a complex construction. It can be imposed from the outside (degree completed, job status, salary) or can be identified from the professional herself. Seven graduate dance education students were interviewed with specific focus on the transition from student to professional and the feelings surrounding this…

  8. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  9. Examining the Effects of a STEM Career Video Intervention on the Interests and STEM Professional Identities of Rural, Minority Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Meredith Weaver

    2013-01-01

    National efforts to interest students in STEM careers are intensifying around the globe, due to a shortage of professionals to fill the growing demands in these fields. Although some US studies find high interest in STEM in K-12 students, longitudinal studies show a decline in interest following middle school. Many students, particularly females…

  10. Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, T.; Everett, C.; Griffiths, P.; Hudon, C.; Naccarella, L.; Laurant, M.G.H.

    2015-01-01

    World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered

  11. Reframing professional boundaries in healthcare : A systematic review of facilitators and barriers to task reallocation from the domain of medicine to the nursing domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, M.G.H.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the main facilitators and barriers to task reallocation. Background One of the innovative approaches to dealing with the anticipated shortage of physicians is to reallocate tasks from the professional domain of medicine to the nursing domain. Various (cost-)effectiveness studies

  12. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  13. Self-perception of professional competencies in sports professionals - the effect of the occupational area and experience AUTOPERCEPCIÓN DE LAS COMPETENCIAS PROFESIONALES EN PROFESIONALES DEL DEPORTE: EFECTO DEL ÁREA DE INTERVENCIÓN Y EXPERIENCIA PROFESIONAL AUTO-PERCEPÇÃO DAS COMPETÊNCIAS PROFISSIONAIS EM PROFISSIONAIS DO DESPORTO: EFEITO DA ÁREA DE INTERVENÇÃO E DA EXPERIÊNCIA PROFISSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amândio Graça

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to Cheetham and Chivers (1998, the professional competence is a specific concept influenced by a variety of factors, including self and hetero perception of competence. In this line of understanding Nascimento (1999 says that professional success hinges not only on knowledge and procedures, but also of the domain demonstrated in relation with themselves. This study has, as main purpose, to examine the levels of competence self-perception in sport professionals. The sample consists of 1514 subjects who exercised their profession in three contexts of practice: Physical Education, Coaching and Fitness. We used three likert-type scales of self-perception of professional competence specific for the sport professional (adapted from Nascimento, 1999; Feitosa, 2002: one directed to PE teachers, the other to Coaches, and a third to teachers/instructors of Fitness. In the data processing we used the basic descriptive measures and the multivariate analysis for dependent variables (General Linear Model Multivariate to see if the factors professional area, professional experience and institution are different in the levels of self-perception of professional competence. For additional analysis we also used the T-test for independent measures and the T test for one sample. The significance's level was maintained at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate an interaction of the factors in the professional area, professional experience and institution with self-perception of competence. Keywords:  Competence self-perception, Professional competenceResumenSegún Cheetham y Chivers (1998, la competencia profesional es una construcción específica influenciada por una multitud de factores, incluida la competencia en auto y hetero-percepción. En esta línea de entendimiento Nascimento (1999 afirma que el éxito depende no sólo de conocimientos y procedimientos, sino también el dominio mostrado en relación con ellos. Este estudio tiene como finalidad

  14. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management.Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality.Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register.Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement.Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  15. In Search of Museum Professional Knowledge Base: Mapping the Professional Knowledge Debate onto Museum Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Museum professionalism remains an unexplored area in museum studies, particularly with regard to what is arguably the core generic question of a "sui generis" professional knowledge base, and its necessary and sufficient conditions. The need to examine this question becomes all the more important with the increasing expansion of the…

  16. Feasibility of Spectrum Sharing Between Airborne Weather Radar and Wireless Local Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zarookian, Ruffy

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies such as wireless local area networks and cellular telephones have dramatically increased the use of wireless communications services within the last 10 years. The shortage of available spectrum exists due to increasing demand for wireless services and current spectrum allocation regulations. To alleviate this shortage, Research aims to improve spectral efficiency and to allow spectrum sharing between separatelymanaged and non-coordinating communications systems. T...

  17. Forecasting Japan's physician shortage in 2035 as the first full-fledged aged society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yuji

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Japan is rapidly becoming a full-fledged aged society, and physician shortage is a significant concern. The Japanese government has increased the number of medical school enrollments since 2008, but some researchers warn that this increase could lead to physician surplus in the future. It is unknown how many physicians will be required to accommodate future healthcare needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We simulated changes in age/sex composition of the population, fatalities (the number of fatalities for the consecutive five years, and number of physicians from 2010 to 2035. Two indicators were defined: fatalities per physician and fatalities by physician working hour, based on the data of the working hours of physicians for each tuple of sex and age groups. We estimated the necessary number of physicians in 2035 and the number of new physicians to maintain the indicator levels in 2010. RESULTS: The number of physicians per 1,000 population is predicted to rise from 2·00 in 2010 to 3·14 in 2035. The number of physicians aged 60 years or older is expected to increase from 55,375 (20% of physicians to 141,711 (36%. In 2010 and 2035, fatalities per physician were 23·1 and 24·0 for the total population, and 13·9 and 19·2 for 75 years or older, respectively. Fatalities per physician working hour are predicted to rise from 0·128 to 0·138. If working hours are limited to 48 hours per week in 2035, the number of fatalities per physician working hour is expected to be 0·196, and the number of new physicians must be increased by 53% over the current pace. DISCUSSION: The number of physicians per population continues to rise, but the estimated supply will not fulfill the demand for healthcare in the aging society. Strategies to increase the number of physicians and improve working conditions are urgently needed.

  18. Ducklings exhibit substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to short-term food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Borge; Stolevik, Einar; Bech, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether Pekin ducklings (Anas platyrhyncos domesticus) exhibited any energy-saving mechanisms that could lessen the detrimental effects of reduced food intake during early development. Further, we evaluated the role of body compositional changes behind such potential mechanisms and the consequences on thermoregulatory capacity. The ducklings exhibited substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to diet restriction. After 5 d of diet restriction, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 10- and 20-d-old ducklings was 16.4% and 32.1% lower, respectively, than predicted from body mass compared with ad lib. fed ducklings (controls). These reductions in RMR could have been adaptive responses in anticipation of a lasting food shortage, or they could have been consequences of the restricted diet and the lack of essential nutrients. We argue that the responses were adaptive. The low RMRs were not a consequence of depleted fuel stores because the diet-restricted ducklings exhibited substantial amounts of stored lipids at the end of the diet-restriction periods. Hypothermia accounted for approximately 50% of the reduction in RMR in the 10-d-old diet-restricted ducklings, but hypothermia did not occur in the 20-d-old diet-restricted ducklings. Diet restriction resulted in a reduced liver and intestine size and an unchanged size of the leg muscles and heart, while the length of the skull increased (compared with controls of a given body mass). However, changes in body composition were only minor predictors of the observed changes in RMR. Peak metabolic rate (PMR) was approximately 10% lower in the diet-restricted ducklings compared with the controls. We have interpreted the lower PMR as a consequence of the reductions in RMR rather than as a consequence of a decreased function of the thermoregulatory effector mechanisms.

  19. Early origins of longevity: prenatal exposures to food shortage among early Utah pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H A; Smith, K R

    2013-04-01

    Undernutrition during critical or sensitive prenatal periods may 'program' the fetus for increased chronic disease and mortality in later life. Using birth cohorts that were or were not exposed to severe food shortage in Utah in the mid-19th century, this study examines how in utero exposure to undernutrition is associated with mortality after age 50. The Utah Population Database is used to identify 1392 prenatally exposed individuals and 29,022 individuals from subsequent, unexposed birth cohorts. Gompertz hazards with parametric frailty show that males born between April and June of the famine period (and hence exposed during critical periods in utero during the winter months) have higher mortality risks compared with post-famine cohorts. Alternative Cox non-proportional hazard models suggest that females born during the same period have higher initial mortality risks (starting at age 50) that decline over time creating a mortality crossover with unexposed women at approximately age 70, a result not found for men. An ancillary sibling analysis that uses shared frailty survival models to compare individuals with prenatal exposure to undernutrition to their younger (post-famine) same-sex siblings finds no significant differences in adult mortality for males but the pattern for females support the findings from the previous analysis. Although findings are sensitive to model choice, this study presents evidence that is consistent with an association between undernutrition in utero and adult mortality, shows that effects may be sensitive to the duration and gestational period of exposure, and illustrates the differential exposure effects between genders.

  20. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  1. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE AUTONOMOUS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION OF ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION “MOSMED” TO IMPLEMENT SHORT-TERM PROGRAMES OF TRAININGS OF PHYSICIANS ON TOPICAL AREAS OF MEDICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viatcheslav Anatolievich Vladimirtsev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the reform of medical education in Russia, the current system of additional professional education of physicians has the task of expanding the list of new short-term trainings programs. The article presents the results of the practice of the Autonomous non-profit organization of additional professional education ”Mosmed» in the preparation and implementation of short-term training programs of physicians. In 2015–2016, this private educational organization have successfully developed 9 new short-term training programs, conducted 17 training courses and held 3 clinical fellowship program. The total number of physicians trained in short-term programs comprise over of 253 trainees. Discussed the possibility of licensed private educational organizations in expanding the market of educational services and increase access to additional medical education in regions remote from the university centers of medical education. Shows the need to continue conducting an on-site short-term courses in the regions of Russia. The conclusion is that the development of scientific-methodical directions, which determines the development and broad inclusion of short-term training programs in the educational process, promotes a real transformation of the system of additional medical education in the Institute of continuing professional development.

  2. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  3. The Global International Waters Assessment for the Pacific Islands: aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and coastal fisheries issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, G Robin; Skelton, Posa A; Veitayaki, Joeli; Resture, Alan; Carpenter, Clive; Pratt, Craig; Lawedrau, Alena

    2004-02-01

    Aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and fisheries issues are discussed in the context of the recently completed Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Pacific Islands. The region encompasses some 30 million km2 and approximately 12% of the world's ocean space, and features great geographic, demographic and developmental diversity. Global change, especially sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases, is the dominant transboundary concern as it impacts all aspects of life. Water shortage and unsustainable fishing issues are selected for discussion, as they will dominate the region into the foreseeable future, and they are illustrated with examples from Fiji, Kiribati, and Tonga. The environmental impacts are exacerbated by socioeconomic issues such as high population growth rates, urban drift, the breakdown of traditional life styles and the rapid adoption of the cash economy. Policy options that may assist in addressing these issues are proposed.

  4. Sustaining supply of senior academic leadership skills in a shortage environment: a short review of a decade of dental experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.

  5. A supplement to an EOQ model with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, shortage backordering, and sales return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tzer Hsu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hsu and Hsu (2013a established a closed-form solution for an EOQ model with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, shortage backordering, and sales returns, where the customers who return the defective items will receive full price refunds; i.e., the returned items are not replaced with good items. In this note, we extend Hsu and Hsu's (2013a work to consider the case that returned items are replaced with good items. A closed-form solution is developed for the optimal order size and the maximum shortage level. Numerical examples are provided to show the differences in the optimal solutions when returned items are replaced, and when they are not.

  6. UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE MILITARY TRAUMA SYSTEM: WORKING TOWARDS IMPROVED OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE...providers such as nurse practitioners to aid in achieving patient care goals, there is little published to support their use in the military...it also reduces overall cost to the patient. Currently the cost of a trauma critical care bed is $2,841.47/night while critical care nursing is

  7. Supporting students in professional socialisation: Guidelines for professional nurses and educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Cathrina (Rina de Swardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional socialisation of nursing students involves learning skills, attitudes, behaviour and professional roles, largely in the clinical area. During clinical accompaniment and reflective discussions with a group of undergraduate Baccalaureate nursing students in South Africa, students reported negative professional socialisation experiences, primarily in the clinical area. Such experiences could influence the quality of patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and validate guidelines to support professional nurses and educators in the professional socialisation of student nurses. Evidence was generated from an exploration and description of the perceptions of professional nurses regarding their role in the professional socialisation of students, the perceptions of nurse educators regarding the teaching and facilitation of professional socialisation of students, and the socialisation experiences of students. Following a sequential mixed-methods design, qualitative data guided the collection of quantitative data. All data and literature directed the development of these guidelines, which experts reviewed and validated according to a set of criteria. These guidelines focus on the clinical, nursing educational institution environment and values and beliefs of the nursing profession. Facilitation of sound work ethics, professional behaviour, cultural and gender awareness, role modelling and the application of a range of teaching strategies is proposed.

  8. Student characteristics, professional preferences, and admission to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Schumacher, Heiner; Winter, Joachim; Fischer, Martin R; Holzer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians' choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students' attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (Wartesemester); whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector. Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender), their parents' occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (Abiturnote), and First National Boards Examination grade (Physikum). In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods (Wartesemester) as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector. Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: having a medical doctor among the parents, having worse grades in the high-school grade point average, and being more risk averse. Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school. Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the

  9. The Changing Roles Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Hermansen-Baez; N. Wulff

    2010-01-01

    As populations and urbanization expand in the Southern United States, human influences on forests and other natural areas are increasing. As a result, natural resource professionals are faced with complex challenges, such as managing smaller forest parcels for multiple benefits, and wildfire prevention and management in the wildland-urban interface (areas where urban...

  10. Professional Networks in the International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    in variety of science-heavy, and social science related, issue-areas and identifies how variation in network structure may shape processes of idea formation, skills transfer and policy solutions and implementation. The paper also outlines the framework for visualizing professional ecologies and how...... they compete and cooperate through a variety of novel concepts and technologies. The issue-areas discussed in relation to professional networks include: the creation of a viable bio-fuels industry; addressing low fertility rates in the OECD; risk weighting and regulatory segmentation in financial reform......Who writes the rules for the governance of the world economy? This paper looks beyond the usual suspects of states, NGOs and firms to attempt to map how ideas and skills travel between professional ecologies to solve long-term socioeconomic problems. The paper identifies professional networks...

  11. Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    tor. Principal crops coffee, pulses, oilseeds, cereals , potatoes, sugar- cane, and vegetables. Livestock population believed largest in Africa... shattered country. In his first public speech after the EPRDF had captured Addis Ababa, Meles Zenawi indicated that Ethiopia’s coffers were empty...the country’s main areas where pulses and oilseeds were produced. Second, because peasants faced food shortages, they gave priority to cereal staples to

  12. Characteristics and prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in professional and non-professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michelle S S; Ferreira, Arthur S; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Elirez B; Felicio, Lilian R

    2016-01-19

    Ballet is a high-performance activity that requires an advanced level of technical skills. Ballet places great stress on tendons, muscles, bones, and joints and may act directly as a trigger of injury by overuse. 1) to describe the main types of injuries and affected areas related to classical ballet and 2) to compare the frequency of musculoskeletal injuries among professional and non-professional ballet dancers, considering possible gender differences among the professional dancers. A total of 110 questionnaires were answered by professional and non-professional dancers. The questionnaire contained items related to the presence of injury, the regions involved, and the mechanism of the injury. We observed a high frequency of musculoskeletal injuries, with ankle sprains accounting for 69.8% of injuries in professional dancers and 42.1% in non-professional dancers. Pirouettes were the most frequent mechanism of injury in professional dancers, accounting for 67.9% of injuries, whereas in the non-professional dancers, repetitive movement was the most common mechanism (28.1%). Ankle sprains occurred in 90% of the women's injuries, and muscle sprains occurred in 54.5% of the men's injuries. The most frequent injury location was the ankle joint in both sexes among the professional dancers, with 67.6% in women and 40.9% in men. The identification of the mechanism of injury and time of practice may contribute to better therapeutic action aimed at the proper function of the dancers' bodies and improved performance by these athletes.

  13. Split cornea transplantation for 2 recipients: a new strategy to reduce corneal tissue cost and shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Ludwig M; Riss, Stephan; Bachmann, Bjoern O; Laaser, Kathrin; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2011-02-01

    remained clear up to 6 months after surgery. Split use of donor corneal tissue for combined DALK and DMEK procedures in 2 recipients on the same surgery day is a promising strategy to reduce donor shortage and cost in corneal transplantation surgery in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nursing around the world: a perspective on growing concerns and the shortage of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2011-11-01

    some of these problems are. As such, questions and possible solutions are considered.Keywords: nursing shortage, aging, HIV, lifelong learning, exponential knowledge growth, limited resources, burnout

  15. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  16. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity.

  17. Are rural health professionals also social entrepreneurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2009-12-01

    Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they

  18. The influence of motivation in recruitment and retention of rural and remote allied health professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N; McAllister, L; Eley, D

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals (AHPs) to remote and rural Australia is challenging and correlates with poorer health status of remote and rural residents. While much has been written about the recruitment and retention problem, this study took a new approach by reviewing the literature describing the motivation of AHPs to work in remote and rural areas and then analyzing the findings from the perspective of motivation theory using Herzberg's extrinsic and intrinsic classification. Intrinsic motivation incentives are known to contribute to job satisfaction and come from within the individual, for example the pleasure derived from autonomy or challenge at work. In contrast, extrinsic motivation incentives are provided by the job and include such factors as salary and professional development provisions. Extrinsic incentives are important because they prevent job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction has been shown to be linked with increased retention. Thirty-five articles, including 26 from Australia, met the inclusion criteria. The key findings related to motivation from each article are outlined and the results classified into the extrinsic-intrinsic framework. The incentives are then further analyzed as having a positive or a negative influence. In total, 38 different incentives were described a total of 246 times. Of the total, almost half (n=115) comprised extrinsic incentives with a negative influence, with poor access to professional development, professional isolation and insufficient supervision the most frequently reported. Rural lifestyle and diverse caseloads were the most frequently mentioned positive extrinsic incentives, while autonomy and community connectedness were the most cited positive intrinsic incentives. Negative intrinsic incentives were mentioned least frequently (n=18); however, of these, feeling overwhelmed and that your work was not valued by the community were the most commonly reported. The results demonstrate the

  19. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Changes That Matter Find HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  20. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  1. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask Your ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and ...

  2. Chemists Employed in the Manchester Area, 1902-1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinfin, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to previous views of an acute shortage of chemists at the beginning of the twentieth century, this study found that the number of chemists identifiable by name in the Manchester area was substantial, even in 1902. Moreover, the majority were qualified to some extent. The total number of chemists and their degree of formal qualification…

  3. Water Balance and Groundwater Quality of Koraro Area, Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses Koraro Tabia (or Station), one of the millennium villages where shortage and bad quality water is a challenge. Water balance and the hydro chemical characteristics of groundwater have been investigated in order to assess the water potential and quality in the area. Hydrometeorological information has ...

  4. Nurses Educational Needs Assessment: Rochester and Southeastern Minnesota Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanun, Clara; Podratz, Rosalyn

    A survey of registered nurses in the Rochester area was conducted to identify needs of potentially reemployable nurses in response to the prevailing opinion that uncongenial working conditions were the primary cause for the shortage of nurses. Data were collected from 20 percent random sample of registered nurses who completed either a survey form…

  5. Small - Scale Livestock Farming in Developing Areas of Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shortage of feed, poor breading practice, lack of production skills, poor infrastructure, livestock theft, inadequate veterinary services, poor marketing services, and poor extension services. Keywords: Small scale farmer, livestock farming, agricultural development, socio-economic development, developing areas, Swaziland ...

  6. Impact of a critical health workforce shortage on child health in Zimbabwe: a country case study on progress in child survival, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Connie A; Vermund, Sten H; Moyo, Precious; Madzima, Bernard; Kanyowa, Trevor; Desta, Teshome; Mwinga, Kasonde; Brault, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite notable progress reducing global under-five mortality rates, insufficient progress in most sub-Saharan African nations has prevented the achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG#4) to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Country-level assessments of factors underlying why some African countries have not been able to achieve MDG#4 have not been published. Zimbabwe was included in a four-country study examining barriers and facilitators of under-five survival between 2000 and 2013 due to its comparatively slow progress towards MDG#4. A review of national health policy and strategy documents and analysis of qualitative data identified Zimbabwe’s critical shortage of health workers and diminished opportunities for professional training and education as an overarching challenge. Moreover, this insufficient health workforce severely limited the availability, quality, and utilization of life-saving health services for pregnant women and children during the study period. The impact of these challenges was most evident in Zimbabwe’s persistently high neonatal mortality rate, and was likely compounded by policy gaps failing to authorize midwives to deliver life-saving interventions and to ensure health staff make home post-natal care visits soon after birth. Similarly, the lack of a national policy authorizing lower-level cadres of health workers to provide community-based treatment of pneumonia contributed to low coverage of this effective intervention and high child mortality. Zimbabwe has recently begun to address these challenges through comprehensive policies and strategies targeting improved recruitment and retention of experienced senior providers and by shifting responsibility of basic maternal, neonatal and child health services to lower-level cadres and community health workers that require less training, are geographically broadly distributed, and are more cost-effective, however the impact of these

  7. Future competitiveness of Western Europe on the example of Germany and the Netherlands : Are Indian professionals our piece to solving the talent shortage puzzle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boege, L.; Blomme, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a competitive advantage in today's global environment, companies are increasingly relying on human resources as a strategic tool. However, especially the western world is as a consequence of changes in demographics and employment contracts more and more faced with skill or talent

  8. Sensibilidade ao Látex e Dosagem de Anticorpos Específicos em Profissionais da Área da Saúde Sensitivity to latex and the dosage of specific antibodies in professionals in the area of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência da reação de sensibilidade ao látex e realizar dosagem de anticorpos antilátex em profissionais dos cursos de odontologia, medicina e enfermagem da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES, Vitória-ES, Brasil. Estudo observacional, transversal. A amostra intencional foi composta por 295 profissionais. A sensibilidade foi avaliada por meio de questionário estruturado e validado, e a presença de IgE-látex por meio da coleta de 10ml de sangue submetido a análise com emprego do sistema Immunocap-Pharmacia®. Os valores IgE-látex foram distribuídos em diferentes classes. Resultados: 22,4,% (n=66 apresentaram sensibilidade ao látex, classe V IgE latex (17,6-42 KUAL; 77,6 % (n=229 sem sensibilidade, classe 0 IgE-látex (The scope of this study was to verify the occurrence of sensitivity to latex and conduct dosage of anti-latex antibodies in health professionals of the Dental, Medical and Nursing Schools of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES, Vitoria, ES, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The intentional sample was composed of 295 professionals. Sensitivity was evaluated by means of a structured and validated questionnaire and the presence of IgE-latex by means of collection of 10 ml of blood submitted to analysis using the Immunocap-pharmacia® system. The IgE-latex values were categorized in different groups. Results: 22.4% (n=66 showed latex sensitivity, class V of the IgE latex (17.5-42 KUAL; 77.6 % (n=229 showed no sensitivity, class 0 or 1 of the IgE-latex (<0.35KUAL-8,6KUAL. Fisher's test showed a significant correlation statistic (p<0.05 in relation to the following variables: gender; atopy; eczema of the hands; allergy to medicination; chronic illness; use of anti-inflammatory; prior surgeries. Conclusion: Positive values of IgE were observed in the professionals with sensitivity, suggesting the adoption of prophylactic measures for the

  9. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  10. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Feenstra-Gols (Sabiena G.); Q. Nahar (Quamrun); D. Pahan (David); L. Oskam (Linda); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT) reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic

  11. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  12. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  13. Leading Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    If the goal is to fundamentally change the culture inside schools, people need to move beyond the superficiality of professional learning communities and focus on a system of learners. Professional learning communities are in fact about establishing lasting new collaborative cultures. Collaborative cultures are ones that focus on building the…

  14. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  15. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  16. Parents: Dilemmas for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrea

    1988-01-01

    A British educational psychologist critically examines her practices toward parents. Aspects of the power relationship are explored, including acting as a friend, the trappings of professionalism, privacy and confidentiality, interprofessional trust, and service provision. Professional survival is seen to be the underlying motive in these…

  17. Educators' Professional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, R.; Anitha, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced…

  18. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  19. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  20. Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Alison

    2017-01-01

    There are many professional development programmes on offer for primary science. The best of these involve teachers in developing practice over time, alongside engaging with theory. In this article, the author considers how working as part of a professional learning community can support a collaborative and evidence informed approach to improving…

  1. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  2. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project

    OpenAIRE

    Mayta-Trist?n, Percy; Pereyra-El?as, Rene?; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan Jos?; Mejia, Christian R.; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mezones-Holgu?n, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. Results We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medica...

  3. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  4. Owning your professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2012-01-01

    Professional development encompasses more than simply attending continuing education courses or returning to school for advanced degrees. It can also refer to looking up an unfamiliar diagnosis, changing your practice based on new evidence, and networking with peers about professional issues. Professional growth also involves having curiosity, wanting to provide the best possible care for your patients, and exuding excellence as a nurse. It is about investing in yourself! In doing so, you are not only growing as a professional but also promoting the image of nursing. Several national initiatives, such as Magnet and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM 's) Future of Nursing Report, are available to help improve and transform health care, and also to hopefully help motivate us.1 However, the impetus for professional development needs to come from within each individual nurse.

  5. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  6. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  7. Guest speakers in a professional development seminar series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorek, Joseph A; Katz, Norman L; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2011-03-10

    To evaluate the impact guest speakers have on student development in a professional development seminar series. Over a 5-semester period, presentations were given by 18 guest speakers as part of a professional development seminar series. A 28-item survey instrument was constructed and administered to 68 students to assess the impact of the guest speakers on the students' professional development. Forty-six (68%) students completed the survey instrument, and the results demonstrated the value of the guest speakers, most notably in the areas of career development and professional responsibility. Exposing pharmacy students to guest speakers from varied pharmacy career paths positively impacted students' knowledge of career options and professional development.

  8. Practices implemented by a Texas charter school system to overcome science teacher shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Bilgehan M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine practices used by a charter school system to hire and retain science teachers. The research design for this study was a qualitative case study. This single instrumental case study explored the issue within a bounded system. Purposeful sampling strategy was used to identify the participants who were interviewed individually. Findings of the case study supported that using online resources, advertising in the newspaper, attending job fairs, using alternative certification programs, attracting alumni, contacting the college of educations and hiring internationally helped the charter school system with hiring science teachers. Improving teacher salary scale, implementing teacher mentorship programs, reimbursing teachers for certification and master's programs, providing professional development and supporting teachers helped to retain science teachers. Therefore, this study contributes to determining strategies and techniques, selecting methods and programs, training administrators, and monitoring for successful hiring and retaining science teacher implementation.

  9. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. The FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative: An Observational Study of the Consequences for Drug Prices and Shortages in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Dhruva, Sanket S; Fox, Erin R; Ross, Joseph S

    2017-10-01

    Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs. To examine the clinical evidence for approval and association with prices and shortages of previously unapproved prescription drugs after being addressed by the UDI. Previously unapproved prescription drugs that faced UDI regulatory action or with at least 1 product that received FDA approval through manufacturers' voluntary compliance with the UDI between 2006 and 2015 were identified. The clinical evidence was categorized as either newly conducted clinical trials or use of previously published literature and/or bioequivalence studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy. We determined the change in average wholesale price, presence of shortage, and duration of shortage for each drug during the 2 years before and after UDI regulatory action or approval through voluntary compliance. Between 2006 and 2015, 34 previously unapproved prescription drugs were addressed by the UDI. Nearly 90% of those with a drug product that received FDA approval were supported by literature reviews or bioequivalence studies, not new clinical trial evidence. Among the 26 drugs with available pricing data, average wholesale price during the 2 years before and after voluntary approval or UDI action increased by a median of 37% (interquartile range [IQR] = 23%-204%; P Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars program. Ross reports receiving research support through Yale University from Johnson and Johnson to develop methods of clinical

  11. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, Leah; Crawford, Jessica; Chaluco, Timoteo; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Prosser, Wendy; Watson, Noel

    2014-08-02

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system. Substantially high levels of RDT

  12. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Methods Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. Results 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system

  13. Chronic food shortage and seasonal modulations of daily torpor and locomotor activity in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Sylvain; Blanc, Stéphane; Aujard, Fabienne; Bertrand, Frédéric; Gilbert, Caroline; Perret, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The extent to which seasonal plasticity in torpor displayed by one of the smallest Malagasy primates (Microcebus murinus) will help survival in the context of ongoing global change-induced chronic food shortage, is unknown. Body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were measured by telemetry in short- (SD, winter-acclimated) and long-days (LD, summer-acclimated) males (n = 24) during an experimental 35-day calorie restriction of 40 or 80%. Under SD exposure, regardless of calorie restriction intensity, mouse lemurs immediately increased torpor depth and duration by 4.6-fold, and showed greater phase-advanced entry into torpor (2.4-fold). Tb adjustments were efficient under 40% calorie restriction to maintain body mass, whereas they did not prevent a 0.71 +/- 0.11 g/day mass loss during 80% calorie restriction. The 40% food-deprived LD animals combined an early shallow deepening of torpor (1 degrees C) and a late 18% decrease in locomotor activity, resulting in a moderate 6% mass loss. After 15 days of 80% calorie restriction, LD animals exhibited a SD phenotype by increasing their torpor duration and phase-advancing the entry of torpor (16 min/day). Those adjustments had no impact on mass loss (0.93 +/- 0.07 g/day) as locomotor activity increased four-fold. Daily torpor allows M. murinus to face moderate food shortage whatever the photoperiod but poorly mitigates energy imbalance during severe food deprivation, especially under LD exposure. Although the behavioral thermoregulation role warrants further investigation in energy savings, M. murinus survival would be impaired during long-term food shortage in summer.

  14. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    OpenAIRE

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i...

  15. Outcomes analysis of an alternative formulation of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma during the drug shortage era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Berger, Ashlee Smith, Kristin K Zorn, Paniti Sukumvanich, Alexander B Olawaiye, Joseph Kelley, Thomas C Krivak Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: In response to the critical shortage of Doxil®, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA allowed temporary importation of non-FDA-approved second-generation liposomal doxorubicin, Lipo-Dox®. Lipo-Dox utilizes a different liposomal particle than Doxil and demonstrates different pharmacokinetic properties. Its use has never been evaluated in a North American population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Lipo-Dox at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, for patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated during the Doxil shortage. Methods: Patients treated with Lipo-Dox from January 2012 to December 2012 were identified retrospectively. Disease response was defined radiographically by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or biochemically by CA-125 level if measurable disease was not present. Survival was defined from the start date of Lipo-Dox until the date of progression or death. Toxicity was assessed by the Gynecologic Oncology Group common toxicity criteria. Results: Eighteen patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who received Lipo-Dox were identified. These patients had a median of three prior treatment regimens. The median number of Lipo-Dox cycles given was 3.5 (range 1–8. No patients had a complete or partial response. Two patients had stable disease over a mean follow-up of 144.5 days. Fourteen patients had progressive disease, with a median time to progression of 82 days. Progression was based on CA-125 in four patients and RECIST in the remainder. Nine patients died from the disease. Conclusion: Although this represents a small, pretreated population, there were no clinical

  16. Cheese 'refinement' with whey B-vitamin removal during precipitation potentially induces temporal 'functional' dietary shortage: homocysteine as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, N

    2014-07-25

    Cottage cheese 'refinement' with massive B-vitamin losses (≈70-84%) through whey removal during precipitation may potentially induce an acute imbalance between protein/methionine load and temporal inadequacy/shortage of nutrients critical for their metabolism, i.e. B6 and B12. The temporal effect of cottage cheese consumption was evaluated using increased plasma homocysteine as a B-vitamin shortage marker. In a double-blind study, healthy, normal-weight (BMI = 22-27), premenopausal women aged 25-45 years were first given a methionine load (100 mg kg(-1), n = 15), then cottage cheese alone (500 g, ≈50 g protein, ≈1200 mg methionine, n = 49) at breakfast, and then with added B6 (2 mg, n = 8) and/or B6 + folate (1 mg + 200 mcg, n = 7). Plasma homocysteine was measured preprandially (t0) and then postprandially 5 h (t5) and ≥6-24 h. Cheese-induced homocysteine increased 28.7% (p ≤ 0.001), ≈60% of the free methionine response, remaining higher through ≥6-8 h. Co-supplementation with B6 reduced the Hcy increase by 45.0% (to 14.9%, p = 0.025), and that with B6 + folate reduced the Hcy increase by 72.3% (to 7.5%, p = 0.556, NS). Homocysteine increased more in participants with lower baselines (cheese, ≈3-fold (54.8% vs. 18.5%) or methionine, 47.3% (266.7% vs. 181.1%). Cheese B-vitamin depletion - i.e. to B6 ≈ 2.0-4.0 μg g(-1) protein, far below women's metabolic requirement (15-20 μg g(-1)) - appeared to induce acute relative shortage compared to methionine/protein loads, exemplified by greater homocysteine increases than with other animal proteins (previous data), more so with lower baseline homocysteine. Smaller increases following re-supplementation demonstrated potential for 'functional fortification'/co-supplementation. Unnoted cheese 'refinement', like white bread, potentially induces episodic vitamin shortage effects, warranting consideration for acute/cumulative implications, alternative processing/supplementation technologies, and food

  17. Nursing professional facing patient privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel López Espuela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Privacy of patients admitted to the hospital is played down in favour of other needs considered more basic by the healthcare system and more related to the disease than to patients themselves. Situations and factors where privacy is damaged are frequent, but it is known that when these are avoided by professionals’ attitude, through strategies and different mechanisms, it becomes one of the most satisfactory elements to patients.Objectives: To identify and analyze situations and factors which affect privacy in hospital environment as well as the adaptation capacity of patients to them.Methodology: Phenomenological, qualitative research. By means of discussion groups with professionals, the following questions where answered: ‘What do professionals understand by privacy? Which situations and factors jeopardize it during the hospital stay? How do they think patients get adapted?Results: The concept of privacy is complex, personal and non-transferable. Situations in which it is jeopardized were divided in 5 main areas. Numerous behaviors regarding adaptation of patients to these were collected.Discussion: Although there is little nursery research referring to privacy and its defense in the professional-patient relationship field, concern about this aspect always shown by nursery staff stands out.As a conclussion, we observe the need to complement this research with the perception patients have about these same questions, establishing the importance they give to privacy.

  18. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  19. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  20. Information professionals: core competencies and professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We discuss the concept of core competencies applied to policies for teaching and training information professionals, particularly librarians. Method. Sixty graduates of the Institute were employed as information professionals. These sixty were asked to attribute degrees of importance to specific items associated with knowledge and skills that, within the scope of this research, were considered core competencies for meeting the demands of their jobs. Participants were also asked to cite knowledge they acquired in school and knowledge they use in exercising their profession, the skills that they consider necessary but that they did not gain in school, and the difficulties they encounter in exercising their profession and for which they were not sufficiently well prepared. Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. The data were tabulated using Access and several reports and cross-tabulations were generated. Results. The results suggest a gulf between knowledge and skills acquired in library school and those that are required by the job market. In particular, participants lacked the skills they needed to work with information and communication technologies. Conclusion. The concept of core competencies is increasingly taken into account by the productive sector of the economy. The educational system ought to keep up with this change. The empirical research described shows that there is a need to establish advanced and modern policies for the education of librarians, participants in the market for information professionals.

  1. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  2. Developing professional competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of university programs for professionals is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Practical experiences as well as comprehensive research studies have shown that only a limited part of what is learned during the coursework is applied in the subsequent...... professional practice. There is too little transfer from the training programs to application in the workplace. Based on Danish research the relation between school and professional work, between scholastic knowledge and practical knowledge, is analyzed. Guideline for a new and more efficient curricula...

  3. Professionalism for future humanistic doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH EBRAHIMI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor Clinical environments encounter is an important part of studying medicine (1. Patient contact as an integral part of medical education occurs in various formats in the clinical settings (2, 3. During clinical training, medical students may experience high levels of stress, and some may not deal with it well. The abruptness of students’ transition to the clinical setting generated positive and negative emotions. Due to being a novice, they did not receive adequate training on how to get emotionally prepared for meeting seriously ill people. In such circumstances, the shortage of training will have predictably crucial consequences. Early clinical contact has been suggested to reduce these stresses and help the students adapt effectively to changes in the hospital climate (2. Patient contact creates an environment where each student appreciates cultural diversity and reinforces the development of clinical professional interpersonal skills through social, emotional and cognitive experiences (4, 5. It encourages validating of the relationship between patients and doctors and allows students to experience a more personal relationship with patients and nurture the ability to empathize with them, providing considerable benefits for trainees and patients. In this way, the social emotions that students experience when empathizing with a patient represent a uniquely human achievement. By internalizing their subjective interpretations of patient’s beliefs and feelings, the student’s body, brain and mind come together to produce cognition and emotion . They construct culturally relevant knowledge and make decisions about how to act and think about the patient’s problems as if they were their own. On the other hand, patient interaction in undergraduate education offers students a valuable early insight into the day-to-day role of a doctor and the patients’ perspective on specific conditions. Early experience provides a greater knowledge

  4. Burnout, Moral Distress, Work-Life Balance, and Career Satisfaction among Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Joyce L; Mau, Lih-Wen; Virani, Sanya; Denzen, Ellen M; Boyle, Deborah A; Boyle, Nancy J; Dabney, Jane; De KeselLofthus, Alexandra; Kalbacker, Marion; Khan, Tippu; Majhail, Navneet S; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Paplham, Pamela; Parran, Leslie; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Rockwood, Todd H; Schmit-Pokorny, Kim; Shanafelt, Tait D; Stenstrup, Elaine; Wood, William A; Burns, Linda J

    2017-12-02

    A projected shortage of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) health professionals was identified as a major issue during the National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match System Capacity Initiative. Work-related distress and work-life balance were noted to be potential barriers to recruitment/retention. This study examined these barriers and their association with career satisfaction across HCT disciplines. A cross-sectional, 90-item, web-based survey was administered to advanced practice providers, nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and social workers in 2015. Participants were recruited from membership lists of 6 professional groups. Burnout (measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and moral distress (measured by Moral Distress Scale-Revised) were examined to identify work-related distress. Additional questions addressed demographics, work-life balance, and career satisfaction. Of 5759 HCT providers who received an individualized invitation to participate, 914 (16%) responded; 627 additional participants responded to an open link survey. Significant differences in demographic and practice characteristics existed across disciplines (P burnout differed across disciplines (P burnout, whereas social workers had the lowest prevalence at less than one-third. Moral distress scores ranged from 0 to 336 and varied by discipline (P burnout varied by discipline; however, moral distress was a significant contributing factor for all providers. Those with burnout were more likely to report inadequate work-life balance and a low level of career satisfaction; however, overall there was a high level of career satisfaction across disciplines. Burnout, moral distress, and inadequate work-life balance existed at a variable rate in all HCT disciplines, yet career satisfaction was high. These results suggest specific areas to address in the work environment for HCT health professionals, especially the need for relief of

  5. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bochenek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating

  6. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  7. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  8. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  9. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow- ... you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the ...

  10. Teacher professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge (PCK) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPCK) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Contexts Figure 3-1: The TPACK framework for educator knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009) Teacher Professional Development  91 Table...

  11. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  12. Personal professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rao, S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...

  13. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for office visits Health reporter John Hammarley summarizes communication tips This content ...

  14. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... phone, at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from ... your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he ...

  15. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ...

  16. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  17. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... of High Cholesterol Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  18. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... this section when you talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other ... Visits - Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

  19. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  20. Communicating with Professionals

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    Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list ... Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - ...